UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Publications

The Ubyssey Nov 24, 1978

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Bible doesn't thump gays says minister
Christian misconceptions about
homosexuality are a result of
incorrect translations of the Bible,
a Unitarian minister said
Rev. Mac Elrod, married and
the father of six children, told a
group of about 40 members of the
Gay dub of UBC in SUB 212 that
traditions also cause homosexual
"For good or ill, the Judeo-
Christian tradition formed the
society of today," said Elrod.
Gay people must be concerned
with the history of this tradition
because of the effects religious
thinking has on their place in
society, he added.
"People are illiterate in our
culture if they are ignorant of the
Judeo-Christian tradition," Elrod
He added that the Jews were "a
nomadic people who couldn't
afford anything that sapped reproduction." Homosexuality was
culturally unacceptable to them in
survival terms, he said.
"However, having too many
babies hasn't changed this earlier
religious concept. Therefore the
Judeo-Christian approach to
sexual crimes does not relate to
the act itself, but the results of the
act," he said.
"Everyone must be concerned
with the effect of religion on
homosexuality. If they are gay,
they need to be concerned with
their self-image; if they are not
gay, they need to be concerned
with how to treat their gay
Elrod said several "same-sex
relationships" are related in the
"Jonathan and David was the
greatest same-sex love affair," he
said. "In 1st Samuel 20th chapter,
David says to Jonathan: 'Your
love to me was wonderful. More
than the love of women.' After
this they went off into the field
together. If it had happened
today, we'd know why they went
off into the field together."
Elrod also mentioned the relationship between Naomi  and
Ruth, but added that "there is no
way of judging whether or not
there was a physical relationship,
but there was certainly a lifelong
same-sex relationship."
Elrod said Anita Bryant, who is
opposed to homosexuality, is fine
religious leader who misinterprets
the scriptures.
"Anita talks about Sodom and
Gomorrah. The Bible says that
the people of Sodom surrounded
the house in which Lot and his
friends were and said: 'Bring out
the men that we may know them.'
"There is no way to judge the
sexual connotation of that
statement," he added, "but of 27
other references to the phrase 'to
know' in the Bible, only three
refer to homosexuality.
"In Ezekial, the fall of Sodom
is attributed to the people's not
feeding the poor and needy, so
sodomy could technically be
defined as not feeding the poor
and needy," he said.
Elrod added that "abomination
exclusively refers to religious acts
— a slap in the face of God. 'You
shall not lie with a male as a
woman. It is an abomination' says
the Bible."
He said this concept was
borrowed by the Jews from the
Zoroastrian sect, who used the
See page 3: ANITA
Quebec students occupy ministry
^Vol. LXI, No. 30        VANCOUVER, B.C., FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 1978    °€H^48    228-2301
1,000 students occupied education
ministry offices here Thursday to
protest the Quebec government's
loans and bursaries system.
Following a demonstration
involving 1,500 students called by
the Montreal regional council of the
1'Association Nationale des
Etudiants   du   Quebec,   students
entered the building to speak to
Quebec education minister Jacques-
Yvan Morin, who was in his
Quebec City offices.
When Morin told students,
through his press attache, that he
would not meet with them, but
would speak to a delegate from
each region of the province, the
students left en masse to attend a
meeting to appoint a regional
The occupation was peaceful
throughout and was part of a
province-wide protest action that
has included class boycotts at as
many as 30 CEGEPs during the
past two weeks.
The protest was called by ANEQ
to protest the Quebec loans and
bursaries system and to put forward
11 demands, including free tuition,
indexed bursaries, and free
academic material.
Morin, when questioned in the
national assembly Tuesday, said the
government could not afford the
GERIATRIC DELINQUENTS ATTEMPTING car thefts in broad daylight
were surprised by law-abiding photographer, who realized that genuine
campus patrol members would never leave safety and comfort of their paddy wagon to frolic in freezing temperature. When approached, men claim-
—thomas chan photo
ed to be UBC library security force officers, searching car for overdue
books and subversive material. After being foiled in break-in attempt quasi
facsimiles left phony parking ticket and later had fake tow truck remove
'Automata boom does not compute'
There will be as many computers as there are
people in the 21st century, a University of
California at Berkeley professor said Thursday.
"There is a population explosion in
decision-making machines and nobody's worrying about it," Richard Meier told 140 people
in Buch. 106.
