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UBC Publications

The Ubyssey Nov 3, 1995

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Important Ad
Notice
For the November 10th
issueonly , classified
advertising will close
on Tuesday at 4pm.
Ubyssey
Classifieds
Deadline on Classifieds
is two days before publication at 4pm.
Payment in advance on
classified ads; we accept
Visa and Mastercard.
822-1654
First
Nations
students
denied
education
by Sarah Galashan
Impending tuition increases
could mean fewer native people
will receive a post-secondary education.
Inadequate funding of education for 'status' Indians has been
an increasing problem and will
likely get worse if steps are not
taken by the federal government.
In light of the situation, the education sub-committee of the
standing committee of Indian
National Affairs is conducting a
review ofthe Aboriginal financial
assistance program.
"The Federal Government is
responsible for providing post-
secondary education to Native
peoples," said Jean Karlinsky, a
researcher for the CFS (Canadian
Federation of Students). "It is an
Aboriginal right as stated in the
Indian Act."
For many years, government
funding has not covered the total
cost of education for native students. "Living allowances have
not been increased for a number
of years," Karlinsky said. "Presently many aboriginal students
apply for BC student loans like
other students because provincial
tuition is going up."
Bill White, liaison officer for
the Native Students Union at the
University of Victoria, feels the
Indian education situation mirrors 1960 when 90 percent of
aboriginal students dropped out
between kindergarten and grade
12. "If larger numbers of students
were making it through the system then the" government would
be fulfilling its responsibility."
A report with the results of the
review was expected in late October and Karlinsky had hoped
it might have implications for
funding in the coming year. However, the report has been
backlogged and, according to
Karlinsky, "It sounds like the government has already made a decision that they won't be increasing funding this year."
'TWEEN CLASSES
Friday, November 3
NURSING DANCE '95
SUB Ballroom 8-10pm. $7, no
minors. An annual nursing
week event. Tickets available at
the NUS office T-183 2211
Westbrook Mall
T-CUP FOOTBALL
Mclnnes Field. 12:30-1:30pm.
By donation to Children's
Hospital. Nursing vs. Rehab
Science in a full contact
football game.
NURSING BEER GARDEN
SUB Partyroom. 2-6pm. No
charge, no minors.
Monday, November 6
COLOUR CONNECTED
AGAINST RACISM
An information forum & video
presentation on the black
political prisoner Mumia Abu-
Jamal. 12-2pm BUCH D318
Tuesdays
OVEREATERS ANONYMOUS
Weekly meeting for compulsive
overeaters, anorexics &
bulimics. 12:30pm at Lutheran
Campus Centre
Living on the outskirts of tradition
by Charlie Cho
When Lucien Bouchard spoke
of Quebec francophones as a
"white race" and Jacques Parizeau
blamed the referendum result on
"money and the ethnic vote," everyone had a reason to be afraid.
Though these statements may
have been taken out of context by
the federalist media, the reaction
hasn't been harsh enough.
How can anyone support politicians who hold high the flame
of sovereignty in one hand and
then stoke the furnaces of racism
with the other? I understand the
importance of language, but I
can't tolerate a racist.
Although I was born and raised
on the ethnically bland North
Shore, ten years of my Saturdays
were spent learning Cantonese at
the Chinese Cultural Centre.
As I became exposed to Chinese history and literature, I was
gripped by the beauty of classical Chinese poetry. The succinct
word play, rich with idioms
rooted in history, still strikes me
with profound insight and awe.
I learned enough Cantonese
phrases to be courteous around
my larger Chinese family and
became familiar with Chinese
cuisine and games like Chinese
Chess.
When my relatives would visit
my family, I found it difficult to
relate to them. They were only
familiar with the most popular
aspects of North American culture and didn't speak English
with the same fluency I had.
Culturally, I come across as a
"white" person. The traditional
and struggling Chinatown reminds me of my youth-specifi-
cally, working in my family's grocery store. While I spent my days
either working on homework, in
the store or enjoying life with my
family, the humility I learned
working makes the proud affluence of Hong Kong pop culture
alien to me.
Musically, I'm annoyed by celebrities who sing American pop
songs with new Cantonese lyrics.
While Chinese opera and mythology are dynamic and fascinating, I sometimes tire of the Eastern martial arts as quickly as I do
Western sword and sorcery.
Always, it's the language barrier that is significant. Cantonese
is a very difficult language for me
to learn, considering I had very
little opportunity to practice it. I
stopped studying Cantonese in
high school and immersed myself
in English literature.
As I struggled to articulate my
thoughts, English flowed easily
onto the page, but a few thoughts
still wound tight around the Chi-
LPI and TOEFL:
Incoming UBC students forced to
make the grade
by Wah Kee Ting
The Language Proficiency Index (LPI) is a placement exam
most colleges and university admissions offices use to determine
which students have the ability to
handle first year English courses.
The first part of the LPI tests
language use and sentence structure. The second part tests reading composition, the third tests
paragraph development and the
fourth tests composition skills.
The LPI is graded on a standard
level from 1 to 6, with level six is
the highest grade possible.
Every institution has a different of policy as to what degree
they take the LPI results into consideration. Generally, the passing
grade is a level 4. Students at
UBC need a level 5 or 6 to pass.
The grading process is administrated by the LPI center. The
LPI is usually marked by a con
sistent group of fifteen markers
and each paper is usually marked
by two of them. If the two markers have a dispute over the grades
they gave, the paper is handed
over to all fifteen markers and re-
graded until a majority of the
markers have a consensus grade
on the paper. Usually the majority ofthe people who take the LPI
fall into the level of three, four and
five.
The LPI centre has a service
for candidates who want to review
their examination papers. It is a
review process where individual
candidates sit down with one of
the markers and review the paper for a fee. If not, the candidate
can have a written review mailed
to them, but this usually is a service only for candidates who live
outside ofthe Greater Vancouver
or B.C.
All UBC students have to take
the LPI examination except for
students who achieved an "A" in
either English 12 or Literature 12,
have passed the ECT (English
Composition Test) or have taken
credits in first year English
courses. Approximately twenty
thousand people apply to take the
LPI annually.
The TOEFL (Test of English
as a Foreign Language) is an
exam designed to evaluate people's proficiency in English.
