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The Ubyssey Feb 5, 1999

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Array  flfc UBYJillteA^ FEBRUARY 5.1999
Hour (March 10-14) TESOL teacher certification course (or by correspondence). 1000's of
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JANUARY- APRIL 1999. Rooms are available
in the URC single student residences for qualified women and men applicants. Single and
shared rooms in both "room only" and '"room
and board" residences are available. Vacancies
can be rented tor immediate occupancy' in the
Walter H. Gage. Fairview Crescent, Totem
Park. Place Vanier, and Ritsumeikan-UBC
House Residences.'
Applicants who take occupancy of a residence
room now are entitled to reapplication (returning student) privileges lor a 'guaranteed" housing assignment for the 1999/2000 Winter
Please contact the UBC Housing Office in
Brock Hal! tor information on rates, availability
and conditions of application. The Housing
Office is open from 8:30am - 4:00pm week-
days, or call 822-2811 during office hours.
* Availability is limited for some residence areas
and room types.
scei aneous
Feb. 27th from 8:30am to 4:30pm. Registration
forms are available in SUB Rm. 63- Registration
fee is $10 before Feb. 15. $15 after Feb. 15.
MONTH? -and- Do you have at least one
child who is 13 years or younger living with
you? Uso. you are invited to participate in a
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the University of B.C. about how women feed
their families when working evening/night
work. If interested please call or tax Sue Carr at
(604) 987-7497. Do you know of any other
women who may be interested in this study?
Please have them call Sue.
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steam, showers, snackbar, videos. 24 hours 7
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by presenting your 1998/99 student card.
Tickets can be purchased any time up until
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For more info,
*This offer is only valid for tickets in select price ranges only. Limit 4 tickets per student. Subject to availability and while quantities last. Offer only valid for games listed in this ad. Please
show current student ID at time of purchase. This offer cannot be combined with any other ticket offer. Ticket prices include GST and are subject to Ticketmaster service charges. THF UBYSSEY . FRIDAY
Come on out and play
In writing the editorial for this Queer Issue of
the Ubyssey we thought it important to draw
links between the personal and political, both
locally and internationally. Locally, think
about February of 1988 when Svend Robinson,
NDP Member of Parliament for Burnaby made
an announcement: "I'm gay." The news sent
shock waves through the Canadian public and
made headlines for weeks; everyone wanted
to know why he had come out. In an interview
with Nicole Parton of the Vancouver Sun on
March 1 he answered that question saying that
he wanted to use his public position to promote equal rights for homosexuals. Eleven
years later Svend Robinson still fights the same
At a global level, it is significant to note that
upon assuming power in South Africa in 1994,
the African National Congress set about drafting a constitution that condemned all forms of
discrimination, including those based on sexual orientation. This ground-breaking document was completed inl996. Today it remains
the only national constitution to include sexuality. This demonstrates that big strides have
been made in some countries, but there is still
much to be done.
While laws are important in establishing a
safe society for everyone, acceptance requires
recognising that differences need not only be
tolerated but celebrated. Acceptance of differences is central both to society at large and
within the queer community. Each individual
has a unique identity that is shaped by class,
race, ability, gender, religion, age, and beliefs.
These differences play a role in our conceptions of sexuality and attitudes toward outing.
Within the Queer Issue a determined effort
has been made to include a wide spectrum of
viewpoints representing people of different
identities. It is important to acknowledge our
differences and to take pride in our uniqueness as individuals.
To build upon our diversity, this issue
aspires to bridge the gap between what is
known as "Queer Theory" and what is real life.
Personal stories from queer people will serve
the double purpose of representing the
unique aspects of our community and substantiating theory or exposing its errors. From
this grounding we can show how activism
stems from the personal and the political.
The articles thus represent the connection
between theory and experience and the
activist spirit that this connection inspires.
Whether the issue is coming out, defying
stereotypes, fighting a book ban, celebrating a
queer sub-culture or displaying our poety and
art, we present the Queer Issue with the hope
that it will touch the UBC community. ♦
week '99
itfs happening
Monday February 8
SUB 214/216
"Where do we go from here?"
Queer theory, identity and activism in the twenty-
first century, with Becki Ross, Clint Burnham, Sadie
Kuehn, Melinda Jette.
Monday February 8 and Tuesday February 9
SUB Main Concourse
info booths from:
GALE (Gay and Lesbian Educators of BC)
Vancouver Pride Society
Youthco AIDS Society
A Loving Spoonful
The Centre
Thursday February 11 and Friday February 12
SUB Conversation Pit
All Day
Friday February 12
SUB Partyroom
8:00 til late
tickets $8 from: Little Sisters, Womyn's Ware, and
Pride UBC, or call 822-4638
Entertainment by Carlotta, Helena Handbag, and
Vivian von Brokenhymen
plus special performance by Full Sketch
Pride UBC
Federico Barahona
Sarah Galashan and Douglas Quan
John Zaozirny
Bruce Arthur
Dale Lum
Richard Lam
Todd Silver
CUP Cynthia Lee WEB Ronald Nurwisah
The Ubyssey is the official student newspaper
of the University of British Columbia. It is published every Tuesday and Friday by The
Ubyssey Publications Society.
We are an autonomous, democratically run
student organisation, and all students are
encouraged to participate.
Editorials are chosen and written by the
Ubyssey staff. They are the expressed opinion
of the staff, and do not necessarily reflect the
views of The Ubyssey Publications Society or
the University of British Columbia.
The Ubyssey is a founding member of
Canadian University Press (CUP) and firmly
adheres to CUP's guiding principles.
All editorial content appearing in The Ubyssey
is the property of The Ubyssey Publications
Society. Stories, opinions, photographs and
artwork contained herein cannot be reproduced without the expressed, written permission of The Ubyssey Publications Society.
Letters to the editor must be under
300 words. Please include your phone number, student number and signature (not for
publication) as well as your year and faculty
with all submissions. ID will be checked when
submissions are dropped off at the editorial
office of The Ubyssey, otherwise verification
will be done by phone.
"Perspectives" are opinion pieces over 300
words but under 750 words and are run
according to space.
"Freestyles" are opinion pieces written by
Ubyssey staff members. Priority will be given to
letters and perspectives over freestyles unless the
latter is time sensitive. Opinion pieces will not
be run until the identity of the writer has been
It is agreed by all persons placing display or classified advertising that if the Ubyssey Publications
Society fails to publish an advertisement or if an
error in the ad occurs, the liability of the UPS will
not be greater than the price paid for the ad.
The UPS shall not be responsible for slight
changes or typographical errors that do not
lessen the value or the impact of the ad.
Room 241K, Student Union Building,
6138 Student Union Boulevard,
Vancouver, BC. V6T 1Z1
tel: (604) 822-2301 fax: (604) 822-9279
email: feedback@ubyssey.bc.ca
Room 245, Student Union Building
advertising: (604) 822-1654
business office: (604) 822-6681
Fernie Pereira
Stephanie Keane
Shalene Takara
Amy and Jo are good friends of Dorothy. So are
Jeremy and Nick. "Who doesn't like Dorothy?"
Melinda asked. "I don't!" replied Gordon, rather
defensively, although Toto is apparently a close
buddy of his. "Ooh, ooh! I like Toto too!" cried Julius.
Fiona, Jen, Federico and Douglas prefer munchkins,
however. Jeff and Sarah think Dorothy is pretty, but
they agreed with John and Bruce that it would not
be very wise to follow her down the yellow brick
road. Lee contends that munchkins have no place
in Oz, while Steph and Tanya identify more closely
with the Wicked Witch of the East. Jo-Anne likes her
new heart while Duncan enjoys the advantages of
his new brain. Ron finally received the courage he
always wanted and Vince and Keith are striving for
the position of Wizard. The Lisas, Todd, Rich and
Dale all complained because they didn't have shiny
red shoes, but everyone agreed that were definitely
not in Kansas anymore, Toto.
Canada Post Publications Sales Agreement Number 0732141 iAY FFRRUARY S  1933
United we stand,
...we fall. It's an old saying and maybe even a
cliche. But the principle that people find strength in
unity has been proven time and time again.
Part-time sessionals do have a choice about who
will represent them in bargaining with the UBC
They can join together with their colleagues—all the
other teaching faculty—and use that unity to
achieve the pay and benefits they deserve. And to
end their segregation.
Or they can decide to go it alone. And remain
separate from their colleagues in the academic
That's the real choice.
The Faculty Association of the University of British Columbia
faculty@interchange.ubc.ca www.facultyassoc.ubc.ca 822.3883 tel
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Queer Rights
'Elsewhere' ?
by Wayne van der Meide
Speaking for myself, I feel that I
am more free to live out as an out
gay man here in Vancouver than I
ever could have been had I
remained in Trinidad. Unlike in
Canada, homosexual conduct is
illegal in Trinidad; it is also illegal
in Michigan, but I suspect I'd
rather live in Detroit than in a
small rural town in Alberta. The
point being that the laws of the
country—whether criminal sanctions or human rights—are not
always the primary, and never the
sole indicator of the quality of life
for queer people.
