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UBC Publications

The Ubyssey Oct 14, 1992

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Array theUbissey
Robinson - Superior, 1850
Robinson - Huron, 1850
Williams Treaties. 1923
Treaties of 1781-1857
Douglas Treaties, 1850-54
denotes boundary uncertain
of  £|>uffc€«*a,
St Petenbury, K.P.P.O.,
Best inte*t*s§t, your Lordship ever evinced, in the
rfonce and promoting the welfare of the Indian
of Canada, and in opening up the Territories for
- the relinquishment of the natural title of the Indians
_ ie Fertile Belt on fair and just tonus, I have the honor, by
Kkk-*-~kuk—" Twenty dollars, wo want to be put in our hand your Idn^pfiftnission, to dedicate this collection of the treaties made with
evory year, this we have heard from the others. Twenty-fire them, to your Excellency, in the belief that its publication will be timely,
dollars to each chief.'' *od that the information now supplied in a compact form, may prove of
Likut.-Oov. Mobbis—-' If I understand you aright you are »«rvfo*« to the Dominion of Canada.
The Saulteaux did not get twenty-five dollars per
treaty Areas of Canada
head.    They get live dollars every year.    We promised them
five dollars every year, and a messenger whb sent this year to
pay them that sum. I may tell you that my children at the Lake
of the Woods had big hearts to ask.    You say you have small.
I told them that if the Queen gave them all they asked I
would have to ask her to allow me to become an Indian, but I
told them I could not give them what they asked, and when
they understood that, and understood the fall breadth and width
of the Queen's goodness, they took what I offered, and I think
if you are wfFSWF■»!!™P■H!«Hll■^™^^■,,■^-^ .       —_      r
/ got my treaty money in the
mail yesterday Five dollars,
for all of what is now central
and northern Manitoba, pari
of northern Ontario and pari
of western Saskatchewanx
Five fucking dollars a year itt
return for a little l0&&Oitb&M
10% of Canada. I bought kl
today with my land *" "*
I have the honor to be
Tour Lordship's obedient servant,
Lot* I4*ut.-Cfov. of Manitoba, Ox* North-Wat Territoria.andKtt-va-tin
lisrtls *hh \
jHtltl Ifill I
itrflii Illlf
ii" "Iflf
1st       S^f   1
il mm
IlitHi Usis* *
j.iB^il gsff
t mnn lllrll
slHills Cree. This would result in
|vay Canada could enforce its 1
^^^MpjHBlr. Howard, submitting
-Hfe '^aMBC out my instructions.
1. It wQl appear from these reports that the Commissioners
assent of the scattered bands among the islands and shores of Lake Winnipeg, and had them united in a band with one Chief and his Councillors.
2. That the Indians of the Grand Rapids of the Berens River accepted
the treaty, being received as part of the band of Jacob Berens, and that
the latter band wish their reserves to be allotted them and some hay land*
3. That the Norway House Indians contemplate removal to Fisher''
River, on Lake Wirinineg.
4. That the Indians of Grand Rapids have removed, as they agreed to do
last year, from the point where they had settled on the Saskatchewan, and
which Had been set apart as the site of a town.
5. That the Indians of the Pas, Cumberland, and Moose Lake gave
their adhesion to the treaty, and, subject to the approval of the Privy
Council, have agreed upon the localities for their reserved.
6. That the bands at the Grand Rapids, the Pas, and Cumberland are in a
sufficiently advanced position to be allowed the grant for their schools.
Expansion of the Mou
rces of sustenance fj
t starvation w<
juration of
Dewdney decjj
a violationnot
and i88ilbut
ndians had septet
iwty Commissi*ps**inj
ney believed tha
re* de facto autonoi
rpetuarion and hei
lation com™*, D
lm by the hujffer ci
[the governmeijpLco:
h In the spring
lutiont would be
jthe Cypress Hills. This ad
the Cree in the Cypress?
k them from the Fort Walsl
large a concentration
vs on them would be
Commended a sizeable
of Fort Walsh aind all
)n would remove all
,ills. Dewdney hoped
thus end the
ice these steps fully aware that whalLe was doing
5f the promises made to the Cypress rolfc Indians in
that by refusing to grant reserves on
vas violating.the promises majje to t
H74 and 1^76|V)| *Wi)e writtcja-faties. Neverth
|o accede to |nk|C%tr yquestluPuld be to gran
from Canadian control, which would result in
tening of tl
Idney wanted
s and disarmarn*j
1, even if it nja-l
2 the Cree ancf JU
icd to them w\
loved north to J
[Only if the Indinns
diey to be given jj
|W aided. The	
iWalsh and the Indian Departirj|t farfV that I
ms closed. Faced with the projffifiM&f sta
to get to the Montana buf fa
'jjp south the Mounted PoUdapwou
many Cree and alf^fffiwj-niboin
Idiscovered that his jkajHuatlq-ted hi
tfter taking treaty^he^fcilgjvitK
|the Cypress ^^0ff^f^
sis. Rather than see,
it Qfcuf opportunity pre
jl^Xree to bring thj
I the treaties .«y
iniTOirtr were told tlj|rno further
remained in thedffypress Hills.
:lle, Battleford, ajH Fort Pitt were
jtions only treatyMulians were to
to stop issuing^^ons at Fort
been located neKFort Walsh
without weapo^TO^jM&port
that if tfcJfwcre t
?ricanjTiitary aut
..*> Even Big
ttole«Yth. In
I, jt-AMftad tol OR AL   HISTORY
Living and working in Old Crow
by Frank Cordua-von Specht
0| Id Crow lies 75 miles
north of the Arctic Circle in the
Yukon. It sits on the northern bank of
the Porcupine River, which coils its
way across the northern Yukon.
Here live the Vuntut
Gwitchin, people ofthe Lakes,
named so after the many lakes
that fleck the low country.
They have inhabited the region for thousands of years,
hunting the caribou, trapping
muskrats and fishing the
I'm a recent arrival in Old
Crow, population 270, and
have been immersed into a
First Nation culture that has
taught me much.
Giving and sharing is a
way oflife. It seems, said an
Onjit (white) friend of mine
here, that when you give
something here you inevitably leave with more in return. So true.
It may be bread or cranberry jam that is slid into a
bag for me to take home.
Salmon or caribou meat. Or a
passerby who sees my poor
wood-cutting style and saves
my toes from an involuntary
amputation by axe.
Two people who feed me
caribou meat, cranberries and
bannock on a daily basis, who
invite me to their fish camp
and even along to relatives in
Ft. McPherson, NWT, are Elders Mary and Ross Tizya
Mary Vittrekwa,
wasn't sure
whether to
spend her
holiday in
Vancouver or
Old Crow in the
summer of
She had
two weeks off
from her hostel
job in Ft.
McPherson, a
Tetlit Gwich'in
town in the
Northwest Territories where
she was raised with her six
brothers and five sisters by
parents George and Sarah
She opted for Old Crow to
visit herfriend, Helen Charlie.
The then 41-year old single
mother arrived one hot July
day with her two children and
her youngest sister, Elizabeth.
That visit changed her life.
John Ross Tizya proposed to
Mary, 61, sitting in her
three-room log home in Old
Crow, flashes me a big smile
and when she remembers how
he first attracted her attention.
"In those days, we didn't
have a freezer. We just used
one house as a freezer, a tin
house. Everyone in Old Crow
had meat there," she says.
One day Ross' father asked
him to get some meat and got
the freezer key from her friend,
"He was looking around for
the meat his dad wanted when
he found a calf heart. He said
to Helen: 'Give that to Mary-'
"I don't know what happened to it (the heart)," she
says. 'Helen told Ross I ate it
all by myself—I didn't." Her
laugh is infectious and we start
She gets from her chair
and pulls out a pan from the
Mary Tizya, Elder from Old Crow, Yukon Territory.
Mary Tizya & the author working In Old Crow
fridge. In it is a caribou calf
heart the size of a grapefruit.
"It's real tender, you know,"
she says ofthe delicacy.
Were you in love with him?
I ask. "Not then," she answers.
"He just asked me to get married and then he went to work
at the camp the next day."
Ross worked laying wires
for a mining company that was
exploring for minerals around
Dawson City.
next spring on
April 4, 1973
they were
married in
the Anglican
church in Ft.
after he asked
from her parents.
• W e
stayed out
all spring,
she says. Was that the honeymoon? I ask. "Honeymoon?" she
says, laughing again. "Yeah."
The next year their son
Garney was born. Garney, 19,
is one of two Old Crow high
school graduates this year.
The otherishis cousin, Robert.
Every summer Mary and
Ross move up to their fish
camp two miles east of Old
Crow at Crow Point. Late
summer is the busiest time of
the year.
Giving and sharing is a
way oflife. It seems, said
an Onjit (white) friend of
mine here, that when you
give something here you
inevitably leave with
more in return. So true.
"That's when we really
stay out and pick berries and
fish and make dry fish. After
that the caribou come in August. That's when we start
hunting and making dry meat.
All that we do in the summer."
Not to mention the long
hours of back-breaking work
picking blueberries, salmonberries and cranberries.
You always work this
hard? I ask. (Her sister
Elizabeth and I consider her a
The day I went along to
pick cranberries, my back
ached after my first ice-cream
bucket was filled. Mary just
kept on for six hours, no break.)
"Yeah. I'm used to it, you
know," she says. "I used to
haul wood with a dog team in
Ft. McPherson and set snares
for rabbits. Used to get a lot of
rabbits too."
During my visit to the
camp, Ross and Garney built
a toboggan out of birch wood
which Garney will use to travel
miles upriver to cut home wood
for the upcoming winter when
temperatures will regularly
drop below 40 degrees Celsius.
When the weather got too
cold in September, the two Elders, their health a little more
fragile nowthanintheiryouth,
moved back into Old Crow.
This is when the sewing
season begins for Mary. These
days she can often be found in
her home sitting behind her
mother's antique pedal-powered black Singer.
Slippers, mukluks, hats.
They are gorgeous, practical
and smell great.
And though she never
went to school and cannot read
and write she is an astute
businesswoman who outsells
many other sewers in town
(and knows her best bet are
the white
school teachers).
when she's not
sewing, it's a
safe bet that
she'll be out
playing o-k-o
(a type of
bingo) or
bingo, her favorite in-town
"One time I
won       $500
I was lucky, I
it out and got
playing bingo,
guess. I sent
The history of resistance must be recorded
Western Civilization, what
blighted fruits you have brought
to these continents.
Columbus and the Con-
quistadores, with their hunger
for gold ravaging whole peoples
into extinction. John Wayne and
Daniel Boone—the "Indian-
fighters" winningtheWildWest.
Missionaries, the advanced
guard of white supremacy,
scholarlydebatingwhether First
Nations Peoples had souls or
not. These are the icons and
agents of genocide celebrated in
children's storieB and school-
books under the rubric of the
Western Civilization of   the
"New World".
The history books lie. True, the
history books have been re-written
and revised—but the lies have been
upheld. They have to be. How else
could we justify the way we HMto
ourselves, and those at whose expense our lifestyles and voracious
acquisitiveness crane? History is not
just a matter ofthe winners getting
to tell their stories. History is also
used to normalize the existing social
It is hardly surprising that 500
years after the arrival of Columbus,
the "official" discoverer of the
Americas, we, the inheritor of a legendary colonizer still do not know
how many First Nations were evicted
from their homes. Or howmany were
killed by European diseases and
plagues, inadvertently and deliberately through the circulation of contaminated sheets. Or turn many Indigenous peoples of the Americas,
like those of Haiti and the Dominican Republic in the 16th century,
became extinct.
There is no definite way of
knowing now; such information is
strategically buried. Acknowledging
the actual events that lead to
Canada's present would be acknowledging that Canada was founded on
theft and murder.
But contrary to what the his
tory books would have us believe,
this land really wasn't fully colonized by the Columbus and his gang.
Over the past SOO years, alternative
histories—histories of resistance—
have been kept alive as testimony
that the Americas weredbijlt on
forced subjugation, and not submission. Stories ofthe greatMontanero
Rebellions in the Peruvian Andes,
the battles at Wounded Knee on the
American Plain, and the uprising at
Oka (to name but a few) are important to First Nations communities
across the continent. They are part
of the continuing struggle against
colonial exploitation.
But, even more important, are
the stories which document the
day-to-day struggle to get by—
the struggle to build and sustain
families and communities. It is
in these stories—the stories told
by mothers and fathers and
grandparents—that life-affirming tradition and history can be
So if you find that your professors are teaching you a version of history that excludes the
resistance ofthe First Nations of
this continent, say something
about it. Remind them that the
"conquered" peoples of the New
World are still fighting the order
which was imposed upon them.
October; :.0i   1992 . -R-E.S-l.S T-A.N G-E- ,x
Kanehsatake: Two years after the invasion
by Lynn Chalken
ago, a police assault on a Mohawk
barricade triggered a series of
events which ended with a -full-
scale armed invasion of
Kanehsatake, a Mohawk community just outside of Montreal.