It consists of three sections to
determine the ability and skills in
understanding North American
English, concentrating on listening and reading comprehension,
as well as structure and written
expression.
Most colleges and universities
require students whose first language is not English to write the
TOEFL. In order to gain admission to UBC, students have to
pass the TOEFL with a score of
570 for general programs and 580
for Arts.
nese ideas of the recesses of my
mind.
In elementary school, I used to
blurt out Cantonese phrases to
my English speaking friends. I
was encouraged to speak Cantonese at home, but I had slowly
begun to restrict my language at
school.
Occasionally my classmates
would ask me to say a few words
in Cantonese, even though I
could tell they were not really
interested in learning the language. Soon, I began to refuse to
"say something in Chinese."
I didn't like learning Cantonese much. I constantly found
myself approximating Chinese
words with English phonetics
with a Chinese accent (which I
am quite proud to have developed).
My distant relatives speak Chinese with variable fluency. Some
of those who have moved to Canadian cities like Toronto don't
teach their children Chinese. I
think that's a real shame.
Printing and digital technology
is partially responsible for the
decline of the Chinese language.
Written Chinese is intricately detailed. Each word in Chinese is
represented by a single character
made up of many strokes. With
the advent of printing presses, the
details were difficult to preserve,
so the characters were simplified.
Computers are also forcing the
simplification of text to adapt it
to word processing.
In my opinion, the beauty of
Chinese calligraphy visually surpasses that of English. While
some traditional Chinese sayings
beat you over the head with high
moralism, there is much wisdom
contained in Chinese books, preserved from centuries ago.
Language is a marvelous thing.
The diversity, beauty and complexity of verbal and written communication should thrive like any
other part of culture.
After all, it's the way we communicate with each other. It's the
way you try to understand me
and I try to understand you.
The Ubyssey
Friday, November 3,1995 Race and representation
Race and Representation: The Confusion
What exacdy was going through our heads when this
issue was proposed? In the ideal world, or course, we
wouldn't really have to even think about putting out a
special issue called "Race and Representation". In a
Utopian world, racial unity and the understanding and
appreciation of cultural differences would exist. Somehow
we would all be able to walk down the street without
noticing any differnces amongst us. We could all live in
this "tossed salad" of different cultures and beliefs. But in
a world where so much hate against "different" cultures
is prevalent in forms such as hate literature, racist jokes,
and employment practices, this issue is definitely needed.
Being a person of Chinese descent, I am supposed to
be able to understand these issues of racial inequality. I
guess in a way, I do identify with the sentiments of other
people who are discriminated against, but in another way,
I feel alienated from them. I speak English without an
accent; in fact, I once had a friend's mom exclaim when
she met me, "But you don't sound Chinese!" What exactly
does Chinese sound like? This summer when I was flying
home from Europe, I boarded the plane and expected to
greeted with the usual, "Welcome to British Airways!"
Instead, the flight attendant bowed to me and said,
"Konichiwa." I was appalled at the fact that she assumed
I was Japanese just because I am Asian looking. I calmly
the
ubyssey
November 3,1995
volume 77 Issue 17
*Irte Ubyssey is a founding member of Canadian University Press.
Trie Ubyssey Is published Tuesdays and Fridays by The Ubyssey
Publications Sodety at the University of British Columbia. Editorial
opintons expressed are ttrose of the newspaper arrffrOtnecessari
of the university administration or the Alma Mater Society.
. Editorial Office: Room 241K, Student Union Building,
6138 SUB Blvd., UBC V6T1Z1
tel: (604) 822-2301   fax:(604)822-9279
Business Office: Room 245, Student Union Building
advertising: (604) 822-1654   business office: (604) 822-6681
Business Manager: Fernie Pereira
Advertising Manager: James Rowan
Account Executive: Deserie Harrison
Canada Post Publications Sales Agreement Number 0732141
It was a bright, sunny day in the Tootsie Land. Sarah
O'Donnell, a red raspberry lollipop, was singing her
"Charlie Cho" song to Andy Bonfield, the plum lollipop.
Peter T. Chattaway, the sucker patrol was looking for the
ju jube fugitives: Betina Teodoro, Jason Watt, Ben Koh
and Wah Kee Ting who forgot his own name. They stopped
and questioned the glazed donut, Adam Arbus, but to no
avail Suddenly, Chris Chiarenza, the gingerbread man,
Tan past them and knocked them down. Federico
Barahona, a snicker bar, held the hand of Doug Quan,
one of the smarties, and ran towards the Joe Clark
Chocolate Park. There they saw Christine Price, the cotton
candy, spiraJJng herself with Scott Hayward strawberry
flavour. Christopher Brayshaw, the owner of the Tootsie
Land, and himself a sugar cane, decided to end all this
confusion by turning up the heat Eventually, Jenn Kuo, a
big bright rainbow lollipop, who solid gold danced her
way over f6 the Siobhan Roantree candy bar, while
everything and everybody melted and form a. large river
of sugar lava.
Special Issue Coordinator: Jenn Kuo
responded to her, " Actually, I am Canadian!" The flight
attendant had such a look of horror on her face that I just
had to laugh at her stupidity. The interesting thing about
the whole incident is the fact that I didn't tell her I was
Taiwanese, not Japanese.
In putting together this issue, we had to question the
relation between face and cultural compostion. We also
wondered about ethnicity, and racism as an issue of class.
What exactly is being Canadian to me? Well, it means
being stuck between two groups, neither of which fully
accept me. The Chinese community often looks down
upon me because I don't speak or understand the
language. Sometimes I have pangs of guilt that I didn't
learn my language when I was younger. Not that it is too
late for me to learn now, I just haven't yet reached that
point where the desire to learn my "native" language is
overwhelming. Even so, whenever I go to Chinatown or
anywhere in Richmond for the matter, I feel like I'm a
social outcast. Many of the Chinese people look at me
and whisper amongst themselves when I pass by them
with my Caucasian friends. Being the first born of the
second generation in my family, I also feel alienated from
my family. I follow "Westernized" ways, some of which
even my immediate family do not understand. But then
there is the other side of the whole issue of which ethnic
group I belong to. The predominantly white, English
middle-class WASPs in my North Van neighbourhood
did not exactly include me into their group either. We
were the only Chinese family on the block, and I'm sure
that people didn't look past my "ethnicity" when they
saw me walking down the street. I know that now, even
in the educated university community, I can never really
be seen as an equal, as my Chineseness -whatever that
meaus- sets me apart from everyone else. On campus,
I'm sure I get lumped into the category of "one of the
billion Chinese" at UBC, but I really don't feel like one
of "them". I am not seen as a colleague; instead I am
probably seen as a potential threat by those who are
competing for the top place as genius because I am
Chinese. After all, I mustbe one of those "overeager-study
hard-very smart" students.