That is not to say that the laws
of a country—their 'position' on
non-heterosexual conduct, individuals and/or relationships—are
important as   An^@[U]g]^   0
free Q® h®
gance and moral outrage') at their
secrecy. I had after all come from
my new home where I went to
established gay clubs, gay bookstores and even whole gay neighborhoods! After my irritation at
their apparent lack of concern had
worn off, I began to see that all
these young men were in happy,
loving monogamous relationships. They seemed comfortable
with themselves and with each
other. I, on the other hand, had
struggled with my identity in
Canada—the rise of the gay clone
of the early 90's made me uncomfortable in my skin. I had a brief
affair with one of the boys, and
while leaving, I realised (at least
for a few moments) that a life in
that "backward" island might not
be that bad.
n       n    ~*~.~~.      I feel    more
ffd@o more  free to be
®P®(tl% WW iiiiiii
(g@[fi)G(lL?§ @ff €cf(n]f|](d]clig I
am not: sure that:
I am happier.  .  .
Times have changed.
both a source
of raw coercive power and also a constitutive
force in the minds of people (ie. if
the law says a thing is bad, then it
must be bad). Nevertheless, as a
signifier of broader societal conditions it is a crude instrument
which can give a distorted impression of why and how a society
constructs things like gender, sex
and sexuality. What does the fact
that discrimination on the basis of
sex and sexual orientation are
unconstitutional in Canada tell
me about the situation of lesbians
here? Not much, eh? And does it
matter that the 'anti-sodomite'
laws in many
openly gay
in the larger
urban centers of Canada, I am not
sure that I am happier, that my
quality of life is better here than it
would have been had I remained
in Trinidad. That does not mean
that we should adopt an ethnocentric stance towards the struggles and situations of queer people in other places, situated in cultures other than our own. I am not
speaking about cultural relativism
as a shield against human rights.
At the same time, we must take
care not to become neo-colonial-
ists, cultural missionaries spreading the word according to 'Out":
rave scenes,
We must invite another's
gaze onto our culture,
not simply impose ours
-onto theirs.
of the countries in Africa and Asia, for example, are literally the remnants of
colonial laws and missionary values? Does it matter that prior to
colonialisation these places may
have had cultures that not only
tolerated, but in some instances
celebrated their transgendered
and homo-sexed people. The 'cultural' situation of queer people in
other countries therefore must
not be solely based upon a calculus of statutes and court decisions.
This then brings me back to the
consideration and comparison of
the situation of queer people
globally. When I went back to
Trinidad a few years ago, I met a
group of gay young men. They
were all in the closet and puzzled
by my sense of horror (read 'arro-
Get Cultured
condos by
the beach, a nice terrier, spousal
benefits, the right to have sex in
the parks and on and on the list
Even if queer people in places
other than Vancouver face greater
social censure and danger and we
may wish to improve the situation
of queers in other places, we must
be careful not to judge, and be
even more careful not to presume
that we are better off than they
are. We must invite another's gaze
onto our culture, not simply
impose ours onto theirs. Quite
simply, we must listen before we
speak...out. This is my vision of
international human rights...one
that does not permit another culture to be dismissed in toto as
Meetings at
Tuesday, 2:30
SUB 241K On the road to find "out"
amy, and her best friend Cheryl, on the road for women's rights, amy pelletier photo
 by Amy J. Bodenberg
I graduated from high school in June of 1991. The blurb below
my graduation photo in the yearbook included a quote from
one of my favourite Cat Stevens songs:
"There's so much left to know, and I'm on the road to find out."
At the time, 1 was not aware that those mere fourteen words
would become a self-fulfilling prophecy which would serve to
shape my life for years to come.
When I was a child, I was not aware of heterosexual programming that is so insidious in our society. However, at the
same time I was subconsciously aware of the strong societal
taboo of homosexuality. Both of these influences had a major
impact on my development as I grew older.
I was uncomfortable growing up as a girl because of my
attraction to other girls. In a sense I resolved this conflict by
"feeling like a boy" at times.
I was uncomfortable with my gender identity because I didn't fill the traditional feminine stereotypes. I liked sports, disliked dolls and dresses, and never dreamed about marriage and
As I reached puberty, I was uncomfortable being around other
girls, because of the "taboo" feelings I was having towards them. I
responded by pushing girls away, and drawing boys near.
My entire identity therefore developed under false pretenses.
I didn't take pride in myself as a woman, which resulted in identity issues such as low self-esteem. I had a lack of close female
friends which caused me to find comfort in long-term, monogamous, committed relationships with men—one after another.
Looking back, this was at least partly to avoid dealing with my
"Then I found my head one day when I wasn't trying, and
here I have to say, 'cause there is no use in lying, lying."
I had seen the light! I was having a conversation with my
boyfriend at the time (January 1994) about his bisexuality when
a light bulb went on over my head. "Hmm, I wonder if maybe
I'm not straight, either," I thought. For some reason, that conversation triggered an awakening of my subconscious mind. I
looked into my past and searched for clues as to who I really
was. Since that time, I have been putting the pieces of the puzzle together in order to re-define my identity, and I will probably
be doing this for the rest of my life.
There were two unexpected results of the coming out process
for me: 1) a greater understanding and acceptance of my gender
and sex, and 2) an increase in my love for myself. An obvious
result of both has been an improvement in my self-esteem. I
have come to terms with my sexuality as a queer, with my sex as
a woman, and with my gender as a blend of the stereotypical
masculine and feminine qualities that I value most. In a nutshell, I have come to terms with myself.
My advice to others dealing with similar issues?
"Yes, the answer lies within, so why not take a look now?"*
Towards shattering the silence
 by Donna Frame
Last night, a friend knocked on my door and
asked to talk. Did you know that he was gay?
she asked me of a fellow on our brother floor
in residence. I had to admit that I indeed I
did, for our mutual friend, was quite open,
and, in my opinion, courageous in discussing
his orientation. My friend, somewhat distressed, described what seemed to be her
guilt for not hu\ ing been more aware and lor
ntn having more gay friends. Us not thai she
wit. homophobic, .she said, but she felt that
she was beuiuse she simply didn't know anyone who was of different sexual orientation
I mm herself. As 1 sat there with her, I laced a
(..miliar inner turmoil. Would she find me
out- Shouldn't she find me out? What should
1 say? Her eagerness to understand
impressed me—hen? she was, unknowingly
offering inc the precious gift of her accop-
Lincc And 1. in my silence, was rdiiiing it.
Continually, the hidden biases and prejudices of society (my own such biases included)
sadden me. When docs a joke turn from funny
to insulting? I wish I knew how to define what
is in good fun and what is simply degrading,
but I have neither the authority nor the audac
ity lo judge others tor their comments. On the
other hand, 1 can't deny that it has hurt lo hear
harmful comments when it's assumed that ihe
audience agrees. It has
made me wary of revealing my own orientation
for fear of being a target
of these comments when
I'm not around; moreover, I fear making others
uncomfortable with my
very presence. I would,
however, like to advocate
on my behalf, to those
who might judge or criticise.  I would like to
defend myself and others
love and be loved. Is this not our one commonality, as humans, that which transcends
any difference?
The debate over who to tell and who not
to tell plagues me. Yes, many wise people
have told me that anyone who rejects me
based on my orientation is not worth having
as a friend This is good advice, and yet some
of my best friends have, since my revelation,
slued away from discussing anything involv-
I would like to defend
myself and others and
savthat BtmlMm'MK
Is this not our
one commonality, as
humans, that which
ing my supposed love life, formerly a staple of
our conversations (though under the guise of
heterosexual] ty).
I'm not saying it can
be easy for them to discover    something    so
important   about   me
after having been convinced that they knew
me inside and out for so
long, but its an apparent
omission which looms
large sometimes. It has
left me wondering if the
price of honesty is worth
it. After all, the gender of
whom I choose to "dale"
is really no one's busi-
iK"aS but my own. Or is it? I expect the world
lo be accepting of everyone no matter their
gender, race, religion, or orientation, but how
can it he accepting if 1 never even give it the
chance to know me? By assuming that I will
be rejected, am I not marginalising myself?
Immediately after "coming out" to my
friends and family, I realized what I had dune,
and I ran away. Ottawa, my hometown, is not
exactly close, and I was able to tell them with-
out fear that I would be an outcast, as
Vancouver was a place where no one knew
me, a place to start over if need be.
I thought that it would be easier to keep
things to myself here; however, there is a quotation on my wall that reminds me that
silence is not always the most honorable
option, despite its ease.
"The hottest places in hell," Dante wrote,
"are reserved for those who, in times of great
moral crisis, maintain their neutrality."
I low could 1, in good conscience, continue to feel that others should be more accepting while denying them the opportunity to
do so? Last night I told my friend that, if it
helped, she in fact knew two people of different sexual orientation, and that 1 would be
glad to do my best to answer any questions
she had. It was a small step, perhaps, but the
first in the right direction. Is coming out overly declarative (and a little bit ciiched)?
Maybe, but I prefer to think of it as an affirmation of my commitment to honesty both
with myself and others. I act with the knowledge that someone might react negatively,
but I am convinced that the overwhelming
majority will be positive, giving them an
opportunity to love me for who I truly ain.4> iAYFFBRUARYS.199«.
Decision helps transsexuals
by Stephanie Castle
In a landmark decision, the BC Human Rights Tribunal has
ruled in favour of a male-to-female transsexual who complained she was discriminated against when refused entry into
a ladies washroom at a Victoria bar.
Tawni Sheridan was just beginning to live her life as a
woman. Before a transsexual can undergo surgery, they are
required to live in the role of the opposite sex for a two year
period. Psychiatrists had already confirmed that she fully
understood the decision she was making.
BJ's Lounge, owned by Sanctuary Investments Ltd, is a gay
and lesbian bar where some transsexuals congregate because
of the comfort and security they find there. However, the management had set up strict rules regarding bathroom usage that
created a predicament for transsexuals, like Sheridan, in the
pre-operative stage.