The reason for the attack? To
enforce the town of Oka's right to
extend a golf course into the pines,
land the Mohawk claim as their
For trying to protect
Kanehsatake's land and residents,
39 people were arrested during the
invasion and put on trial last summer. Two years later—after the
crisis, the trials, and the acquittals—violence and harassment
continue to be directed at the
Mohawk community.
The stand-off
Soon after the July acquittal
ofthe last of those arrested during
the 1990 crisis, Kanehsatake
residents say the Surete de Quebec
(SQ) began conducting constant
surveillance patrols andharassing
Kanehsatake residents. On August
20, there was a stand-off on
Kanehsatake territory-
Mohawk and police witnesses
tell very different stories.
All that is agreed upon is that
after a Kanehsatake community
meeting on August 20, the
Mohawks (about 100 according to
the SQ) went to Ahsennenhson
Road on the border ofKanehsatake.
There, the Mohawks faced a large
group of cops in riot gear. Both
sides stayed until 2:00 am.
This is the story according
to Kanehsatake Longhouse
member Deborah Etienne:
After the acquittals, SQ patrolling, needless ticketing and
harassment of Kanehsatake
Mohawks increased dramatically.
The meeting was held to discuss
these problems.
At the time, Etienne was listening over her radio scanner to
the SQ stationed on Ahsennenhson
Road. She says they were secretly
monitoring the emergency meeting.
Once the meeting ended, the SQ
requested additional backup, "in
case they couldn't do what they
had to do."
Then someone at
Ahsennenhson road
said, "Everybody get
down here," and the line
went dead.
When the Mohawks
arrived at the scene, they
met officers in riot gear.
Etienne says some 15
patrol cars were there.
As more and more community members arrived, angered by police
presence on their land,
they blocked the road.
"I will not allow an
SQ officer to come into
my community and do
what he wants. They can
come into your house—
you have no protection.
It's a police state," says
Etienne, "Is that a routine patrol? We still don't
have any answer to
Etienne says that as
well as the 15 cars at
Ahsennenson road, some
70 to 100 cruisers patrolled the village of
Kanehsatake. The SQ
have another story. In a
press release dated August 22, the SQ claim
that Mohawks, upon leaving the
public meeting, "decided" to assemble at the border. In response,
the SQ deployed supplemental
forces to "assure the security ofthe
citizens of this region."
The statement also mentions
that once everything returned to
normal and the "demonstration"
quieted down, the SQ removed the
additional forces.
This account contradicts another report from the Mohawk side.
Susan Oke, reporting in the
Kahnawake newspaper The Eastern Door, wrote that the band
council had "called Ovide Mercredi,
head of the Assembly of First Nations, who made calls to some
Quebec officials, which resulted in
the SQ pulling back and a meeting
curity measure, and roughly two
thirds voted in favor of a watch.
But 97 per cent ofthe Kanehsatake
Homeowners' Association, largely
non-aboriginal, voted against the
proposed community watch program.
Because a new community
mation of 1763, nations were assured that they would not be ""molested or disturbed' upon "any pretense whatever' upon "any lands
whatever* that had not previously
been purchased from them by the
Also, in the Constitution Act
Graffiti celebrating 500 years of resistance has appeared all over Vancouver.
Oka chronology
1959: The Oka municipality begins building a 9-hole golf
course. The action is protestedby the people ofKanehsatake.
1975: Kanehsatake Band Council's land claim is rejected.
1990, March 5: The city of Oka approves the construction of
the golf course.
March 11: Mohawks in the Pines set up a barricade in
defence of their ancestral lands.
June 30: Oka obtains an injunction from Quebec's
superior court
July 11: 100 SQ officers in riot gear surround 300
Mohawks at the Kanehsatake barricades. Kahnawake
Mohawks block the Merrier Bridge in protest. The SQ
assaults the barricades with tear gas, grenades, and automatic weapons. The Mohawks return fire.
July 15: An effigy of a Mohawk "Warrior" is burned in
Chateauguay. A crowd of 200 gathers outside ofthe Merrier
Bridge barriers and demands for SQ to launch an assault
July 17: A Montreal Gazette editorial reports that
"grandiosely named Warriors" were holding communities
"at gunpoint to extort what they want." The Mohawks are
also called a gang of thugs.
August 20: Federal troops arrive at Oka and
Chateauguay, replacing the SQ.
September 1-3: Soldiers move on barricades and surround Mohawks in the Treatment Centre.
September 26: Mohawks leaving the Treatment Centre
are arrested.
1992, July 3: The "Treatment Centre 39* are acquitted
of all charges after five days of jury deliberation.
August 20:AperiodofincreasingSQharassmentincites
a stand-off between Mohawks and up to 100 SQ patrol cars
on Kanehsatake border, Ahsennenhson Road.
October 5: Ovide Mercredi scheduled to speak in
Kahnawake on behalf of the Charlottetown Constitutional
October 26: Provincial referendum to vote on the constitutional package and the Charlottetown accord.
Compiled from newspaper articles and Bridges &
Barricades, by the Kanienkehaka Solidarity Group.
the next day between the province
and the band."
Mercredi and Mohawk Council chief Jerry Peltier met in
Kanehsatake with Quebec Public
Security Minister Claude Ryan,
Quebec Minister of Indian Affairs
Christos Cirros, the SQ and federal government representatives.
Ryan refused to order the SQ to
stop patrolling the road/
Checkpoints or community
Mohawk people from
Kanehsatake have reported several instances of SQ harassment
in August, saying that the SQ have
run cars off the road and, on one
occasion, beat a driver.
In another incident prior to
the August 20 confrontation, two
SQ officers harassed Deborah
Etienne's son while he was working in their front yard. A police car
pulled up to their yard. Inside the
front seat, they had rifles propped
on the dashboard. One ofthe officers asked, while fingering his rifle,
if the boy "wanted one."
"We need a watch in our community," said Mohawk Band
Council member Crawford Gabriel
of Kanehsatake.
In order to address the growing problems of police harassment
and stepped up patrolling, Band
Councillors polled Kanehsatake
residents to decide between two
One option was for the community to form its own checkpoints
on roads going into Mohawk territory. The other was a "community
watch," in which community
members would escort SQ officers
on their calls, and report any incidents to the Band Council:
Kanehsatake Longhouse
member Denise David-Tolley says
that the community rejected
checkpoints because they are ineffective, inconvenient and hamper
people from going to work. David-
Tolley added, "We wouldn't need
the checkpoints if the SQ would
stay off of our territory."
Eighty per cent of 300
Kanehsatake Mohawks polled
voted against checkpoints as a se-
watch program could involve community members escorting SQ officers on their calls, the
Homeowners' Association members claim the program would
violate their rights to privacy.
Gabriel said the watch program has yet to be formulated by a
committee made of Kanehsatake
community volunteers. The watch
will be directed solely by volunteers because "the people understand what it takes for the community to function," he said.
However, David-Toiley said "traditional" Longhouse members may
be excluded from the process and
that they were not polled or consulted about checkpoints or the
community watch program.
Inherent rights and treaty
At the heart ofthe problem is
the Mohawk conviction that the
SQ have no jurisdiction in
Kanehsatake, whether or not policing is necessary.
On September 15, the
Montreal Gazette's report on the
stand-off concluded that the vote
against establishing checkpoints
reflects the Mohawks' interest in
what the Charlottetown Constitutional accord offers in terms of
"We're not accepting rights,
we have them already," said
Gabriel. "Fo**- 300 years we have
been asking for ■,"- ° same thing—
Kanehsatake is not a *°serve,
but unsurrendered land heiJ by
aboriginal title. But until 19bc
the federal government rejected
all land claims.
The legality of the Mohawk
nation's jurisdiction in
Kanehsatake is upheld by the "Two
Row Wampum Belt." As stated by
lawyer Bruce Clark in the London
Free Press, the "Two Row" expresses "in terms no less certain
than the written word the fact that
the Iroquoian peoples were in a
sovereignty-association relationship with the Crown."
According to Constitutional
law presented by the Royal Procla-
of 1982, clause 35 states that the
"existing aboriginal and treaty
rights ofthe aboriginal peoples of
Canada are hereby recognised and
The nation-to-nation relations
sought by Mohawks do not need
any morelegislationtomake them
official. All that is needed is federal and provincial recognition.
And Mohawks are skeptical about
the "recognition" in the form ofthe
Charlottetown Accord.
The Accord and the Referendum
The Mohawk Council Grand
Chiefs' of Kahnawake,
Kanehsatake and Akwesasne announced in a position paper released September 24 that the
Mohawk Nation will not participate in the referendum. "The
Mohawks are looking at this as a
Quebec referendum. We have no
ties to that provincial legislation,"
says Mohawk councillor Crawford
Gabriel. "First Nations are still in
a dilemma," the position paper,
signed by Mohawk nation Grand
Chiefs Joe Norton, Mike Mitchell
and Jerry Peltier, concedes that
the recognition of aboriginal rights
to self-goverment in the
Charlottetown Accord is a positive
But Kenneth Deer, editor of
The Eastern Door and a former
representative to the United Nations Council of Indigenous
Peoples, speaking last week at a
Regroupement de Solidarity avec
les Autochtones meeting, said the
accord doesn't deal with the right
to self-determination.
"The amendment tells of limits c four activity and doesn't treat
us as *fiual people, as in the Two
Row Wampum. The "third order of
government' implies subordination," said Deer.
"We have our own birth certificates and death certificates.
What we want is to be on our own
feet economically," said Denise
"They're telling you to vote on
a shell of a house. You don't even
know if you'll ever have a roof on
top, and you don't," she added.
October 14, 1992
A Social
Economic Union
Over the past two years, federal, provincial, territorial and Aboriginal
leaders have consulted with thousands of Canadians and concerned groups from
coast to coast. These consultations included Royal Commissions, participatory
conferences, parliamentary hearings, and hearings in the provinces and territories held by provincial and territorial legislatures.
Federal, provincial, territorial and Aboriginal
leaders have agreed unanimously on August 28,
1992 in Charlottetown on a package of constitutional proposals that recognizes the equality of
Canadians and represents all of our interests.
The agreement is now before Canadians.
The agreement proposes that the new
Constitution would contain a statement of key economic and social objectives
shared by all of the governments in the federation. The objectives include
comprehensive, universal, portable, accessible and publicly administered health
care, adequate social services and benefits, high quality primary and secondary
education and reasonable access to post-secondary education, collective bargaining rights and a commitment to protecting
the environment. The economic policy objectives to be entrenched would be'aimed at
strengthening the Canadian economic union;
the free movement of persons, goods, services,
and capital; ensuring full employment and a
reasonable standard of living for all Canadians;
ensuring sustainable and equitable development.
Exclusive provincial jurisdiction would be recognized in the areas of
forestry, mining, tourism, housing, recreation, municipal affairs, cultural matters
within the province, and labour market development and training. In addition,
to ensure the two levels of government work in
harmony, the government of Canada commits to
negotiating agreements with the provinces in areas
such as immigration, regional development and
telecommunications. Federal-provincial agreements on any subject could be protected by the
Constitution from unilateral change.
The new Canadian Constitution would
recognize the distinct nature of Quebec, based on its French language, unique
culture and civil law tradition.
Overlap and
In the reformed Parliament, the Senate would reflect the equality of the
provinces while the House of Commons would be based more on the principle of
representation by population. As well, various
provinces would be assured a minimum amount
of seats in the House of Commons.
The proposed Senate would be made
up of six elected senators from each province
and one from each territory. Additional seats
would provide representation for Aboriginal
peoples. The reformed Senate's powers should
significantly increase the role of the elected Senators in the policy process.
The proposals recognize that Aboriginal peoples have an inherent
right to self-government and that the Constitution should enable them to
develop self-government arrangements and to take their place in the Canadian
federation. The proposals recognize Aboriginal governments as one of the
three constitutionally recognized orders of government in Canada. In addition,
the proposals provide for a negotiation process between Aboriginal leaders and
provincial and federal governments to put this right into effect. The recognition
of the inherent right would not create any new
rights to land, nor dilute existing treaty rights.
Now that Canada's federal, provincial,
territorial and Aboriginal leaders have reached
a consensus, it is the right of all Canadians to
understand the new proposals. Call the toll-free
number below to receive an easy-to-read
booklet on the new constitutional agreement
or a complete text.
It's your right to know what the constitutional proposals say, before
voting on October 26.
Deaf or hearing impaired:
1-800-465-7735 (tty/tdd)
October 14, 1992 3F ;ft;«Er ^^M%M^M^^?^(?^^i
Native Women's Association rejects Charlottetown accord
by Martin Chester and Yukie
The constitutional referendum
should be stopped because it is
based on an illegal document, according to a national First Nations
women's group.
The Native Women's Association of Canada has asked the supreme court of Canada to grant an
injunction to stop the referendum
because the association was illegally excluded from the negotiations leading to the accord.
On August 10, the federal
court of appeal ruled that NWAC
was a legitimate voice of First
Nations women and refusing to let
the association take part in the
negotiations was an infringement
ofthe association's and the Native
Women of Canada's political expression rights. The federal government ignored the ruling, according to Sharon Mclvor, a NWAC
national executive.