Putting together this issue was no easy task either. How
can we promote, in a mere eight pages, total cultural
understanding? We tried to get a wide source of
perspectives for this issue, from a broad spectrum of
cultures and experiences, but it's difficult to draw from a
student body of about 30 000 people. Due to the
misunderstanding and misrepresentation that is out there,
an issue like this one will always be needed.
Culture: just a creation of the mind
by Ben Koh
Is culture related to race?
The answer is no.
Unfortunately, the word culture
(i.e. ethnicity) is often used interchangeably with "race."
Confused? It's simple, really
because race is nothing more than
physical traits that characterize a
group of people. Culture is the beliefs,
values, behaviour, language and
material objects shared by a
particular people.
Simple textbook definition.
Stereotypes based on race are
always wrong because they are
"beliefs." Beliefs are ALWAYS
WRONG because they are never
factual. Is it always true Asians are
good at Math, African-Americans
are basketball players or that White
people are devout Catholics? Of
course it isn't! Yet it does seem
"natural" to further distinguish a
race with their culture. The reason
for this is that each of us
ethnocentric to some degree and
feels that it is a good shortcut to
equate certain races with their
cultural characteristics, based on
images we've seen in our lives.
Unfortunately when we do this, we
forget that each person is different
in their own way.
Once we've interacted with
someone we will find some beliefs are
right and that most of them are very
wrong.
An example-you see a Chinese
man and you ask him for the time. He
replies in perfect "Californian"
English, "Well dude! Y'see, it's like
12:01 right now."
You say thanks. He answers, "No
problem, dude!"
It would seem that this Chinese
person is some sort of anomality.
How could this Chinese person
speak in English (and a stylistic one
at that)? Let's assume that his
grandparents came from China and
immigrated to California. They
would've brought many Chinese
customs and beliefs with them. They
would wish for their children to take
care of them in the future, for
example. They believe that family
unity, hard work and the continuous
saving of money would make them
prosperous.
Assume then that they had children
who grew up holding these values.
However, they were also exposed to
the "American Dream" and, as they
grew older, started to adhere more
European values.
Finally, we come to our
Californian Chinese man. He
himself has been exposed to
American education and media. He
may be an environmentalist. He has
basically forgotten how to speak
Chinese although he may know a
few familiar phrases.
All this implies that culture is
subject to change depending on time
and place. Race is a constant.
Although the man is still Chinese,
he certainly doesn't act very
"Chinese."
Ultimately race and culture have
nothing to do with each other.
History and culture are learnt,
created and recreated throughout
time and space. Since culture is
learnt, a person of one race can
accomodate behaviours and values
from the culture of another race or
society. At the same time that person
can disregard some of those values
and keep his old ones (based on
reasons of self and identity).
Ultimately, culture is a creation
of the mind that changes with
shifting perceptions of time and
environment.
Friday, November 3,1995
The Ubyssey Race and Representation
Chinese language breaks into mainstream media
by Douglas Quan
Newspapers, radio and television networks across the Lower
Mainland are scrambling to tap
into the growing Chinese market. Among them is Maclean's
magazine which came out with
its first Chinese language edition
last month.
Chris Wood, Maclean's
Vancouver bureau chief, said
"there was a large, significant
and growing portion of the Canadian demographic, particularly in Vancouver and Toronto,
that [the magazine] wasn't connecting with.
"Many of the other cultural
groups...are
more comfort
able with ex
isting  main
stream   [En
gli sh -1 an
guage]    me
dia,"    Wood
said, "but in
the   case   of
many Chinese
immigrants, that is not so."
Cheung, the editor-in-chief of
Perspectives, UBC's first bilingual
(English-Chinese) student newspaper, says Maclean's Chinese
edition will allow Chinese
people who may "have a fear of
English" and wouldn't normally
read mainstream English-language media, to be informed
about current Canadian events.
According to Wood, the response to Maclean's Chinese edition is generally positive despite
an incident on CKNW's radio
open-line segment when "several
people called saying that
[Maclean's ] was contributing to
division in the country by encouraging people not to assimi
late by making it easier for
people to live in Chinese and not
bother to learn English or
French."
Cheung received similar comments about Perspectives. He says
"What we are making it easier to do... is to
understand how the country works. If people
learn how to understand the country better,
they're bound to feel more involved in it."
Chris Wood,
Maclean's Vancouver bureau chief
there is a belief on campus if
"you're a UBC student, you
should be involved in English
society, you should be speaking
English...a bilingual newspaper
just encourages [students] to
write and speak in Chinese and
group together."
UBC Sociologist Tissa
Fernando says he does not understand why there is a problem
with people reading in the lan
guage they are comfortable with.
"At the least, [multi-
culturalism] should imply [maintaining your] heritage language,"
he said.
Fernando believes publications
such as Maclean's
and Perspectives
are a sign that
minorities in
Canada are
gaining "a sense
of confi-dence...
They're not parading as victims."
Wood says,
with or without the Chinese edition, if you want to live a completely Chinese lifestyle, you can
do it now. "We're not making it
conspicuously easier.
"What we are making it easier
to do, if you haven't learned English or French yet, is to understand how the country works. If
people learn how to understand
the country better, they're bound
to feel more involved in it."
Thoughts from a
Fighting racism in gay community
by Jason Watt
Our posters state that "Everyone is Welcome!"
Our Community has overcome obstacles and done amazing things with its compassion,
love and energy, but we still have
a long way to go in coming to
terms with its diversity.
In many ways, our lesbian, gay
and bisexual communities still reflect the dynamics of racism, sexism, classism and power so present
in the larger society. Within it, and
within our media, ideas and images of white able-bodied middle-
class men dominate.
