UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Publications

The Ubyssey Nov 20, 1975

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 Teachers denounce English exams
Two high school English
department heads Wednesday
denounced a recent UBC senate
decision to hold diagnostic English
exams in high schools.
Harry Locke^ English head at
North Vancouver's Carson
Graham senior secondary, said the
diagnostic exam might cause
teachers "to teach nothing except
the exam material and therefore
neglect the needs of the  many
people in high school who do not go
on to university."
And John Ashworth, English
department head at John Oliver
high school, said, "diagnostic tests
in their present form are a pretty
inept way of gauging writing
Senate Nov. 12 approved a
recommendation from its committee on standards in English that
UBC's English department administer   in   May   a   diagnostic
English exam to grade 12 students
planning to enter university.
However, students can be
exempted from the exam if their
English teacher has recommended
them as competent in English.
Currently, all first-year students
write a diagnostic exam during
their first week of classes at'UBC,
and students who fail are plac.ed in
comprehensive workshop sections
which concentrate on teaching
basic English grammar.
According to the committee,
students who write the exam in
high schools will be classified into
special sections early in the year,
but would not be prevented from
coming to UBC if they failed the
Locke, a member of the
provincial committee which
determines high school English
curriculum, said the new exam setup could lead to rivalry among
students and "elitist group
teaching of English."
He also said it would be impossible to formulate a concrete
standard mark for such an exam.
"Latinized grammar should not
be the only base for proficiency in
English," Locke added.
Ashworth also said "there is no
ready and easy way to evaluate a
student's ability in English."
He said the so-called literacy
See page 9:  IDEA
J if or VyfylVif
„ Vol. IVII, No. 30   VANCOUVER, B.C., THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 1975    °@*i8
— doug field photo
THERE ARE BRAINS and there are fools. Brains are supposed to habitate in this box. Fools designed it.
After all, who would design a building where, every time there is a wind, doors open and glass shatters.
End near in SFU dispute
An end is in sight to the five-year
boycott of Simon Fraser University imposed by the Canadian
Association of University Teachers
after a bitter 1969 dispute.
The SFU board of governors
voted Tuesday to accept a compromise agreement reached after
months of negotiations between
CAUT and university representatives.
The agreement calls for SFU to
offer jobs to two of seven political
science, anthropology and
sociology professors fired in 1969
by then-administration president
Kenneth Strand.
Four of the other professors will
be offered two-year research
The boycott will be lifted if a
CAUT full council meeting
scheduled for Nov. 30 also agrees
to the proposal.
But Mordecai Briemberg, one of
the fired professors,  said  Wed
nesday none of the seven
professors will accept the
"It's unacceptable to any of the
seven," he said. "What (SFU) is
offering is completely inadequate
and not related to the justice of the
CAUT had earlier vowed not to
lift, the boycott until all seven
professors were reinstated.
The seven professors were fired
as part of an administration purge
of the PSA department, which at
that time allowed students parity
with faculty on hiring and tenure
"We were all purged for political
reasons. The only remedy is that
everybody should be treated
equally as we were injured
equally," said Briemberg.
Briemberg called the tentative
agreement, which has been agreed
to by a CAUT negotiation committee as well as by the SFU board,
Stan Roberts, SFU vice-
president in charge of student
services, said the agreement calls
for Kathleen Aberle and David
Potter to be offered jobs.
He said Louis Feldhammer,
Prudence Wheeldon, Nathan
Popkin and Briemberg will "have
the opportunity to upgrade their
academic qualifications" while
supported by research stipends of
$9,600 each a year for a maximum
of two years.
But Briemberg said he will not
accept a stipend, and said the other
professors will accept neither jobs
nor stipends.
"The university is trying to
pretend now it's an issue of
academic qualifications," he said,
adding that the qualifications of
the seven have never been under
He said the agreement "tells you
how much CAUT thinks academic
freedom is worth. If it (the
See page 9:  CAUT
Students at
Cap slapped
The Capilano College council is
trying to cripple the student union
in retaliation against student
criticism, student union president
Bill Bell said Wednesday.
Bell said a Tuesday council
decision to make student activity
fees voluntary will force the
student union to "shut down
"This is a punitive measure by
them against actions of the student
union and the paper (Capilano
Both the student union and the
Capilano Courier have recently
attacked the college council for its
"lack of visible action" to protest
college budget restrictions imposed by the education department.
But college council chairman
Jim McDonald Wednesday denied
the decision to make the $15 activity fee voluntary was designed
to punish the student union.
"I don't think there is animosity
towards the student union."
McDonald said he voted for the
motion because students should
have "the freedom to choose" if
they want to pay the student activity fee.
Students should not make a big
issue out of the council's move
because they will hurt their
chances of getting the council to
change its position about the fees,
McDonald added.
"No doubt the student union
should exist and if they get
(student) support they could get
council to change its mind.
"The executive of the student
union are young fellows. They are
a little wet behind the ears," he
The student union voted in an
emergency session Wednesday to
hold a referendum asking the
student body whether they want
the activity fee to be voluntary.
Bell said the student union may
call for a strike or demonstration
to protest the council's removal of
the mandatory activity fee.
The students have already shown
their support for the mandatory
fee, Bell said.
Students voted at a general
meeting last year to raise the
mandatory activity fee to $15 from
$10 per semester for students with
a full course load, he said.
Bell said the mandatory fee is
necessary to support several
student services the student union
performs for the administration.
The student'union run housing
placement office, job placement
office and information office all
face closure because of council's
decision to make fees voluntary,
Bell said.
These services were run by the
administration before recent
budget restrictions, he said.
He said, "We will carry on but in
a very limited capacity. We will be
acting in a very restricted role."
Bell said the student union has
$2,000 to $3,000 left in the bank, but
this is being spent to buy
typesetting equipment for the
Capilano Courier.
Council member Norman Alban
said Wednesday the council motion
was a result of a "longstanding
festering sore" among council
Many members objected to the
mandatory fee because there is no
provision in the Public Schools Act,
which governs colleges, to force
students to pay a mandatory fee.
Alban said there is no special
reason why the issue of legality
should be raised now, shortly after
a student strike at Capilano.
Bell said the council's decision to
make the activity fee voluntary
sets a dangerous precedent.
"Once this gets out other college
councils may use it (non-
mandatory fees) as a threat if they
get criticism."
Art gallery
expense was
The former chairwoman of the
Alma Mater Society arts gallery
committee Wednesday labelled as
"libelous" (sic) remarks made
about her by AMS co-ordinator
Dave Theessen Nov. 6.
Margaret Annett, who resigned
as committee chairwoman Oct. 29,
denied she had ever been asked to
leave the position and said
Theessen's remarks concerning
the committee were based on his
ignorance of the committee's
"He didn't know how the committee worked, he didn't wait to be
told and he didn't ask how the
committee works," she charged.
The AMS finance committee
froze art gallery funds Oct. 21 after
the gallery had overspent its $2,500
bJHget by $200.
The budget committee had
earlier chopped the gallery's
budget request for $4,500 to $2,500,
(later raised to $3,000 by council).
Theessen was at the time chairman of both committees.
But Annett said the decisions by
the two committees were based on
ignorance of the way the art
gallery committee operates.
She said Theessen, as chairman,
"should be conversant with the
committee structures he's working
And she said that when she
assumed the -position of chairperson to the committee in April it
was agreed that she would resign
at the end of October so she could
go work on an exhibition for the
National Gallery of Canada.
She said because art exhibitions
must be booked months in advance, an art gallery budget is
given preliminary approval by the
outgoing AMS budget committee in
the spring and this budget is then
approved by the new budget
committee in October.
The preliminary art gallery
budget this year was $4,500 for the
budget and it is on the basis of this
that the art gallery planned shows
this year. In effect, she said, the
budget was cut after the shows
See page 2:  ANNETT nviauuy,   ituvcmoer   ZU/    iy/o
Annett slams Theessen
for cover-up charge
From page 1
were booked and the money had
been spent.
"The chairperson (of the committee) is chosen at the end of the
term and a budget is approved at
that time for the following year to
permit the gallery committee to
plan the exhibitions for the year
ahead," she said.
"Then, in the fall, the new AMS
management committee ratifies
the existing budget since, by October, when other committees are
usually just beginning, the art
gallery committee has, in most
respects, its year's work completed."
She said this year, because of
AMS fall elections, there were no
committee meetings when the
gallery committee submitted its
budget for ratification in mid-
"In October, the budget committee, without any attempt to
understand the gallery's operation,
unilaterally cut the gallery committee's budget almost in half,
after most of the year's commitments had been made and the
year's programs were a fact,"
Annett said.
She also slammed Theessen's
statement that the gallery committee had tried to conceal figures
in their budget presentation.
"This is not the case," she said.
"We've never tried to cover up
high cost of the October art
exhibit, Dawn, which, she said,
cost $1,900 to put on.
She said it has been a practice of
the gallery in the past to spend a
large part of the budget on one
particularly important exhibition,
and that Dawn "was its own
justification and needs no defence
by me."
"Every few years, the gallery
organizes an exhibition that by its
nature will have an artistic impact,
and an exhibition of this sort is
more costly than, say, a student
show ... it is these special shows
that have made the gallery a
special place in SUB."
SUB   management   or   budget       She defended the comparatively
U.S. to spend $48 million
on tobacco subsidy
While the U.S. government is
spending millions of dollars each
year to combat and warn the public
about the health hazards of
smoking, it's interesting to note
that   congress   has   approved
another bill to subsidize tobacco
The new bill, forwarded to the
white house, proposes $48 million
per year in tax monies to be spent
on tobacco price supports.
President Gerald Ford is expected
to sign the measure.
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Page 3
New constitution clumped on
The Alma Mater Society's
proposed new constitution, once
considered a cinch to pass a
referendum, is for the first time
receiving concerted opposition
from a student.