"The number of automata (computers) are
increasing at a rate of 40 per cent, while the
number of vehicles are only increasing at a rate
of two per cent, and machines at a rate of four
per cent. This will be a major concern of the
1980s and '90s," Meier said.
Meier is an expert on community ecology
and urbanization.
Meier said that in the 21st century California
will be an outpost of the third world and that
B.C. may also be one.
"In the 21st century California will be a prosperous outgrowth of the Third World. The
majority of students in California are now
from the Third World and legal and illegal immigration is predominantly from the Third
World," he said.
"I suspect that B.C. is like California. With
your growing oriental population, B.C. may
become genetically representative of the other
side of the Pacific."
Meier also said the world's carbon dioxide is
collecting in central Canada.
"The whole world's carbon dioxide is doing
you in," he said. "The rest of the world is
becoming more important as it infringes on
our environment, Meier said. We need another
paradigm so that we can use our intelligence
constructively, he added. "We don't trust
economists, lawyers, social worker types, and
systems people. There is no adequate body of
theory to tell us what to do."
Meier said he believes community ecology
has an important role to play in helping us deal
creatively with urban life.
"At present community ecology is
underdeveloped, but because it is new and incomplete it will be attractive to the best
LEVESQUE . . . Quebec eyesore
additional $205 million .the
revisions would cost, although free
tuition at the college and university
level is part of the Parti Quebecois
platform. He did agree to meet with
students to discuss the issue.
When speaking to students
Wednesday, Morin said he would
meet with representatives from the
six regions of the province to
discuss, but not negotiate, student
A second demonstration occurred simultaneously at Laval
University in Quebec City. Six
hundred students demonstrated at
the campus during a speech by
premier Rene Levesque.
The aim of the demonstration
was to gain recognition for the
student aid struggle, an ANEQ
spokesman said.
ANEQ will hold a special
congress today and Saturday to
discuss its demands, what form
it should now take, and
strategies to be used in negotiating
with Morin.
Twenty-five CEGEPs have now
been closed by protesting students. Pag* 2
Friday, November 24, 1978
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2671 W. Broadway, 733-2215 Friday, November 24, 1978
Pag* 3
ethics battle
-peter menyasz photo
IT'S ANTI-FREEZE TIME again at TRIUMF cyclotron and technicians prepare to winterize complex machinery.
In addition to cyclotron coolant, lighter grade motor oil was added, since frosty weather means thick oil will fail to
sufficiently lubricate sub-atomic protons travelling at 800 million kilometers per hour. First snowfall in Vancouver
had other city residents searching for similar substances for less scientific purposes. .
UIC committee uncommitted
National Union of Students
received a non-committal, but
interested response Tuesday when it
told the parliamentary committee
on labor, manpower and immigration that students do not want
to have to go on unemployment
The committee is studying the
proposed bill which would cut the
unemployment insurance program,
and will be considering amendments to it before it goes back to
the House of Commons for third
NUS president John Tuzyk told
the committee that students'
primary objective was not unemployment insurance benefits but the
creation of job opportunities.
But NUS believes "protection
from financial hardship endured by
unemployed young people while
seeking work not immediately
available for them should continue," Tuzyk said.
NUS criticized three of the cuts,
including the extra weeks of work
needed for new entrants, the increase in minimum hours of work
needed for insurability, and the
decrease in the benefit rate.
Tuzyk also said NUS believed
students were not abusers of the UI
Committee members asked
Tuzyk about the problems of un
employment for graduating
students, the rechannelling of UI
savings into job creation, and the
effect of the cuts on students from
low-income and high-income
They did not challenge points
made by Tuzyk or presented in the
NUS brief to the committee.
Progressive Conservative
member Jon McGrath suggested
introducing a special qualifying
period for students, as is done in
areas of high unemployment, in
view of their particularly high unemployment rate.
NDP member Fonse Faour later
questioned the suggestion, pointing
out that special privileges given
students could easily be taken
away. He said he preferred an
equitable system for all, rather than
special privileges for one group.
NUS reacted to the McGrath
suggestion by saying it was not
looking for special favors and did
not see student unemployment as
separate from the general unemployment problem.
The NUS presentation "indicated to members of all parties
that students are watching very
carefully what their positions will
be on the proposed UI changes,"
Tuzyk said.
"It seems that members of both
opposition parties, at least from
what they said, were sympathetic to
what we put forward. It certainly
seemed that our message was
"But we have to see if they
follow it up with amendments to
the bill," he said.
Only one Liberal member was
present at the NUS presentation,
although the Liberals hold the
majority of seats on the committee.