Our organizations and events
do welcome, but often exclude
and alienate lesbians and visible
minority lesbigays in subtle yet
profound ways.
More often than not, our reliance on rigid lesbian, gay and
bisexual theories, identity and
coming-out models that originate
from privileged "white-
malestream" authors is very evi-
" dent in our services and groups
and in the ways we interact and
help one another.
These theories and models often make broad assumptions and
sweeping generalizations in their
non-inclusive sampling and
methodological applications-not
reflecting reality-based and multiple ways of being in this world.
As an oppressed population,
the lesbian, gay and bisexual
Oiy^to
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community has learned its lesson
well. In many ways, they have
become experts in oppression
and are applying it with extreme
ease.
We need to start questioning
and challenging ideas that are
taken for granted in our community. We need to look at our
hierarchical structures, our divisions, our communication
styles, privileges and power
positions. However, most of all
we need to listen and honor the
many ways of being human in
our community, and in our
world.
In addition, we need to relinquish some of our power and
privilege in order to truly respect
all our sisters and brothers in
much more of an inclusive and
egalitarian fashion. Perhaps then
we will be able to stop alienating
our own and end the cycle of
oppression.
SELF SERVE
Canon
COLOUR LASER
85<
a copy (8.5" x 11")
University Village .
2nd Floor 2174 W Parkway
UBC, Vancouver, B.C.
224-6225
fx: 224-4492
by Federico Barahona
My sister wrote an essay for
one of her English classes the
other day. Her topic was,
"Canada, and how it makes me
feel."
In Canada, she wrote, she
feels safe. At least safer than how
she would feel if she were living
in Mexico or in Chile-no soldiers knocking on her door at
night to snatch her into oblivion.
No sweaty hands every time she
sees a cop driving by in a cruiser.
My father liked the essay and,
as an added bonus, he thought my
sister's prof would really like it.
"White people love to hear
that kind of thing," he said to me,
once we were alone.
I don't like to hear that kind
of thing, even if to some extent
it happens to be true. It's different for me.
Ask me where I'm from and
I'll tell you that I was born in
Chile, but I was raised in
Mexico. I have been living in
Canada for the last ten years.
Ask me if I consider myself
Canadian, and I'll tell you that
no, I don't; I'm simply a Latin
American man, trapped in this
white open space that we call
Canada.
Ask me if I feel safe in
Canada, and I'll tell you that
yeah, sometimes I do. And that
sort of scares me.
Sometimes I feel like the biggest sellout that ever lived.
Sometimes, a lot lately, I wish I
were white. Things would be
easier that way.
Self-hatred, I guess, but it goes
unquestioned because it sort of
makes sense. Sometimes I wish
I could go to a race store and buy
the necessary items for the transformation. Two nice blue eyes;
a pale, sort of pinky, skin; blond,
golden hair; and a nice decent
accent.
Then I could go for that job
interview and never have to
wonder, or phone that editor
who said he liked my writing last
summer, meet him for coffee and
not have to worry about being
found out.
Yeah, things would be easier
that way, I must admit. But I
must also accept the consequences of thinking this way:
deep down I'm really a
sellout. A big sellout,
probably the biggest.
My doctor has a different
take on the race store idea
He thinks I take it too far.
"You want to be a writer,"
he says, "right?"
"Yes," I always answer.
"Then, the name has to go.
Imagine this: I'm an editor and
I like your work and some other
guy's, but there's one problem:
I only have one opening. Who
am I going to hire? Some Bara-
something guy whose name I
can't pronounce, or some other
guy with a name like Smith or
Brown or Johnson?"
I know the answer, and I
know what my doctor means.
The man, I figure, knows what
he's talking about.
Like me, he's Mexican (another Latin American male
trapped in this white open space
we call Canada, if you will). He's
also a sellout, but that doesn't
matter so much. Because he's
right.
My sister phoned me from
work last week. She was upset.
She'd overheard some co-workers talk about the negative impact that Chinese immigration is
having in Richmond-you know,
raising property values, ugly
houses, really bad drivers, Chinese signs everywhere and increasing crime rates.
"I'm not afraid to admit this,"
said one of my sister's co-work-
The Ubyssey
Friday, November 3,1995 Race and Representation
Photography and
Beyond in Japan:
Space, Time and
Memory
at the Vancouver Art
Gallery until Dec 10
by Christopher Brayshaw
Photography and Beyond fills
the entire second floor of the
Vancouver Art Gallery, the
former home of the summer
Warhol show. But whereas
Warhol's familiar images lent
themselves to speedy viewing,
the twelve photographers in
Space, Time and Memory command more focused attention.
Part of the thrill here comes
from the imaginative sympathy demanded of the viewers,
those perceptual shifts we have
to make to evaluate works
which don't conform to Western aesthetic standards.
Which isn't to say that Western aesthetics aren't present
here: obviously they are.
Tokihiro Satoh's nuclear cooling towers and metropolitan
office blocks suggest the gas
storage tanks of Bernd and
Hilla Becher, and Thomas
Struth's empty cityscapes. And
Yasumasa Morimura has made
a career of re-making canonical
Western art-historical images,
with himself as the star.
But these borrowings from
American pop and German neue
sachlichkeit are crossed withjapa-
nese artforms, whose presence
may not be apparent to Western
viewers. In order to appreciate
Nobuo Yamanaka's pinhole
views of Tokyo and Machu
Pichu, or Hitoshi Nomura's looping views of the sun and moon,
we need to learn about indigenous Japanese artforms: the
ukiyo-e woodblock prints of the
18th and 19th centuries, painted
wooden screens depicting landscapes from the landscape's
point of view, and many more.
In the process, we uncover the
Japanese artworks' cultural origins, setting them in productive
relation to our own.
My favorites? I spent a lot of
time with Hitoshi Nomura's time-
lapse images of sun and moon and
stars. In Nomura's 'moon'score, the
id*M4s>.
changing moon's
changing position is mapped
onto sheets of
photographic
film pre-printed
with a five-line
music staff; the
resulting "music
ofthe spheres" is
played back over
a gallery speaker.