Biological men dressed as women could not use the
women's washroom. But cross-dressed males also risked
severe repercussions entering a male bathroom.
Among the witnesses called before the tribunal was Dr.
Oliver Robinow of the Vancouver General Hospital Gender
Dysphoria Clinic. Robinow said that, "It's possible to have a
female brain in an externally male body. It's possible to have the
body of one sex and a strong gender identity of the other sex."
Robinow went on to explain that practitioners issue clients
in the pre-operative stage a protection letter to be shown to the
police or anyone else if it is needed. These living requirements
are in accord with the rules of the Harry Benjamin
International Gender Dysphoria Association to which most
specialist practitioners subscribe.
However, BJ's management refused to recognise the validity
of the letter when Sheridan presented it to them.
Another witness, Deborah Brady of the High Risk Project
Society, stated the case for the broader range of transgendered
people who were not transsexual.
However, in the judgment rendered later the Commissioner
saw the issues as being supportable on behalf of transsexuals
only; the judgment did not extend to the entire transgendered
community which is still not protected under the Human
Rights Code.
In handing down her decision, Barbara Humphries, on
behalf of the Deputy Chief Commissioner, said:
1. That in view of the large and liberal interpretation
which the Supreme Court of Canada has emphasised must
be applied to human rights legislation, she is satisfied that
discrimination against a transsexual constitutes discrimination on the basis of "sex;"
2. That as the complainant was being treated by a psychiatrist and an endocrinologist and had further been assessed by
VGH Clinic as a moderate to high intensity transsexual, the
conclusion was reached that discrimination against a transsexual constitutes discrimination because of "physical or mental
disability;" and
3. That based on Dr. Robinow's evidence, transsexuals in
transition who are living as members of the desired sex should
be considered to be members of that sex for the purposes of
human rights legislation. According to this view, the complainant appropriately chose the women's washroom on the
night in question (August 25,1995), because she was in transition, and therefore was considered to be a woman. The respondent did not provide any evidence that the use of women's
washrooms by a male-to-female transsexual interfered with
the "maintenance of public decency."
The last point accords with the view held in other countries.
In Germany, the idea of "effective womanhood" is included in
their legislation governing male-to-female gender issues.
Registered male-to-female transsexuals receive the full protective benefits of the law.
The Tawni Sheridan vs. Sanctuary Investments Ltd. decision
was handed down January 8, 1999, and Ms. Sheridan was
awarded damages.**
Schools not free of social ills
by Rebecca Clarke
In these times of harassment and book banning law suits,
you might be tempted to stop and ask, "What is really going
on in our schools these days?"
Are the public schools going to be the last battlefront for
gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered rights? Or is something being done to counter the persistent voices which
claim that alternative lifestyles are "unnatural" and
It isn't as bad as it looks. There are a lot of things going on
in schools these days that would have my high school principal fainting dead away in the halls.
One of the oldest of these initiatives is called Project 10,
which began in San Francisco in response to harassment of
gay and lesbian students.
This project provides a safe space in school for gay and
lesbian students to go and talk about the issues with which
they are dealing, and information for school officials to help
in dealing with homophobia.
Since Project 10 was enacted, many similar programs
fighting homophobia, like Project 10 East in Cambridge,
Massachusetts, and the Triangle Program in Toronto, have
sprung up.
Many school districts have begun to acknowledge the
need for education and youth support around issues of
alternative sexualities in other ways.
For instance, Minnesota has allocated a fund whose purpose it is to "recognise outstanding GLBT students and
activists, to support continuing education for GLBT persons, and to foster a positive image of GLBT people in society."
Also, groups like Public Education Regarding Sexual
Orientation Nationally (PERSON) and the Gay, Lesbian and
Straight Education Network (GLSEN), and the Rainbow
Classroom Network in Ontario, provide a network for individuals and organisations working around lesbigay issues.
So what is going on here in BC? For one thing there is the
organisation of Gay And Lesbian Educators (GALE). In addition to standing behind the court case against the Surrey
School Board, GALE also provides information to teachers,
students, and counselors about GLBT people, gives talks to
classes about gay and lesbian concerns, and provides legal
information to gay and lesbian teachers.
Then there's the teachers' union in BC, the British
Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), which now has as
The BCTF has also begun a v
committee QQWllMmmm
to mofpwnm^
homioyimQmm and
making recommendations on
teacher education.
one of its goals, "To strive to eliminate from the school system discrimination on the basis of sex, race, religion, age,
handicaps, economic status, marital status, sexual orientation, number of dependents or pregnancy."
The BCTF has also begun a committee committed to
stopping homophobia and making recommendations on
teacher education, curriculum and resource materials, and
strategies for involving the government and school boards.
Why is it important that something be done in the
schools? One answer can be found in a five-year study done
this year by the Safe Schools Coalition, a partnership of 74
public and private organisations involved in equity issues in
Washington State.
The survey found that of 37 school districts and 73
kindergarten to grade 12 schools, there were 111 incidents
of anti-gay harassment and violence.
Of these incidents, 148 individuals were harassed or
attacked, and in one-third of these cases adults who knew
about the incident did nothing.
The incidents included eight gang rapes, 22 physical
assaults, 17 cases of physical harassment, 38 cases of ongoing verbal or other harassment, and 26 one-time incidents.
But that's America, BC isn't as bad, right? While things do
look a little better here in the Lower Mainland, GALE has
some figures which I doubt the Chamber of Commerce will
be putting in its brochure anytime soon.
According to a survey of 420 gay, lesbian and bisexual
individuals done in 1994 in the Greater Vancouver area, 61.8
per cent of respondents have been verbally harassed at
school, 39.4 per cent have been threatened with assault at
school, and 22.4 per cent have been physically attacked in
school. Of these reports, 23.6 per cent of respondents indicated some harassment from school teachers /officials.
It is important to develop policies against any form of
harassment and to ensure that those policies are enforced.
This means providing a safe space for both teachers and
students to bring up issues of harassment and to deal with
them in an up-front and fair manner. This also means
ensuring that teachers and school officials are educated to
recognise and fight homophobia and heterosexism.
Teachers must also be willing and able to provide books
that discuss the issue of sexual orientation and to incorporate those issues into their curriculum regardless of the subject. Harassment doesn't stop at the door just because arithmetic doesn't have a sexual orientation.
It is important for people to realise and take advantage of
the available support networks. There is a wealth of material for teachers, aciministrators, counselors, students, parents, and anyone else who may be interested, easily accessible over the Internet.
We can no longer afford to believe that kids are innocent
and that schools are free from the social problems that
plague the rest of society. It is time to really examine what is
going on in our schools and to do something about it.*>
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Transgenderism—a history
[Cleis Press, Inc.]
by Rajdeep Gill
Pat Califia's meticulously researched book, Sex
Changes: The Politics of Transgenderism, looks
critically at how 'gender scientists,' feminists and
gay academicians have discussed transgenderism. She considers how historically and ideologically the change in the self-perception of the
transgender community ties in with the rise in
their political consciousness.
Califia notes that the earliest autobiographies
were written mostly by Male to Female transsexuals and that although it is amazing to observe
the dignity in their writings, they do have 'ideological blind spots'—there is no attempt to critique the social sex roles and the role of biology in
gender dysphoria is overstated. By the mid-seventies, one can observe a suggestion of some flexibility in the conception of gender. About the
same time, personal accounts of female to male
transsexuals emerge and some medical professionals begin to argue that transsexuality is not a
mental disorder but a medical condition requiring sex reassignment as the appropriate treatment. Califia points out that although these 'gender scientists' had 'straightforward compassion'
and helped patients by giving them what they
wanted, they saw any diversion from the norm as
Thus transsexuals were perceived as being in
need of a 'cure' by hormones and surgery. Califia
asserts that to deny variation in human experience
and instead apply a medical model to gender
identity and pleasure-seeking behaviour is a common mode of oppression. It should not matter
whether the 'deviation' is socially learned or purely biological because, ethically speaking, we must
celebrate sexual and gender difference irrespective
of its origin. Sadly, some feminists and gay academicians, who themselves understood oppression,
were, and continue to be, transphobic.
Some feminists argue that transsexuals cannot be women because they possess the XY chromosome and lack female socialisation. The fact
that one has to pass as a 'real' man or woman
before surgery is seen as a reinforcement of
stereotypes. This may be true but many transsexuals argue that it is a model put into place by
medical professionals and something that they
themselves find problematic, importantly, when
transgendered individuals ask for their right to
define their own gender, they are taking to heart
a key feminist notion.
Transphobia is also evident in the historical
study of the gay community. For example, gay
historians, while studying berdaches (genetic
aboriginal males who assumed women's attire,
did women's work, and often had sexual relations with biological males who were not
berdache) and 'passing women' (genetic aboriginal females who cross-dressed, lived as, and
were perceived as men, who often had sexual
relationships with women) focus on their homosexual activity and gloss over or ignore the Native
American perception of these individuals as 'not
man, not woman,' which emphasises gender difference rather than sexual activity. In his book
Califia makes a strong point, "one must be careful not to impose the Western mode of homosexuality on the past" adding that at the same time
one must not give in to the "erroneous urge to
romanticise other cultures." Berdaches and
'passing women' were looked upon and perceived differently from tribe to tribe. Also, one
cannot ignore the transsexual and transvestite
elements in these Native American roles.
Clearly, medical professionals, feminist theorists, and gay historians use approaches which
have conceptual errors that deny the creation of
a space for transgendered people in our society.