"Our argument is that the
Charlottetown accord is illegal, null
and void, because Canada did not
respect the federal court of appeals' declaration that Native
women be included in the discussion," Mclvor said.
"We were there [in
Charlottetown] and we were completely excluded, we didn't even
make it into the hall outside," she
said. "We were invited to the meeting that was held with the premiers'
wives that they had at lunch."
"The Native Women's Association of Canada is an organization representing the voices of
120,000, aboriginal women in
Canada, and these women made
their individual choices to belong
to one of our 13 provincial and
territorial associations," she said.
"The constitutional process
has been flawed from the very beginning, and this is because Native women were denied the right,
our right to our freedom of expression guaranteed to all Canadians by the Canadian charter of
rights and freedoms," she said.
As a second course of action,
NWAC's board of directors has
began a No campaign to encourage
Canadians to vote "No' to the na
tional referendum.
The association opposes
changes to the charter of rights
and freedoms, "because they are
designed to deprive all aboriginal
peoples of their right to exercise
democratic rights," Mclvor said.
"If this accord goes through,
no Native woman will have the
right to vote under self-government and no native woman will
have the right to elect any of their
representatives within the aboriginal self-governmentregimes."
NWAC also opposes changes
to the charter, which will deny
First Nations women the opportunity to return to their communities, and to the Canada clause unless it is amended to specifically
protect First Nations women's
sexual equality rights.
"To endorse the Canada clause
amendments would be subjecting
Native women's sexual equality
rights to custom, culture and band
tradition," Mclvor said.
"We see in the courts today a
tendency for our men to use tradition [as a defence] for crimes committed against women and children," she said.
"Basically what we have been
doing is begging them not to abandon us, not to allow the changes
that have been proposed because
they would take away rights that
we fought so hard for and finally
achieved in 1985—we have been
completely ignored," she said.
Native women treated with
contempt in federal court
by Yukie Kurahashi
Although women in general are already heavily discriminated
against in the Canadian justice system, Native women are up
against even tougher barriers.
Lawyer Sharon Mclvor, an executive member of the Native
Women's Association of Canada, described the sexist treatment
inflicted upon even white litigators associated with cases brought to
court by First Nations women.
When NWAC brought cases concerning the proposed constitutional changes to the federal court trials division, their lawyer was
treated with blatant contempt.
She said, "It was difficult for our council. Mary Eberts is a very
well respected, well-known litigator in Toronto, and has been associated with a very large law firm.
"She was treated with complete disrespect in the court," Mclvor
"There were a lot of innuendos made, and at one point during the
trial the judge actually leaned over and winked at the male lawyers
representing the other parties.
"At another point one of the other lawyers as a joke during the
break asked Mary to sew a button onto his jacket*
Mclvor said she regrets not having warned Eberts ofthe treatment she could expect from the court in the handling of this case.
"Aboriginal women get that all the time so we didn't think to
warn her that when they were associated with us that [our council]
tends to get treated the same way.
"We had to do a lot of discussions with her afterward to let her
know that it wasnt really her—it was us that people were aiming it
at," she said.
Mclvor said another highly respected lawyer hired by NWAC,
Anne Bayefsky, was treated with the 'same disrespect.
"IBayefskyj participated in some of Mir adventures in the
constitutional discussion, meaning that we'd go and try to get into
the meetings and try to talk to someone. At the end of one she came
out and she sat down and she put her head down, and said she was
sick and tired of being treated like a whining little worm," Mclvor
"That's what we're treated like all the time and we forgot to warn
Anne when we hired her to come and help us," she said.
Something fishy spawns probe by Stolo bands
by Steve Chow
Deeply concerned with the fate
of an early run of sockeye salmon
that disappeared from the Stuart
Lake system at the start of the
season, the Lower Fraser Fishing
Authority is conducting an independent investigation into the
Headed by manager Ernie
Cray, the Fishing Authority is the
managing organization for the
fisheries of the 21 Stolo Native
bands and villages along the Fraser
River between Langley and Yale.
When asked for some possible
explanation for the disappointing
and distressing escapement levels
of sockeye this season, Cray noted
the possibility that the ALCAN
plant on the Upper Fraser may be
inadvertently responsible for the
reduced number of spawners.
"It may be that their operation
has affected water temperature
and may be implicated in the
mortality rate on the early Stuart
run of sockeye. That should be
investigated," Cray said.
Cray also stressed that the
alleged missing fish may not have
been present to begin with.
The Pacific Salmon Commission predictedthe return of 700,000
salmon this year, based on figures
from previous 4-year cycles. As
the run progressed, and test results
from the Commission were made
known, the number was sharply
downsized to 350,000, and then to
Due to conservation concerns
at that point, the Fi shi ng Authority
pulled their fishers out ofthe waters. At the time, Native fishers
had caught about 70,000 fish.
"There was still, in theory,
enough fish in that run to meet the
escapement goal of 200,000," Cray
As the days went by, the
number of spawners—previously
suggested to be no more than
40,000—was upgraded to 60,000.
According to Cray, "this speaks to
the issue of the reliability of the
professional fish managers in the
Department of Fisheries and the
Salmon Commission to correctly
estimate the number of spawners
which have reached the spawning
grounds where the early Stuart
run is concerned."
Cray estimates the number of
missing salmon to be approxi
mately 100,000.
"So while it still doesn't look
good, ifs not nearly as bad as some
people were wanting the public to
At the outset of the controversy, figures in excess of one
million missing sockeye salmon
were proposed by a few parties, the
BC Fisheries Council among them.
Cray believes the "utterly
hysterical and outrageous claim"
pointing to Native mismanagement of the run is rooted in animosity and resentment towards
Stolo tribal fishing.
"The outrageous claim about
Indian predation on fish came from
the big fish companies and a hardcore group of white commercial
fishermen—a very small percentage of the total fleet who have
some agenda that they're working
"They're utterly hostile to Indian fishing, period. They're hostile
to the notion that aboriginal people
have a right to the fisheries."
A new project implemented
this year allowing some Fraser
tribal groups to manage their local
fisheries and to sell their fish commercially was met with sharp
criticism by certain non-Native
commercial fishing interests.
Cray responded to the condemnation by underscoring the Fishing Authority's legitimacy in the
role of management of Fraser River
fisheries, stating that "non-Indian
commercial interests in the fisheries, be they the processing companies themselves or non-Indian
commercial fishermen, do not have
the moral high-ground on this issue.
"We are concerned—if not
more so than they are—about what
happened this past season."
In recent weeks, the Lower
Fraser Fishing Authority has
started to work with non-Native
fishermen and sport fishing groups.
Cray stresses that understanding between contesting
groups can only be realized through
"specific actions and specific sets
of discussions... as opposed to the
general rhetorical battles that have
been fought across the media in
British Columbia. That doesn't
resolve anything.
"What is important is that we
start working with the other
groups. That's our best chance of
resolving some of our differences."
While the Lower Fraser Fishing Authority is conducting their
own investigation into the missing
sockeye, patrolling the Stuart Lake
district independently and in cooperation with the Department of
Fisheries, the more publicized federal inquiry continues at 6240
Biological Sciences Road at UBC.
The Pearse-Larkin study,
commissioned by Fisheries and
Oceans Minister John Crosbie on
September 17, is shifting into
meetings with Fraser Canyon
Native fishers and fisheries officers.
Headed by Peter Pearse, a
fisheries scientistandformerUBC
professor, and Peter Larkin, a BC
resources specialist, and supported
by a group of 50 other experts in
related fields, the inquiry's prime
objective is like that ofthe Lower
Fraser Fishing AuthorityZ: to determine what happened to the
missing Fraser sockeye.
Alex Rose, responsible for the
public relations of the Fraser
Salmon Investigation, told The
Ubyssey that some significant
findings ofthe three-week ol d study
are soon to be released.
October 14, 1992
THE UBYSSEY/5 ©lit ofc effect
// /M,
(with or without
the ledcrhosen!)
Happy Hipsack
and friends!
Every Wednesday Night is Student Night
Free Admission with Student I.D.
Brunch &
Our Specials 7 days a week from 9 a.m. till 2 p.m.
"The Beggars Breakfast"
(Its Recession Proof!)
only $2.99
2 eggs, bacon, toast, coffee, hash browns & fresh fruit garnish
Whole Wheat Pancakes "King Size"    "* *2.99
Bacon, hash browns, syrup & coffee
Quiche Lorraine "Queen Size"
Cheese, spinach, tea as it should be or coffee
For Constitutional Wranglers
(Our coffee goes on forever like the talks)
French toast, Canadian hash browns & Colombian coffee
The Native Aboriginal Opener
(No Slur Intended!)
Coffee-100% whole wheat toast & more coffee (in our bottomless mug!)
We always serve up Good Food, Good Service, Good Music & Great Fun.
"Let the Good Times Roll Again!"
We're bringing back our 1980 prices.
What a great way to start your day!
The King's Head • 1618 Yew Street • 733-3933
1/2 Block up from Sehor Frog at Kits Beach
(in the village)
Get a taste of the big time. With your Subway subs - jam-packed on
fresh baked bread and piled high with free fixin's. Come to Subway.
We're making a big name for ourselves in fast food
$1.00 OFF
(501 off six-inch)
Offer Expires: Oct. 28/92 Valid at this location only
10 am - Midnite
10 am-2 am
Representation of First Peoples in
by Doug Ferris
The typical stereotype of Native Americans is that they are creatures of a specific
time and place. They have been trapped, by
the American frontier myth, on the northern
plains ofthe United States, bounded by the
years 1800 and 1880. There appears to be
no knowledge of a "white-free" autonomous First Nations past.
Our media-enriched knowledge is of a people who lived here
before us for a short while, until
they became pop-up targets for non-
Native guns.
The stereotypes which we were
spoon fed affect us just like the
most blatant and violent forms of
propaganda. However the argument that "It's just a movie" has
been consistently used to deflect
criticism from the most obvious
forms of racial stereotyping. This
distorts the reality of how values
are passed onto society, and so the
image of the raping savage—an
image essential to a racist philosophy—was for many years foisted
into our consciousness.
First Nations' culture as interpreted through the monolithic
values of eurocentric culture has
attempted to void them of their
Native American content, while
making them more palatable to a
white audience.
We can assign the grossest
motivations of white duplicity and
greed-oriented brutality to the
"Indian"—making the victim the
moral equivalent ofthe victimizer.
With the victim taking the
moral position ofthe victimizer it
is easy to understand, although
not as easy to stomach, that not a
single commercial film has been
made that relies on an actual First
Nations' perspective to provide its
orientation. In fact, it is easy to
understand how, for years, Hollywood has produced movies that
had white actors playing the roles
of Native Americans—at least the
"good Indians." They sometimes
let "real" Native Americans play
the roles ofthe "bad Indians."
Indigenous peoples have been
exclusively portrayed in terms of
conflict interactions with
euroamericans; there are no
Thanksgiving turkeys distributed
here. And little attention has been
paid to tribal groups who were not
heavily involved in the final dramatic period of the "frontier"
struggle. There are no epic
equivalents to The Fall ofthe Roman Empire which include the
Aztecs, Incas or the Anasazi Empires.
Even the specific acts of Native
American are devoid of cultural
context and so must appear as
meaningless, brutal and silly to
the audience. The movies of the
late 1960s, which tried, in some
ways, to be accurate and sympathetic to the First Nations' image,
such as A Man Called Horse and
Little Big Man, utterly crushed
»-00 off cuts
1000 off perms
Hair Care Services
Suntanning Special
10 sessions for S2900
with presentation of this ad Exp. Nov. 10/92
5784 University Boulevard
Phone 224-1922
71ITIS1 Interviews for a number
of positions on the Student
Court are to beheld.
Five judges and two alternate judges. The Chief Justice shall be
appointed from the seven judges. *
Chief Prosecutor **
Assistant to the Chief Prosecutor **
Defence Counsel **
Assistant to the Defence Council **
Two positions on the Prima Facie Establishment Committee ***
*     The position of Chief Justice is open to third year students in the
Faculty of Law only. At least one alternate judge shall be a
student in the Faculty of Law. The remaining five positions are
open to students from any faculty.
**    Open to second or third year students in the Faculty of Law
*** One position, at least, shall be filled by a second or third year
student in the Faculty of Law.
These positions are volunteer ones. The time involved varies
according to the number of cases brought before Student Court.
Please apply with your resume to Terri Folsom, Administrative
Assistant, in SUB 238 by Monday, October 26 at 4:30 p.m.
Please direct queries to Carole Forsythe, Vice President, in SUB 248
at 822-3092.
Native American identity under
the heel of euroamerican interpretation.
As far as the film-makers were
concerned, all Native Americans
were interchangeable so no distinction was drawn between cultural groups. Whether the makers
thought the cultures were nonexistent (a sign of ignorance), or
irrelevant (a sign of arrogance)
remains a moot point. This amalgamation of dress, culture and
custom in Movieland's mythology
succeeded in reducing to nothing
all vestiges of the truth. Again
people disappear as they are dehumanized and turned into a
backdrop for a romance.