Surprise: the
moon sounds
like a Michael
Nyman score. In
Spin and Gravity:
For the Sea of
Potalaka, earth,
sea and sky all
change places.
Viewing this
piece feels a lot
like floating far
from land, contemplating the night sky.
Tokihiro Satoh's Breath-graphs
are astonishing photographs.
Here, spirit-lights flicker through
static landscapes, recalling the
holy spirits of Shinto paintings,
TOKIHIRO SATOH: Sainsbury's Mayonnaise Bottles from Photo-Respiration (detail), 1995.
Left panel of triptych only.
and Hiroshima and Nagasaki's
destruction by nuclear fire.
Disappointments? Nobuyoshi
Araki's misogynistic color prints
bear uncanny resemblance to
soft-core porn, despite the show's
claims to the contrary. And
Miran Fukuda's appropiated
images are simply bad painting. But the rest of Photography
and Beyond is compelling, and
well worth seeing.
frustrated sellout — too safe for comfort
ers, "I'm racist, and proud of it."
My sister exploded. She told
them that being racist was being
ignorant and being ignorant was
really nothing to be proud of.
"I didn't know what else to
do," said my sister to me on the
phone.
I told her that sometimes it
was better not to respond,
and
to walk away-my
logic being confrontations rarely
solve anything.
"But Federico," she answered,
offended by what I'd said, "I
can't do that; if it's against the
Chinese, then it's against us,
too."
Then it dawned on me. Not
only do I want to be white at
times, but I'm also afraid of white
people.
How chicken shit.
Ask me where I'm from and I
know what you will say.
Yeah, I know, you either just
came back from Mexico, or
you're about to go, right?
You will tell me about Baja
and Club Med and how cheap
beer is (if you're a man, you'll
have to talk about cheap Mexican lovin') and getting pissed on
tequila shooters.
Or you'll ask me if there are
any good Mexican restaurants in
town; do I like Andale, or do I
prefer Burros on Burrard? And
like, how genuine is Taco Bell,
seriously?
2 How's that for gen-
t,    eralizing?
S        But, I must confess,
generalizing is a dan-
^    gerous game to play.
i> I wrote a poem
%    for   my   creative
writing class two
weeks ago.   The
poem    roughly
tells the story of a
Mexican   man
who shoots and
kills   a   racist
white. I handed
out my poem
and I waited
to have it discussed      in
class the following week.
Then I got the shivers. My
very white classmates, I kept thinking, will have me for dinner.
White people can't relate, after all, right?
I thought of a million ways to
defend my poem and, ultimately
myself, but nothing seemed good
enough.
Worst of all, I feared being
kicked out of my class for writing and distributing hate literature. I considered calling my prof
to tell him that I'd changed my
mind; that I wanted to do another poem, but my prof is white,
so I was afraid of talking to him
on the phone.
So I plunged ahead, waiting
for the class to destroy me and
stomp on my corpse. But nothing bad happened. I survived.
They had nothing but good
things to say about the poem and
my writing skills. Most seemed
touched by it, some thought it
was "gutsy." My white professor
thought it was "terrific."
So much for generalizing, eh?
Okay, here it goes. I support
(completely) affirmative action.
The race store idea is really a
nightmare I have. And my
doctor's idea, though logical and
feasible, is not something I could
do. I carry my father's last name
and my grandfather's first name;
now, what kind of a fool would I
have to be to turn my back on
that?
I believe affirmative action is,
unfortunately, the only chance
many of us have of getting
through the door. I don't want
any special treatment, but I am
treated specially, that is differ-
endy, every day of my life.
I feel that to deny affirmative
action is necessary, given the
lack of representation people of
colour have, is to deny that we
face systematic racism day after
day. It is, in fact, to deny our realities. It is to deny the fact that
many employers will feel more
comfortable hiring a Smith or
Brown rather than a Bcira-some-
thing.
A funny thing happened to me
on October 30. I found myself
cheering for Canada Me—a Latin
American man, trapped... well,
you know the rest-cheering for
Canada? But there I was, hoping
this country wouldn't fall apart,
agonizing over the Yes side's early
lead, and eventually, coming
home to hug my sister because
Canada had won. I guess we figured we had won as well.
I heard about an essay writing competition that maybe I
should enter. The topic is, "What
makes you Canadian?" I think
I'm going to enter it; I know what
the white judges will want to
hear, so I'm confident I can win.
All I want is a chance to get
through the door. The rest is up
to me.
Experience Japan
Time for GRAD School
Law School or an MBA Program?
LSAT
Nov. 11-12
GMAX     Jan. 8-11
GRE
The Renert Centre
Nov. 24-26
The Japanese government invites
university graduates to go to Japan as
Coordinators for International Relations
and Assistant (English) Language
Teachers.
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Sponsored by
the Consulate General of Japan in Vancouver
900-1177 W. Hastings St,
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Tel: 604-684-5868 Fax: 604-684-6939
Friday, November 3,1995
The Ubyssey race & representation
Immigration & Racism: A Canadian Timeline
compiled by Christine Price
1497 - Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) arrives on
Canada's East Coast. First European to land on what will
become Canadian territory. Helps open up the Grand
Banks for fishing.
1541/2 -Jacques Cartier and Sieur de Roberval establish a short lived settlement at Charlesbourg-Royal.
1605 - Samuel de Champlain establishes Port Royal in
Nova Scotia.
1608 - Champlain establishes the settlement of Quebec.
1625 -Jesuit missionaries arrive in the colonies.
A 1763 - The British formally
^ take over New France.
1830s - British begin to encourage
First Nations people to move onto
reserves.
1857 - Canadian government calls
for an end to distinctions between
First Nations people and those of
European descent, BUT to be considered equal First Nations people
had to:
1) write in English or French,
2) be free of debt, and
3) have a good moral character.
BC Indian Policy:
1850-1854 - Hudson's Bay Company governor James
Douglas signs fourteen treaties.
1850-1864 - Douglas allows BC Indians "generous" reservations as selected by each group (approx. 10 acres).
1864 -Joseph Trutch, Douglas' successor, begins to take
back much ofthe land Douglas
gave out.
1898 - BC signs its last treaty.
1858 - Chinese peoples ^
begin to arrive into BC due ^
to Cariboo Gold Rush.