- Student board of governors
member Rick Murray says the
document is "premature,"
' 'contradictory," ' 'poorly worded''
and should be rejected by students
this week.
He has approached a number of
undergraduate societies asking
them to urge their members to vote
against the constitution.
However, Dave Van Blarconi
and Dave Theessen, two of the new
constitution's chief architects, said
Wednesday Murray's motive is
"political gain."
Theessen, current AMS internal
affairs officer, said, "it's unfortunate that professional student
politicians would take it upon
themselves to throw away the
effort put into revising the constitution purely for political gain —
discrediting the present
He said Murray's "prime concern is the upcoming elections" for
student board and senate mem-
bers,.Jan. 27.   -    *
"We wouldn't be surprised to
find some old faces when senate
and board elections come," he
Murray said he has not yet
decided whether he will run for the
board again, but will decide soon.
Van Blarcom has been rumored
to be seeking a board seat in
But Murray claimed his main
concern was with the AMS.
"The basic problem with the new
constitution is that it hasn't
received sufficient attention from
the lawyers, and it shouldn't go to
referendum yet," he said.
He said Van Blarcom is aware
there are certain wording
problems with the new constitution, but that the vice-
president is intending to make
those changes at next spring's
AMS general meeting.
But Murray says there is sufficient ambiguity in the new
constitution section dealing with
constitutional changes to prevent
revision in the spring.
That would mean the AMS would
have to operate for an entire year
under the imperfect constitution,
which could be disastrous, said
Van Blarcom disputed Murray's
claim. He said any existing wording difficulties could easily be
cleared up at the March annual
general meeting.
And he said the clause concerning constitutional changes
would go to student court only if
somebody actually challenged it.
"If that happened it could conceivably hold up things maybe a
month," Van Blarcom said.
But he said constitutional
revisions would probably be made
before the end of spring term.
Murray said his second main
objection to the constitution is that
neither the referendum nor the
constitution stipulate a date on
which the new document, if passed,
would take effect.
He said a lawyer friend of his has-
told him this could create some
question as to which constitution
rules the AMS if students accept
the new proposed constitution.
But Van Blarcom said the
provincial Societies Act says any
new constitution takes effect as
soon as it has been filed with the
Murray's other beefs were:
• a section of the new constitution allows as few as 15 student
councillors to block any council
• two different "only" ways to
become a member of the student
administrative commission — the
council's administrative body —
are given in the document;
• the' grad student association
would be prevented from forming
its own branch society, an option
available to all undergrad
• small undergrad societies
within large faculties would have
to hold referenda throughout the
faculty in order to form a branch
• the constitution attempts to
make rules concerning board and
senate elections, which are
governed by the Universities Act;
Policy set for
BCSF meeting
Alma Mater Society council
voted Wednesday to set policy for
the B.C. Students' Federation
meeting, to be held Nov. 20 to 24 in
They decided the UBC
representative, Tim Humphries,
should recommend that the BCSF:
• demand a statement from the
department of education regarding
university funding, specifically
with regards to the proposed
Kootenay University Centre;
• organize around issues where
students are concerned, such as
housing and post secondary
education financing;
• maintain information
gathering but direct funding
toward grass root organization of
specific issues;
• and the BCSF should form a
formal policy for the relationship
between itself and the National
Union of Students.
Council also directed Humphries
to bring the following issues before
the BCSF women's caucus:
• to order implementation of the
report on the status of women at
• to get similar studies started
and implemented at other institutions;
• and to discuss and oppose such
discriminatory practices as firing
women staff members as a means
of cutting budgets.
Council decided to set up an anti-
• and there is no at-large recall
procedure for council members, as
currently exists.
"The   basic   idea   behind   the.
referendum is good, but it needs
some polishing up," Murray said.
"It's very poorly worded at the
present time. It has to be cleaned
up," he said. "If it passes it will be
an extremely difficult document to
work with.
"I expect the society will be tied
up in legal wrangles for a
significant time.
"They're being premature. I'm
in favor of a referendum in spring,
but I don't think it (the constitution) is ready now," he said.
Van Blarcom said his constitution has faults but is "a
workable document."
"It has rough spots, but they
could be worked out in subsequent
referendums and meetings."
He said he wanted to hold the
referendum now because "the
momentum of student interest in it
had reached such a rate that we
could reach a quorum right now."
As of Wednesday,  more than
2,200 students had cast ballots in
this week's two referenda to choose,
a constitution and to consider a
$3.50 fee levy increase.
Before the constitution
referendum can pass, at least 3,500
students must cast ballots and two-
thirds of the ballots must favor the
new constitution.
The fee levy will pass if 4,600
students cast ballots arid vote two-
thirds in favor.
Polls will be open today in SUB
and Sedgewick library, and Friday
in 10 different locations.
cutback committee which will
operate from the external affairs
The committee will investigate
how recent education department
funding cutbacks will harm
students and then mobilize student
protest against cutbacks.
The committee would then coordinate its protests, through the
BCSF, with protests by students at
other campuses.
Council also voted to condemn
the Capilano College administrative council for its
decision Tuesday to make membership in the college student union
voluntary rather than mandatory.
Arts rep Bruce Wilson said "the
protest should be very strong
because this is a very important
issue — the same sort of thing
could happen to our student
In other business, councillors
voted to have NUS representative
Bob Buckingham attend next
week's council meeting to answer
councillor's questions about the
national organization.
Council also instructed the
finance committee to examine
salaries ot students working in
SUB in order to give students
parity with union wages.
And council tabled a motion from
the SUB management committee
that vendors not be allowed to
continue selling their wares crafts
on tables in the main SUB concourse.
—doug field photo
TAKING IT EASY while casually reminding students to get out and vote on proposed new Alma Mater
Society constitu tion, AMS vice-president Dave Van Blarcom says he might step on you if you don't vote.
AUCE to decide on strike vote
Members of the Association of
University and College Employees, local 1 will decide today
whether or not to hold a strike vote
to back union negotiations with the
university, a union spokeswoman
said Wednesday.
Dale McAslan, AUCE contract
committee member, said in an
interview she is "personally quite
confident" the general membership will , authorize the
distribution of strike ballots.
Local 1 of AUCE represents
almost all library and clerical
workers on campus.
"Tomorrow's meeting will give;
an indication of the need for a
strike vote," McAslan said.
"If the membership gives the go-
ahead another meeting and about a
week would be required before the
setting of a strike date," she said.
The UBC local of AUCE has been
without a contract since Sept. 30
and has been negotiating with the
university since August.
A newsletter issued Tuesday by
AUCE stated that negotiations
have reached an "impasse", and
that the contract committee can go
no further without "strong support" from the membership.
The letter said the calling of a
strike vote "does not necessarily
mean a strike will be called,"
adding that a positive strike vote
would be valid for. three months
after balloting.
However, the union communique
stressed AUCE's "every intention
of having a contract" by the end of
Contract negotiations between
AUCE and the UBC : Administration are currently being
conducted by mediator Ed Sims.
Sims has said-he wants to hear
final position statements from both
AUCE arid the university at the
upcoming negotiations meeting
Friday in order to complete his
report to Labor Minister Bill King.
By law, AUCE cannot call a
strike before the mediator's report
is submitted.
The AUCE newsletter also
claimed negotiations with UBC will
not be hampered by the federal
wage and price control guidelines.
The union sought legal opinion
and was told to "bargain as though
it (the legislation) does not exist"
the letter said..
Dailly mum on fourth U
A spokesman for Eileen Dailly
said Wednesday the education
minister will not talk to the press
about her announcement of a
fourth public B.C. university
because she wants to avoid
The Ubyssey had asked the
minister to clarify her announcement after associate deputy
education minister Andy Soles and
Universities Council chairman
William Armstrong both said
Monday the new "university"
might not offer its own degrees.
The spokesman said Dailly is not
in the position to decide whether
the new post-secondary institution,
planned to serve the Interior, will
offer its own degrees.
"The Universities Council will
recommend to her the form and
substance of the university. This is
up to them."
But he said: "She has made a
decision. There is no doubt
whatsoever there will be a fourth
university." Page 4
Thursday, November 20, 1975
Vend on vendors
To vend or not to vend?
That is the dilemma facing the
Alma Mater Society over the issue of
artsy vendors plying their wares in
the main concourse of SUB.
Spurned by a complaint from
the society's co-op bookstore, the
SUB management committee has
stated its intention to seek a formal
ban on all vendors — that means no
more nifty goods to buy out of the
craftsman's hands.
The bookstore, buried in the
bowels of SUB, is a non-profit group
which provides an outlet for student
crafts, books and other paraphernalia. Its management claims to be
losing business to the vendors who
have grown and multiplied along
SUB's walls.
Student council, the regal decision-making body which ultimately
controls SUB, will be asked as early
as next week to either boot out or
embrace the lowly vendors.
The Ubyssey, while not wanting
to force the artsy types into the zero
(centigrade) degree weather, believes
the vendors should rent their tables
from the AMS and should be granted
said tables only if they sell their own
. work. In the past some vendors have
been lucrative extensions of serendipity-type shops which capitalize on no
rents and good business in SUB.
If the vendors can sell their
goods through the co-op bookstore
all the better. And rather than dump
the bookstore downstairs either
move it onto the main floor or else
set up a table of representative goods
to compete with the vendors for
student business upstairs. Surely a
campus community of 30,000 can
support a few craftsmen and the
co-op bookstore.
Rather than suddenly throw out
these useful merchants, give them a
chance to speak up about the
situation. Let's not suddenly join a
crusade to sweep the sellers from
Vend on vendors — after you
pay a table rent.    "
Facts not
Russ Millwardin his reference to
John Haggarty's article on
Socreds' Spout Garbage has given
a superb example of the usual
hysterical and ill-informed attack
which has typified the Social Credit
opposition. In response I would like
to present some facts instead of
Mill ward refers to "incompetent
big government versus the individual" as an issue. First, the
matter of "big government versus
the individual."