After a lengthy battle, a disagreement between a former UBC post
graduate student and the engineering faculty has been resolved.
Subhash Sharma was accused of
violating professional ethics when
he named his PhD supervisor,
mechanical engineering professor'
Vinod Modi, as a joint author pf an
excerpt of Sharma's PhD thesis.
Modi wrote a.letter to halt public-
tioh of the article in a scientific
journal claiming it was unethical
because his name was used without
his knowledge or consent.
Sharma said he had approached
Modi several times about the article
and received no objections on its
But both sides are now willing to
forget the issue after Modi and
Sharma met Thursday with acting
mediators mechanical engineering
professor Philip Hill, Alma Mater
Society president Paul Sandhu and
acting engineering dean Donald
The matter was discussed and
Modi and Sharma have reached a
final agreement.
"Dr. Sharma is free to publish
any additional results from his doctoral dissertation provided that he
does not directly or indirectly make
use of Dr. Modi's name in the
publication," the statement of
agreement reads.
Sharma said Thursday that the
meeting revealed Modi had interfered in preventing Sharma from
getting a job.
He also said a claim made by Hill
and Modi that the article was not of
sufficient quality to carry Modi's
hame was proved false.
"The claim that the quality of the
article was poor was false. It was
really a good piece of work and that
was the reason the publisher wanted
to verify it with me in the first
place," Sharma said.
Sandhu said the main problem
had been that Modi had not given
his consent when Sharma submitted
the publication. That was what prompted Modi to send a letter to the
publisher, he added.
"We talked about it and felt since
Sharma had done the most work it
was his right to hand in the publication," he said.
Sandhu said both Sharma and the
engineering faculty consider the
case closed and added the matter
will not interfere with Sharma's
future employment chances.
Dean of
science to
retire in 79
UBC science dean George
Volkoff has announced his
retirement as head of the faculty,
with which he has. been associated
as a student and professor since
the 1930s.
But no replacement has yet been
named although the position
becomes vacant June 30, 1979.
"It's like the mating-daiice of the
cranes, trying to hire someone for a
position like this around here,"
Volkoff said Monday. "It's a
pretty involved process. I'm staying
at arms length from the whole
Volkoff graduated from UBC in
1934 and received his master's
degree at the university two years
later. After graduate work at
Berkeley, California, he was given
an assistant professorship in 1946
and became a full professor the
same year. He was named physics
department head in 1962 and
became dean of sciences in 1972.
"I feel like I've been here since
the place first opened. I guess I've
never really graduated. But
everyone turns 65 and has to move
along eventually," he said.
UBC education dean John
Andrews also recently announced
his resignation, but plans to
maintain a position in the education
'Anita misreads Bible
in anti-gay campaign'
Forum hits print
UBC has a new cultural
Visa, multilingual production,
appeared on campus Tuesday and
describes itself as a periodical
exclusively for letters.
The first issue was published in
five languages, including English,
Chinese, Persian, Spanish and
Visa provides a forum for
students'_ views printed "in any
language the people want," International House coordinator Saf
Bokhari says.
"Visa is not just a forum for
foreign students. We want to reach
out to the whole community," he
"There are no plans for censorship of any sort regarding the
subject material submitted."
Visa publishes monthly and is
available free at International
House. Subjects in the first issue
ranged from political statements to
poetry. Submissions are due on the
15th of every publishing  month;
From page, 1
sanction against "the temple priests
who had been castrated and whose
acts of worship consisted of sexual
relationships with their male
"Jesus didn't say anything about
a lot of things," said Elrod, referring to the lack of mention of
homosexuality in the New
"One disciple is described as one
Jesus loved" and the Bible mentions that at the Last Supper this
disciple was close to Jesus, against
his breast. Can you imagine Anita
walking in on the Last Supper and
finding a man on Jesus' breast?
"It is also strange to note that
neither Jesus nor 11 of the disciples
were married, although this was
unusual for those times," Elrod
said. "Peter was the only married
disciple, and Paul thought that
celibacy was best.
"The Bible mentions 'men committing shameful acts with men and
receiving due penalties within
themselves.' However, the Bible
continues to say 'therefore you
have no excuse, old man, for judging one another.' People like Anita
Bryant stop after the first verse,"
he sdid.
Homosexuals are included as
among the wicked who shall not inherit the earth, but homosexual is in
this case a mistranslation of 'male
prostitute,' he said.