Under these circumstances the voice of the community itself is extremely significant.
Increasingly, contemporary transsexual autobiographies show a sense of activism, and a
demand for civil rights is combined with insistence on better medical services. In general, all
the people who do not fit into the society's
assigned gender roles are, in one way or another,
speaking out against the discrimination, condemnation and violence that is inflicted upon
The questioning of the binary gender system
by trans people is not occurring in a void. The
emergence of pro-sex feminism that emphasises
pleasure and is against censorship affirms that a
woman has a "right to take control of her own
body." The individual's right to his or her body is
also a basic tenet of the increasingly visible S/M
community. Principles similar in spirit are finding a place in the trans community—Leslie
Feinberg states in Trans Liberation that "the
defense of each individual's right to control their
own body, and to explore the path of self-expression, enhances your own freedom to discover
more about yourself and your potentialities." Ze
(note: this is a gender neutral pronoun that
Feinberg prefers) believes that "each person
should have the right to choose between pink or
blue tinted gender categories , as well as all the
other hues of the palette." Califia would agree:
"...we cannot realistically expect to end sex—
or gender—based discrimination or stigma by
simply eliminating identities that are the loci of
abusive power or disenfranchisement. Indeed,
eliminating such identities would be a form of
oppression. I cannot imagine...that we eliminate
racial or ethnic categories as a way to combat
racism. Human xenophobia—our fear of difference—cannot be placated so easily. We need to
learn to celebrate our differences, not morally
mandate them out of existence."
Both Califia and Feinberg emphasise that it
should be acceptable both lo cling to one's biological sex and gender assigned at birdi and to
adapt the body to the gender of one's preference.
In Feinberg's words, irons liberation is about
expanding our "understanding of how many
ways there are to be a human being." And Pat
Califia's book is an important contribution to that
understanding. ♦
Secular basis emphasised! book ban ruling
by Sam de Groot
Last December Madam Justice Saunders ruled in the
Supreme Court of British Columbia that the Surrey School
Board acted improperly when it banned three children's
books depicting same-sex parents from the classroom.
The ruling settled a case brought by a parent, two teachers, a student, and an author who claimed the school board
violated the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the School
Act when it banned the three books.
The board defended its action in court, saying the books
were not approved because they were not age-appropriate
and because a majority of parents did not want, for moral
reasons, depictions of same-sex families in elementary
school. Specifically, they argued the books would contradict moral lessons being taught at home and undermine
parents' ability to be the primary educators of their children.
The petitioners who initiated the case against the board
used a variety of charter arguments and administrative law
arguments to try to have the board's book-banning resolution quashed. In the end the judge ignored most of the argu
ments and instead focused on the School Act which states
that schools must be run on a "strictly secular" basis. Thus
she found that the board, by acting upon the religious
beliefs of some trustees and parents, had violated this provi-
The board defended its action in court, saying the
books were not approved because they were not
age-appropriat&and because a majority of parents
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sion of the School Act.
The ruling offended some people with religious beliefs
because they felt that the board did not violate the "strictly
secular" provision in the School Act because the trustees did
not introduce religious dogma into the school or expose students to religious instruction. These people felt that the
judge's decision violated their rights because actions made
with religious motivation have less force (or no force) com
pared to actions made with secular motivation; thus those
with a religious world view are at a disadvantage to those
with a secular world view.
I acknowledge this to be true, but I defend the ruling for
three main reasons. Firsdy, religion is something people feel
passionately about. Disagreement on religion has historically led to violence. The separation of church and state is help-
mi in maintaining a peaceful and orderly society.
Secondly, I would agree that parents have a right to have
schools respect their religious beliefs and to not have them
contradicted in school. Yet the books in question, although fictional, present same-sex families in a descriptive, factual way
(except for the blue dads) and not in an argumentative way.
And thirdly, the best rationale for keeping the school system secular is that there are accepted techniques for evaluating and adjudicating secular conflicts, yet there are none
for religious conflicts. One religion says that homosexuality
is evil and another says it is good. Which is right?
So, do these books belong in the classroom? They do if
they teach children about families, to read and to make
decisions. But we cannot find any answers if we reason that
"God loves all his gay children" but "God hates fags." ♦ AY FEBRUARY 5. 1999
by Alan Woo
|his is a Chinese fortune bat," she tells me, fingering the amulet that
langs around her neck. Today, Amber Dawn, one of Vancouver's
most intriguing and provocative artists, is dressed conservatively
compared to her usual pink wigs, revealing skirts, and fishnet stockings.
Wrapped in a fuzzy-looking cardigan and wearing black jeans, she looks like the
girl next door—except that she has six piercings on her ears, three on each, and
one above her lip that looks like a Marilyn Monroe beauty mark. Her short red
hair is held back with a leopard-print headband and her lips are void of the usual
bright red lipstick.
We are sitting in her cozy apartment across Pigeon Park in the Downtown
Eastside. She has decorated it with green walls and an antique-looking
wardrobe. A thin curtain of lace hangs above her bed like a canopy, while a photo
of her pregnant mother staring out a window rests in a classic frame atop her
dresser. There is also a wooden cabinet, where Amber Dawn claims to keep her
vitamins, and a doll sits on top, her face smashed into a million pieces and re-
glued to look somewhat disturbing if not demonic.
Three dildos and a few other sex toys adorn a tiny shelf by the mirror, and
burlesque-looking lingerie hangs from hooks along the wall. Draped across the
wardrobe are numerous feather boas, hinting at some sort of vaudeville.
The Chinese fortune bat was a gift from an ex-lover.
"I had it on during dangerous situations which seemed to just pass right by
me. I'm not superstitious," Amber Dawn says. "But it is comforting."
Amber Dawn has
she's given up pre
at UBC, among o
Okay, so she's not superstitious. "So give me any ii\
describe yourself," I say.
After some deliberations, she comes up with, "Fe:
positive. Crazy drama case. Hopefully healing."
She also comes up with "big-hearted."
"Why those words?" I ask her.
"I sorta claimed femme because I find that I ha
privilege having a lot of qualities of traditional be
answers. "If I look like a pretty girl and set it up, it see
me the most benefits out of the world. I think a lot o
would be down on this, but I directly benefit from
archy. And also, it's fun, I like being femme. It's the i
fortable for me."
"Sex is such a taboo and people aren't exactly
express it freely or publicly," she says. "It's people's owi
express their sexuality publicly, but I wish that it was ar
Publicly? Like, sex in public?
"Sure, it could mean anything from that to prese
body as a sex object, but not for other people, for
think a lot of people feel some degree of sexiness, bt
private way and I think people actually suffer by try
ness their sexual energy and keep it in a small contai
I just wish it was more comfortable for people to talk
express without having to feel shame about it."
Amber Dawn is suddenly interrupted by her black
trying to claw his way up the lace curtains. As swift as
she scoops him up and plops him onto the bed, flas
She says, "Being a sex trade worker for the bulk of i
has certainly led me to a lot of places where I'd rathei
been] and shown me a lot of things I'd rather not have s
have a ton of regrets and I think experience equips yc
and deal with the next thing. Plus, you can ask any of
I've dated—I'm a high maintenance kind of gal."
mber Dawn moved to Vancouver at the age of:
She was working the streets then. She says sh<
lto a family where the sex trade is how it is,
Dawn started young, too young for it to be consensu
considered professional.
"I went through times where I thought I'd never do that again, but
can be an okay way to make money," she says.
Amber Dawn admits to having done everything short of stripping,
n't feel like she could whip her body into the shape that she wants if s
strip. But she's done street work, call work, escort agencies, and eve
porn. For a while now, Amber Dawn has had an ad in the Buy and Set
"There's a whore mentality I have," she says. "I haven't done it in a
kinda on a leave, but I can be in a club and I can figure out who will {
just by the way they talk or approach me. I've gone into nightclubs i
and gotten tricks that way.
"The down side to it is that sometimes it will make me hate pe
especially. I guess because I find that a lot of the men I've worked fo
far from having women in their day-to-day life, or if they do, they're w
don't like. And so, maybe the way they view, or treat women, is skewe
find I do have a lot of anger about it.
"Another tricky one is that I do have a big heart, and I'm a sucker s
especially for old widowers. I've straddled the counsellor/mommy
some regulars. It can be dangerous when I feel someone getting the
emotionally dependent."
There are boundaries that Amber Dawn sets for herself, and she 1
sex trade workers should have boundaries of some sort. But does shi
other limits?
"I used to," she answers. "I used to have no penetration and no tc
don't hit people, I don't whip people, whatever."
ias known the sex trade for most of her life. These days,
prostitution. Instead, she is taking Creative Writing classes
I other things. After it all, she says she has no regrets
any five words to Now it kind of depends on her mood, she explains, laughing.
th, "Femme. Sex-
at I have a lot of
mal beauty," she
X it seems to give
a lot of feminists
t from the patri-
t's the most com-
xactly allowed to
le's own choice to
: was an option."
3 presenting your
)le, for yourself. I
less, but in a very
• by trying to har-
contained arena.
to talk about and
;r black cat, Crow,
swift as lightning,
led, flashing me a
>ulk of my lifetime
d rather not [have
t have seen. I don't
ruips you to go on
; any of the people
; age of seventeen,
says she was born
jw it is, so Amber
nsensual, or to be
ain, but actually, it
ripping. She does-
ants if she were to
and even Internet
and Sell.
le it in a while, I'm
tio will pay me for,
itclubs downtown
hate people, men
irked for are really
ley're women they
s skewed by that. I
sucker sometimes,
nommy line with
ting the tiniest bit
nd she believes all
does she have any
nd no touching—I
mber Dawn's mood shifts when I ask about her worst experience in the
sex trade world.