Under Social Credit an individual could not sue the government as he could any other individual unless she/he got permission from the Socred attorney-
general. In 20 years of Socred rule
permission was only given 12
times. Under the NDP ah individual is allowed complete
recourse to the courts for remedies
to wrongs done to him/her by the
government — automatically and
with no permission needed.
It is the NDP who made a full
and uncensored written record of
the debates in the legislature
available for the first time. The
Socreds never allowed this.
The NDP has instituted a regular
question period in the House giving
the opposition parties a chance to
question government ministers.
The Socreds never permitted this
and repeatedly refused opposition
requests for one.
There are no all-night sittings of
the legislature under the NDP. No
more "legislation-by-exhaustion"
in order to ram bills through the
House and prevent reasoned
political debate.
The Social Credit party never
made an opposition party member
head of the important Public
Accounts committee. The NDP
party has done this.
Now the issue of incompetence.
Social Credit incompetence. It is
Social Credit that is responsible for
the estimated $800 million overrun
on the cost of the Columbia River
Treaty. (B.C. got $60 million for
protecting U.S. farmland from
flooding forever and to do it we had
to flood our own farmland.)
It is Social Credit that left the
NDP with a B.C. Hydro parity bond
debt of $235 million. The NDP have
reduced it to $98million. It is Social
Credit that covered up years of
Pacific Great Eastern losses and
passed them off as profits.
The NDP has managed despite
its alleged "incompetency" to
increase  the  government's  cash
surplus from $98 million in 1972 to
$143.7 million in 1975. And the NDP
has done this without increasing
personal income tax and while
lowering the rate of corporate tax
on small firms to 10 per cent.
ICBC? B.C. has the lowest car
insurance rates in Canada according to the Toronto Star of May
17, 1975. While Ontario motorists
under "competitive" auto insurance will, by 1976, have had rate
increases of between 35 per cent
and 45 per cent over two years, we
will have had an 18 per cent increase over three years.
I could go and on, and so could
Russ Millward, but the difference
is that the NDP can provide solid
accomplishments and the Socreds
only hysteria.
Stirling Fraser
law 1
I only wish budgetary errors of
this sort were possible under the
former regime. I believe, Russ,
upon reflection, would concur.
D. J. Weaver
law 3
It is indeed refreshing in these
post-Socred days of reason and
intelligent political dialogue to find
that one such as Russ Millward
still lurks about the hallowed halls
of Buchanan. No doubt in May,
with B.A. in hand, he will find
employment at a local radio
station doing research for a
hotliner or, God help us, he may
even become a newspaper editor.
Russ, with the astute bearing of a
hotliner-to-be, questions, "Is ICBC
making a profit to reinvest in the
company in order to lower insurance costs. . . .?" Somewhere
in there Russ, I seem to detect a
logical inconsistency or four.
But no matter, for Russ, I'm sure
you have the solution to "high"
ICBC rates — why, let's return
insurance to free enterprise where
competition and market forces of
supply and demand will lower the
cost to those of us under 25 years of
age, who have no points or accident
record, to a mere $400 (1972 rates)
per annum.
What a thrill it will be to know
that company profits will be used
to reduce premiums the following
year. Good thinking, Russ. Burns
will love it.
On the more serious side though,
I write this letter to take issue with
Russ Millward's attack on Norm
Levi and his department's
budgetary underestimate of $100
million. Russ asks where the $100
million from that "bugger-up" has
gone. Without wanting to unfairly
dump on Russel or be accused of
making a purely emotional appeal
let me matter-of-factly inform the
readers that some of that money,
unaccounted for in original
budgetary estimates, went via
Mincome to mentally handicapped
young adults.
I was shocked by the mealy-
mouthed article in Tuesday's
paper on the elimination of the
crafts people in SUB. Are you so
busy firing your radical guns at the
great-and-powerful that you can't
take a stand on issues that are
right under your nose.
Why are students (and I understand, the crafts people
themselves) being given so little
warning of the move to oust the
crafts tables?
It is unfair to give no one an
opportunity to question or protest
this decision.
Why are they being thrown out
just before Christmas? It is no
secret that selling your handmade
products is not the way to make
your fortune. What a mean trick to
kick these people out at the one
time of year when they have a
chance to make a decent profit!
And incidentally it's inconvenient for students who
planned to do some of their
Christmas shopping on campus.
Since when have student representatives felt it necessary to act
as a vigilante committee to see
that minor city bylaws are being
properly enforced?' One of the
crafts people told me that they
have all paid a $200"city licencing
fee and don't know what this $10 fee
is all about — but I don't see any
reason why we should persecute
them even if there is a fee that they
have failed to pay.
A few years ago the student
government on this campus
thumbed   its   nose   at   the   ad
ministration and illegally took over
Buchanan lounge to set up a free
food service. Now that the student
government runs SUB it has apparently switched from defending
to oppressing powerless groups.
Of course it is terrible to think
that the crafts people are using our
heat and space. Those hippy types
should be out in the cold where they
The article didn't mention that
these freeloaders are breathing a
lot of our personal student-owned
SUB air too. They do add some
color and humanity to the bleak
grey halls of our student centre but
that clashes with the atmosphere
of the place and so I suppose is
I hope the crafts people fight. I
think many students will be upset
at the highhanded way that they
are apparently being dealt with
and will support them if they don't
meekly do as they are told and go
Janet Hanna
It seems that I struck a sensitive
nerve in Russ Millward's heart-
with my recent article on the state
of B.C. politics. Perhaps adding a
little more fat to the fire might
spark this somewhat dull election
up a bit.
It seems that ICBC is not one of
Russ' favorite institutions. I think
that is perhaps because like many
British Columbians who haven't
taken the time to look underneath
the issues, he does not understand
either the function of ICBC or how.
it works.
In "Fat Dave," Russell states
"is ICBC making a profit to
reinvest in the company in order to
lower insurance costs, or is the 18
per cent increase in insurance
premiums an indication of
something   otherwise.   It   would
NOVEMBER 20, 1975
Published   Tuesdays,   Thursdays   and   Fridays  throughout   the
university year by the Alma Mater Society of the University of
B.C.  Editorial opinions are those of the writer and not of the
AMS   or   the   university   administration.    Member,   Canadian
University Press. The Ubyssey publishes Page Friday, a weekly
commentary  and   review.  The   Ubyssey's  editorial  offices  are
located in room 241K of the Student Union Building.
• Editorial departments, 228-2301; Sports, 228-2305; Advertising
228-3977. Editor: Gary Coull
Voici les enfants terrible de la meilleur journal du monde: Chris "le
mauvais plaisantrie" Gainor, Ralph "L'allemagne" Maurer, Sue "la femme
fatale" Vohanka, Marcus "le voyager" Gee, Heather "bavarder" Walker,
Phil "Chevaux" Smith, Doug "le mechant" Rushton, Gregg "le double G"
Thompson, Gary "embrace mon" Coull, Mark "le horrible" Buckshon,
Doug "mange de la merde" Field, Matt "le roi" King. Trente.
appear that Russell has swallowed
the Socred anti-ICBC line without
close examination of its allegations
and their validity.
The Social Credit Party is getting great mileage out of ICBC's
recent deficit. Their analysis of
what this tells us about Autoplan,
however, leaves a lot to be desired.
ICBC haters should, for the sake
of their objectivity (ha, ha), read
the Insight section of the Toronto
Star, May 17, 1975. They may be
surprised to learn that a Toronto
"free enterprise" paper has the
integrity to make a full-page
financial analysis of public vs
private insurance, and even comes
to the conclusion that public auto
insurance schemes are both more
efficient and less costly than those
offered by private companies.
The paper contends that even if
the public schemes raised their
rates enough to offset all deficits,
public rates would still be
significantly lower than those
charged by private insurers.
The article also points out that
autoplans offer social savings to
the community as well as to the
individual. Instead of investing
their premium funds anywhere in
the world, public companies
channel their investment capital
into loans for schools,
municipalities and provincial
secondary industry, all at
preferred rates.
Premiums paid into public insurance plans are used to develop
the province's social infrastructure and stimulate employment creating secondary
industry. In effect potential profits
are sacrificed for social
development. Smacks of
SOCIALISM, doesn't it.
It is also interesting to note that
the Vancouver Sun recently
reported that Canadian p'rivate
auto insurers had managed to rack
up record underwriting losses of
$138.8 million in 1973, over $200
million in 1974 and they anticipate
a loss of $150 million this year. It is
peculiar that those terribly efficient private insurers suffered
such devastating underwriting
losses despite premium increases
ranging from 25 to 65 per cent over
the last year. All this during a
period when Autoplan rates
remained at, or below 1973 rates.
A recent television news analysis
of Autoplan concluded, "ICBC
seems to be capable of insuring
more cheaply than private enterprise, even without the deficit
and the subsidy." Perhaps Bill
Bennett and his flock of political
opportunists are more interested in
insurance company election funds
than the state of our pocketbooks.
John Haggarty Thursday, November 20, 1975
Page 5
A special supplement to The Ubyssey concerning the U.S<
nuclear submarine base that prompted
this four page supplement about the
Trident submarine system is being
distributed with The Ubyssey as part of
Trident Concern Week.
In September, the Pacific Life Community made a presentation to the Alma
Mater Society. The PLC had been working
on a campaign to stop the construction of the
Trident submarine base in Bangor, Wash.,
for eight months at that time.
In response to the presentation, the AMS
passed a resolution supporting the PLC and
declaring next week, Nov. 24 to 28, Trident
Concern Week.
The resolution cited Trident as "the most
destructive weapons system in history".
Plans were laid for a week "at which
speakers and workshops (would) explore in
depth our responsibility towards Trident in
relation to world hunger and the arms race,
and as measured by the principles of international law."
There will be a presentation by a
delegation from the Japan Council Against
Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs visiting B.C.
to speak at the UBC week.     .