"Whether you see gayness as
created or see gayness as evolved, it
is existing — it follows that it has
purpose," he said. "Why? Because
gayness is not a choice. Celibacy or
exercising sexuality is a choice.
Gayness is not. It is a given."
Elrod said there were several reasons for the existence of homosexuality.
"First, having a gay portion of
the population is a biological way
of producing non-childrearing
persons," he said.
"Secondly, gays can serve a
prophetic function. Their sexuality
allows gays to be removed from
society, removed from Dick and
Jane reader reality," he added.
'■A third reason is that gays are
'so artistic,' "he added laughingly,
"just like the blacks have so much
'rhythm.' "
"Straight people have biological
restraints against creativity and
gays are more creative because
when the brake on same-sex activity
is broken, the brake on creativity
seems to disappear."
Elrod   said   non-Christiap   re
ligions have certain practices, but
not rules, to deal with homosexuality.
"Same-sex relationships are very
common in the Moslem faith, but
then the Moslems prohibit premarital contact between sexes, so
what else can they do?
"Homosexuality is less prevalent
in the Hindu faith, but ft does exist
without condemnation.
"Communism is not a
philosophy, but a religion^" said
Elrod, and so for gays "all you can
do in Moscow is sit on a bench
outside the Bolshoi — there's nowhere to go after that."
Research indicates homosexuality results from biological causes
and is not necessarily genetic, said
A proper view of homosexuality
"requires application of the entire
meaning of our Judeo-Christian
Tradition," he added.
Elrod read his favorite Biblical
verse, Micah 6-8: " 'He has showed
you, O man, what is good; and
what does the Lord require of you
but do justice and to love kindness,
and to walk humbly with your God'
"All I ask of Anita (Bryant) is
that she do justice, and to love
kindness. ,-ind to walk humbiy with
God.". ' ..    ; ,    .    .   ;'.". Pag* 4
Friday, November 24, 1978
Eye for eye, buck for buck
UBC at the crossroads.
Two stories in this week's Ubysseys indicate the
precariousness of this university's position. Precarious
not in the sense of its continued existence, but
precarious in the sense that UBC stands to lose its
place as one of Canada's premier universities.
In Thursday's paper the serious lack of funds for
basic educational equipment was documented.
Physics department head Roy Nodwell and chemistry
department head Charles McDowell said UBC is in
peril of losing its first-class standing among international universities.
"UBC students seeking jobs may be at a serious
disadvantage, because they will have to compete with
students from universities that have more in the way
of facilities," said McDowell.
The decrepit status of our equipment is of course, a
direct result of the budget cuts this university has experienced in recent years.
The lack of modern equipment in itself is no
tragedy. But it is significant in that it points out where
we are heading — down the road to mediocrity.
In the same issue, a front page story described the
steps some Alma Mater Society politicians, notably
AMS president Paul Sandhu, are taking to express
students' concerns about higher tuition fees — also a
product of education cutbacks. The implications of
these two issues is clear; we are going to be paying
more for less. Higher tuition fees will be rewarded with
obsolete facilities, fewer professors —in short, a lower
quality of education. And it is all due to one thing —
education cutbacks.
It would be easy to blame the Socred provincial
government, and indeed, they must take the lion's
share. But the cutbacks also indicate the attitude of
B.C. citizens to higher education. Many, particularly
those in lower and middle income strata, pay the biggest slice of the funds used to finance higher education but receive the fewest rewards of university
Let's face it, in spite of student bursaries and loans,
universities are still only educating society's upper
If the majority of Canadians felt a personal stake in
the future of our universities they would not permit an
ad-hoc committee of car-dealers to take something of
value away from them.
To have a stake in the universities they must be participants. UBC must examine its policies and determine if what it is offering British Columbians is
enough. For example, can working people follow
degree-granting part-time programs with reasonable
ease and with a good selection of courses?
Part of the problem may be a variation of the
chicken and egg conundrum. How can you increase
service to under-serviced members of society without
a corresponding increase in the university's operating
budget? On the other hand why should mainstream
British Columbians support the university until it does?
The answers will not come from the current provincial
government, so a way out of our crisis — and a
serious crisis it is — must come from the university
A formidable challenge, given UBC's current status
in the eyes of B.C. citizens and the provincial government.
And now ladies and gentlemen, this year's fifth and final student. From Tuxedo here's...