"The worst one is when I went to this guy's house with him and there were
like four other guys there, and I didn't appreciate it. He was a very charismatic,
soft-spoken kind of guy. I did walk away with money, and I didn't walk away
injured, but I was like there for a day longer than I wanted to be," she says rolling
her eyes.
"I knew I couldn't negotiate my way out of it, and I had to go into automatic
pilot. But I want to draw the comparison that there are women who have it much
worse than I have. These guys were at least safe, in terms of safe sex. I was fifteen."
Now that she's 24, Amber Dawn says she's developed skills to avoid danger,
though she admits it's all relative.
She says, "It's not something where I go, 'This is a great thing! Everyone can
be a sex trade worker!' But for people who are, there's a mix of some choice, but
a lot of "This is the hardened path, this had to happen' especially for trans
women because they're not really employable by society's standards."
Amber Dawn herself is not transgendered, but her boyfriend is. They met at
a bar, but they shared the same circle of friends. She asked him to be in a show
she was putting together that included live sex on stage, and he agreed. "I didn't
really know where our relationship would go, but it's lasted," she says.
As a trans woman, her boyfriend has not been operated on, although he is
currently undergoing hormone treatment. "Not to have labels, but I don't get it,"
I tell her. "Are you attracted to...?"
"It's a tricky question," she answers, laughing sympathetically. "I just think he's
damn sexy! For example, the way he carries himself."
"So it's more the person and not the gender/sex?"
"There was a time when I identified as 'lesbian,' but that went away before it
came. I've always know him as J."
"Is he interested in women, then?"
"No, he's a little faggot," she says, smiling. "But he dates chicks, too, so I guess
that would make him bisexual too."
"Is it hard?" I ask, and she says it is. Amber Dawn doesn't think the world understands what's it's like to be transgendered; it's not an easy thing to be, she says,
adding that there's a lot of ignorance and resistance, even hostility, towards transgendered people.
"I feel that around whore stuff, too," she says. "We have very different things and
I can't understand what [her partner] is going through and he can't understand
what I'm going through. But we do have a bond that we're both, like, outcasts,
according to society's standards. I think that brings us together more. Even being
with each other is hard, but our struggles bring us closer rather than push us apart."
The show that spawned Amber Dawn's relationship is File This, an alternative to the mainstream women-only sex shows around town [SexPhiles
and Diva's Den). The initiative to produce this type of event came about
as Amber Dawn was watching one of those shows herself.
"I felt upset for the most part," she explains, "because it was a bunch of skinny white women that I know have never had to do sex trade work before, taking
off their clothes with smiles on their faces and something inside me just
snapped and I felt really gross. Women's-only spaces try to create this Utopia,
and sex is like this completely positive thing, but I think it excludes a lot of people who have heavy issues or have a background in sex trade work or a background in being sexually abused, etc."
Worked up, and oblivious to the sirens bellowing outside her window, Amber
Dawn says she felt insulted that the women up on the stage could do this, so easily, without ever acknowledging this was something other women had to do to
She says she spoke to other women in the audience that night and found out
they also felt like her. This was definitely the planting of the seed for File This, she
The first show, held at Ms T's Cabaret on Pender Street, featured strippers,
poets, and performance artists. One girl sticks out in Amber Dawn's mind. "Her
name is Tilly and she's a queer youth, and she's also fat," she says. "She did a spoken word about being fat and at the same time, did a strip. There was very positive feedback from the crowd, and I felt happy for her. I'm sure every other day
she has to feel insecure about her body because of society. It's wonderful to have
a show that is sexy and fun and humourous, but doesn't deny that people come
from very hard and have-to paths about sex and sex trade."
Mostly publicised by word of mouth and leaflets, the second File This, aptly
named File This Too, generated an unexpectedly larger audience at its new location, Video-In Studios on Main Street. "I want to keep it a show for the underdogs," she insists, adding that the bigger it is, the more work there is to do and
more criticism is given.
File This Too, which I was fortunate to attend this past September, featured
short story readings, a drag act, a lip sync, poetry readings, and of course, a number featuring Amber Dawn and her boyfriend. Aside from performing, she had
to do publicity, technical work, as well as produce the show without the help of
her co-producer who had been gay-bashed two days before the event.
"You feel crappy about it [sex trade work] so much of the time and you have
to keep it a secret, and I really wanted File This to be a place that honoured and
celebrated the strength of it," she explains.
Amber Dawn hopes to keep the show underground and safe for trans
women, who appear in and attend the event. She does make it clear, though,
that both Video-In Studios and Ms T's have been very supportive of File This.
According to her, they have not taken a cut of the money, profiting only from the
bar. Most of the money from the door goes to the performers, many of whom
don't have regular income.
Through all of this, I wonder how Amber Dawn manages to stay
grounded. She admits to volunteering at WAVAW (Women Against
Violence Against Women), as well as doing education around the sex
trade at the Rape Crisis Centre. "It's tough work, but it fuels me in a different
way, and I know that everything I've been through isn't for nothing," she says.
Another way she manages to stay focused is through her writing. Amber
Dawn is also a UBC Creative Writing student.
"Writing is great," she smiles. "I've always written. Not until the past few
years have I realised that it was something I could pursue and study. Writing
as a career is kind of laughable for anyone, but you know!" she giggles.
"I hope I'm not a whore for life, but I know that it's in me now and I can't
even imagine never doing it again. It sounds weird, but there's a part of me
that likes it. It can be a good feeling when you've turned a good trick and
they're happy. I really love writing. I didn't think I was ever going to make it to
university but it's good to be there."
I ask what her future plans are, if she has any in mind.
"I've taught English before, so I have had some normal jobs. Maybe I could
teach again. I guess I'm in the same place as a lot of other people, I don't know
exactly what I'm going to do with life."
But having sex is another way she manages to stay afloat. "It makes me feel
beautiful," she confesses, though she adds that it's not about someone else
validating her. It is more for personal power. "I think there's room there for
reclaiming and self-acceptance. It's a lot better than drugs.
"I mean, there was a time when I thought the only reason I was staying
alive was because I was taking ballroom dancing lessons," she says.
So what can someone like this possibly do for fun?
As of late, Amber Dawn's been busy organising the next File This, taking
place in March, so keep your eyes and ears for more details.
Amber Dawn is a woman who wears many different hats. Not only that,
but many different wigs and dresses and fashions as well. "Day-to-day theatre
is good. Also, I have this trick when I'm feeling insecure. The more outrageous
you look, the less you have to say."
An antique corset passed down from her grandmother to her mother to
her looms over her bed on the wall. Hardened by cornstarch, Amber Dawn
has turned it into a piece of art. Typeset against the faded white material are
words that Amber Dawn has placed there herself. It reads: The Worst Is Over.
Somehow, I believe it.3* 1 QfflF liBJSfp|«gnAY FEBRUARY 5. 1999
is not
a cure.
The Diabetes Researth Foundation
For more information about how
you can help find a cure call
Vancouver'* Original Superstore.
The book you've been waiting for...
since 1918!
Back Issues
80 Years of the Ubyssey Student Newspaper
by J.E. Clark      $19.95
'The Ubyssey saved my life."
Joe Schlesinger
"Since the editor refused to give me
an assignment, I decided to invent one.'
Pierre Berton
From the roaring '20's to millennial
angst, this commemorative book looks at
student life through the irreverent eyes of
The Ubyssey.
Now available at the Front Information
Desk and in the Faculty Authors section.
All proceeds donated to the
UBC Library Archives Fund.
6200 University Blvd., Vancouver, B.C. V6T1Z4
Weekdays 9:30 AM - 5 PM • Saturday 11 AM - 5 PM
Phone 822-2665 www.bookstore.ubc.ca
Fine 6 zee
Chili Cook-Off & Ice Sculpting Demonstration
UBC Chili Champ 1999
Ring of Fire Vegetarian Chili
by Cheryl Niamath, Engineering
Co-op Programs and Paul- Lesack,
Koerner Library - Resource Sharing Services
Grand Prize: UBC Chili Champ Trophy, Tabasco Golf Bag & Accessories
and a membership to the International Chili Society.
2nd Place
Texas Chili -by Josie Midha
3rd Place & People's Choice
The Alumni "Butt Burning" Chili by Catherine Newlands
Thank You
To all the participants:
Trish Anderson and
Mary De Vera's Veggie
Chili, Jerry Aherne's
Kingston Blood-Fire
Chicken Chili, Jennifer
Alexander's Chili Con
Came, Rosario Larion's
Chili Con Carne a la
Rosario and Vince's
Atomic Chili
UBC Athletics and Recreation,
UBC Food Services,
Konings Wholesale,
Buns Master &
Canadian Spring Water-company.
To the Ice Sculpting Team:
Chefs, Virgilio Navarro
from the Westin Bayshore
and Mike Steele from the
Water Front Centre Hotel.
Special thanks to UBC Catering, Plant Operations and the Official Judges -
Executive Chefs Mike Doyle and Steve Golob.