The effect of all this has been
to create a situation where individual and culture have been reduced to a degrading parody of
what they really are, within the
public's consciousness. Native
Americans appear as nothing-more
than the feathered neighbours of
the long gone buffalo.
It is far easier to maintain a
nation's mythology if the people it
wiped out in the creation of its
myth can be portrayed as mindless,
uncivilized and intrinsically violent barbarians—rather than as
intelligent and giftedhumans who
wanted little more than to be left
in peace.
Far better to portray our
forebearers as killing, only in self-
defense mind you, the hordes of
irrationally -bloodthirsty savages'
who populated this continent
rather than our having coldly calculated the mass-murder of the
First Nations. Hollywood's handling of this myth has been little
more than an elaborate denial of
euroamerican criminality on this
continent in the last few hundred
Even the movies "sympa-
This week at LJ D V_/
Distinguished Artists
Kathleen Rudolph, flute
Rena Sharon, piano
8:00 pm  Recital Hall $14/7
Wednesday Noon Hour
Turn of the Century Brass
Thomas Parriott, trumpet
Gregory Cox, trombone
Edward Norman, piano
12:30 pm Recital Hall  $2
Contemporary  Players
12:30 pm  Recital Hall
For information call 822-5574
low low prices
free services
laser printing
M-TH 8-9  FRI 8-6
SAT/SUN 11-6
October 14,   1992
film leaves much to be desired
thetic" to the plight of the First
Nations in the late 1960s were
manipulative as Native American
became stand-ins for Blacks, the
Vietnamese and other white youth
culture anti-heroes. All of this depending on the political motivation of the film-maker. The films
which reenacted crimes by whites
on Native Americans with guilt
rather than genocide as the motivation were counterproductive in
their excesses.
In the last few years three films
seem to have broken through the
most blatant racial stereotyping,
and political motivations of the
past. These are Dances With
Wolves, Black Robe and The Last
of the Mohicans. Affirmative action has finally grabbed hold of
Hollywood, there are no white actors playing Native American roles.
The wanton "anti-Indianism" of
the past also seems to have -disappeared from the screen.
Native Americans are no
longer used as stand-ins, or as
analogies for other situations. For
the most part they don't trivialize
"Indian" anger by portraying Native Americans as "Rebels Without
A Cause" as was done with actor
Lou Diamond Phillips in Young
Guns and Young Guns 2.
The directors of all three films
have tried very hard to avoid either the "negative stereotyping" of
whites or the "over sentimental-
ization* of Native Americans, although all three to some extent
hold closely to certain sympathetic
views of whites on the frontier. Of
them only Black Robe points in
any way to an explanation of the
decimation of the Native American peoples, but even it shies away
from explaining the systematic,
brutal and continuous violations
of human decency in the process of
the conquest.
Dances With Wolves stripped
of all its pretty pictures and its
affirmative action hiring is, after
all, a film not about Native Americans but about a white guy. He
could as easily be called Lawrence
of the Dakotas for its
Euroamerican, superficial treatment of Native American culture.
Such a film offers no benefits
to First Nations peoples, in fact it
only removes the racist trappings
of earlier Hollywood and replaces
them with the sense of tragedy.
Costner rides into the sunset leaving his Native American friends to
the "mercies* of his American
compatriots, while he remains the
well-intentioned and living
American anti-hero.
The message of this film seems
to be quite simply that it's sad, but
ifs in the past. Nothing to be done
but to remythologise the past, feel
good about our sentiments and
move on to make more movies and
more money.
The Last Of The Mohicans
portrays whites and Native
Americans as getting along well
enough as long as they are left
alone by evil foreign empires. This
film also suffers from having yet
another white as the anti-hero with
his Native American friends as
secondary, yet sympathetic characters. Perhaps the most dangerous part of this film is the blatant
pro-American stance it takes. Understandable in view of two empires fighting for control of the
continent and yet frightening in
light of the terrible genocide the
independent "United States"
would perpetrate on indigenous
Black Robe manages to avoid
the white anti-hero, in fact it even
directly points to the whites as the
cause of the Huron's destruction.
It doesn't "negative stereotype" the
whites, rather it portrays them as
being strange anomalies in a wilderness setting, and stranger yet
because they portray the puritanical attitudes of three hundred years
All of these films portray Native Americans in a sympathetic
and more historically accurate
light. They manage to avoid the
most overt racist stereotyping, but
still have white heroes or anti-
heroes, continuing to relegate Native Americans to second-hand
status as characters—although at
least now they say more than
They also continue to perpetuate the "good-Indian"—"bad-
Indian" myth, which almost always
ends with the destruction of the
"bad-Indian." Of the three, only
Black Robe avoids offsetting truly
evil and truly good white characters
to show the good white as being the
moral superior of all other characters.
All of these films try to "help"
the Native American through cultural accuracy, affirmative action
hiring and so on. However, if they
really wanted to help, they would
have set their films in the twentieth century, presenting the First
Peoples' struggle front and centre.
Hollywood is willing to make
films like El Norte which deal with
oppression and social issues in
foriegn countries. However, those
dealing with a North American
context are woefully overdue. The
films should deal with issues of
land, mineral and water rights,
forced sterilization, the kidnapping
of First Nations children into foster homes, or the repression of
Canadian First Nations activists
by CSIS and members of the
American Indian Movement by the
Ifs not too late
You can, if you have an
undergraduate degree in any
You may start in May, September, or January
on a full-time or part-time basis.
Monday, October 26,1992
1:00 to 3:00 p.m.
Henry Angus Building
Room 213
Department of Chartered Accountancy
and Graduate Administrative Studies
McGill University
(514) 398-6154, Fax (514) 398-4448 or 2832
Redpath Library Building, Room 211
3461 McTavish Street
Montreal, Quebec
Centre for
What better place
to better yourself.
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Canada's Ski Airline
SUNDAY, OCTOBER 18 - 5:00/8:00 P.M.
MONDAY, OCTOBER 19 - 8:00 P.M.
Tickets available at all TICKETMASTER locations, Sport Mart, Eatons,
Woodward's stores, and INFOCENTRES in major malls
brought to vou bv        Charge by Phone: 280-4444 -f-f^^lB^
^"™ ww    w w \D_ j_S COUNT     SUPERSTO R E S|
Applications for student-at-large positions on the following AMS committees for
1992/93 are being accepted by the Administrative Assistant, Terri Folsom, in
SUB 238 until 4:30 p.m. on Monday, October 26:
Capital Projects Acquisition Committee: recommends capital projects within
the fund's mandate. North side expansion ofthe Student Union Building is one
Committee for Student Equality and Unity: promotes awareness of various
types of discrimination and ways to discourage them;
Facilities Advisory Committee: considers proposed changes to joint AMS/UBC
facility agreements such as the Aquatic Centre Agreement;
Programs Committee: responsible for providing students with concerts, speakers and other special events;
Student Leadership Conference Committee: organizes the upcoming Student
Leadership Conference; and
The Ubyssey Publications Committee: serves as a sounding board for disputes
with the paper. Applicants will be interviewed for these three positions.
Please refer any questions about the above committees to Carole Forsythe, Vice
President, in SUB 248 at 822-3092.
The Honourable
Kim Campbell,
Speaks in favour of the
National Referendum
Friday, Oct. 16th
12:30-1:30 pm
SUB Auditorium
Brought to you by the Alma Mater Society.
October 14, 1992
Evidence suggests African pre
by David Austin
DESPITE overwhelming existing
evidence, the pre-Colombian
presence of Black people in the
Americas has remained unknown,
deliberately ignored or misunderstood by most academia.
This despite the fact that research
in this area has been carried out for a
number of years.
Ivan Van Sertima is an anthropologist and linguist. He is the author of
They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America, as
well as the editor of the Journal of
African Civilizations—a series of books
which serve to illustrate the histo:
and cultun
both ancie
The re
missed as "p
both the re
But wh; k is
has it been >o s^
Father i&man,
explorers of the Amei
presence of i group1
south of His saniola-
and the D >mini
Black peop e
Father Rom 9p
were the sunn
witnessed at
(Panama) i i-15.
Both C iris
Amerigo V< spucci
with Black >eople in the Americas Ion
before the advent of the slave trade.
Columbus said he encountered native
peoples who spoke of Africans who
traded in what the native peoples called
"guanin," a gold, silver and copper alloy. Vespucci, as he approached the'
shores of America, in his own account,
witnessed the same Black men making
their way back to Africa.
The word guanin, which the native
people used to describe the Black men
they traded with, has been traced to the
Mande languages in West Africa.
It has precisely the same meaning
in these languages and
thus serves as
just part ofthe
evidence for
the pre-
presence of Africans in the
An abundance of
As Howard
Lawrence points out, "that Africans
voyaged across the Atlantic before the
era of Columbus is no recent belief...
We can now positively state that the
Mandingoes of the Mali and Songhay
Empires, and possibly other Africans
crossed the Atlantic to carry on trade
with the Western Hemisphere Indians,
and further succeeded in establishing
colonies throughout the Americas."
The African scholar Al Omar in his
book The Masalik al Absan in 1492
SDeaks of mariners crossing the Atlan-
Both Christopher Columbus and Amerigo
Vespucci wrote of encounters with Black
people in the Americas
long before the advent of
the slave trade.
tic to the Americas during the reign of
Abubakari II ofthe Empire of Mali. In
the tenth chapter he recounts a conversation between the successor of
Abubakari II, Kankan Musa and Amin
Hajib of Egypt. Kankan Musa was
credited with bringing so much gold
with him on his pilgrimage to Mecca
that he devalued the international price
of gold for years.	
jthe monarch
not believe it
yi r the limits of
Equipped 2000
enough gold,
ylears, and said
it return until
1 of the ocean
ited your food
g absence, a
:aptain stated
g time, up to
itered a mid-
olent current,
lers sailed on
them entered
believe his
d a thousand
irrohferred power
to me, and left with his companions
and this was the last I saw him and the
others, and I remained absolute master ofthe empire."
To the Americas and back
Recent evidence suggests that not
only did Abubakari and his expediters
succeed in crossing the Atlantic, but
they also returned to Mali.
Fred Case, a professor in the African Studies Department at the University of Toronto, has recently been
working with a
UNESCO sponsored team of archaeologists in
present day
Based on the
defecation of inhabitants from
centuries earlier
it has been determined that
these people had
been eating vegetation which was not-indigenous to
Africa but actually from the Americas.
This food agitated their stomachs thus
leaving theirfeces preserved for analysis.
As for the ocean current mentioned by the returned captain, it well
known that virtually anything that
gets caught in the ocean currents near
the Cape Verde Islands, once entrapped, will find its way to the coast of
the Americas.
Both Columbus and his brother
are known to have received this information years before they actually sailed
to the Americas, as they sailed up and
down the Guinea Coast of Africa.
Thor Heyerdahl, a Norwegian explorer sailed successfully from Safi,
Morocco, to Barbados in 1969 with
only a papyrus boat modelled after those
used by the Ancient Egyptians of the
Nile. He did this without the use of oars
or motors. He simply let the wind and
ocean current guide him along.
In 1952, Alain Bombard rode a raft
boat from North Africa to Barbados
without any food of water. He used only
a small net for sea fauna, a fishing line
with hook for tuna, and two spears—a
small one for sea perch and a larger one
for bigger fish.
Massive stone heads
Massive stone heads of Africans
have been found in Mexico. The first of
these stone heads reported outside of
Mexico was found in 1865. Called
cabeza colossal by Mexicans, its Ethiopian (here meaning African) features
have been noted by travellers to that
region. The head dons a helmet which
resembles a football helmet of old.
In 1938 Matthew Stirling, director of the Bureau of Ethnology,
a branch of-the
Smithsonian Institute, on a joint
sponsored expedition with the National Geographic
Society, excavated
a 6 foot tall, 18 feet
in circumference
stone head.
In 1939 the
team moved to La
Venta, an Island off
the coast ofthe Gulf
of Mexico. An expedition from Tulane
had seen the top of
a stone head here
in 1925, but did not
have the time to
excavate it. While
searching for this
one head the
Stirling Institute
managed to find
five heads—one
head having a circumference of 22
feet—each weighing 20 tons or
more—and all very
African in appearance.
Known as the
Olmecs, numerous
other African stone
heads have been
found. These statues are all intricately detailed up
to teeth and eye- I
lashes. One rarely
seen head has
hairstyle worn by
Black men and
Cultural and linguistic evidence
In 1914 Leo Weiner, a Harvard
philogist, published his trilogy Africa
and the Discovery of the Americas.
Weiner presents both cultural and linguistic evidence to illustrate the pre-
Columbian presence of Africans in the
Writes Weiner: The presence of
Negroes (sic) with their trading masters in America before Columbus is
proved, by the representation of Negroes
(sic) in American
sculpture and design,
by the occurrence of a
Black nation at
Darien early in the
XVI century, but
more specifically by
Columbus' emphatic
reference to Negro
(sic) traders form
Guinea, who trafficked in a gold alloy,
guanin, of precisely
the same composition and bearing the
same name, as frequently referred to
by early writers in Africa."