J?6vpT. Matthew
Bacchae big bust for Freddy
The recent production of The
Bacchae at Frederick Wood
Theatre can only have been the
work of UBC's faculty of engineering. The production featured
enough pulleys for lifting and
dropping props and people to keep
a class of mechanical engineering
students happy. The sturdy spiral
ramp and on-stage seating must
have taken the civil engineers hours
to calculate, and apprentice carpenters much longer to build. No
doubt the fire and light effects were
a sop to the chemical and electrical
And what about the acting?
Director Donald Soule thoughtfully
took the pressure off his student
cast by writing "a new English
version" of Euripides' masterpiece.
Except for a brief exchange between Graeme Cameron as Teiresias
and Derek Allen as Cadmus, none
of the actors were called upon to do
any acting.
Dave Adams as Pentheus was
limited to stamping his foot and
executing a series of Martha Graham hops. A mechanical doll doing
gym exercises played Dionysius,
with Lesley Wade speaking the part
off stage.
Most of the time the director had
the cast parading gingerly around
the ramp, changing costumes and
wigs, and reciting lines more or less
in unison. To compensate for
absence of moving drama, Soule
overwhelmed the audience with
loud sounds.
The result was reminiscent of a
circus, although the thrill of waiting
for someone to fall off the ramp or
slip out of a harness really didn't
NOVEMBER 24, 1978
Published Tuesdays, Thursdays and Fridays throughout the
university year by the Alma Mater Society of the University of
B.C. Editorial opinions are those of the staff and not of the
AMS or the university administration. Member, Canadian
University Press. The Ubyssey publishes Page Friday, a weekly commentary and review. The Ubyssey's editorial office is in
room 241K of the Student Union Building. Editorial departments, 228-2301; Advertising, 228-3977.
Editor: Mike Bocking
The staff floated away on a sea of suds as Heather (Ivory) Conn burst in shouting "You can't win if
you don't buy a ticket!" "The girl has a keen sense of the obvious," wryly expressed Tom Hawthorn.
"When I'm in a red mood I feel like carving up Angie Dickinson," muttered Rossi McGee. Jeff Rankin
sang in falsetto "Bye bye fry fry, and so long whiskers." Peter Menyasz took the hint and left to get in
Schick shape. "I am stuck on bandaids, and bandaids stick on me," teased Peter Stockland. Doug
Todd put a charge in his life as he took Bill Tieleman's advice and tried Mellow Roast, a new laxative.
Mary-Ann Brunoro cooked up a tin of manhandler as Mario Lowther arrived with a selection of
Wonder-bras. John Lawrence ran around the collar as Julie Wheelwright knocked off a quart of Geritol
and danced out to fuse her teeth together with Greg Strong's Dentucreme. Chris Bocking strode in
with a box of Pampers and Vicki Booth cried "Give them to Mikey, He'll wear anything." Glen
Schaefer chased man-from-glad Gray Kyles with a tube of Preparation H, as Woody Hunt coyly asked
Dave Dixon if they were going to have an Aviance night. N. D. Nathan sat in a corner repeating "Plop
plop fizz fizz," as the staff sighed with amusement.
rival any circus I have experienced.
What we saw was also
discouragingly reminiscent of many
previous Freddy Wood productions
in which sets and stage effects, not
the actors, have been the stars —
numerous Brockington productions, for example, or Soule's
own Deus Ex Machina, which
featured such spectacular effects as
a crucifixion and a hanging. Unfortunately, The Bacchae didn't
even measure up to these mediocre
efforts. Judging by the applause, if
Soule had been foolish enough to
provide an intermission, few
members of the audience would
have returned for a second act.
For me the question is whether to
return to Freddy Wood Theatre at
all. After years of buying season's
tickets, under the illusion that I was
supporting student theatre, I have
finally come to my senses.
What I have been supporting are
the egos of certain members of the
theatre department, who have been
allowed to direct, act in and even
write plays, under the auspices of
the University Benevolent Club,
while far more talented members of
these professions struggle in the real
The elaborate productions are
undoubtedly giving some students
excellent training in set design and
in other aspects of theatre production. Despite my earlier comments,
I don't want to disparage the department's achievements in that
But what does a production like
The Bacchae do to train students as
actors? What, for that matter have
most other Freddy Wood productions in recent years done to train
When faculty members and pro
fessional actors get most of the
important roles (go take a look at
program notes from the past few
years), how can students learn to
handle the rhythm of Shakespeare's
lines or the peculiarities of Brecht's
As I have said, I have come to my
senses. I am going to support
student theatre at UBC from now
on. And I am going to do that by
boycotting all faculty productions
in the Freddy Wood Playpen.
name withheld by request
Caf slop blasted
I wish to complain about the
spoiled semi-adults who eat in the
Student Union Building cafeteria.