Simon Fraser University student council
has also declared Nov. 24 to 28 Trident
Concern Week, and will be holding three
days of speeches and films on that campus.
For a full list of activities on all campuses,
see the back of this insert.
Last week, Vancouver mayor Art Phillips
signed a proclamation declaring a Vancouver-wide Trident Concern Week.
As part of the activities surrounding the
week, a 550-foot rope and bamboo replica of
the Trident submarine will be marched
across ihe Burrard Street Bridge from
Kitsilano to the Granville Mall and then
down to the court house square. Buses will
leave from both UBC and SFU to carry
students to the bridge. This is the first large
scale public project undertaken by the PLC.
(For a history of this organization and
others struggling against Trident, see inside).
Most of the incentive has come from
student councils in the Lower Mainland.
Previous action taken by the PLC includes
leafletting at the site of the base and a nonviolent action during the summer.
The purpose of the week is to focus attention on the construction of the base and
inform people of the facts concerning
The AMS, in resolution against Trident,
also approved for this spring a "training
session in non-violent direct action, at which
qualified trainers will assist in the
development of skills for non-violent direct
action to stop the illegal construction of the
Trident base."
Other campuses have not as yet implemented plans for a training session.
Violations of law
by U.S. seen
Two Trident foes
will speak at UBC
Two leading critics of the nuclear arms
race will speak at B.C. campuses during
Trident Concern Week. William Epstein and
Robert Aldridge have been outspoken in
their opposition to the continuing spiral of
nuclear technology and have pointed to the
dangers inherent in the U.S.'s shift to a first-
strike policy.
William Epstein former head of the
disarmament division of the United Nations,
will address audiences on all three BC
university campuses during Trident Concern Week.
Epstein, currently teaching at the
University of Victoria, has been working
with the UN since its inception, and has had
a special interest in international arms
control and disarmament since 1950.
Former BC Liberal party leader David
Anderson will accompany Epstein in his
address in Victoria and at UBC. Also at
UBC, Epstein will speak on a panel with
Robert Aldridge and Stewart Leggatt, NDP
MP from Burnaby-New Westminster (this
riding includes Simon Fraser University in
its constituency).
An important issue for Epstein is the
ineffectiveness of present international
agreements on the limitations of nuclear
proliferation and arms development. He has
called the Non-Proliferation Treaty a
In the April issue of Scientific American
Magazine, Epstein said: "the major nuclear
powers have failed to live up to the
obligations" of the Non-Proliferation
Treaty, which calls for "the discontinuance
of all nuclear weapons testing, the cessation
of the nuclear arms race (and) the enactment of effective measures in the direction
of nuclear disarmament."
Robert Aldridge, a former Lockheed
group leader responsible for the design of
the Trident missile, resigned because of his
conscientious objection to Trident's first-
strike purpose.
Aldridge, who was an aerospace engineer
for 16 years and was involved also in Advanced Ballistic Re-entry Systems research
(ABRES), will join Stewart Legatt, MP, and
professor William Epstein in a panel
discussion entitled "Trident Complicity:
Washington, Ottawa and Lockheed."
The discussion is scheduled for 7:30 p.m.,
Wednesday at IRC2.
Trident base commander Robert Kaufman has also been invited to send a U.S.
Navy representative to join the discussion.
Since his resignation, Aldridge has been
an outspoken critic of the arms race and his
articles have appeared in many
publications, such as Christian Century and
The Nation.
His articles on the MARV missile have
provided invaluable information on that
weapon and on the nature of the MARV he
has said "if the country ever grasped what
was at stake there would be an uproar."
His decision to resign was made collectively by his wife and 10 children, who have
turned from complicity in the arms race to
become "a family of resistance". The
Aldridges are members of the Bay Area
Aldridge's articles have been instrumental in raising public awareness of
the contradiction in the idea of nuclear
deter ence.
Speaking to the fact that the U.S. is going
full force on its "Evader" (MARV)
program, in the light of the fact that the
SALT 1 talks allow to a nation no more than
200intercepting missiles, Aldridge asks: "If
the Department of Defence were truly
thinking along 'deterrent' lines, why is such
an effort being made to evade 200 interceptors?"
Aldridge has been of utmost importance to
the anti-Trident campaign and he sees that
it may well "demonstrate that military
priorities can no longer expect to tramp with
impunity on aesthetic values and social
Possible violations by the U.S. of its international legal obligation will be the
subject of Mary Kaufman's presentation on
Trident and International Law next Tuesday
evening at UBC.
Kaufman, a former U.S. prosecutor
ahhthe Nuremburg Trials, will be joined by
Diana Davidson, founder of the Vancouver
People's Law School, and Fleming Hansen,
current President of the UBC International
Law Students' Association, for the event at
7:30 p.m. in IRC 2 to discuss the legal
ramifications of the U.S.'s decision to build
a Trident submarine base at Bangor, Wash.,
about 60 miles from Victoria.
Many of the key legal issues pertaining to
this decision are outlined in a brief which
will be presented to federal and provincial
legislators by the PLC.
The brief maintains that the development
of the Trident base will constitute violations
of the United Nations Charter, General
Principles of International Law (especially
those regarding principles of armed conflict
and environment hazard, the Non-
Proliferation Treaty and the Nuremburg
The very intent of the Trident system, for
example, seems to Hansen to be contradictory to the UN charter which says, in
part, that "all members shall refrain in
their international relations from the threat
or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any
"Further articles of the charter and UN
resolutions make it clear that reprisals are
forbidden as well. Thus, it seems that
Trident, as either an offensive or reprisal
sj'stem, would violate the UN charter even
though it appears that Trident is useful only
as a first-strike system.
The fact that nuclear weapons are incapable of selective use against military
forces and must effect civilians as well, also
leads Hansen to conclude that Trident
violates usual international principles of law
of armed combat.
Thus, military assault must distinguish
between belligerents and civilians as
determined by such agreements as the
Declaration of St. Petersburg of 1869, the
Declaration of the Brussels Conference of
1894, the conventions of the Hague Peace
Conference of 1899 and 1907, and the Geneva
Protocol of 1925.
Article 6 of the Non-Proliferation treaty
provides that "each of the parties to the
treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in
good faith on effective measures relating to
cessation of the nuclear arms race at an
early date and to nuclear disarmament and
on a general and complete disarmament
under strict and effective international
Further, the preamble of the treaty refers
to "cessation of the manufacture of nuclear
weapons, the liquidation of all existing
stockpiles and the elimination from national
arsenals of nuclear weapons."
Thus, Hansen maintains that "it is hardly
consistent with pursuing negotiations in
good faith on disarmament of nuclear
weapons which constitute the fundamental
obligation of the nuclear weapon states
towards the non-nuclear weapon states, to
develop an advanced, sophisticated
weapons system such as Trident."
The Nuremberg Principles have been
affirmed unanimously by the UN general
assembly, only to be violated by Trident.
These principles establish the existence of a
crime against peace whose essence is the
planning, preparation, initiation or waging
of a war of aggression.
Trident, as an offensive weapon, clearly
violates this and it is hard to see it otherwise, as Hansen points out. Trident, he says,
is very weak as a self-defense system. It
requires a land-based and satellite-fixed
tracking system which may easily be
• destroyed in a first-strike on the U.S.,
rendering it practically useless. Thus, says
Hansen, "Trident has little strategic
significance except as a first-strike
Finally, the Trident base would seem to be
an unnecessary environmental hazard in the
eyes of international law. The brief uses the
International Law Association-New York
resolution of 1972, a number of decisions by
the international court of justice, and the
Stockholm Principles of the UN Conference
on the Human Environment of 1972 in an
attempt to identify a principle of international law Which would make any
contamination of other states' water illegal.
It is thus argued that "nuclear weapons are
a serious environmental hazard and . . .
that an activity of this nature, severely
threatening the environment, is contrary to
international environmental law."
These international principles further
require that compensation be made to an
injured party, but this is alone of limited
value since the damage (as in the case of a
nuclear detonation) may be irreparable and
so the brief emphasizes the provision
through law for a state to enter into
negotiations on any of its activities which
may cause disastrous effects to any other
The brief concludes that to avoid being in
violation of its international legal
obligations, the U.S. has two options open to
it with regard to the proposed construction
of a nuclear base in Washington.
"Firstly, the base may. be relocated to an
area where there is either no hazard at all
involved for Canada, or where the likelihood
of the damage occuring is decreased to such
an extent that the proposed activity can in
fact be justified within the principles of
international law.
It is questionable that this is possible,
given the nature of the effect of nuclear
weapons. Secondarily arid alternatively, the
U.S. can immediately enter into
negotiations with the Canadian government
to attempt to reach an acceptable
agreement allowing both the construction of
the desired base and the protection of the
Canadian maritime environment. rage o
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Prime nuclear target les
Just 60 miles south of the U.S.-Canada
border, at Bangor, Washington, the Pentagon has begun construction on the most
awesome weapons system in the history of
The Trident long range under sea missile
system is to replace the existing Polaris-
Poseidon system, and will give the U.S. an
effective "first-strike" capacity in nuclear
Appearing as early as 1969, U.S. defense
department press statements revealed that
an extensive nuclear submarine system was
in the planning, which would supposedly
counter the advancing threat of Soviet
nuclear submarine technology.
Bangor, situated in the Hood Canal on the
west side of Puget Sound, was selected as
the site of the Trident base in March, 1973.
The Bangor base will be capable of supporting at least 10 Tridents and the cost of
the submarines, along with construction and
payroll costs for the base, will be in excess
of $40 billion.
Along with being the most expensive
weapons system in history, the Trident
submarine will be the deadliest and most
devastating. Each Trident submarine
carries 24 missiles, each missile carries 17
warheads for the fleet.
Each of these warheads is 10 times as
powerful as the bomb that destroyed
Hiroshima, killing 92,000 people.