Weiner also mentions as an example, the presence of the African
merchant, the tangoman (Malinke),
It was th<
Africa, a ci
form Norl
brought li
when Eu
the depth
pronounced tiangizman in Mexico, and
the "universality ofthe blue and white
shell-money from Canada to La Plata,
and the use of shells in the Peru-Guatemala trade."
Unfortunately Weiner, like many
October  14,   1992 /» rat.
** dp.
5 ^d?~
- t-
^       3J^*?i ?g
4     f -:
>ence in the Americas 800 BCE
other "Africanists" is unable to escape
the type of ethnocentrism that is all too
prevalent when dealing with Africa and
its people.
Weiner speaks of the presence of
Africans in America "with trading
masters," implying
that the only way
that African could
have made their
way to the Americas is under the tutelage of another
group of people.
This is despite
an overwhelming
lack of evidence of
any other group of
people in the
Americas at that
time (there is evidence suggesting
Semitic peoples
were in America at an early date). Medieval Malians needed no masters.
During the reign of Abubakari II, Mali
was 1,700 kilometres wide from the
Atlantic to the bend ofthe Niger River,
and 1,200 kilometres long from the
Moors from
mbination of
and Arabs
l Africa that
ht to Europe
}pe sank to
of its Dark
Most ofthe Malian kings were Muslims out of convenience, as it permitted
fluid trade among the Arab populations
to the north and east. However the majority of the population either maintained their indigenous religions or
managed to coalesce the two. Thus,
Werner's search for a master for these
Afri can s are unfounded.
Visits from Egypt
Of all the proponents ofthe idea of
a pre-Golombian African presence in
the Americas, Ivan Van Sertima is the
leading figure. A professor of linguistics, anthropology, and African Studies
at Rutgers University, and a member of
th e UN BSCO team for redrafting world
history, Van Serthna has, over the past
years, been researching meticulously
the evidence ofthe African Presence In
the Americas. -% #■* -;
He arebents sathropologkal^llai*.**
chaeolcjpea], Hnguistie, and botaslcal
evidence*,* as weifeyewitness aeeomta.
His research indicates that phargenie
Egyptians sailed to the Americas at
approximately 800 BCE.
For   those to whom this sounds
Sahel to Fouta Djallon, including 400
towns. Its roads were safe, agriculture
as well as rock salt, copper and gold
trade insured the prosperity ofthe Empire. Some ofMali's trade: goods reached
as far as Europe.
October 14,
preposterous, it should be noted that
the Egyptians and Phoenicians of this
era made frequent trips across the North
Atlantic to the British Isles in search of
tin. They left remnants of their culture
and influence among the Celts.
At approximately 800 BCE,
Nubian kings were the rulers of
Egypt. These Black kings restored
the ancient Egyptian tradition
which had lapsed as a result of a
series of invasions and the deviations of monarchy.
It is during the reign of these
Nubian kings—the likes of
Piankhy, Shabaqa, and
Taharka—that these colossal
stone heads appeared in Mexico.
The so-called football-style helmet donned by the Olmecs are the
same helmets that we re worn by
the Egyptian military of this time.
VanSertuna also asserts that
the pyramid stylefoundin Mexico
attd Bearfc at this tirne are com-
-eaonptaeeia Egygfc'at this time.
mKMn this, there is no sem-
• i&aeeii&pyraisid the Americas
IhatW^uld indicate a gradual de-
*«lo|Haroftt3froiri a basic to a more
. COtnpffcjas form of py-famid.
Unless we are tt> believe Von
Daniken who postulates that
aliensfrom outer-space built these
pyramids, the evidence points to
a Nubian pres-
...„. ..,..,.      ence     in     the
\ Americas Van
Sertima also presents botanical
evidence, tracing
the African origin ofthe
banana, the bottle
gourd, and possibly tobacco in the Americas.
He presents linguistic
evidence which shows
ties between some indigenous American
languages and
Malinke, which coincides with the reports
of Africans from Mali
crossingthe Atlantic to
A fusion of
j However, Van
| Sertima does not as-
I sert that Africans came
jj to America and civi-
\ lized the natives of
i America. On tfreypn-
/ trary he speaksjftf a
M ■ fusion of elements of
both cultures at an
early date. This point
is often overlooked by
his critics.
At a recent
presentation-debate at
the Smithsonian Institute in Washington,
Van Sertima laid the
question to rest once
and for all. His adversary from Harvard,
overwhelmed with the
unprecedented evidence, babbled for
minutesbefore making
his presentation.
For years, it
has been wrongfully
assumed that Africa
waited in darkness for
Europe to bring light to the "Dark Continent." But this is hardly the case.
It was the Moors from Africa, a
combination of Africans and Arabsfrom
North Africa that, brought light to Europe when Europe sank to the depths of
When Columbus arrived in the Americas
he murdered countless
native people and, along
with Bartoleme de Las
Casas, precipitated and
endorsed the slave-
trade and murder of
millions of Africans. Van
Sertima's research goes
beyond its value as
sound research and
historical accuracy. It
pricks the consciousness of those who have
believed that we Africans waited in jungles,
or swung in trees waiting to be civilized.
Dark Ages.The Moors conquered
in 711 A.D. and reintroduced
science and mathematics to Europe at
a time when mathematics was considered witchcraft, and those who practiced it were persecuted.
The Moors introduced a number of
universities (17) and centers of learning. They introduced libraries and public baths when it was common European royalty to brag of bathing once a
When the last of the Moors were
expelled during the Spanish Inquisition of 1492, it signaled a new 'dark'
period in world history. The libraries
and schools developed by the Moors
were destroyed, and priceless and irreplaceable books and manuscripts were
burned. Columbus set sail for the
Americas with some Moorish navigators and the technology that had been
brought andrnrrmredtjy tfte"l*3iBf § in
Europe over an 800 year period.
When Columbus arrived in the
Americas he mui'dered ctmntfess native people and, along witk^artolem-s
de Las Casastpteqpitated|gyNndorsed
the slave-trade and murder of millions
beyond its value as soaad ressaxcfe and
historical accuracy. It pricks ibe consciousness of those whe have believed
that we Africans waited in juagfes, or
swung in trees waiting to be civilized.
(Ironically, Tarzan, the white lord of
the jungle is the only jungle-living tree
swinger we know).
He .paints a new image of Africa
which for years has been tainted with
insidious racism and prejudice—racism designed to render African people
inferior in order to justify Western
domination and conquest.
Re-researching, re-evaluating, and
reinterpreting, then the re-writing the
history of Africa is but the first step in
solving some the social ills and political-economic afflictions that Black
people's face the world over and Van
Sertima's contribution is of the
highest value. __ _
THE UBYSSEY/9 Forum On Education
A Series of Discussions About
Post-Secondary Education
"The Changing Role
of Universities:
The Incorporation of
Non-Traditional Students"
Ruth Warick, Director of UBC Disability Resource Centre
Madeline Maclvor, Act. Assist. Director of the First Nations
House of Learning
Stephanie Chaytor Representative for End Legislated Poverty
Tuesday, October 20,1992
12:30-1:30 pm • SUB Auditorium
Brief speeches will be followed by a
question and answer period.
1 NS* -■'SsSSS'1 v.
\> V."-.
October 19-23, 1992
9:00 am - 5:00 pm
Harvest your cash
for fabulous fields
of product selection!
Appropriate, decorate
by Ted Young-Ing
The Derek Simpkins Gallery of
"Tribal Art" has always concerned me.
The gallery itself is very nice. The artists whom the gallery show are for the
moat part very talented and intelligently creative. But the way in which
the art and the artist themselves are
treated leaves much to be
The Derek Simpkins Gallery
of Tribal Art"
2329 Granville Street
The names o f the artists,
name of the art work, .medium and (most prominently)
the price are always indicated
on the labels*beside the works
of art, but theuse oftheobjects
as well as the- First Nation
Tradition which the artist
comes from are not included.
Thus, one frequently finds
that masks are listed only as
"Male mask face," without any
indication ofthe tradition or
symbolism behind the mask.
The gallery deals mostly
in North West Coast First
Nations materials. However,
works from other cultures (in
particular, Papua New
Guinea cultures) hang right
next to the North West Coast
objects. The message here is
clear: tribal is tribal-uncivilized, quaint, collectable, easily exploitable.
Derek Simpkins himself is white,
as are all ofthe faces of the gallery staff
(read: salespeople) whom I've ever seen
in the gaUeiy.
Through these means, the gallery
makes its place in the Aboriginal art
communities clear: this gallery's intentions is to sell "tribal* art to rich,
white upper-cla&s yuppies who think
that it is trendy to have a North West
Coast mask hanging in their living
room next to their Shadbolt print.
I received an invitation for an ex
hibition of Wayne Alfred, a relatively
well-known (although not well-respected within his own community)
Nimpkish carver and painter happening at the Derek Simpkins gallery. The
invitation for the exhibition was problematic. On the back ofthe invitation is
a little write-up of Wayne Alfred's life
and his art. Inside the invitation are
three images of beautiful masks, and
the details ofthe exhibition. But on the
cover of the invitation is a rather disturbing image. Christ is pictured on a
cross. Yet the style of the work is unmistakably North West Coast First
Nations. The work is beautiful, and I
suppose the religious practices of the
artist and how he chooses to represent
them in his work are his own business
(the work does smack of assimilative
colonialism, but that's for the artist to
debate within himself, I suppose). But
what troubles me is that of all of the
works which Wayne Alfred has created, this is the image which Derek
Simpkins has chosen to grace the cover
ofthe invitation: the one image which
doesn't contain First Nations religious
practise (read: pagan) references.
Invitation and biased views in
hand, I went down to the gallery to see the Wayne Alfred
I think that I was early, the
exhibition was still being installed. A good part ofthe work
on the walls seemed to be created by Keg Davidson, while
the Alfred work was represented by four or five pieces.
Either way, the masks are
nice. Yes, nice. They are beau -
tifully carved and exquisitely
coloured, the Eagle Spirit
mask by Reg Davidson is particularly beautiful.
However, I got the distinct
impression that the masks
were made with the purpose
of hanging above a fireplace or
a favorite sofa. These are not
strictly ceremonial masks
which are able to be danced
and performed in. I suppose if
you're a rich tourist, they'd
make a nice souvenir of
Vancouver, though.
Although I am impressed
.with the style and skill ofthe
many artists represented in
(although not by) the Derek
Simpkins   gallery,   I   am
troubled by the pieces selected by the
gallery as well as the display and treatment of these pieces.
My questioning of the nature of
the artwork here was confirmed by the
elegant duck dish bowl sitting on one of
the side tables. Carved from yellow
cedar and painted in red and black, the
piece was made with a shallow bowl
carved in the back ofthe duck.
There would be no possible traditional or ceremonial use for this piece;
its intention is to be used for a candy
A Strategy Consulting Firm
Positions Available for Highly Qualified
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Stereotypes exposed
by Ted Young-Ing
Violent, dangerous, quaint,
in touch with nature-all stereotypes that continue to be used in
reference to the First Nations
Plains Cree Gerald
McMaster's exhibition currently
showing at the Museum of
Anthropology is an examination
ofthe dangerous and harmful
stereotypes of Indian" and First
Nations Peoples in popular
Savage Graces
Gerald McMaster
UBC Museum of Anthropology
McMaster asks, "who is the
real savage? Is it that half-
Or is it those who have shown
violent destruction towards other
The images he chooses to
reproduce onto large 2m x 3m
canvases are drawn from sources
such as comic books, travel
brochures, and board game
graphics. Some ofthe images
reinforce the image ofthe Native
person as a "Noble Savage"-a
painful and pejorative stereotype
first enforced by English
colonialists; some reinforce the
image ofthe Native as Tonto, the
pioneers' trusty sidekick.
Idea the Movies Told Me
shows a cartoon image of two
cowboys discussing the notable
faithfulness and bravery exhibited by a Tonto-like figure.
(Con) structing the image (of
the Indian) mixes visual elements of stereotypes of First
Nations People with several
written paragraphs on how the
european settlers viewed the
Aboriginal People of Canada
upon first contact ("large
protruding forehead, red or
McMaster asks, "who is the real savage?
Is it that half-naked-war-whooping-redskin?
Or is it those who have shown violent
destruction towards other cultures?"
copper-coloured skin..."), and
how they have seen them since.
The five large canvases are
complimented by the two other
aspects ofthe exhibition: a
display case of examples of
racist, genocidal stereotyping
used to advertise consumer
products, and a cultural amnesty
The personal scale ofthe
consumer products display
allows the viewer to examine and
explore the elements of this
display slowly, and to absorb the
message fully. The objects
challenge the viewer to reevaluate her relationship to these
objects, and to reexamine her
relationship to the stereotypes,
and to the perpetrating and
upholding of these stereotypes.
A brand of
chewing tobacco
displays the slogan
"Finally, the first
tobacco good enough
to be called Red
A brand of chewing tobacco
displays the slogan "Finally, the
first tobacco good enough to be
called Red Man."
Probably the most interesting of all ofthe objects in this
display is the boardgame Whoop!