Most of the people eating in this
area don't seem to understand that
they should dispose into the
available receptacles the garbage
that they create, and return their
own trays to the racks. In the past
seven years that I have eaten in SUB
this is the worst for instant squalor.
Two incidents to illustrate the
apathy and sloppiness which just
happen to involve females. One
accidentally spilled some milk on a
chair and after I had brought it to
her attention, she ignored both my
remonstrations and the spilled
milk. The next person sitting in the
chair cleaned up the mess. In
another case a chair was tipped over
as the former occupant got up and
walked away. A friend and I
counted six people walk around the
chair before it was picked up.
I attempt to sit in non-smoking
areas but many smokers ignore the
signs and puff unconcernedly over
their neighboring diners in the
marked-off areas. They then
nonchalantly butt their smokes on
the table.
If you have moved trays on to
another table to acquire space to
eat, how about taking your tray
when you are finished and placing it
on the rack so that the next diner
has a clean table at which to eat.
Throw your garbage in the container provided. Why should
anybody have to handle another's
slops and garbage?
J. Pinder-Moss
botany department
bloom for
The president, executive and
members of the West Point Grey
Branch No. 142 of the Royal Canadian Legion wish to express their
appreciation and thanks to the
faculty and students for their
wonderful response to the Vancouver Poppy Fund Appeal which
amounted to $1,600.
This money is used for the express purpose of providing visible
evidence of remembrance and to
make available funds for needy
veterans and dependents and to give
employment to disabled veterans.
B. W. Winchcombe,
secretary-manager Friday, November 24, 1978
Pag* 5
Sex bigot misled on conversion
In response to the letter appearing in the Nov. 21 issue of The
Ubyssey, entitled 'Alternative
sexuality,' I would like to begin by
registering my shock that a person
in fourth year arts could write such
a bigoted letter and then refuse to
release his/her name.
Don't fight
In reply to "name withheld" on
gay sex (Nov. 2l): guilt feelings are
a burden and a hindrance. I wasted
some eight years of my life fighting
gay impulses (while in practice my
interest in the opposite sex was very
I learned to accept gay emotions
as beneficial: i.e. a basis for the
expression of caring for, and involvement with, other people. My
regret is the time wasted. P.A.
[name withheld by request]
The most incredible thing in this
letter is the accusation that gay
people are trying to "convert"
Gay people grow up under
constant pressure from straight
society to try to convert them to an
orientation that is not in their
nature. The author actually suggests
that a gay person's fear of rejection
is a favorable condition, because it
enables certain straights to recruit
gay people to a life of self-hatred,
shame, doubt and destruction.
yy|i|.i                    (J-**?!/
Yet these same straights who
would coerce gay people into the
bondage of a repressed and tormented lifestyle are the ones who
label gay people as the recruiters
when they try to help their gay
brothers and sisters make their own
choices. Gay people who have
found the strength to "come out of
the closet" are only trying to help
those that aren't yet able to express
their sexual identity by trying to
build up their self-esteem.
I would suggest also that the
author is somewhat misled in
her/his understanding of the approach now taken by most churches
towards the subject of homosexuality.
For those that are interested in
religious counselling, there are two
gay churches in this city; one for
Catholics and the other non-
Ron K rause
arts 3
Cancer sticker
Every time I smoke a cigarette, I
think about those disgusting warnings from doctors that cigarette
smoking causes lung cancer. Those
warnings should be ignored by all
people who love to smoke.
Who wants the long boring life
of the abstainer when one can enjoy
the   slightly   briefer   but   more
pleasurable life of a smoker. And
the more packs of cigarettes one
smokes a day, the more pleasure.
Smoking relaxes the nerves,
heightens the awareness and fills
one with happy thoughts.
To heck with those busybody
doctors. Let's snub our noses at
them. Charles Slade
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Friday, November 24, 1978
'Tween classes
Women's drop-in, noon, SUB 130.
Gay coffeehouse, 9:30 p.m., Theodora's at
Fourth and Burrard.
Swimming party and pizza afterwards, 8 p.m.,
Byng swimming pool.
T-shirts are ready, noon, SUB 111.
Beer and pizza night, 5 p.m., SUB 207.
Briefing for the McGowan Cup, noon, SUB 211.
General meeting, noon, SUB 212.