All Chili recipes will be coming to the web site - www.fobdserv.ubc.ca
Loving my bearded self
 by Catherine McCollum
After struggling with an ambiguous gender identity for most of my life, I
came out to myself as a tranny about four and a half years ago. In my
early twenties, I identified as queer, as a butch woman. While this label
did afford me much more space to exist, it still fell short in many ways. As
a young gender freak, I was drawn to the Sunday morning rituals my
father engaged in as he dressed for Mass, finding a particular fascination
with shaving. Looking back I realise that I was fascinated with my father's
activities more than my mother's as it spoke to who I was more closely.
As a pre-teen I enjoyed a secret life of putting on my dad's suits and locking myself in the bathroom to shave. He was an old school shaver, using
soap ends in a cup with a bushy brush to lather. I would cover my face
with an inch of thick foam, and use the handle of a toothbrush to "shave."
While this was a pretty good rush for a while, I eventually graduated
using actual razors. This coupled with the onset of puberty and the natural hair growth that all folks experience meant that in a short while I was
sprouting five o'clock shadow. Not
so cool for a closeted kid in high
school in a small town.
I began to shave out of necessity, as I lived in terror of my now
shameful secret being discovered.
The effect on my self-esteem and
developing identity was devastating. My face was constandy sore.
When I moved away from the
small town I grew up in, I came out
as queer but was still shaving to
hide my facial hair (first dates were
a drag!!). I was involved in lots of
queer activism, masking this chaos
that was raging inside me. Shortly
after moving to Vancouver, I made a trip to San Francisco, where I came
upon a lovely dyke cafe called "The Bearded Lady." This fabulous space
was indeed staffed by a bevy of bearded babes. I don't think I can accurately describe how I felt the first time I met a person from the chic end
of the gender spectrum proudly sporting a beard. This trip also marked
the first time I came across info on transgender folks.
Upon my return to Vancouver, I read lots of amazing stuff about tran-
nies, and found for myself a language for my experiences and feelings. I
woke up one day and chucked out my stash of shaving equipment, saying to myself, "What the fuck, in every other area of your life you fight
daily to be who you are. Do this." With that I began to grow my beard. I
had much support from friends who took it upon themselves to learn
about trans stuff, to be effective support. It was an exciting and scary
time. I was sometimes unprepared for other humans' immense potential
for rudeness and cruelty. If folks perceive you as negatively different, they
forfeit any common courtesy they might otherwise extend.
Living as an obvious tranny, and a bearded lady, toughened my skin.
It has also brought much joy to my life, in the way that being a whole person and defending your right to exist can only do. I have experienced a
lot of physical violence, from both strangers and folks in the queer "community." I have been bashed in public verbally more times that I can
count. All of these experiences teach me that there is a shidoad of trans-
phobia and trans ignorance out there, and I work in both my personal
and work life to combat this. Overall, I am proud and happy about my
trans identity, and encourage others to break from the socialised notion
that there are but two genders, opening themselves to the concept that
no human experience, from our sexual orientation to our gender identity, can be boxed and categorised, that we are too big and too fluid.*
"What the fuck, in
every other area of
your life you fight
daily to be who
you are."
-Catherine McCollum
Youth Worker
SUB 241K The Tigress
(Tor Ahaelvn^O
(for Angelyne)
She is a woman I could love
put on my pedestal %
worship as a Goddess
With light eyes that can flash fury.
or lock with mine in a seductive dance
She is impassive, but confident       \
and possesses so easily everything thl| eludes
Beautiful, powerful, wonderful
She walks the earth \
like a Tigress, hungry
searching for something
but always wary %
watching V
Her appeal %
her dark mystery, apparent nonchalance       '
quicksilver mind
I wtlibjher
in awe of this sleek smooth silky wildcat
She is on the prowl
My eyes wide "***%%*..
I am rooted to my spot
in fear and dark, delicious excitement
as I watch her slowly stalk me
a deliberate, teasing seduction
I realize that she is the hunter
and I the innocent doe-eyed prey
Shivers up my spine ^
I tingle all over - -
as I finally submit
I want to be her meat
— JM\
Breathless after labour
muscles torn against nature
the hated child is spewed out
that hard rock of expectation
and misshapen identity
swathed in lively brine J
for a moment it breathes   j?
defiant #
then stops f
silent £*
miscarried #
stillborn £
leaving its birther fre#
—Lee Hamilton
the leave-taking
Who I am
(the healing process),
It is written on my skin
That I should be this way
And have no means to contend    jf
With the scars and bumps -
That punctuate my armor
The mirror draws to its end
In my likeness where
My eyes have not lost sight   f
Of the darkness I once reflected in other's faces
Their creature lives evaded me
My body was threatened jf .th stones
And shoes, and gossip asj§rey
And fumed as cigarette .smoke
I had wheezy lungs
An anxious tummy apl a worried mind
I ran until my fibula jfroke in half
I accept this for whctl am
I pierced a constellation from my body
In praise of whojlim
And I pressed a Jainted figure into my back
The new me!   |
The old me with a new skin?
The old skin with an honest eye.
Whose soul knowledge recognizes
That this is all
And my image
Travels apart from where I am
am remembering the sound of her body
the crawl of her fingers like rain
holding me still holding me strange
i am remembering her echo, the space
after her was loud and endless,
left me without words and open,
my tongue cut
ting sentences in parts
hands moving involuntarily outwards
to hold back speech, to claim sovereignty.
wanted to lift her up, to be lifted up       «.,.-"*'"
raised beyond the chains of words §p#fefeased
and whole    :■*<■-"
but i find myself far
J^ctw the spaces i am supposed to inhabit.
tracing my shape, pounding it
against this bright deaf world
bruised and
fierce to make it fit.
dcttWiwant to be this kind of girl here
believing Wte|c|are a freedom flight
oblivious to the pieces they nail down.
don't want to hide these ditches of hunger
my arms are wide    my flesh is tough   ""*»%
i am shedding this shadow
i am coaxing sound
i am remembering the sound of my body
—Colleen McNamee
the eyes open
the mind awakes
long-awaited adulthood
has come to the chrysalis
wings drying in the morning sun
flight arrives
like a whispered kiss
flooding the parched desert
in torrential fertility
—Lee Hamilton
ere was this chance'
That there were a chance,
Wherein I knew great courage,
And could escape my frightened image,
I would follow my words,
Would leap on to the counter
And write my poem
Softly under your
|Each syllable, a tiny kiss,
iWould slowly fall
%sleep upon your skin
Tien dream, sinking nervously
(lf%ould tickle.)
Anl|by some miraculous feat
ThatM were a hero,
Ybur^pp button would escape
Its button hole.
And my poem,
Nearly qut of breath,
Would approach your breastbone,
Catch wind of your sweet scent
And fall fla| upon its face
Swallowinglrour nipple whole.
-Kevin AY FEBRUARY 5. 1999
Hairy Armpits
And Lipstick
or sessionals
UBC sessionals have been working since last spring to
organize a union. Sessionals just like us at a dozen
universities across Canada have already unionized. We
approached the Canadian Union of Public Employees,
which represents sessionals at 11 of these universities.
Let's stand up for job security, fair wages and
treatment for all part-time and full-time sessionals!
First-year sessionals at UBC earn 20% less than
our unionized counterparts at SFU. In addition,
SFU sessionals receive benefits to teach just one
course a term.
has started..
It's time for us to have
a union for UBC sessionals.
Drop by the CUPE office in the Graduate Student
Centre (Room 305) to sign a card, ask questions,
or get involved. An organizer will be available from
noon to 1pm, Monday to Friday. You can also give
us a call at 224-2192 with your questions or
concerns, or fax us at 224-2118.
We are Sessionals Organizing Sessionals.
rhave you signed     \
yours yet?|
Where? CUPE office, Graduate Student Centre
When? Monday to Friday, 12 noon to 1 pm
or call us to set up a time that suits you
A message from CUPE and
Sessionab Organizing Sessionals (SOS)
Oh, we know. Roommates suck
Go some place your roommate will never find you.
Greyhound Western Canada
Student Coach Card
25% off all your Greyhound Canada travel
for one year.
New this year, get 20% off Gray Line por on|„ -| 5 bucks.
City Tours in Vancouver & Victona ■»
when you show this card.
The Bus is Better.
Available at any Greyhound Canada location in Western Canada.
For further information in Vancouver call 482-8747.
by Tanya Boteju
I'm a feminist. I have short hair. I've always been a tomboy. I'm pretty
sure I have attitude. I've taken my fair share of Women's Studies courses. I don't wear make-up. I like Ani Difranco, Kinnie Starr and Melissa
A typical, butch lesbian? But check this out: I also love dressing up in
long skirts, trendy boots and slinky tops. I hate camping and hiking. I
WEAR a bra. I only have three little ear-piercings. I don't play pool. I'm
not a vegetarian. I shave my armpits and my legs every other day, all
year long. I think boys are awesome (for the most part). And I don't own
a jeep, Land Rover or a motorcycle.
If you're a guy, you're probably laughing right now. If you're a woman
and/or a lesbian, you're either laughing or scowling. Those of you
laughing, I hope you're laughing with me and not at me. Those of you
scowling are probably thinking, "That is so wrong" or "She is so full of
shit." If you're part of the latter group, you've missed my point. The reason I include these stereotypes is because I despise these stereotypes.
Before I cut rny hair, H
other words not a
"real" lesbian.
I am, of course, talking about the lesbian stereotype, which is
inevitably broken down into the butch/femme dichotomy. Some may
argue that the butch/femme archetypes are no longer relevant, adhered
to, or even apparent in the 1990s—but I disagree and I have the battle
scars to prove it.