The game shows a rather
insulting drawing of a "Red man
savage hunter" stereotype in
each ofthe four corners. But
closer inspection show that the
four "Indians" have features
resembling other minorities: one
is East Asian, one is African-
Canadian, one is South Asian,
and one is Jewish.
The Cultural Amnesty box is
a large plexiglass container in
which visitors can deposit
examples of racist stereotyping
that they may have lying around
the house.
Most ofthe objects which
have been deposited here are
toys; some of the objects are Lego
cowboy-and-Indian sets, plastic
totem pole souvenirs and bad
paper colour-in-between-the-
lines copies of First Nations
masks. There are even a few
objects here which can still be
bought in the Museum of
Anthropology's gift store.
In the artist's notes,
McMasters tells the story of an
event in his life which severely
"FUCKED me up" and has had a
great effect on his life and work.
He tells of a bookstore which he
frequented when he was young.
One day the owner ofthe store
began screaming at him, saying
things like "you Indians have it
so easy; everything gets given to
you and you never have to
work...." The anger which he felt
at this moment seems to permeate the works in this exhibition.
The political nature of this
exhibition is complimented by
McMaster's unique and mature
painting style. The exhibition is
one ofthe most accessible and
thought-provoking art exhibitions which I have ever seen, and
is highly worth the investment of
time involved in viewing it.
Comniunity Sports
10% off the regular price of
every item in the store for all
UBC students, faculty and staff.
Wide selction of skates, hockey
equipment, balls, racquets,
soccer equipment, etc...
Open seven days a week
3355 W. Broadway 733-1612
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specialization, and you'll be ready for a career as a
tax practitioner — a profession much in demand by
chartered accountancy firms, legal firms, and
This McGill program is unique in Canada and leads
to a Graduate Diploma in Taxation. You have the
choice of taking it on a full-time or part-time basis,
and of starting a semester in either January, May or
Monday, October 26,1992
1:00 to 3:00 p.m.
Henry Angus Building
Room 213
Department of Chartered Accountancy
and Graduate Administrative Studies
McGill University
(514) 398-6154, Fax (514) 398-4448 or 2832
Redpath Library Building, Room 211
3461 McTavish Street
Montreal, Quebec
What better place
to better yourself.
Centre for
representing the Reiyukai Cultural Centre of Canada at the
Reiyukai International Speech Festival
First Prize: expense paid trip to Khatmandu, Nepal
Second Prize: $500 Scholarship
Third - Fifth Prizes: $100 - $200 Scholarships
Contest is open to all Canadian citizens or landed immigrants 16-25 years old.
Entry Deadline:       November 8,1992
For more information and an official entry form, contact us by mail or fax at:
RCC International Canadian Office
1076 West 49th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
Phone 263-1919    Fax 266-3406
The Senate of the University of British Columbia has
requested the AMS fill a
^ ry vacancy on the Senate of a
student representative for
the Faculty of Arts.
Full time students enrolled in a B A, B.F.A, B.Mus.,
or B.S.W. degree program are eligible for the position.
The Senate is the senior academic body ofthe University, responsible for determining University policy
along with the Board of Governors. It has jurisdiction
in all matters of an academic nature.
Resumes detailing academic and extracurricular
background will be accepted by Terri Folsom, AMS
Administrative Assistant, in SUB 238 until 4:30 pjn.
on Wednesday, October 21.
October 14, 1992
HOTLINE: 875-1245
Live Music
2 for 1 Dinner Entree
Everyday until 7pm
Max. 2 per table • Max value $12
Exp. Oct. 28/92
Dinner from 4pm everyday
2340 West 4th Ave.
Arts One focuses on 500 years
by Katrina Pacey
and Carta Wellings
"People today are caught
between the remnants of the
ongoing 'grandmother wisdom'
ofthe peoples ofthe world ...
and the codes that serve centralization and hierarchy." Snyder.
The latest Arts One program, TheSpirit and the Land,"
draws upon FirstNationsissues
as a contextual basisfrom which
to explore this age-old dilemma.
Through critical analyses of
various documentaries, Arts
One students learn to think
about the entire structure of
As a First Nations woman,
Professor Mary Easterson said,
"Ifsatruly enlightening course
for non-First Nations people."
The programme brings
about an increased awareness
of the struggle and oppression
that occur within and between
differing cultures. Welearn that
concession and personal guilt
do not lead to effective conflict
resolution between Aboriginal
and non-Aboriginal peoples.
This misconception will be
cast aside when we agree that
our struggle isone and the same.
We need to strengthen our connection with one another and
our shared past in order to face
the oppressive central powers.
to the people and with oneself is
philosophy. Rob Dolker, an Arts
One student, recognized this in
saying, "We definitely havealot
to learn from [First Nations],
kft- <^-«A
Throe Arts One students take advantage of one of the many way* to get away from it all during the Arts
One retreat at Camp EMtMton-a of October 2-4.
more than they have to learn from
He, like others, is learning of
the bond between First Nations
people and their environment.
This relationship connects people
to their ancestral past, their environmental present, and their potential future. It is this allegiance
which will unite both Aboriginal
and non-Aboriginal peoples in the
struggle to achieve equality and
As the Arts One program en
counters some ofthe major controversial issues of today, one may
wonder whois responsible for this
revolution in learning.
Arts One came to be 25 years
ago focusing on alternative study
ofthe great classics. This year the
program isgoingfurther than ever,
celebrating the great works as an
integral part of our every day lives,
using both First Nations and classical thought to help us deal with
today's situation. The talented and
dedicated professorsin'the Spirit
and the Land" bring their unique
experience to their students. The
diverse disciplines ofthe teachers spread from land claims law
to anthropology, giving students
a primary source of information.
First Nations representatives look favorably upon the
program. The opening ceremony
involved First Nations elders who
invited non-Natives to celebrate
their culture in the sharing of
stories, dance and prayer.
Speakers Series
► X^tiXX-<^
<<t,y"%> ■s^*wpsjv.*'s..- _       '    -   ..•**
As a speaker. Tomson explores the importance of
language, literature and writing as a means to
:- trstnrino aKc-irioin-il rlionitv anff •srlf-rp-jrw-rt
. - i"'~"~p-p~~--o--~-~o—/ ,"-"~l "-  "
He is also concerned with issues of spirituality
and mythology.
MONDAY. OCT. 19 -12:30
SUB Theatre - FREE
For info, call AMS Programs - 822-6273
{^) ?>/
October 16
SUB Ballroom
UBC • All Ages
Showtime: 8 PM
Tickets: $10 (Students) • $12 (Non-Students)
Available at the UBC-AMS Box Office or at the door
For Info Call Pamela @ 822-6273
or AMS Box Office ©822-2711
^Ue.  Pit PtUt
Oct 14
From Australia
The Scared Weird Little Guys
October  14,   1992 \v}y?w"vfysy, 'v,/'"'/,"?^-"^**', ',iv"%
BC Treaty signing ceremony 21 Sept. 1992
by Marie Cocking
It was a fine day to think that
First Nations land claims in British Columbia might finally be
settled—that foggy Monday mom-
ingin late September with its smell
of wet leaves and wet earth.
That September 21, down behind
the giant yellow sulphur piles across
from Stanley Parkin the new cedar-
post Squamish rec centre on the
Capilano Indian Reserve, a thousand First Nations people from BC
and their leaders, the Assembly of
First Nations Grand Chief Ovide
Mercredi, Premier Mike Harcourt
and his people, and Prime Minister
Brian Mulroney and his aides and
ministers hadgatheredtocelebrate
the establishment ofthe BC Treaty
Commission—and the creation of a
new BC, in which settlers' sons and
daughters make room for their
Native hosts.
But it is not going to be easy.
Because First Nations Peoples
can lay claim to almost all of BC.
Aside from some land-purchase
agreements on Vancouver Island
and Treaty Eight in the northeastern corner ofthe province, non-
native immigrants just came and
settled in this land. No treaties
were made, and First Nations
Peoples maintain none of their
rights were given away.
Since the 1880s, First Nations
leaders have demanded treaties like
those made in the rest of Canada.
At the turn of the century, First
Nations leaders travelled to England to demand the colonial government follow its own law, the
Royal Proclamation of 1763, which
states the Crown must negotiate
treaties before settlement. In 1910,
after repeated protests, Sir Wilfrid
Laurier promised BC's First
Peoples a treaty commission.
Finally, after 82 years, they
are getting one. The new Commission, made up of First Nations,
provincial and federal representations, will oversee the negotiation ofthe treaties throughout BC.
All land claims are to be negotiated
by the year 2000. Such speedy
federal and provincial cooperation
over First Nations land rights is
unprecedented, andoptimism was
high that day.
So high that after Prime Minister Mulroney and Premier
Harcourt had signed the agreement, ceremony host Willie
Seymour, chief of the Chemanius
band, yelled out, "the Premier and
the Prime Minister didnt read
the fine print. They just turned
the country back over to us." It
brought on an ovation.
The feeling among First Nations Peoples there was that
anything was now possible. This
was their day, done according to
their traditions, with the never-
recorded sacred Skway Skway
Thunderbird mask dance done to
bless the ceremony. Official colonialism in BC had ended. Or had
The soft wind of change is in
the air," said Chief Ed John ofthe
TVazt'en, and a member of the
First Nations Task Group that
recommended the creation of a
BC Treaty Commission. This
country is now prepared to recognize the rightful place of our
But the dancing and the drumming hid some of the difficulties
that await the Commission. Colonial regimes are not so easily dismantled.
There are about 30 separate
of them to overlapping lands. Since
the federal government first developed its land claims policy in
1976,21 claimsfrom BC have been
filed and only one, that of the
Nisga'a, has begun negotiation.
None has been settled. The federal
government has been ready to
negotiate since 1976, but not the
provincial government. And because according to Canadian law,
the province owns the land, nothing could be done without their
The claims cover lands now
home to cities of non-natives. Or
areas where non-natives owned
mining or forestry or other industries have an interest in the land.
It is still unclear what sort of
jurisdiction First Nations Peoples
wouldhave over non-natives living
on land the Treaty Commission
finds First Nations Peoples still
hold rights to. This will be more
unclear if the October 26 referendum passes, and an inherent right
to self-government is entrenched
in the Canadian Constitution.
Will there be two different laws,
one for non-natives, one for First
Nations Peoples? Will non-natives
have to pay taxes to First Nations
governments as well as to municipal, provincial, and federal governments? Will First Nations have
veto rights over resource developments? Will First Nations have
veto rights over resource development on lands the Treaty Commission says are theirs? Will re
source companies and the provincial government have to pay First
Nations royalties on development
How so many competing interests can be satisfied in only 18
years is a big question. And how
this can be done without unrest
and hard feelings in an even bigger
BC history is based on "pioneer"
settlement, and resource development—and it was not out of a beneficent spirit of generosity that
broughtthe provincial government
to recognize First Nations' rights
and negotiate treaties after 120
years of denial.
The impetus came from accountants' studies, like the one
done by Price Waterhouse in 1990
that found economic uncertainty
surrounding unsettled land claims
meant "about $1 billion in expenditures involving 5000 jobs in
mining and the forest sector are
likely to be affected." That is, lost.
It also came from the armed
protest at Oka and the sympathy
blockades that paralyzed BC for
the summer of 1990.
It was only then, in 1990, that
the provincial government under
the Social Credit said it was ready
to negotiate land claims—but it
still did not recognize that First
Nations' rights existed. It was only
then that the provincial government and BC First Nations started
the process that led to the Treaty
Commission. And it was the New
Democratic Party government that
finally admitted that First Nations'
rights exist in BC.
Forestry and mining companies, while they want to be certain
that First Nations' rights are defined so First Nations can not claim
land they want to develop, are suspicious of the treaty-making process. Alcan and a coalition of 13
business interests, including the
BC Business Council,have applied
for intervener status in the
Gitksan-Wet-Suwet-en's land
claim appeal, arguing against the
Gitksan-Wet-Suweten' claim to
land in northwestern BC.
Yes, that Monday was a fine
day to think eve ryone in BC wants
that to happen.
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More from your President
As I wrote last week, the AMS has been informed that the
University administration no longer wants the students to
undertake building new student facilities (for example, expanding the SUB). Additionally, the University wants to have sole
control of the management of facilites initiated and funded by
students (for example, the Aquatic Centre), relegating the AMS
to an advisory role as opposed to our traditional role as an equal
partner. As I explained previously, this philosophical position
adopted by the University is particularly demeaning to students
in light of our substantial contributions to the campus, not only
financially, but in time and effort dedicated to serving students.