Form letters on behalf of prisoners of conscience
in PDRY, Rhodesia and Syria, noon, SUB concourse.
SFfen lives! General meeting, noon, SUB 117.
Folk night with live band and free coffee and admission, 8:30 p.m., Grad Centre garden room.
Skating party,  8:15 p.m., Thunderbird Winter
Sports Centre.
Mandarin class, noon, Angus 221.
Happy hour free for members with $.50 charge
for non-members, 4 p.m., Cecil Green Park.
Photosoc exhibition of club members' prints, until Dec. 1, SUB art gallery.
Shrum Bowl, tickets available for $2 at AMS
business office, 8 p.m., Empire Stadium.
Cabaret night, 8 p.m., SUB 200.
Sports night, 7:30 p.m.,  Thunderbird Winter
S0orts Complex gym A.
Pre-game  warm-up  with  admission  for  those
with Shrum Bowl tickets only, 4 p.m., SUB Pit.
Women's drop-in, noon, SUB 130.
Disco      lesson,      noon,       SUB      207.
Gleb Zekulin speaks on Solzhenitsyn the artist:
Reflections of a reader, noon, Buch. 2238.
Cantonese class, noon, Buch. 331.
Mandarin class, noon, Angus 221.
General meeting, noon, SUB 130.
Supper and important business and programming for next term, 6 p.m., Lutheran Campus Centre.
Free one-act play called The Great American
Desert, noon today and Wednesday, SUB art
Sports night, 7:30 p.m., Thunderbird Winter
Sports Centre Complex gym B.
Guest lecture by Barry Ledwidge, noon, Angus
Hot flashes
There's tun
for everyone
Canada may have Grey Cup
week, but Vancouver has the
Shrum Bowl.
Simon Fraser Clansmen and our
own Thunderbirds meet on the field
of honor this Saturday at 8 p.m. in
Empire Stadium. The T-Birds are
fresh from an almost miraculous
charge for the Canadian college
championship. They'll be looking to
avenge years of ridicule from SFU.
The bone crushing crunch of a
half ton of football players will be
preceded by a special pep rally in
the Pit Saturday at 4 p.m. before
game time. And nine buses will
carry jubilant UBC students to the
place of victory.
Get out and cheer our team and
let's become number 1!
Myet Soviet
For anyone interested in Russian
literature, Dr. Gleb Zekulin from the
University of Toronto's department
of Slavic language and literature will
be speaking on Solzhenitsyn the
Artist: Reflections of a Reader
Monday noon in Buch. 2238.
All steamed up
If you're full of hot air and want
to let off steam,  UBC's debating
society has a new burning issue.
They're reintroducing the
McGoun Cup competition, once
held at UBC from 1923 to 1969.
This year, universities and colleges
from all over Western Canada are
invited to compete for the
cup and debate the topic That the
CBC's Eastern Elitism Will Be Its
Anyone interested in the January
tournament please attend a
meeting today at noon in SUB 211.
Roast Allmands
Warren Allmand, federal minister
of corporate and consumer affairs
(and an MP for Notre-Dame-de-
Grace riding in Montreal), will speak
Wednesday noon in SUB 207.
+    1* MOVING AND t.
I    SI
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Small Jobs
2060 W. 10th,
1979/80 PROGRAMS
Check which available
C   FRESHMAN YEAR — of 4-year program to B.A., B.Sc.
degrees for high school graduates.
r:   ONE YEAR PROGRAM — for Arts & Science University
iZ   REGULAR STUDIES — for University transfer students
toward B.A. and B.Sc. degrees.
D  GRADUATE STUDIES — Master's, Doctoral and Visiting
Graduate programs.
H   SUMMER COURSES — given in English.
Scholarships available for needy students.
For Application and Information, write:
Academic Affairs Committee,
Canadian Friends of the Hebrew University,
1506 McGregor, Montreal H3G 1 B9. (514) 932-21 33
Lesbian drop-in, noon, SUB 130.
General and organizational meeting, noon. International House board room.
Consumer and corporate affairs minister Warren
Allmand speaks, noon, SUB 207.
1110 Seymour St.
7:30 p.m. - 9:45   p.m.
f-lte)       -,
1:00 — 3:00 p.m.
& CHILDREN    .75
Tl   V
ADULTS            $1   2S
r/M     -4
The Faculty of Administration at the University of Ottawa offers graduate programs in Business Administration and
Health Administration.
These Masters programs are open to qualified candidates
who have a baccalaureate degree, or others who have significant relevant administrative experience.