Before I cut my hair, I was called a femme, lipstick lesbian, wannabe-
dyke...in other words not a "real" lesbian. When I entered the Lotus for
the first time, a woman I had never seen before in my life asked my
men-girlfriend and I whether we were going to "share a beer," implying
that we couldn't handle an entire one by ourselves. The woman was, of
course, mocking us based on our appearance: two long-haired,
"femmy" lesbians, dressed in form-fitting pants and tops. How could
we possibly finish an entire Bud by ourselves?
I find it ironic that these stereotypes are perpetuated by both mainstream media as well as by the female queer community. That queer
women, an already oppressed community, should find a way to marginalise within that same community is ridiculous. And if you don't
think I was marginalised because of my "feminine" characteristics, you
should try wearing high heels, a skirt, long hair and jewelry and walk
into a room full of lesbians sometime - the looks you'll inevitably
receive will make you feel uncomfortable and out-of-place. I don't know
how many times I actually feared walking into the womens' collective
in Victoria because of the looks I'd received on earlier occasions.
Some people like labels, some people don't, but no one likes being
told who they are and who they are supposed to be. I am uninterested
in fulfilling a stereotype. I cut my hair because it's easier. I shave my legs
cuz I like smooth legs. I wear army pants cuz they're comfy. I listen to
Ani cuz she rocks. And speaking of our favourite lesbian symbol, she
isn't a lesbian at all. She's bisexual and wears skirts and make-up and
army boots, and has long hair and several tattoos and piercings. I think
she'd agree that what you wear or do isn't necessarily an expression of
who you are: "People talk about my image like I come in two dimensions, like lipstick is a sign of my declining mind, like what I happen to
be wearing the day someone takes a picture is my new statement for all
Thankfully, I find that more and more women are ignoring the
butch/femme dichotomy/and that many of those who still adhere to it
also respect the decisions of others who choose not to. Many of you will
read the characteristics I started off with and think, "Hey, I do that, and
I'm not gay!" or "I don't do any of those things and I'm definitely queer!"
I say to hell with it—that's what I do—go ahead and do 'em all or don't
do any of 'em. Do your own thing...but when your eyes happen to fall
on my oh-so-smooth legs and then end abruptly upon clunky, black
army boots, don't tell me to make up my mind...OPEN YOURS.<>
the ubyssey THE UBYSSEY . FRIDAY.
ketch explodes.
by Wah Kee Ting
FULL SKETCH: From left to right Sarah, Barb, and Katie—planning to make it as an indie band.
Sketch it, man! Heard any interesting bands lately? Well,
here comes a cool indie band—Full Sketch! With capricious dress codes and wicked instruments, the three girl
band (Barb, Katie and Sarah) will rock your mind.
I had the chance to check them out live at the
Brickyard, and they sound better live than on tape.
Mior a while the music grows on you, but it's hard to
pLice ii.
"Strictly no lyrics," says Sarah, one of the three
sketches. "Us purely instrumental."
"It's the»Goblins-meet-8ryan-Adams-meet-
ACDC kinda music," Barb adds helpfully.
Barb   and   Sarah   alternate   on   the
Hammond organ, bass and guitar while
Katie sits at the drums. Barb Sketch wears a
one piece black silk dress with killer fishnet stockings; Sarah Sketch a one piece
blue gasoline kippered uniform. Katie
dresses In a white shirt with a black
leather tie and dress pants. The quality that this band possesses is
humour, and it comes across both
in their fashion sense and their
As for the future, the band is
not seeking Immediate fame.
"Not a lot of bands make it
as an instrumental band.
We'll see what happens
down  the  road,"  says
At the moment, the
Sketches are planning
to record a tape and
send it out. Also,
they will be playing at the Pride
UBC Dance on
February 12th.
Minimal      to
{New York University Press, 199(1)
by Melinda Marie Jette
In recent years, academics writu ig on queer theory have bivn
1 rititist'd lor their jargon-ridden rumination-.. In the short but
illuminating monograph, Qiwer Theory: An liilmduclum,
Annan..iric- Jagose nlfcrs a judicious surwy of tlicsi* often
iiKi-inc works. As a historian. 1 sit- her uppi oach as particularly deft. lagose locates queer theory within the history of contemporary lesbian ;uic! gay thought, and this allows her to
illustrate the origins, continuities, and changes in modern
conceptions of sexuality, gender, and identity, hi essence,
lagose asks, "I low did wo get here?"
io begin. J.igose emphasises that modern conceptions of
(hiuno)scMidlily in the West are the result of more than 100
\ ftirs of Iheorising by medical and legal professionals, as well
as gay and lesbian activists and thinkers. Although same-sex
desire has been present throughout human history, modern
ideas about wliat constitutes homosexuality remain unclear.
Proponents of essentialist positions view sexuality as natural,
fixed, innate, and universal across time. Constructionists see
sexual categories as reflections of changing socio-culutra] discourses. From time to time, lesbigay activists and theorists
have relied on both essentialist and constructionist views of
sexuality and gender, and both of these theoretical orientations continue to shape current debates about queer tl.eury.
Ilomophile organisations that developed first in Western
Luropo (1890s) .aid later in North America (19r.0s} were
important antecedents to the gay liberation and lesbian feminist movements. Although these eariy organisations were not
mass movements, they did sponsor educational programs
and advocate political reform and greater tolerance towards
homosexuals. Inspired by the counter-cultural trends of the
I9tj0.s, the gay liberationists of the early 1970s challenged
North American social norms with regard to sexuality,
monogamy, and the sanctity of law. They were militant and
outspoken activists who advocated a distinctly gay identity,
one which they hoped would topple social institutions that
pathologLscd homosexuality. For them, gay liberation was a
n.'vciluiiuiuuystruKKlt'luiiJiL'radiucilu.iii!>ruiiiiaiJuii of society.
In the early 1970s, lesbian tuminism emerged in reaction
to the male dominance of gay liberation organisations and
the homophobia of the women's movement. Early lesbian
feminists argued that lesbianism was primarily a political
position rather than a sexual identification. Lesbian feminists
sought a radical refiguring of social relations and mores with
icgoid to gender and sexuality Some lesbian feminists advocated a separatist position wherein women, rather than gav
men, were the natural allies of lesbians because of their gender. laOsbiain feminism included a range of political ideologies,
and it too bequeathed important ideas to queer theory,
including critiques of compulsory heterosexuality and gender
behaviour, and the conception of sexuality as institutional
rather than person.)!
From the mid-1970s through to the l'J80s. changing ideas
Over the gast century, feS%^F
m3iwn§$§ hm® mngim
mdA (shlBMgS using a variety of ideologies and strategies,
and as Jagose demonstrates,
wm wmSA wM Mhdy
about social transformation witnessed new directions within
gay and lesbian politics. An ethnic model of sexual identity
eventually emerged, one grounded in an essrntialist reading
of sexuality This ethnic model of gay and lesbian identity
became a rallying point for more accommodating organisations to work specifically for civil rights rather than revolutionary change. Over the same period bisuxuals. transsexuals,
and members of cultural communities made their voices
heard in critiquing mainstream gay and lesbian politics. By
the early 1990s, the term 'queer- came into popular usage in
North America. Today, some people use "queer' largely as an
umbrella term to refer to various sexual minorities: gay. lesbian, bisexual, utu lsgondered and interscxed.
As Jjgurie CApluiiis, a muie political reading of queer
draws on eariier notions from the gay liberation and lesbian
feminists movements through its critique of dominant sexual and gender categories. However, it does mark a signifi-
c;int historical shitt. Queer is a child of the post-modern era
in its rejection ol progressive social change, certainty about
a.stable identity (such as the gay identity of the 1970si, and
a limtan community. Queer challenges what is 'normal'
and it continues lo allude a clear, set definition. Proponents
of queer see these developments as necessary, since fixed
(essentialist) lesbian ami gay identities can support dominant ideas about gender and sexuality by reinforcing the
homo/hetero and male/female dichotomies. In this way,
queer makes a place for differences nol visible in the terminology'gay and li'sbian'.
Although lagose appears generally supportive of queer,
she does present alternative views. Some sec using queer as a
'distinctly homophobic strategy' because it attempts to destabilise gay and lesbian identities historically suppressed by
mainstream society. Others see queer as a kind of political
cop-out: if you arc not willing to openly declare yourself gay
or lesbian, you are not publicly challenging homophobia. In
addition, queer still carries an implication of sexual perversion, and its usage may alienate people sympathetic to the
gay and lesbian civil rights agenda. Queer may also work
against hard-fought gains for ordinary k-sbigay people with
regard to visibility and community building. And finally,
many find fault with queer because of iLs attachment lo queer
theory in academia. Queer theory is here viewed as elitist and
inaccessible, with little connection to gay and lesbian communities.
Queer Tlieory presents a readable, though occasionally
overly detailed chronicle of changing ideas about sexuality
and gender. This survey can leave one feeling anxious about
the seemingly irreconcilable positions between supporters
and critics of queer. However, Jagose is careful to place her
treatment of queer theory within a specific historical context.
She demonstrates that queer tlieory is a development ot historical processes beginning more than 100 years ago. Over the
past century, lesbigay activists have sought social change
using a variety of ideologies and strategies, and as Jagose
demonstrates, new models will likely emerge in the future.
Queer Tlmtiry is an important work because it provides an
intelligent explanation of our present predicament without
smoothing out the ruu^h odfjci,. And thib i.hort uurvt-y leave-!,
the reader wondering, "Where do we go from here?'