Military officials saw practical reasons
for the selection of Bangor as the site — it
was accessible to supply lines and missiles
could be assembled, stored and fitted in the
same complex.
But, primarily, the selection of Bangor
was a strategic one: it was as far from the
Pentagon as possible, while remaining on
U.S. territory; it forces the Soviets to divide
their anti-submarine warfare between two
oceans and prime enemy targets are within
firing range of the Bangor area itself.
Each of the 10 Trident submarines is twice
the length of a football field, four storeys
high, nuclear-powered and faster and
quieter than the existing Polaris-Poseidon
Initially, there are two types of missiles
that the Trident is equipped to carry. One is
the CA, which is a Multiple Independently
targetted Re-entry Vehicle (MIRV),
capable of a range of 4,500 miles and can be
fitted into the Polaris-Poseidon vessels.
The MIRV missiles are known as "area
assault weapons", designed to destroy cities
and do not have an accura&y that is sufficient to destroy any more than a few
enemy missile targets. **
The second Trident missile, the D-5, has a
range of 6,000 miles and is known as a
manouverable Re-Entry Vehicle (MARV),
or "Evador." The evasive capacity of the
MARV missile consists of pre-programmed
S-turns built into each warhead, which gives
the warhead the capability to evade antimissile missiles and return its original
The MARVs have a much greater accuracy than the MIRV and can home in
directly on underground missile silos or
enemy submarines, thus depriving the
enemy of its retaliatory force.
The accuracy and destructive power of
this new weapon introduces a "first-strike"
capacity in the Pentagon's planning for
nuclear warfare.
A "first-strike" weapons system is
designed to hit first to destroy the enemy's
weaponry, rendering useless an attempt to
This first strike philosophy came to light
this summer when former U.S. defense
secretary Schlesinger announced that the
U.S. would "conceivably" fire its missiles at
the Soviet Union before being fired upon.
President Ford affirmed that statement by
saying that he would not "rule out" the first
use of nuclear warheads.
First-strike capacity represents a major
shift in U.S. "defense" policy and this
terrifying shift has been hidden and
misrepresented in what is known as
"counter-force" capability.
The strategy of counter-force tactics is to
destroy the enemy's weaponry in the event
of their attack, so that only a few of their
ballistic missiles could get through.
But it appears that the U.S. defense
department is now on the offensive in that
the Pentagon is planning to hit first so the
Kremlin can't hit back.
Community stressed
in Pacific Life group
One of the moving forces behind Trident
Concern Week has been the Pacific Life
The PLC started in January of this year
when people from Vancouver and Seattle
met at the Vancouver School of Theology to
discuss their concern over the construction
of a nuclear submarine base in Bangor,
Wash, and to talk about ways to co-ordinate
a struggle against this addition to the arms
race and broader concerns about life style
and community processes.
Many of the individuals in the group had
had experiences working ag'ainst the
Vietnam war and their desire to stop the
Trident submarine base, because of their
experience in the peace movement, led
them in the direction of forming a positive,
life-oriented resistance community, not only
to work against the Trident submarine and
missile system, but to build as well.
In the first meeting, a statement of purpose was drawn up, identifying the group's
interest in struggles against nuclear
weapons all across the Pacific in expectation of the Conference for a Nuclear
Free Pacific held later that spring, and
identifying "the militarism, poverty and
oppression that threaten our future" to be
resisted by the community.
A unique aspect of the PLC is that it is
'transnational." There are local com
munities on both sides of the Canada-U.S.
border. This co-operation has meaning for
the community not only because the U.S.
pia cement of the base within 100 miles of the
Lower Mainland of B.C. is drawing this part
of Canada directly into the area affected by
any attack upon the base, but also because,
in contect of muclear war, national boundaries mean little.
The massive amounts of fallout released
by an international nuclear exchange would
have effects of a global magnitude.
Since initially organizing in January, the
PLC has grown to include four communities,
including Victoria, Vancouver, Seattle and
Santa Clara.
The Vancouver community's first major
undertaking was to send a delegate to the
Conference for a Nuclear Free Pacific in
March. The conference was held in Suva,
Fiji, and enough funds were found to send
one delegate. The B.C. government supported an additional delegate.
The focus of activities during the summer
was an Independance Day Celebration at
the Peach Arch in June, followed the next
weekend by Non-Violent Action at the site of
the base in Bangor, Washington.
Tactics used by the PLC are non-violent.
The base had been leafleted once a week
during the summer and, on the first
weekend in July, about 150 people,
Canadians and Americans, gathered at the
base for a protest.
Forty people climbed over the fence which
surrounds the base and planted a vegetable
garden on the base. This was the first act of
civil disobedience conducted by the community. The U.S. navy issued participants
with barring letters which means that when
they return to the base, they face arrest.
In Vancouver, the community has been
holding weekly pot luck suppers at its office
in Chalmers United Church on Twelfth and
Community is stressed in the group. While
the responsibility for a decision to participate in non-violent actioiumust be made
by each individual, it is the belief of the PLC
that such commitment must take place
within the context of a community of support. In this way, individual responsibility
and community action are combined.
The Trident submarines will b
most devastating and most expensive <
built in the history of the world. Some 6
the Canada-U.S. border, the U.S.
building a home base for 10 of these
nuclear attack on this prime target w
entire Pacific northwest to radioactt inursaay, iNovemDer zo, iy75
Page 7
miles away
the deadliest,
;apons system
miles south of
overnment is
ubmarines. A
dd reduce the
U.S. senator Edward Brooke (R-Mass.,)
has been a critic of counter-force strategy,
and has argued that "deploying a first strike
force would put a hair-trigger on American
and Soviet ICBMs during a time of tension."
Schlesinger, who was an advocate of the
construction of fallout shelters for people
downwind of likely nuclear targets, may
likely have been fired from his post because
of his outspoken hawk politics on "defense."
Though the Trident could, by itself,
destroy 4,080 separate enemy targets, it is
only a third of the overall U.S. nuclear
defense system known as the "strategic
This triad is composed of three on-the-
ready nuclear forces: the land based Inter-
Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs);
long range aircraft (B-52 and F-III bombers) and sea-based Submarine-Launched
Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs).
Basically, the Strategic Arms Limitations
Talks (SALT) introduced a ceiling on the
number of missiles, missile launching
submarines and underground missile silos
allowed to the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
But there was a loophole in the SALT
agreement: it failed to limit the number of
warheads on re-entry vehicles. Seeing this
loophole, the Soviets have continued their
program of perfecting MIRVs and the U.S.
has gone full swing into the MARV program.
All loopholes aside, if the construction of
Trident submarines continues as planned,
the number of SLBMs acquired by the early
1980s will be in excess of the SALT
limitations anyway.
The disrespect for the SALT agreements
does not stand out as particularly conspicuous in the light of Trident's violation of
international law.
The Trident system represents the
culmination of an overall first-strike
strategy, which itself is in violation of the
Nuremberg principles, the United Nations
charter, and the Nuclear Non-proliferation
The Nuremberg principles state that the
worst of all crimes "is not only the waging of
agressive war, but also its planning and
At the Conference for a Nuclear-Free
Pacific, held last spring in Suva, Fiji,
delegates from peace groups representing
22 Pacific rim nations condemned the
Trident program as "the one military
challenge that overrides all others and the
one that must be fought first."
The  Strait of Juan  de  Fuca  is  half
Canadian waters and if the Canadian
government refuses to take a stand against
Trident on moral or ecological grounds, one
would imagine that at least the territorial
aspect could not be ignored.
But the external affairs minister, Allan
MacEachen does not see it that way.
Because of the "long standing treaty between Canada and the United States"
governing shared territorial waters, and the
fact that Trident "does not form a part of the
Canada-U.S. arrangements for the defense
of North America," and because Trident is
being built on U.S. territory, MacEachen
refuses to initiate a formal protest against
Trident to the U.S. Government.
Since the Trident base will be a prime
military target of the Soviet Union, the
lower mainland area will be the first major
population centre in Canada to be destroyed
in the event of a nuclear war.
The Canadian government refuses to act,
even by means of formal declaration, when
nearly two million Canadians' lives are
designated as possible "collateral civilian
Ottawa's decision to be complicit in the
preparation for aggressive war is manifest
in good old Canadian tolerance - allowing
the Strait of Juan de Fuca to be the launching (and retaliatory target) area for an
apocalyptic weapons system.
The environmental effects of the Bangor
base have been completely ignored by U.S.
navy officials. In fact, Joint Venture, a
combination of the U.S. navy and five
corporations, was assigned to draw up the
plans for the base and then prepare the
initial environmental impact statement.
After the navy submitted the EIS, a
citizens"' group, Concerned About Trident,
seeing that the navy ignored environmental
laws, brought a suit against the Secretary of
The case was defeated and in his ruling,
U.S. district court judge George Hart based
his decision on the assumption that "even
major changes in the environment may. be
required for the survival of the republic."
In other words, Trident is above the law.
Despite the possibility of an accident
involving nuclear waste that would completely destroy the local fishing industry,
the Klallam Indian band which relies in part
on the harvest of shellfish near the Bangor
base, will lose that resource entirely with
the expansion of the docking facilities.
Aside from the expected delay of essential.
services that will occur with the sudden
influx of people in the area, the Klallams
accuse the navy of failing to provide affirmative action programs for minority
Any accident involving Tridents passing
up and down the already crowded Strait of
Juan de Fuca would mean total disaster for
the Lower Mainland, southern Vancouver
Island and the Pacific northwest.
Imagine the devastation of a Trident
submarine colliding with an oil tanker. The
initial blast and subsequent oil slick would
kill off all forms of life on the west coast of
Canada and northwest Washington.
The B.C. government has been silent so
far in opposing construction of the Bangor
base, but a resolution is now before the
legislature calling for a formal protest
against the Trident base on moral,
ecological, and territorial grounds.