1869-1870 - First Red River
Rebellion lead by Metis leader
Louis Riel creates province of
Manitoba.
1882 - Big Bear and his Cree
become the first major group
to sign a treaty north of the 49th parallel.
1885 - Louis Riel is hanged after second Rebellion.
1885-1923 - Chinese peoples pay a head
tax to enter the country.
1895 -Japanese and East Indians in BC
disenfranchised.
1902 - The existing head tax on Chi- ^
nese immigrants is raised to $100.      y
1903 - Chinese immigrants begin to pay a
head tax of $500.
Early 1900s - Asiatic Exclusion League
forms in BC.
Fall 1907 - Anti-Asian riots break out in Vancouver due to a meeting
of AEL. A mob of approximately 9000 Caucasians meet little resistance in Chinatown and move to Japantown where they meet with
resistance. No compensation has ever been paid to Japanese or Chinese.
Canada puts pressure on the Japanese government to limit emigration.
1908 - New law restricts continuous passage for Asian immigrants.
1914 - Komogata Maru, a wealthy Sikh merchant hires a boat to
challenge the 1908 law. The boat is forbidden to land, and sits in
Vancouver's harbour for 2 months while arguments are heard. Maru
is forced to go back to India.
Minor concession - BC government passes a law in 1920
allowing East Indians already in province to have their
families immigrate.
1914 - Many Germans are interned due to outbreak of
WWI.
1920s - The KKK arrives in Canada.
1923 - Chinese immigration into Canada prohibited.
1929 - Adrien Arcand and Joseph Menard found Le Goglus
("patriotic" anti-Semitic newspaper) in Quebec.
1930s - Swastika clubs form in
Toronto.
1933 - Anglo-Saxons harass
Jewish bathers and cause two
clashes on Toronto beaches
(Balmy Beach and Christie
Pits).
1934 - "Canadian Fuh- ^
rer" Adrien Arcand founds r
the National Social Christian
party.
June 1939- arrival of SS St. Louis is not allowed to land
in Canada with its Jewish refugees from Europe. (Also
known as Voyage of the Damned; Ship of Fools).
1939-1945 - Canada is second only to the USSR in
offering the least amount of help to Jewish refugees
during WWII.
- Canada interns many ^
"enemy aliens" including y
Germans, Italians and Japanese.
1941 -Japanese fishing boats
are seized in BC.
1942 -Japanese people living
on the West Coast begin to be
interned. The government "allows" the few Japanese Canadians students at UBC to finish their study year first.
1944     -    William    Lyon
MacKenzie King introduces a policy of repatriation for
Japanese "nationals."
1949 -Japanese Canadians are finally allowed to return
to West Coast.
1960 - Prime Minister John Diefenbaker introduces the
Bill of Rights. Extends right ^
to vote in federal elections v
to First Nation Peoples.
1967 - Canadian immigration
introduces the "points system."
It attempts to restrict those who
may not readily adapt to Canadian society.
1960s - Immigration patterns
shift from Europeans to "Third
World" immigration.
1971 - Federal Government
adopts a policy of
"multiculturalism."
1978 - Immigration Act changes immigration practices
and aims to reunite families, promote national goals
and humanitarian concerns for refugees. A concerted
effort is made not to be dis- ^
criminatory. y
1981 - Federal Government announces national program to
combat racism. Establishes a
Race Relations Unit within the
Multiculturalism Doctorate.
1982 - Canada Constitution repatriated and includes the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
1984 - Special Committee on the
Participation of Visible Minorities in Canadian Society publishes a report.
1985 -James Keegstra, an Albertan high school social
studies teacher, goes to trial for promoting anti-semitism.
Keegstra is found guilty and launches an appeal
-The Alberta Court of Appeal overturns the original decision on basis of Freedom of Speech. The Crown appeals to Supreme Court of Canada which upholds the
original decision. Yet another appeal has been launched.
1988 - Canadian govern- ^
ment issues an apology and y
provides financial redress to
Japanese Canadians who lost
property during their internment
in WWII.
1992 - BC Treaty Organization
forms.
1993 - Yukon's 14 First Nations
sign Umbrella Final Agreement.
o»c fium soetery
Friday to Sunday - SUB Auditorium
7:00 The Net
9:30 Apollo 13
UBC Film Society
Check for our flyers
in SUB 247.
film
$3
For 24-Hour Movie Listings call 822-3697
Immigration policy on trial
by J. Clark   -
Canada's controversial new immigration
policy, which includes a $975 right of landing fee, was put on trial last Saturday by
the Network for Immigrants' and Refugees'
Rights (NIRR).
After listening to the testimony of several immigrant families, National Action
Committee on the Status of Women President Sunera Thobani said, "Before I came
here I believed the government to be guilty.
Now I think they are very, very, absolutely
guilty."
The right of landing fee is imposed on
everyone over the age of nineteen coming
to live in Canada. It is levied in addition to
the $500 processing fee already in place.
Federal Finance Minister Paul Martin
slipped the landing tax in last year's budget The fee came into effect on February
.28,1995.
The NIRR insists the "head tax is regressive in nature and creates exclusionary barriers.''
Phil Rankin, an immigration lawyer and
a member 6f the Vancouver Refugee Council says "the corner stone of Canadian immigration policy was to bring families to
gether. The landing tax goes against this."
The NIRR estimates it would cost $3,150
for a family of four to immigrate to Canada.
While this amounts to an average two
months income in a country such as England,
it could take as long as eight years for the
average Indian to earn this amount of
money.
Louis Reimer, a public affairs officer for
Citizenship and Immigration Canada, says
she doesn't understand why the fee is being
called discriminatory. "It is an across the
board fee." She also points out that a loan
program is in place.
The NIRR claims that fifty percent of refugee applicants to the loan program have
been turned down.
In one of their educational leaflets, the
NIRR said "immigrants and refugees already pay more taxes than they receive in
public services including settlement services,
this new head tax means that new immigrants and refugees actually pay twice for
these services."
For this reason Rankin says, "it violates
section fifteen ofthe Charter of Rights and
Freedoms, allowing equality for public services."
The Ubyssey
Friday, November 3,1995 f eatu re
Racism throws cyberspace into anarchy
by Scott Hayward
"We must have White schools,
White residential neighbourhoods
and recreation areas, White workplaces, White farms and countryside.