Melinda Marie Jetto is Co-Chair of Pi ide \ J R(: and a doctoral student in the 1 listoiy Department.* ROUND TO BE FREE: THE SM EXPERIENCE-
by JJ Madeson and Charles Moser. The Continuum Publishing Cor
, ~ hlv loaded word
which is often wroKg^TBW^'^d -with nonconsensual and violent sexual activity. The
rran-^wiK.'Hiwt^. SM is a sexual exploration of
one's fantasies and involves as much love, ten-
*   rx6SSl-tB(St^a3jd respect as anv other sexual
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Here is your chance to work overseas
and have the adventure of a lifetime!
A work abroad experience is a fantastic way to
enjoy an extended holiday and gain an entirely
new perspective on life! Programs are available
in Britain, Ireland, France, Germany, South Africa,
Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Jamaica & USA.
Find out more! Come to an information session.
Special quest Speaker;
SWAP England coordinator direct from London!
Wednesday Feb. 10th
SUB room 206,12:30pm
For more information on SWAP contact:
Student Union Bldg... 822-6890
UBC Village ...255 6221
Fantasies tike ^bondage and discipline" and "humiliation*' alf
■ sensual, erotic interactive behaviors played out by partners delihi
', assuming, for one, die dominant role and, for the other, the submissive rote,"
where the role-playing forms the context of the activities, and whore t ho activities can but need not include the use of physical and/or psychological pain lo
produce sexual arousal and satisfaction." -
Studies show that generally SM does not interfere
with a persons day-to-day living, and its petitioners
are psychologically healthy. Yet sadism and
masochism are still listed by the American Psychiatric
Association as paraphilia (aberrant sexual activity)—
evidence of how science historically has and still continues to patholo^ise and control behavior which challenges biased societal perceptions. u^^
A glance at Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry, published in 1998,
provides sufficient evidence. Sadomasochism is classified as a "disorder of
sexual preferences." This "mental disorder" is listed as a largely male condition that peaks between the ages of!5 and 25.
Feelings of powerlessness during the oedipal crisis, molestation as a child
Qt and other abusive experiences in childhood are listed as possible causes. One
Pi;: ■■*       is a sexual masochist if "over a period of at least six months recurrent, intense
sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the act of.
^ ,   being...made to suffer" are present (sexual sadism involves getting aroused by
. seeing someone suffer). They must also cause impairment in important areas
of functioning and lead to clinically significant distress.
The scieoJ^fic information provided is misleading—SM'ers represent all
races, creeds., ratlprtSrlJClwcMMW^^ orientations.
Hound to be hrceinchtdwa' '"■ ,;,lftvn1Wifif.^^ .-.   and
it is quite clear that the distress they suffexisnotbecluKeoltneS
or fantasies. The major source *y3«
and oppresses them. A common
books are willing to validate '«-- *;
with SM.
SjVJ is a fullv consensual
erotic exploration that
demands responsibility .on
the part of participating
individuals—rape and
murder are neither consensual nor based on underlying trust and respect,
when one crosses physical,
mental and emotional
boundaries and pushes and
explores limits (as in SjVI).
the degree of trust and
communication required is
Trtnr.h higher.	
SWAP is a program of the Canadian Federation of Students
A harder thing for the outsider to understand is the possible use of whips
and chains and insults. The instruments used and the humiliating language
employed in SM turns sex into a sophisticated art involving theatricality and
skill. The pain and the humiliation is an integral part of the eroticism because
of the sense of vulnerability offered.
The pain is part of the pleasure and it emphasises the active use of imagination—the sexual arousal is partially possible because the dominant and the
submissive can imagine themselves in each other's position. Most people bite
and scratch and wrestie in bed; how far one pushes the level of pain is a mutual decision made by the participating individuals, limited by their physical and
emotional strength.
As Edmund White states in his essay Sado Machismo, SM is not about self-
hatred or identifying with the oppressor. The ability to enjoy sadomasochism
is better attributable to empathy and to "negative capability," "the power to
project oneself into another creature's skin."
SM'ers, by rejecting "the laugh that paralyses social conscience" and performing "the mysteries of domination, of might, that obsess our cultures," THE UBYSSFY . FRIDAY iMfljAI
attempt to negotiate the madness
in society. Sadomasochism disturbs society because it does not
surrender to the scandal of power
but asks what real sadism is.
The confusion arises from our
double use of the word sadism to
mean criminal acts of nonsexual
violence and harmless erotic
games. They are not the same
thing. The obscenities of war are
not equivalent to the eccentricities of the bedroom.
Political oppression is closely
linked to sexual oppression, and
the defining and demonising of
"sexual deviations" is part of the
process. We would like to think
that we are in the 90s and that the
misuse of state power is rare (or at
least subtle). Think again.
In 1990, consenting gay men
were videotaped engaging in SM
activities. The state charged the
"dominants" with assault and the
"submissives" with abetting
assaults. In 1993, the Law Lords,
the highest court of appeal in the
UK, refused to reconsider the
convictions. Three men took the
case to the European Court of
Human Rights which, after a
mere three hour hearing, unanimously decided on February 19,
1997 to uphold the UK judges'
verdict ruling that governments
can intervene in the private sexual activities of their citizens for
the sake of "public health and
Sexual activity is a personal
and private expression of one's
fantasies and desires. The
Spanner decision allows states to
intrude into the freedom of
expression as well as the right of
privacy. The blow to the rights of
the SM community is a profound
challenge to the freedoms and
rights we hold dear, and by refusing to listen to sexual minorities
and perpetuating myths about
them, we as a society are helping
the oppression to continue.*?*
6iru ^oxes.,
t>ea Wttt>
the ubyssey
The U.B.C. Cricket Club is
welcoming new players
for the 1999 season.
For more info call Paul
Spend a Term
)J$jitain and
in a 15th
up to $4,000
in Scholarships
and Bursaries
The International Study Centre (ISO
at Herstmonceux, East Sussex, U.K.
• d ivmarktible window on Lngland and Hurope
• a unique learning environment
• students and scholars studying and working
together towards common goals
■■..■• Integrated field studies and site visits
• Weekly trips to London
• Mid-term core study trip to continental Europe
included for all students
• Internationally focused, fully-accredited
university courses
• Modern residence facility
• Computing sites with
e-mail and Internet
Program Offerings
Programs arc available Spring, Fall and
Winter terms (course offerings vary by term)
Art 1 li story
British Studies
• 1 li story
• International Business
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• Spanish
a<\dmi:,sion Services
Office of the University Registrar
Victoria School Building
Queen's University
Kingston, Ontario K71. 3x6
Tel (613)533-2217
Fax (613) 533-6810
E-mail: admissn@post.queensu.ca
tp Queen's
^-^       ■ n     UNIVERSITY PAY FEBRUARY 5. 1999
What is /lomliip^^p
unless you've got a thorn
in yr side, be at the
FRIDAY.        12.30
Have you ever wished that gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals weren't so blatant or
open about being gay?
Have you ever been embarrassed by
another person's openly gay, lesbian, or
bisexual behaviour?
-|   AXHaivt? you ever avoided <;a.;>al rtm
I   I   |t&cf'       with        an      > openly
-I- V^gfriyyie-ibinti/bi&c'Mjal fh-mnu
because you were afraid other iseople might
think you wen* gay?
Asking how soon is now for 80 years
3 Have you ever expected a gay man, lesbian, or bisexual to change or modify
his/her public identity or affectionate
habits or modes of dress in order to work in an
4Have you ever looked at a gay man, lesbian,   or   bisexual   and   automatically
thought of his/her sexuality, rather than
seeing him/her as a whole, complex person?
5 Have you ever failed to be supportive
when a gay, lesbian, or bisexual friend is
upset about a quarrel or breakup with a
6Have you ever changed your seat in a
meeting or movie theater because you
thought the person sitting next to you
was gay, lesbian, or bisexual?
Have you e wg$l$^j^iijb'<.;:
He displays
»gay men or women* bftt llt^jpe^^ >
similar public1 diSpiaj
couple ii4*^rJc0*? *       "\
H&ye-j ,
irtaveyou ^spstsedtheJ^hd'^ty^;i
lesb^V '"$&&"," "d^$j^;<&j
'stjjfiight'' ^'iao^isatory?^^.jfC....}
ken!'aboutf^jdghts?■ -   'b.'.;:..;i-}[4
Haysy that gay R^j-les^i
Siansf. aijd-btse^aals       "t^^mH^'i
or "mystindais";ia somewt^^.--/ ? •""
Skills 2000
Okanagan Univetsity College
Faculty of Adult and
Continuing Education
KLO Campus
1000 KLO Road
What are you doing this summer?
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the ubyssey's literary supplement
epic: under 3,000 worJ[li§|
snap: under 1,000 words
essay: under 3,000 w|§||§§
snap:  under 1,000 words
postcard:unde  20 lines
Cash prizes, and gift certificates
for all winning entries.!!
Plus publication in      1
rant /
On stands Friday March 26th
entry: \ -•..<.,*
entries must be submitted no later than 5 pITI, MdrcH^ 5th tO SUB ROOITI
2415. All submissions must be on 8.5" x 11 "paper with th^wi.S title in the upper
right-hand corner. Submissions rnay not contain the name of the writer as it will be s
separately recorded by Ubyssey Publications Society upon delivery of work.
eligibility:        \      ;y
free entry. Contestants must be UBC^JKltij^Kvho did not opt out of their
ubyssey fee. Students who have made more than one editorial contribution to
ihe ubyssey since September 1998 are not eligible to enter
Inal judges
; to be announced


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