To give you an idea of the scope of the Alma Mater Society's
involvement in building the campus, here is a list of projects
initiated by students, with the amount of funding provided by
1928 Women's Gymnasium $25,543
1931 Playing Fields 8,000
1937 Varsity Stadium 39,304
1940 Brock Memorial Hall 78,900
1941 Armouries 48,000
1951 War Memorial Gymnasium 367,000
1957 Brock Memorial Hall Extension 335,000
1959 Sherwood Lett House at Place Vanier 150,000
1963 Thunderbird Winter Sports Centre 185,000
1968 Additions to Thea Koemer Graduate Centre     747,000
1969 Student Union Building 3,509,328
1969 Thunderbird Winter Sports Centre Expansion 730,500
1973 Student Union Building - The Pit Development 350,000
1978   Aquatic Centre 925,000
1985   Student Union Building
- South Side Expansion 1,800,000
1990   Daycare 554,027
1992   Student Union Building-The Pit Expansion 500,000
In today's dollars, the value of these contributions would easily
exceed $35 million.
To show the University that students want to continue their
integral role in establishing and managing facilities to serve
fellow students, the AMS is circulating the following petition to
be presented to members of the Board of Governors of the
"Whereas, the members of the Alma Mater Society of the
University of British Columbia were the moving force behind
the Great Trek that brought the University of British Columbia to
its present campus; and
Whereas, the members of the Alma Mater Society have participated in unique, valuable and significant ways in the establishment and/or in the administration of the Student Union Building,
the War Memorial Gym, the Aquatic Centre, the Thunderbird
Winter Sports Centre and a number of other capital projects; and
Whereas, the members of the Alma Mater Society recognize that
their continued participation in the establishment and/or in the
administration of capital projects is essential to ensure that the
University of British Columbia thrives;
We, the undersigned, members of the Alma Mater Society,
petition the members of the Board of Governors of the University of British Columbia to:
- recognize the role that the members of the Alma
Mater Society have played in the establishment and/or in the
administration of capital projects throughout the history of the
University of British Columbia; and
- recognize the right of the members of the Alma Mater
Society to participate in the establishment and/or in the
administration of future capital projects of the University of
British Columbia; and
- support the right of the members of the Alma Mater
Society to participate in the establishment and/or in the
administration of future capital projects of the University of
British Columbia."
Blank copies of this petition are available from SUB Room 266
and SUB Room 238. We encourage you to sign the petition and
to pass it around to your friends.
If you have any questions or comments, please phone me, write
me a note, or drop by my office.
Martin Ertl, AMS President
Tel: 822-3972 Office: SUB Room 256
"No university in the world I know of owes as much to its students as does the University of British Columbia. That applies not only to buildings... but to participation in the actual operation ofthe University at a variety of levels. This, I believe, is good for the university and good for you, for it is in exercise of that kind that you gain experience and maturity
and become, in a real sense, actively interested in and supporters ofthe University."
UBC President N.A. MacKenzie, 1954
October 14, 1992
THE UBYSSEY/13. Announcement board
This week atTHE UBYSSEY
SUB 241K
The Ubyssey
comes out.
SUIT meeting at 12:30 pm
Copy deadline 2:00 pm,
Production meeting starts
at 5:00 pm. All nigliit
newspaper production.
WRCUP meeting at 12::»0pm
The Ubyssey
comes out.
Advertise your group's on-campus
events in The Ubyssey 9amPus
Calendar. Submission forms are
available at The Ubyssey office,
SUB 241K. Submissions for Tuesday's
paper must be in by Friday at
3:30pm, and submissions for
Fridays paper must be in by
Wednesday at 3:30pm.
Sorry, late submissions will not be
Note: "Noon'= 12:30pm.
%    19
*»u}s unci Lesbians ol I .B.C. IHs-
I'ussion uroilp ever*. Mnn'hi). 5 pm.
Mlt" l.'illunin Centre lnunut-.
I 'IM* Mudinls fur Choice. Uiprc-
scnl;ili\cs from HC Ouliiinn for
\horlinn t 'linii-s Indisiussaccess in
BC an<l lhc pm-cluiicc miiNcmcnl -
question *v answer period lo lollnv*.
\oon. SI It 2IN.
I BC Muricnt Counsellini; *v ke-
siuirces t tr. \\ orkshop: < areer
skills assessmcnl. Noon- l:2ilpm.
Brock 2IMI.
I BC Student Counsellini; & Resources Ctr. Workshop: Test
taking strategies. Noon- 1:20pm.
Brock 200.
I IK Student Counsellini; & Resources Clr. Workshop: Stressed
out: Your first step. Noon -
1:20pm. Brock 200.
Christian Science Organization.
Testimonial mtj*. Kveryone is
welcome. Noon. BI I'll B2-'4.
IIU' Student Counsellini; & Resources Ctr. Film: Journey into
sell'-esleum. Noon - 1:20, Brock
Intl. Relations Student Assn.
Lectured) Christina Rosas,from
the Nail. I ni. of Mexico, on
•'NAFTA: A Mexican Perspective.*' NiK>n, BI (II B320.
LBC Students for choice, t.en-
eral ml)*, for all members: elections for exec, to be held. Noon.
nrcii i>m
Hillel/Jewish Students Assn. Join
for an exploration ol'Succot. 1;30
pm, ■ Itllul House.
LBC Scliool of Music*. Wednesday noon hour series. Robert
.SiKcrmatt. piano, Noon. Recital
Amnesty Intl. (LBC). Regional
action network letter vtrilin-1
China;West Africa.  Noon. Sl.'B
LBC Intl. Socialists & LBC NDP.
Public mtj;: "Vote Ves"and Fii>hl
the Tories: Noon, SIB 207.
(Jays. Lesbians and Bisexuals of
I BC. ('I'n.mlu. Noun, St.'B 215.
Toaslmaster'slntl. Publicspeak-
inu mt«. 7-<)pm, SI 11215.
Pacillc Rim Club. Jet Program:
Info, sminar on tiachin-jin Japan.
Noon, Asian Ctr. Audit.
LBC Student Counsellini; & Resources Ctr. Workshop: making
humour work for you. Noon -
l:20pL, Brack 200."
LBC Student Counsellini- & Resource* Ctr. Workshop: Stress
out? Breaking old habits. Noon-
1:20pm. Brock 200.
Ncwntan Club - Ihe Catholic
student's assn. Students* mass.
All Catholic students arc welcome.
Noon |- 1:20pm, St. Mark's College. |
Hillel/Jewish Students Assn.
Maggie's Ama/.ing Desserts in the
Succali. Noon, Hillel House.
LBC Mamp Club. First gen. mtg.
Noon, Angus 310.
Intl. Assn. of Students in Com-,
merce & Fxonomics. Employment
fair. 30+ company reps will be
avail.lorstudentslotalklo. 10am-
4pm. SL'B Concourse.
Chinese Christian Fellowship.
(Un. mtg (Pilgrim's Progress).
Noon, Scarfe 209.
LBC School of Music. Distinguished Artist. Kathleen Rudolph,
Flute - Rena Sharon, Piano. 8pm.
Recilail Hall.
f.rad.jClass Council.  <*cn. mt;
Nimhi.j Sl.'B 206. Council Chambers.
Navigators.    Dinner and then a LBC Pacilic Rim Club,   lhc 4lh
Gym night.   Dinner at (.pm, loi- Annual B.C. Japanese Speech
lowed by Gym Night at -J: 15 pm. ContestlapplicationdeadlineOct.
Dinner at 5645 Toronto Rd. Gym 5). 4:30am —. AsianCenlr cMusic
Night al Osborne - bring student Rm.
LBC Student Counselling & Resources Ctr. Workshop: Time
management - Juggling your priorities. Noon -1:20pm. Brock 200.
Hillel/Jewish Students Assn. Friday Night Dinner. 6pm, Hillel
Intl. Assn. of Students in Commerce & Fconomics. Kmploymcnl
fair,30+ company reps will be avail,
lor students to talk to. 10am-4pm,
SLB Concourse.
the Ubyssey
The Ubyssey Is published Tuesdays and Fridays by the Alma
Mater Society of t:he University of British Columbia. Editorial
opinions are thosie ofthe staff and rtot necessarily those of
the university administration, or of the sponsor. The editorial office is room 241K of the Student Union Building.
Editorial Department, phone 822-2301; advertising, 822-
3977; FAX 822-9279.
The Ubyssey is a founding member of
Canadian University Press
It's Twister Night <mce more as Jan Fonder planted his appendages across Marie Cooking's taflyhke limbs. Last year's champion, Dorian BuMe-r cried foul play causing Doug Farria to plead
(like the sex poodle that he is) for ORDER! *Cha • cried Sam
Green, "And monkeys might fly outta my butt!" Helen WUloughby-
Price belched like un ovulating fog horn in agreement and Steve
Chow did his be«t impersonation of" Love Boat's" Captain Merle
on hallucinatory substances. Yukie Kurahashi joined in the
retro-Love Boat fun, nude shuffl-aboarding but Ted Young Ing
pouted because he wanted to play "Fantasy Island". The ever
conciliatory Denism Woodley bleated, "De plane, de plane..." to
soothe all wounded egos as Martin Chester put on a lei and
handed out pink concoctions with teeny umbrellas. Siobhan
Roan tree diligently took note for her soon-to-be-disregarded all
■ports issue. Carla Wellings attempted to discipline the self-
defrosting fridge-. "Next thing you know it'll be waxing it* bikini
line and attending Weight Watchers,' raged Paula Wellings.
Mike Kam in aid (Lola to his nearest and dearest) whipped off
Da nielMoecpiin'iiaj id KatrinaPacey*ssu*picious looking overcoats
to reveal glittering tpandex culottes aaLucio van Isschot posed in
his controversial black leggings muttering, "New word... new
word...*. Bill and Martin waltzed in, proudly displaying mutual
super glue bondage, while Frances Foran dreamed of escaping to
a kinder, gentle]' rubber room and Chung Wong smiled sympathetically, knowingly, as he accessorized his strai^acket. Franka
Cordua von Specht "tsk-tsk-taked" his choice of sequins while
Judy Lee purred:, "But on you it works; classic."
Pauta Wellings • Lucho van Isschot • Yukto Kurahashi
Samimtha Green  •  Frances Foran
Classifieds 822-3977
RATES: AMScaidholdem-3lines$3.15. additionallines 63 cents. Commercial -3 lines $5.25, additionallines 80 cents. (10% discount on 25 issues ormore.) Classified
ads payable in advance. Deadline 3:30 pm, 2 days before publication. Room 266, SUB, UBC, Vancouver. B.C.  V6T2A7.  822-3977.
Saturday, Oct 17
Professor David Shulman
Institute of Aaian and African
The Hebrew University of
Lecture Hall 2. Woodward IRC
at 8:15 p.m.
10 ■ FOR SALE (Commercial)
clearance sale
Equipment is Near New
Contact Francis at Advantage
Phone 299-3881 from Monday to
11 ■ FOR SALE (Private)
85 HONDA MOTOR scooter, 150
cc, 13,000 km, $900. 272-1781.
vintage year. $1500 obo. 931-
AIRFARE: 1-WAY Vncr-Ott —
Oct 30. Femonly. Call 263-3434.
$175 obo.
80 COROLLA - :2nd owner - runs
well - service records - snow tires
-AirCare approved-$950. 224-
QUARTERS FOR RENT IN private home. Private ent., w.
kitchen etc. near 19th and
Cambie - quiet neighbourhood;
yard. Avail. Novl-Apr.93. $550/
mo, incl util.  Phcne 879-1174.
30 ■ JOBS
printing co. needs com sales rep.
to service UBC campus. Exp. &
contacts an asset. Call Eric 877-
co. has part-time positions: applicants Bhould be (1) familiar
with Carrel draw 3.0 & (2) able to
read & write Chinese input system EG E-TEN, CHENG HAN
ETC. Please fax resume to: 682-
4078 or 569-0262 ASAP.
area, Tu<», Wed, Fri, 1-5 pm for
one wonderful 3 year old. 266-
Madntofih experience preferred
but not c ecessary. M ust be able
to work 10 hrVwk, gcod writing
and typing skills. Up. to $14/hr.
Please cull Dr. Tan il 822-2737
immediately or leave j-nessage at
anxiety. Speakupmoremgroups,
be assertive. A 4-seesion training program (free) offered as part
of counselling research. Please
call 81>2-;;259 now!
uh move & do housekeeping on
Oct. 29th and :r .Kith Call 879-
1174 - fc/hr.
MAKE AN INFORMED DECISION! Have you said no to Jesus
without honestly investigating
who He is and what He haB to !
say? Don't be lazy. Come and
discui^ the bib.icat prcsentjiLion
of Jesjs it) an open and nformal
group setting. Call .''dike
Donaldsea at 222 27 12.
grade 12 student, Cantonese
speaking preferred. Teach in my
home, good salary, $30/hr. Call
22*1-0623 after 4 pm.
will tutor students in all aspects
of Frencn lang. & literature.
Reasonable rates.  689-7889.
Joe Mazjmdar wanta your address. Cell Martin 876-3269
DESKTOP PUBLISHING & laser printing, creative resume*
that get noticed! Reasonable
rates, colour printing & transparencies too! (Sorry notatyping
service). Bakjam Graphics 732-
Powerful & persoral,
Behiivicur Analysis computer
liMscover your hidc.en
talenJji and winning attributes.
Pinpoint, your path to success.
92-*+ Accurate! FREE Info.