We must have no non-Whites in our
living space and we must have open
space around us for expansion."
So reads the World Wide Web
(WWW) site for the National Alliance, one of several racist organizations including the Canadian
"Heritage Front," which is successfully using the internet to spread
their message of hate. Anyone with
a Web browser and the most basic
computer knowledge can access
this kind of material.
Using Netscape, a popular
Web browsing program with a
"point and click" graphical interface that allows users to "surf the
net" with ease, the National Alliance Web page can be found in
fifteen seconds with a Netscape
name search and two clicks ofthe
mouse button.
Authorities are powerless to
stop it.
Technical progress is developing faster than the legal and
ethical systems that regulate
it. And the net does not respect national boundaries or
community standards.
Moreover, the faceless
nature of the net brings
out the worst in people—
they can state their opinion anonymously and
only have to answer to
Besides, users could still access
or store the material elsewhere.
"I could telnet over to the United
States and still access the same
information, so I'm not sure if it's
worth it," said Purewel. "You
could probably [find racist material in two mouse clicks]
still
This incident highlights the
difficulties authorities face when
they try to enforce local community standards or laws when the
violators are outside their jurisdiction.
The legal community is just beginning to deal with the questions
that arise from information technology, including the degree to
which a service provider
has responsibil-
ity
the screen in front of    °*G
them.
*N,Zl
eo
Here at UBC, the administration does not ac
tively monitor students'
accounts, and has no plans to do
so in the future. "There could be
some students who have [racist
material] out there now," said
Satnam Purewal, a security analyst
for University Computing Services
(UCS). "We won't know about it.
"The only time we act on any
of these things is if we get a complaint or if we notice suspicious
activity."
Even if the university chose to
monitor people's accounts for
racist content, there are limits on
what it would be able to do.
"We could watch words that
are going by, and look for certain words," said Purewal.
This might help reduce racism
on Canadian web sites, but there
are encryption programs readily
available that render such
searches useless.
ScOTT
th,
3rChyisP*r>
hetif°«y>eof
complaints,
and when it finds people
violating its policies, the offender's
account is shut off. After that, "it's
up to them to come in and talk
to us. We review the appropriate
use policy and get some sort of
resolution," said Purewal.
The university has a policy on
the appropriate use of information
technology which users must follow
to access UBC accounts.
H**ty,
c
|omplaints arose a couple
of years ago when racist
material appeared on
UBC news groups from an account at the University of Chicago.
"What could we as the university do about it?" asked Tony
Fogarassy, legal advisor to the
university. "All we can do about
it is relay our concerns to the
University of Chicago system
administrator."
for
the
content
o      n
their
system.
Are
they     a
publisher,
like a news-
paper
which   has
editorial
control   and
therefore  responsible for the
content, or are
they a medium
like a telephone
company, which
owns the line but is
not responsible for
what people discuss
in their telephone
conversations?
Peter Danielson, a UBC philosophy professor who works for
the Centre for Applied Ethics
said, "until we've got a better
handle on how to classify different kinds of activities in this domain, we're going to have these
kinds of questions.
"In the literal sense, you've got
a problem of unclear responsibility. It's not even who is responsible, there's the technical question ... which is 'how could you
stop that?' But there's also the
ethical question or political question, 'Do we want someone to be
responsible for that?'"
r»er.
<4fl0
p*or0
I
n the United States, court
precedents have shown re
sponsibility may be determined by the degree to which a
"Appropriate Use of Information Technology" excerpts:
and by preserving the privacy
The computing and communication facilities and services
provided by Computing and
Communications are primarily
inteded for teaching, research,
and administrative purposes.
Their use is governed by all applicable University policies, including the Human Rights,
Sexual Harassment, Patents and
Licensing and Student Discipline
policies, as well as by all appli
cable Canadian federal, provincial
and local laws and statues, including the Criminal Code of Canada,
the B.C. Civil Rights Protection Act
and by the B.C. Human Rights Act
Responsible use of computing
and communications facilities
and services requires that you:
♦ Respect the rights of others
by complying with all University
policies regarding sexual, racial
and other forms of harassment,
of personal data to which you
have access.
♦ Respect and adhere to any
local, provincial or federal law
which may govern use of these
coputing and communication facilities in Canada. These include,
but are not limited to, the Criminal code of Canada, the B.C.
Civil Rights Protection Act and
the B.C. Human Rights Act
service provider monitors the
content of their system.
"If you have a hands off system
you are okay, if you've tried to
screen messages you are liable,"
said Fogarassy. "The messages the
courts have given [service providers] is keep your hands off," but as
he points out, decisions to date
have not gone to the higher courts
in the legal system.
While many states are writing
legislation to regulate the net,
Fogarassy believes Canada's approach of letting the courts apply
and adapt existing case law is better. "Most lawyers will tell you to
look at the court cases," he said.
However, "we've got very little to
hang our hat on here in Canada,"
in terms of legal precedent.
The major statutes applicable
to the internet at UBC are the
Canadian Criminal Code, the
BC Human Rights Act and the
BC Civil Rights Act.
According to the Criminal
Code, "no person can publish
something that might expose
some one to hatred," said
Fogarassy.
There is a Canadian precedent
in the case of Alberta teacher Jim
Keegstra, that determined "the
Criminal Code provisions were
not an unreasonable limitation
on free speech in the Charter of
Rights," he said.
Danielson believes that regulation of the net's content is an
ethical question. "How do you
take responsibility and still have
openness?"
There are some people in his
field who believe that "it's [the
net's] anarchy that makes it the
most democratic thing that has
come along in a long time," he
said. "Democracy's not always
pleasant. There's a strong democratic component to a media that
allows things to be made public
that otherwise would be underground."
Kay Stockholder is a professor
emerita in the English department
and president of the BC Civil Liberties Association (BCCLA) which
argues against any regulation.
"The BCCLA has been opposed
to legislation about hate speech in
the first place and we do not think
that the legislation ought to have
been brought forth to begin with,"
she said, "not because we think
that hate speech or racism is a good
thing, but [we] don't think that it
should be made illegal in that way."