But governmental formalities will not be
enough to stop the Trident system. Indeed,
theU.S. military sees it as critical that the
Trident fleet operates in the Pacific, and if
all the opposition consists of is formal,
parliamentary objections, it is unlikely that
the U.S. navy will compromise its selection
of Bangor as the base site.
There must be an ongoing campaign of
non-violent resistance against construction
of the Trident base, waged by individuals
and organizations on both sides of the
Since it's right in our own backyard, we on
the west coast have a particular responsibility to resist this awesome war machine.
The Pentagon's planning for the Bangor
base anticipated that the local opposition to
the base would be non-existent. It is our
responsibility to demonstrate that we do
indeed oppose the construction of this super-
destructive weapons system.
Through a campaign of non-violence
against the Trident, by peaceful demonstration and civil disobedience, we alone
might not be able to stop the Trident, but we
can delay and inhibit the construction of the
base sufficiently so as to initiate the anti-
Trident campaign on a higher political level,
and bring the Pentagon's military madness
under full public scrutiny and accountability.
The Pacific Life Community has been at
the vanguard of the campaign and believes
the process of non-violent resistance itself
will contribute to the realization of the
oneness of humanity, and the unity of all
Trident protest history
The strugglcagainsl the con>truction of a
nuclear submarine base on the Hood Canal
in Washington ,-italo i»rg<in soon a iter tue:
I' S n«m first announced its intention of
cnnstuc-ting the b.ise on the site of the
Bangor naval arms depot
Concern was initially oier the en-
\ironmonlal impact which the base construction and the facilities for sprucing a
fleet of 10 submarines with nuclear fuel and
nuclear weapons would have on the area
In February, 1973, a Seattle based group
called Action Committee Against Trident
was formed Following their information
campaign, five environmental groups and
two Hood Canal landowners formed Concerned About Trident, which charged the
navy with ignoring environmental law by
violating standards set by the National
Environmental Protection Agency in the
United States.
CAT brought suit against the defense
department in a federal court in
Washington. DC, attempting to have
construction halted In the U.S, all construction projects must complete a study of
effects on the environment-of the project.
The U S navy undertook such a study, but
in its haste to complete the base on schedule
and in disregard for the law, started construction of the base before a series of public
hearings had been held on the study.
Litigation of the CAT lawsuit began with
construction underway. In August, 1975,
I." S federal judge George L Hart, Jr.. in
Ihe first case e\er brought against the
military for alleged violation of environmental law ruled in favor of the nav>
The judge argued that matters of political
and national drfense were the domain ot the
U S  congress and not the courts  CAT is
ui iciiifuiiK in dim- uic luar nt'iiru neiorP the
supreme court
Other local residents on Bainbndge Island
have this >ear formed a group called
Bamhridgc Against Trident and arc also
pressing the issue of the effect development
of the base will have upon the Hood Canal
While these groups have been opposing
the construction of the base on the grounds
that it will have a harmful effect upon the
ecology of the area, another group has been
formed which is protesting the construction
of the base and the whole Trident weapons
system on moral grounds. This the Pacific
Life Community.
In January, 1975, In Vancouver, people
from Seattle and Vancouver met to discuss
concern over the Trident submarine system
From that meeting came the formation of
the PLC The Community has since grown to
include groups in Victoria, Vancouver,
Seattle and Santa Clara.
Early this spring, a delegate from the
community was sent to attend the Con-,
ference for a Nuclear Free Pacific in Suva,
Fiji With him went another B.C. delegate
sponsored by the provincial government.
The government's response lo concern over
the planned deployment of U S. strategic
nuclear weapons more widely throughout
the Pacific area was expressed in a
resolution put forward by NDP MLA Peter
Rolston from Dewdney
The Rolston resolution called for Ottawa
tn protest to Washington the base's construction, the sending of a delegate to Fiji.
and setting up of a task force to study B C's
involvement in the continent-wide
military/industrial complex. While the
resolution has been stalled in the legislation
lor almost a year now. the provincial
government made a show of backing by
supporting a delegate to the conference in
In parliament, NDP MP Stewart Leggat
attempted to bring up the subject of Trident,
but was not allowed to pursue it. He has
made known his intent to once more bring
the matter before tbe federal government
this lime in the form of a private member's
bill this winter
The PLC sponsored an interdependence
day celebration at Peace Arch Park in June
and in the first week of July conducted a
non-violent action on the site of the base.
Members of the community had been
leafletung the base for several weeks before,
About 150 people were involved in the July
action. Most people remained outside the
base property, but about 40 members of the
group climbed over the fence which
surrounds the base and planted a garden to
symbolise the direct relationship between
the $40 billion price tag on the Trident
weapons system and the dire need for food
in many parts of the world
Members of the group who crossed onto
the base property were escorted to the main
gate and there issued with letters barring
them from any further entrance to the base.
Further demonstrations were held at the \
base on the weekend of the anniversary of
Hiroshima Da>   However, this did not involve civil disobedience Page 8
SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT Thursday, November 20, 1975
Trident week schedule here
12:30 p.m., UBC
Two films, "The War Game" and
"Mr. Nixon's Secret Legacy" and
a sound presentation based on the
composition "Threnody" by
Murray Schaffer of the World
SoundScape Project, SUB
8 a.m., UBC
The Trident monster will march
around the UBC campus starting
at 8.
11:30 a.m., UBC
Tom Hawkins and Doug Stuart
will sing in the SUB conversation
12:30 p.m., UBC
The Pacific Life Community will
conduct a workshop in nonviolence in SUB 215.
6:45 p.m., UBC
Bargain at Half the Price will
present a concert of peace songs in
the SUB ballroom, followed by the
second        presentation of
"Threnody," "Mr. Nixon's Secret
Legacy" and "The War Game."
students international law
association, and Diana Davidson of
Vancouver People's Law School.
7:30 p.m. SFU
Films: Mr. Nixon's Private
Legacy and The War Game and the
sound presentation Threnody in the
Images Theatre.
11:00 a.m., UBC
The Trident monster will go for
another march around the campus
starting at 11.
12:30 p.m., UBC
William Epstein and David
Anderson will speak on Trident and
the nuclear arms race in the SUB
12:30 p.m., SFU
Robert Aldridge will speak on
Trident: the ultimate first-strike
weapon in AQ 3159.
11:30 a.m., UBC
Debbie Foulks sings folk music
in the SUB conversation pit,
12:30 p.m., UBC
Robert Aldridge will speak on
Trident: the Ultimate First-Strike
Weapon (U.S. Navy has been invited to respond) in the SUB
12:30 p.m., SFU
William Epstein will.speak on
Trident and the arms race in AQ
2:30 p.m., UBC
Video tapes from the Fellowship
of Reconciliation conference in
Seabeck, Washington, One World
(and Trident, and Debate on
Nuclear Energy: Edward Teller
and Gordon Edwards. SUB conversation pit.
7:30 p.m., UBC
Former Nuremberg prosecutor
Mary Kaufman speaks on Trident
and international law along with
Fleming   Hanson   of   the   UBC
7:30 p.m., UBC
Stuart Leggat, William Epstein
and Robert Aldridge discuss The
Trident Deal: Washington, Ottawa
and Lockheed in IRC 2.
7:30 p.m., SFU
Gensuikyo, the Japan Council
Against Atomic and Hydrogen
Bombs will speak in the Images
Theatre. Gensuikyo is sending 30
delegates to the United Nations, 10
of whom are stopping Vancouver
and Victoria to participate in
Trident Concern Week.
9 a.m., UBC
There will be a meeting of
Japanese, Canadians and
Americans to discuss nuclear
disarmament in SUB 207-209 from 9
until noon.
12:15 p.m., UBC
Harold Steves, NDP MLA, will
sing Trident protest songs in the
SUB ballroom.
2:30 p.m., Granville Mall
The Trident monster will be
marched across the Burrard Street
Bridge, down the Granville Mall
and to the provincial courthouse
starting at 2:30 p.m. Buses will be
provided, see above.
7 p.m., UBC
The Japan Council Against
Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs will
present an evening of films, talks
and photographs on from
Hiroshima to Bangor in IRC 2.
7:30 p.m., SFU
A benefit concert will be held in
the Images Theatre for Pacific
Life Community. Bargain at Half
the Price will perform additional
music to be announced.
3:30 p.m., UBC
Circus Minimus will appear in a
special Trident benefit to help send
members of the Pacific Life
Community on their cross-country
"Trident Trek," bringing the issue
of the Trident base before people in
major cities from Vancouver to
Ottawa where they will present
petitions to federal legislators.
3:30 p.m., UBC
Jim Thompson and Tricia Jack-
man will perform a "Citizens
Dance" in the SUB art gallery.
7:15 p.m., UBC
Theatreworks will present
Excerpts from Brecth on Brecth in
IRC 2.
12:30 p.m., UBC
What Can We Do to Stop Trident
will be the topic of a discussion by
Peter Rolston, MLA, Harold
Steves, Claire Culhaine, Mary
Kaufman, Venerably Gyotsu Sato
and Jim Douglass, SUB ballroom.
12:30 p.m., SFU
Mike Wallace, professor political
science at UBC will speak on
Trident and the international arms
race in AQ 9201
1:45 p.m., Burrard Street Bridge
Buses will leave both SFU and
UBC for the south side of the
Burrard Street Bridge where
people will gather to march the
Trident Monster through downtown.
Films explain nuclear war
hazard and possibility
The War Game was produced by
the BBC and is an attempt, based
on information supplied by experts
in nuclear defense and economics
to show what would happen to
Britain in the event of a nuclear
The images have the authentic
quality of a newsreel and the
impact is more forceful than a
book or lecture. The film's overall
mood is of panic; its indispensible
message is that there is no way to
prepare for nuclear war, there is
no choice but to prepare against it.
The film is in black and white
and is 49 minutes long.