Reports Reg. $100
MGroup Consulting
291-2259 ext.1200 fax 291-7558
n Knglish lit, 5 years teaching
KnijUsh in Japan. Can speak
Ja-.>aneae.  Ph: 222-0276.
.18 ■ TYPING
years exp., wd processAyping,
APA/MLA, thesis. Student rates.
Dorothy, 228-8346.
CESSING/typing. Excellent
student discount*. Fast svc.
Michael 732-9294.
EXCELLENT typist, will edit.
Call 263-0368.
Don't Panic!
Stop running around!
Room 60, SUB
(Across from TorteLini's)
Fall Hours:
Mon. - Thurs. 9 - 6
Friday 9 - 5
Drop in or call 822-5640
TYPING & WP of theses, isssays,
letters, manuscripts, resumes,
reports. Bilingual. Clemy 266-
editing of papers, reeuime, etc
by professional (BA, MLS),
specializing in thesin.
All humanities, including
European language*-,
Music, Law.
Word processor, laser pr jiter.
Norm 224-1263.
Fast, accurate, inexpensive
224-8071Word processor, laser
printer. Norm 224-1263
October 14,   1992 CAMPUS    N  E W S •
Native law student boom at UBC
by Chung Wong
The number of First Nations
students entering law school has
soared to a record high this year
at UBC.
"The program is attracting
younger students," said UBC Native law department director John
Burrows. "In the past it would
just attract the leaders of the
nations; we didn't have a lot of
[university] graduates."
Of 240 students admitted
this year at UBC law school, 21
were of First Nations ancestry,
almost double the previous yearns
enrollment of 13.
But resentment, Borrows said,
still lingers toward the special
admission status granted to the
First Nations students.
UBC law school applicants
who tick off "Native' as their ancestry are reviewed separately from
other applicants.
"The admission process for
Natives is a bit more discretionary," said Borrows.
Musqueam object to
more development
by Frances Foran
The Musqueam Indian
Band's claims to lands in and
around UBC will be further diminished if University Hill elementary school is relocated on
Musqueam land, an administrator for the band Baid.
Band administrator Glen
Guerin said the proposed move
will leave less undeveloped land
to be negotiated under the
Musqueam's comprehensive land
claim, which includes the land on
which UBC is located.
The Musqueam band recommended the school be built on
land used by UBC because three
quartersof the elementary school
students reside in UBC faculty
and student family housing.
According to university vice-
president Bruce Gellatly, UBC
has not been approached as a
possible new site for University
Hill elementary.However, ifs not
likely that such a petition would
be successful, he said.
"They would need five acres,
and it would be very difficult to
find a location close to the residences."
Guerin said that although
the Musqueam meet the legal
requirements for entitlement, the
disputed land has been undergoing more development since it
was turned over to the parks
board in 1989.
The transfer of the land to
the parks board's jurisdiction
limited the Musqueam's traditional practices of hunting and
gathering. The transfer also facilitated development ofthe land
for private use, which severely
limits the band's entitlement,
Geurin said.
"We've used that land for
3000 years. [Although] we can
show we presently use it for
spiritual purposes and we have
historically used it, there is
definitely more development
happening than when it was
University Endowment Land."
Guerin added that the
population ofthe Musqueam is
expected to quadruple in the next
fifteen years, and that they will
need the land to support the
coming "baby boom."
However, he doesnl imagine theMusqueam claim to UBC,
Spirit Park and Endowment
Lands will be settled for at least
five years. But the band's claim
"wont get anywhere without
public support," he said.
The choice of relocation is
also ecologically insensitive and
would threaten a creek in the
area where the band raises fish,
said George Guerin, the band
The Vancouver school board
suggested the school move from
its current location on Chancellor Boulevard to Acadia*which is
under the jurisdiction of the
crown and the Greater
Vancouver Regional District.
The board argues that the
prosed rate on Acadia will be
more convenient for the students
because it is closer to the high
school and the university campus.
When the school board
asked for the band's approval of
a "land swap" of the school
board's land for the parks board
land which the Musqueam claim,
the band notified the school
board that the proposed location
was not acceptable.
Vancouver School Board
trustee Phil Polston said the
board does not have the authority
to relocate the school on UBC
grounds. The VSB has not made
a motion to do that. People are
still talking about an alternate
situation, but it is not a formal
board motion. It is in the politicians' hands," he said.
The board has referred the
matter back to the board's planning committee and will review
the issue again in a week.
Display Advertising
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Citing cultural differences,
Borrows said, academic records of
First Nations graduates may not
"reflect educational hardships from
cultural differences.. .this is taken
into account."
"First Nations people often
come from an oral tradition. When
you talk to them, they have a great
grasp ofthe topic. But it may not be
reflected in written work."
Though UBC law school has
an annual limit for admissions,
there is no official limit for the
number of First Nations law students.
And Borrows said intolerance
of First Nations Peoples is prevalent at UBC law school.
"People are not racially sensitive. There's a certain amount of
discomfort in being Native in a
non-Native environment . . . it's
integrated and subtle."
Canada historically has had
only 179 First Nations law gradu
ates. About half of UBC's 48 First
Nations law students are from BC.
BC's first First Nations judge, the
recently retired Alfred Scow, was
UBC's first law graduate in 1963.
Jenny Jack of the Tlingitband
is, perhaps, the most renowned of
recent graduates. With her
schoolmate Beverly Scow, Jack
travelled to Oka in 1990 and assisted with media and legal battles.
Jack also helped engineer a mandatory ethics course for first-year
engineers after the controversial
nEUSlettre affair in which extreme racial slurs were published
by UBC's Engineering Undergraduate Society in March, 1991.
Borrows ofthe Ojibway nation
near Owen Sound, Ontario, specializes in First Nations self-government and land claims.
"Two thirds of my students
are non-Native," he said.
Other First Nations law professors include the nationally re
nowned Michael Jackson, who
handled the Gitksan lands claims
case, and Doug Sanders, who in
Geneva recently helped draft the
United Nations declaration of
rights for indigenous peoples. In
court, Sanders previously defended
First Nations women who had lost
their "Native' status after marrying
UBC's Native law department
was created in 1975 after a request
from the federal justice department
following the 1973 Nisga'a land
claims Supreme Court case, Calder
vs Queen.
"Ifs a case where First Nations
rights were first viewed as different," Borrows said.
Until this year, the Native law
director would travel across BC to
high schools to encourage Native
students interested in law.
Lawis only second toeducation
at UBC with First Nations enrollment.
The   Cecil  H.   and   Ida   Green
Visiting   Professorships
Institute of Asian and African Studies
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
A vivid storyteller and forceful speaker, David Shulman is a brilliant scholar specializing in the major literary
languages of South India. Awarded the prestigious MacArthur Prize and a Guggenheim Fellowship, he has edited
two volumes, written numerous scholarly articles and five books including The King and the Clown in South Indian
Myth and Poetry (1985) and Tamil Temple Myths: Sacrifice and Divine Marriage in the South Indian Saiva
Tradition (1980). He draws into his frame myths and meditations on tragedy and comedy, ritual and sacrifice,
clowning and magic, marriage and sexuality.
The Discovery of the Individual in Pre-Modern South India
Wednesday, October 14
Room A-102, Buchanan Building, at 12:30 PM
Friday, October 16
Room A-102, Buchanan Building, at 12:30 PM
VYASA'S CURSE ON BENARES: Pilgrimage as Exile
This is a Seminar Presentation for SACPAN
■   Saturday, October 17
Room 207/209, AnSo Building, at 10:15 AM
PLAYING DICE WITH GOD: Myths of Siva and the Feminine
Saturday, October 17 - The Vancouver Institute
Hall 2, Woodward Instructional Resources Centre, at 8:15 PM
School of Law
The University of Georgia, Athens
A world authority on Roman and comparative legal studies, Professor Watson balances careful scholarship with
enthusiastic presentation. His twenty-seven books represent interests ranging across the centuries and continents, on
such topics as obligation, succession, slavery and the sources of law. Having taught civil law and classical studies
at Oxford, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Pennsylvania. Alan Watson enjoys challenging both complacent orthodoxies and
novel ideologies. A superb linguist and excellent historian of laws ancient, medieval and modern, he is a stimulating
public speaker and raconteur.
Monday, October 19 • Room A-100, Buchanan Building, at 12:30 PM
Monday, October 19 • Buchanan Penhouse, at 3:30 PM (Seminar)
Tuesday, October 20 • Room 149, Curtis Building, at 12:30 PM (Seminar)
SHADOWS OF DISTANT PAST: The Tweleve Tables and Subsequent Legal History
Wednesday, October 21 • Room 101/102, Curtis Building, at 12:30 PM
RELIGION AND WAR IN ANCIENT ROME: Lessons for Modern Conflict
Saturday, October 24 - The Vancouver Institute
Hall 2, Woodward Instructional Resources Centre, at 8:15 PM
the; ubysBey/15.
^■■d^/AMcYff'ixd , i Anticelebration inspires
by Yukie Kurahashi
"They are very simple and honest and exceedingly liberal with all
they have; none of them refusing
anything he [sic] may possess when
he is asked for it, but, on the contrary, inviting us to ask them. They
exhibit great love toward all others
in preference to themselves. They
also give objects of great value for
trifles, and content themselves with
very little or nothing in return...I
did not find, as some of us had
expected, any cannibals among
them, but, on the contrary, men of
great deference and kindness."
—Christopher Columbus, in a
letter to Lord Raphael Sanchez
...So he said.
About 60 people gathered at
La Quena coffeehouse on Monday
night to remember the 500 years of
bloody history instigated by the
arrival ofthe conquistadors in the
The event, organized by a
radical people of colour movement
called Roots ofResi stance, was also
a reaffirmation of 500 years of resistance and survival under white
colonialist rule.
The audience was held spellbound throughout the evening by
speakers and performers speaking
words of grief and anger, singing
songs of hope, and portraying in
silence the pain inflicted in the
wake ofthe arrival of Columbus.
Kelly White, a First Nations
activist, started off the evening with
an encouraging list of organized
actions being undertaken all over
the americas in anti-commemoration ofthe supposed "discovery" of
this land.
David Arouac followed up with
two bittersweet pieces accompanying himself on acoustic guitar. The
audience couldn't seem to help
joining in when they were asked;
spirits were high, and the music
was irresistible.
Next, Jeet Keigh Leung, a
former editor of The Ubyssey, received spontaneous ovations for his
focused-angry rap piece.
The highlight of the evening,
however, was a thought-provoking
multifaceted performance by
Michelle Thrush. She portrayed,
in turn, a residential school student raped by a priest; a skid row
alcoholic whose children had been
taken away by the ministry of social services; an assimilated First
Nations man whose only inklings
of identity come from tribal
barbeques and racist jokes; an
abused woman trying to communicate with a government social
worker whoisnt wfllingto listen to
her; a slimy, nepotistic politician/
band leader only interested in reelection; and a saddened and angry heckler in the audience listening to the same leader. Each
portrayal was so intense and ultimately so real many of those in
the audience were moved to tears.
Then, Vera Manuel from
Storytime Theatre shared a painful piece covering everything from
"...should your
command it, all
the inhabitants
could be taken
away to Castile
[Spain], or made
slaves on the
island. With 50
men we could
subjugate them all
and make them do
whatever we
Columbus, in his
the impotent fury of the "drunk
Indian" on Powell Street, the
shattering effect of residential
schools on First Nations People
and communities, the agony both
her parents had experienced in
such residential schools, and the
physical and sexual abuse experienced by many Native children
from members of their families.
After the applause died down,
Anthony Fable sang two haunting songs accompanied by handheld drum; somehow, if I closed
my eyes I found myself transported to a twilit, windblown
grassy plain. His performance
seemed out of place in the urban
enclosure of Commercial Drive.
Honey Rose Ada White, by
fertile youngest performer (grade
seven!) was last to take the stage
with a refreshing, ingenuous piece
sung with Kelly White as a duet.
The evening ended with the
entire cafereverberating with the
anthem of the americas led by
Honey Rose and Kelly White; the
unity ofthe voices reinforced our
solidarity inour continuing resistance.
Power to us, the people; may
we never forget.
The Japan
Information Seminar
Thur., Oct. 15
from 12:30 p.m.
at Asian Centre
Canadian University
graduates are invited to
Japan to promote
international exchange.
Successful applicants will
assist in carrying out
international activities in
Japan or will be engaged in
English language
Meet JET officers and
former participants at the
information seminar.
900-1177 W. Hastings St., Vancouver 684-5868
You're invited to U3C
Computer 5hop9e annual
► Froduct Demonstrations
► See the latest technical Innovations
► Frizes & Giveaways
► Savings & Specials
► Meet representatives from the
cutting edge' of the computer industry
ZOOM   WordPerfect
r^nim   Liz.?
1 ttU-tlkJ ■■HlriR) ZENITH    DATA
A Bull Company
m^^ll    fyFASTECH
maxell. Qblueline
Two days only
October 20th & 21st 1992
at the UBC Bookstore
10:00 am - 4:00 pm
Computer   Shop
(SMq bookstore
6200 University Boulevard s 822-2665
Octob^ mfrl992


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