The BCCLA believes censoring people's views "can create a
climate in which people indeed
are afraid to say anything. You
don't change their views that
way," Stockholder said. "It creates a climate of repression and a
kind of fearful apathy I don't
think it eliminates hate in any
way, it may exacerbate it."
Stockholder believes individuals should respond to racism on
the net. "Speak out. Say your
piece, say it's disgusting, say anything you like about it."
"To appeal to law to try to control [the internet] is a big mistake
because the law can't be limited
to that. It's too gross an instrument to try to control that kind
of freedom of expression."
M
ost experts agree there
is no technical means
to exert control over
the net's content. "We have to remind ourselves that the technology
was designed to be almost censorship proof. You design a technology to survive nuclear war, it's going to survive attempts at censorship," said Danielson.
This lack of control is a powerful example of how technology
will affect not only our lives but
also the structure of our society
into the 21st century.
Friday, November 3,1995
The Ubyssey opinion
The Ubyssey
asked students
the following
question:
'What makes
you feel
Canadian ?"
photos by
Andy Bonfield
David Navarette
Philosophy 3
"I'm Italian. What makes
me feel Canadian is the feeling of being free, because
I've been in other countries
where they're not. I like the
fact that other people are
Canadian, they don't have
to say it but I know they're
happy to be Canadian."
Maurice Li
Arts 3
"There isn't really anything
that I can pick out that gives
me identity. There's things
that I like about being Canadian in terms of freedom
and the way of life here, but
in terms or identity and being Canadian there's nothing really special."
Racism and self discovery
by Bettina Teodoro
As I watched the results of
Monday's referendum slowly
dwindle in, I was frustrated at the
results of what I thought would
be a simple, reasonable decision.
I believed, and hoped, that the
'No' vote would clearly prevail.
Yet as the advantage teeter-tottered between 'Yes' and 'No', I
began to expect the worst.
Slumped in a chair, I muttered,
under my breath: "those French
frogs might as well just leave."
ubyssey & CiTR
J J 101.9 fM
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Bring this ad to The Ubyssey at SUB 241K
for your free double pass to the November 9
preview of Blood & Donuts at the Plaza Theatre.
You get an extra if you can name 3 films directed
by Blood & Donuts co-star David Cronenberg.
Then I stopped myself,
shocked and ashamed at what I
had just said. Out of my mouth
had flown a racist slur, and in
flew my foot.
My feelings were not of anger or hatred; what I said was
simply a reaction to an event
that was wounding my nationalistic pride. I had no intention
of sounding racist, the very
thought appalls me. Yet, had
there been a francophone
within ear-range, I would have
appeared to be the very thing
the people of Quebec were voting to leave.
Racial epithets have become a frightening component of social discourse. They
are usually made in a comic
and/or derogatory context, but
are veiled under a heavy mist
of bigotry. I am certain there
are very few among us who
have not referred at one time
or another to the 'French frog,'
the 'Chinese driver,' the 'cheap
Jew'... and without thinking
twice about it. It is this unconscious use of such inflammatory
words, and the apparent ease
with which these words infiltrate our vocabulary that is so
very scary.
Language is an awesome
phenomenon. It has the power
to influence even more than
direct action and can spread
rapidly. Our communities are
growing by leaps and bounds,
and the influx of immigrants
has made race a particularly
sensitive topic. As with every
other weighty decision that one
makes, the appropriate usage of
language must become a conscious one.
I realized the error of my ways,
immediately repented of what I
had said and vowed to always
think before I speak. If only
Monsieur Parizeau, while he was
still Quebec's Premier, had done
the same.
Menal Shah
Commerce 4
"I feel really Canadian because I've been here for 18
years. I think being Canadian is just being part of it.
Any culture and you can
still be Canadian, it's a
mosic of cultures. "
"Scary Larry" Makowy
Human Kinetics 3
"I feel very Canadian.
We've got so many good
sociological factors up in
Canada compared to other
countries."
Non-visible minorities
by Adam M. Arbus
In September 1993, I came
from Toronto to UBC, blind to
thereality of discrimination^
Toronto's large Jewish community has always kept me sheltered and provided many opportunities to practice my faith.
Having been educated in an
upper middle class high school
and being Caucasian, life could
not have been more ideal.
Three months after arriving
in Vancouver, a floor/mate in
residence recounted horror stories of Asians having to defend
themselves from racial slurs
through physical violence. All
this because they were a visible
minority-a concept completely
foreign to me.
Why hadn't I experienced
the kind of verbal abuse others had? Was it because of my
skin colour or was it always
present but never said to my
face?
These sort of questions have
struck me everyday since. For
better or for worse, not being a
visible minority has kept me
blind to the reality that racism
does exist. Education has
opened my eyes.
Lost and found in
Canada's cultural mosaic
by Chris Chiarenza
Ever since Canada became officially "multicultural" in 1971, it
has prided itself on being different from the "cultural melting
pot" south of the border.
As an Italian-Canadian, I am
one of the sparkles in this Canadian mosaic. By writing this piece,
I hope to make people aware of
the cultural differences that exist
between everyone who calls
Canada home, not just the differences between Italians and Canadians.
Sometimes I will say to a
friend, "I wish I was in Italy!"
They look at me kind of funny
and ask me, "Why? What can
you get there that you can't get
here?"
There is no easy answer to this
question. What I miss about Italy
is not one thing or one combination of things-it is something intangible that is somehow a part
of everything.
Italy is a country that has been
built by generations of Italians.
The result is a country that is run
from an Italian point of view. This
point of view determines how
they live, how they do business,
how they talk to people, how they
socialize, how they eat what their
priorities are.
This can also be seen in the
language and explains why there
are some words in Italian that
cannot be adequately translated
into English. As an Italian, I share
in this point of view. When I am
in Italy, I am in a place where
everybody shares my point of
view.
The cities are designed for
people who have the same priorities as I do. The people I talk
to understand me better and I
understand them better. As a result, I feel like I'm in a more natural environment when I am in
Italy. This is where the longing
for Italy comes from, the longing
to be home.
I feel very happy and very
lucky to be in Canada and I am
glad to be a part of the mosaic;
however, the point of view that
my Italian heritage has given me
will alwavs be a very important
part of who I am.
The Ubyssey
Friday, November 3,1995

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