Is the possibility of nuclear war
International journalist John
Pilger asks this question in his half
hour report Mr. Nixon's Secret
Legacy, filmed in the U.S.
The answer to the question is
disturbingly in the affirmative — a
possibility not in the far distant
future but in the near future.
Pilger visited the Strategic Arms
Command headquarters in
Omaha, Neb., which controls a
network of missile bases
throughout the U.S., and also one of
these missile bases in Grand
Forks, North Dakota.
On his visits he filmed talks with
people at these bases and from his
findings draws no comfort from the
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks
in Russia last year. In outspoken
words he sums these up as a
Pilger's missile base visit finds
him with two men called Missilers.
Forty feet underground, they await
their instructions in a small egg-
shaped missile capsule which is
suspended on giant shock absorbers. Their job is to fire the
They are seated at their consoles, each of which has a keyhole.
Above each console is a red box
2 p.m., UBC
There will be a communal rice
meal and discussion on Truth, nonviolence and the Tridents within us
by the Pacific Life Community in
the SUB party room.
11 p.m., UBC
The final event in Trident Week
will be a Trident Campaign dance
in the SUB ballroom with music by
12:30 p.m., UBC
Guns or Butter? World Poverty
and the Arms Race will be the topic
of a discussion with Mike Wallace,
Vickie Obedkoff, George Hermanson and Wes Maulsaid in the
SUB auditorium.
Human interior is the name of a
show based on the global ethic by
Chard in the SUB art gallery
Monday to Saturday from noon to 9
p.m., Nov. 17 to Nov. 29.
The delegation to Ottawa will
leave Vancouver on Saturday,
Nov. 29 for their cross-country
Trident Trek.
There will be a slide show and
information table in the concourse
atSFU from 10:30a.m. to 1:30 p.m.
Tuesday through Thursday.
containing the key. If the order to
fire is received, they will be given a
combination of turns for the key.
Every precaution is taken to
avoid a possible "trigger happiness." They sit 20 feet apart so
that they cannot intimidate each
other if one goes crazy. Each
carries a pistol so that if one goes
mad, the other can shoot him.
Pilger also speaks to the pilot of
a B-52 bomber.
While the huge stockpile of
nuclear weapons by the U.S. and
the Soviet Union might in itself be
seen as the ultimate deterrent
against nuclear war, Pilger points
out the danger that, in fact,
Americans have only stockpiled
these weapons and never used
"Mr. Nixon's Secret Legacy"
was produced and directed by
Richard Marquand, photographed
by Mike Whittaker and edited by
Mike Nunn.
The Tequila
with the
spirit of
Mexico. Thursday, November 20,  1975
Page 9
From page 1
agreement)   is   acceptable   to
CAUT, academic freedom is worth
four times $9,600 to them."
He said the seven professors
have definitely made their feelings
about the issue known to CAUT
The seventh professor, 'John
Legatt, will have the opportunity to
apply for a job at SFU and would
be considered fairly, under the
Legatt is currently a tenured
professor at Rutgers University in
New Jersey.
Briemberg said the CAUT attitude towards the seven has been
one of "we don't represent you but
at the same time we're doing you a
He said that if CAUT accepts the
agreement at its Nov. 30 meeting,
"teachers will have to look
elsewhere for protection."
Briemberg added that there is
"probably more freedom of expression on Jack Webster's radio
program than at SFU."
They don't really fear we're
going to burn the university down,
but they're afraid of ideas," he
Under the boycott, CAUT
discourages potential faculty
members from working at SFU.
CAUT began the boycott 20
months after the firings and
subsequent battles involving the
university and the courts.
The boycott was lifted briefly
last  year after  Pauline   Jewett
became administration president,
but was reimposed because she
failed to act quickly on the issue.
At the time of her appointment,
Jewett pledged to solve the
problems of the so-called PSA
seven. However, she apparently
met with opposition from other
administration figures who did not
want the seven to be reinstated.
General Manager Terry Kelly
»   ifW
want the seven to be reinstated.        vJIlM .* a '   -k    >k A, j,      -        Jr _    i
"ea W   1 HUMBUG
From page 1
problem might be better approached by putting "greater light
on why people are having so much
trouble with English at the
university level" instead of administering token tests.
"Having someone hand you a
topic and telling you to write1 on it is
a highly artificial situation," he
And both teachers seemed to
think senate's idea of having grade
12 English teachers recommend
particular students as competent a
silly one.
"The thing (recommendation) is
so subjective," said Locke.
"Besides, isn't the university
taking the same chance on letter
grades? If I give a student a C+ to
an A this shows that I think he is at
least proficient in English."
And Ashworth said, "I'll stand
behind the students who pass my
Henneken Auto
Your German Car Specialist
8914 Oak St. (Oak & Marine) 263-8121
I ill
oio noBJon
If mother
nature didn't
give you curly
hair . . .
(with A.M.S. Card)
Texas Instruments
slide rule calculator
Performs all basic functions plus
exponent entry. Single function key
finds powers, roots, factorials,
logarithmic, trigometric, hyperbolic
functions. With sum and store keys.
Discount Price
Texas Instruments
Suggested List $179.95
Discount Price $ 161.95
Also available: Litroix Statician
Performs means, -standard deviations, variance, CHi square, square root,
and other features.
Suggested List $99.95
Discount Price $79.95
Phone: 228-4277
To the
mMMmmwmm   rossignol
BT 220
Easy turning Fiberglass ski
^F    150 cm
to 190 cm
GSL 450
Intermediate to advanced
fiberglass ski
^™ ~    160 cm
to 190 cm
The FAT SKI for adults
155 cm
to 185 cm
$1 QO-88
Lang    binding    and    safety   strap,
poles, tie straps and installation
• 88
MSL. $50.00
JR. AL & W
MSL $5.95
MSL $14.95
MSL $24.95
MSL $11.95
Hours: Open Daily 9-9, Sat. 9-6
saws]      1503 Kingsway, Vancouver       rrr*     873-2481 Page  10
Thursday, November 20,  1975
Laura Allende will speak on
the current political climate in
Chile at 7:30 p.m. Saturday.
Allende is the sister of
assassinated Chile president
Salvadore Allende and a former
congresswoman in the Chilean
President Allende became the
world's first freely elected Marxist
Hot flashes
head of state in 1970. Three years
later he was murdered in a
right-wing coup that followed the
collapse of Chile's economy due
to a U.S. economic boycott.
The meeting, sponsored by the
Vancouver Chilean Association,
will be held at the Charles Tupper
school auditorium, 419 E. 24th.
Quasars,    pulsars    and    black
holes are not merely watches or
bad sexist joke punchlines.
'Vb'.'.Jvs?*       **■*»&>
To professor Gordon Walker,
for instance, they have had a
significant impact on cosmology
and study of the origins and
structure of the universe.
Walker will speak on "this
golden age of astronomy" 8:15
p.m. Saturday in Instructional
Resources Centre,  lecture hall 2.
He is director of UBC's
institute of astronomy and space
'Tween classes
Tour and organizational meeting,
1:30 p.m., SUB 260.
W. D. Kitts speaks, noon, McMillan
J. Liemiz on Latvian independence,
7 p.m., grad students centre committee room.
Dancing, noon to 2:30 p.m., SUB
Film and talk on wreckdiving, 7:30
p.m., IRC 3.
Meeting, noon, Murran Lounge,
Gage Towers.
Discussion   group,   noon,  SUB  213.
Vicki Obedkoff, on Third World
economy,   noon,  SUB  club  lounge.
Classes: yoga, 2 to 3:30 p.m., SOB
conference room; dance, 3:30 to
5:30 p.m., SUB party room.
Meeting, noon, SUB 224.
Meeting, noon, SUB 247.
Discussion on oral surgery, noon,
MacDonald Building lounge.
John Street on Dynamics of Dis-
cipleship, noon, SUB 205.
Meeting, noon, SUB 213.
Presentation of Heather Lawson
Memorial Bursary and seminar on
Ptay in the Rural Urban Setting,
noon, SUB 207-209.
Film: Until I Die, noon, IRC 5.
Seminar with Chuck bberlander and
Jim Pearse on play, noon to 2:30
p.m., SUB 207-209.
Choral concert, noon, music building recital hall.
Joe Kelner kicks off campaign to
gain seat in legislature, 7:30 p.m.,
SUB 213.
Larry Hurtado speaks, 7:30 p.m.,
Lutheran Campus Centre lounge.
Some diamonds
were bom
to be
a cut above
and Ben Moss
has them
6 diamond bridal set in white
or yellow gold
Engagement Ring  $375
Wedding Ring  s110
Sen offioss
Pacific Centre
Oakridge Shopping
Jorge Atiencia on social and political involvement for a question,
noon, Bu. 200.
Meeting, noon, SUB 207.
Why wage controls won't stop
inflation, 8 p.m., 1208 Granville.
Choral concert, 8 p.m., music
building recital hall.
Meeting, noon, SUB 211; feast, 7
p.m.. Medieval Inn, Gastown.
Vicki Obedkoff, on Third World
economy,  noon, SUB clubs  lounge
Hypnotism demonstration, noon,
Angus 104.
Ulrika Reubsaat, 8:30 p.m. to
12:30 a.m., Lutheran Campus Centre.
Laura Allende, sister of Salvador,
speaks, 7-30 p.m., Charles Tupper
school, 419 East Twenty-fourth.
Table    tennis    tournament,    noon,
Britannia high school.
grin bin
3209 W. Broadway
|Opp. Liquor Store and Super Valu) '
Art Reproductions
Art Nouveau
Largest Selection
of Posters in B.C.
Photo Blowups
from Negs & Prints
Jokes - Gifts, etc.
*Dea*t& (?Ai*teAe @cdAi»te
4544 W. 10th.
(Minimum order $4.00) 228"9794
Place your order 54 hour before closing
Mon. to Fri. 11:30 a.m.-10 p.m.
Fri.-Sat. 11:30 a.m.-11 p.m.
Sun. 5:00-10 p.m.
Open 7 days a week.
Head for the hills
with skis from
Complete Line of All Ski Accessories
Featuring The Top Names in Ski Wear
336 W. Pender St. 681-2004 or 681-8423
Open Friday Nights Till 9:00
One Stop Beauty Centre
Facial — Manicure
Eyelash shaping & tinting
Pedicure — Leg Wax
First Lady Coiffures -Tenth A\enue Ltd.
for the time of your life.
J Many cosmetics and jewellery items to choose from. Imported blow
'^dryers and Heat'n Curl Irons.
4554W. 10th OPEN MONDAY 224-5636
RATES:   Campus — 3 tines, 1 day $1.00; additional lines 25c.
Commercial — 3 lines, 1 day $1.80; additional lines
40c Additional days $1.50 & 35c.
Classified ads are not accepted by telephone and are payable im
• advance. Deadline is 11:30 a.m., the day before publication.
Publications Office, Room 241, S.U.B., UBC, Van. 8, B.C.
5 — Coming Events
Park, Nov. 22. Games, full facilities,
8-12. Dance to "Zingo", 9-1. Only
$2.00 at the door, $1.50 with res. card.
BABA MUKTANANDA'S Devotees present public lecture Nov. 21, 1975, 8
p.m. and Meditation Intensive Nov.
22-23, 9 a.m. to 10:30 p.m. at Maritime Auditorium, north foot of Cypress Street. Lecture free, donation
requested for Meditation Intensive
public lecture by Swami Tejomayan-
BEST    CAMPUS-WIDE    DANCE    of   the
Year! A&M record artists Chilliwack!
with, special guests: "Trix" and
"Browns" & Wallbangers! Tickets:
$4/advance.   Available  at AMS Office
being offered for $82.50 which includes all lessons, lift tickets and bus
transportation. Cost of cross country
course, $58.50. For lessons and bus
transportation. Both courses commence Jan. 10th & llth. For further
details contact C.Y.H.A., 1406 West
Broadway,   Van.,  B.C.   (Tel.  738-3128).
11 — For Sale — Private
ONE TICKET Halifax-Van. with optional stop Toronto. Original price,
$146 sell for $125. Toronto-Van. portion $115. Susan Yee, 876-9397.
50 — Rentals
— blackboards and screens. Free use
of projectors. 228-5021.
60 - Rides
65 — Scandals
70 — Services
ROTEL (Noresco) receiver — new $350.
45 watts per channel. 12 month
guarantee.   224-9679,   message,   Ron.
CALCULATOR -— Texas Instrument
SR-51, still on warranty, only $120.
Call Bar Evans, 224-9933, Rm. 591,
LADIES size TA Relker boots with
carrying rack, wooden skis, poles
and   mitts,   $50.   738-1037.
15 — Found
20 — Housing
lease near 10th and Alma. Renovated
family home in exc. condition, has
in-law suite. Needs $17,900 DP. to
11% A.F.S. Will consider lease to
professional family with own furn.
Call 263-8800 evgs, 733-7727 days
Single,    $95;    double,   $60.    Available
now! 2280 Wesbrook. 224-9679, Ron.
25 — Instruction
30 — Jobs
EARN $20 for 24 hours lying In a
dark room. Come to Henry Angus
Building, Room 13 basement on
Wednesday,  Nov.   21   at   12:30.
35 - Lost
SR 50 CALCULATOR, last Wed. In
Chem Lab.  Reward. Bart, 224-9691.
GOLD NUGGET necklace, lost Friday,
November 14thi Great sentimental
value. Reward offered, Marina, 224-
MEN'S TIMEX wrist watch, blue calendar. Lost last week, phone Ian,
PERMANENT HAIR REMOVAL by electrolysis. Kree Method in my home.
Prices are reasonable. Phone 738-6960,
Joan Calvin.
good times? Arthur Murray Studios
have a new introductory offer of two
private lessons in disco or ballroom
dancing and one student party for
only $5. For further info, contact
Stan at 987-5167 after 6 p.m.
80 — Tutoring
coach 1st year. Calculus, etc. Evenings. Individual instruction on a
one-to-one basic. Phone: 733-3644. 10
a.m. to 3 p.m. daily.
BOGGLED MINDS and wisdom heads.
Call the Tutorial Center, 228-4557
anytime, or see Ian at Speak-Easy,
12:30-2:30 p.m. $1 to register (refundable).
85 — Typing
Marine Dr. 266-5053.
perienced thesis typing specialist in
Formula and math. ReasonabU rtttt.
Mrs. EUis, 321-3838.
home. Essays, thesis, etc. Neat, accurate work. Reasonable rttto —
99 — Miscellaneous
Page 11
First year failures rate
increasing, report says
The failure rate for full-time
first-year students is increasing, a
report by the director of UBC's
office of student services says.
But A. F. Shirran says his
statistics don't necessarily mean
university or high school
educational standards are dropping.
He said in an interview Wednesday the figures could simply
mean some kind of external social
attitude  change   is   resulting   in.
different grading standards.
Shirran took records of 3,602
first-year students who took full
programs (15 or more units) in the
1974-5 winter session and found
only 51.5 per cent passed all their
courses while 17.3 per cent failed or
The other students received
partial credit for the courses they
But in 1974,60.3 per cent of first-
year students passed all their
courses, while only 17.3 per cent
received no credit.
Shirran indicated he is not overly
concerned about the figures.
He noted that students with high
marks in first year courses were
generally the same students who
fared best in high school.
Shirran said correlations  bet-
Sluff sniffs
snuff stuff
the latest sports news from Germany, Hermann Schnatz has
claimed the world's championship
record for snuff-taking. Herr
Schnatz did it by sniffing one-sixth
of an ounce of snuff in a record 53
seconds - two seconds better than
the previous record.
However, following the event
Herr Schnatz let out a championship sneeze that actually
dislodged his glass eye and shot it
across the room into the judges'
Said Herr Karsk, the championship organizer, "We are quite
used to this sort of thing. Last year
we had four lost dentures and a
Hillel House
Harold Rubens
A Lesson learned
from the book.
By Martin Grey
12:30 p.m.
One of
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C   training
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Having second thoughts about 4+
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ween high school and university
grades for most students have
remained fairly consistent over the
years in most study areas. The
exception is with science students,
but Shirran did not offer an explanation for it in his report.
Shirran's figures show in 1962
only a third of full-time students
received passing grades while
another third (33.5 per cent) failed
or withdrew. Grades improved
from then until 1971, when they
started dropping.
He says in his report the
variations in a table showing the
percentage of students passing and
failing or withdrawing "suggests
the possibility of a cyclical pattern
developing in the pass rate."
In the interview, he said the
survey figures don't mean students
have "somehow become inept,"
pointing to the low pass rates for
1962 students.
He said the results might represent "all kinds of things."
When asked if he meant social
standards have changed over the
years, resulting in general changes
in grading standards, he said: "It's
just as logical concerning examples as anything else."
Shirran's report is based on the
results of April examinations and
doesn't take into account the
results of exam rereads or supple mentals. It is restricted to the
academic performance of first-
year students.
Scientists trying to make
sexy and superior trees
Scientists are working on
producing "genetically superior
trees" and finding ways to increase their sexual activity, a U.S.
forestry geneticist said Wednesday.
Bruce Zobel of North Carolina
State University Wednesday told
an audience in the MacMillan
Building that careful tree breeding
can lead to increased production of
better quality wood.
He said that experiments with
tree orchards in the southeastern
U.S. have increased production
from the same acreage by as much
as 45 per cent.
Wood companies in the southeast
U.S. have set up 171 seed orchards
which are stocked with trees
chosen for their superior qualities,
Zobel said.
Seed orchards cost $1,000 per
acre to start, he said. Trees which
are shown in tests to be inferior are
cut down or "rogued out."
Furrows are dug between the
rows of trees every year, cutting
their roots, Zobel said. "This
shocks the trees, which go into a
sex orgy and produce lots of
Zobel also said trees must be
straight because crooked trees
produce inferior "reaction wood."
Certain trees are bred which are
resistant to common tree diseases
such as rust.
He said trees are chosen which
have fast growth, high wood
quality and are resistant to disease
and parasites.
Tree farms will develop
genetically superior seeds for tree
farms stocked with Loblolly and
Virginia pine trees, he said.
"If we're going to survive over
the long term, we will have to
develop a wide genetic base."
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—doug field photo
LEAFLESS CLUMP OF MATTER is moved, as usual, from where it is
needed to make the concrete a bit livable to where it isn't needed and
won't ever be seen. Oh well, what else can one expect at UBC.
If all trees from the seed orchard
were developed from the same
parent trees, then inferior trees
will result "and then we've had it,"
he said.
"By 1980 all of the planting for
wood production will be from
genetically superior trees."
He said returns* from tree
breeding are so good that wood
companies are "too excited" about
rising production.
"The best returns on these
companies' investments comes
from tree improvement."
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Thursday, November 20, 1975
Seals & Crofts
Greatest Hits
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Fool For
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The Gallery
Rod Stewart
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Wind On
The Water
One Of
These Nights
Linda Ronstadt
Prisoner In
David Bowie
J. Geils Band
Red Octopus
Greatest Hits
Neil Sedaka
Sedaka's Back
Neil Sedaka
The Hungry
The Bee Gees
Eiic Clapton
E.C. Was Here
10 c.c.
Greatest Hits
10 c.c.
The Original
Graeme Edge
Kick Off Your
Muddy Boots
Hagood Hardy
(2 LPs)
Spotlight On
The Who
Who By
Elton John
Rock Of The
Elton John
Clearly Love
Linda Ronstadt
Heart Like
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Dark Side Of
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Suzi Quatro
Your Mama
Won't Like Me
Grand Funk
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Caught In
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