Our graduates are versatile and flexible because these programs prepare students for management functions in both
the public and private sectors. In an era where managers and
administrators often move from one sector to another, the
University presents its MBA and MHA students with the opportunity to acquire multi-sectorial inter-disciplinary
knowledge and skills within flexible, but demanding programs offered by a faculty of scholars and professionals, the
majority of whom teaches in both official languages.
Complete applications for the September 1979 trimester must
be received by:
The Director of
the MBA Program
Faculty of Administration
University of Ottawa
Ottawa, Ontario
K1N 9B5
no later than
February 1, 1979
for the M.B.A.
The Director
School of Health
University of Ottawa
Ottawa, Ontario
K1N 6N5
April 15, 1979
for the M.H.A.
RATES: Student - 3 Nhes, 1 day $1-50; additional linas 35c.
Commercial — 3 lines, 1 day $2.75; additional lines 50c Additional days $2.50 and 45c
Classified ads are not accepted by telephone and are payable in advance
Deadline is 11:30 a.m., the day before publication.
Publications Office, Room 241, S.U.8., UBC. Van., B.C. VST TWS.
5 — Coming Events
General Meeting
12:30 SUB 21 1
amnesty ubc
■ FRI. NOV. 24/78
pOQr     <s
— SUB 205 —
-^gjLgr,.   TICKETS $1.00
^M H*Jfl^~ Available in advance
■■ ■ ■ ^^ only, at Ihe Amnesty
UBC Office, SUB 237
NOTE: Due to
Regulations no
Tickets at the
11—For Sale-Private (Con'td.)
'72 FORD, m ton p.u„ 60,000 miles,
AM-FM radio, good shape. $1,995
o.b.o. 224-0466.
VW BEETLE. Exc. body, 3,000 miles on
new brakes, trans and reconditioned
'72 motor, converted to 12 volt, working heater, radio, good snow tiles.
738-1935. $850.
TORONTO $199. One tidcet Sor sale.
Leave Dec. 19 return Jan. 3. Call
Ellen 733-5432.
1975   JIMMY.   4x4,  au*o., ps,   pb,   exc,
39,000,    AM-FM,    tape, CB,    radials,
Bosch    lites,    Monroe shocks,    full
conv.    with   roll   bar. Call   Wayne
25 — Instruction
WANT to improve your skating? Or
learn to skate? Skate UBC offers
general skating, advanced free-
skating and power skating (great for
intramural hockey!) lessons on Saturdays. Lessons for all ages, all
skills. Call us at Skate UBC 228-5995
between 9:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. or
drop into the office at the winter
sports complex.
35 - Lost
Free Public Lecture
Professor Emerita of History
and former head of UBC's
Department ot History
A native British Columbian, Dr. Ormsby is widely known as the author of
the definitive book on the history ot
this province, published for the 1958
first annual day Winter Disco, Friday
1 December 8:30 p.m.-1:00 a.m. Grad
Centre Ballroom. $2.00 with AMS
card: $2.50 without. Full facilities.
10 — For Sale — Commercial
COMMUNITY SPORTS. Excellent prices
for ice skates, hockey, socoer, jogging
and racquet sports equipment. 733-
1613, 3615 West Broadway, Vancouver,
11 - For Sale — Private
P.B.,  Radio.   City  tested.  $900.00   or
offer, aeo^aaa.
LOST! Gold Wittraauer watch Friday,
November 17 on campus between B-
Lot and Buchanan. Reward. Phone
263-6394   after  7  p.m.
WOULD PERSON who found Thermos,
Hennings Theatre Tuesday a.m.
please return to ohysics office, 3rd
Floor  Hennings.   Thanks.
50 — Rentals
room, $125/mth. Kitchen facilities.
Priority to 1st and 2nd yr. students.
KS (Kappa Sigma) Fraternty, 2280
Wesbrook. Ph. 224-9679, ask for Greg
or Mike.
65 - Scandals (Confd.)
IS THERE A trombone ptoyer who
would like to practice some noon
hours each week? Contact Ed, Barry
Metallurgy  Building.
HERBERT: When con we meet? M.
85 — Typing
PROFESSIONAL TYPING — IBM Selectric. Essays, thests, etc. Standard
rates. Kits area. Phone Lynda, 732-
TYPING — 75c per page. Fast and accurate by experienced typist. Gordon,
65 — Scandals
Christmas Ball, Friday 1 December
8:30 p.m.-1:00 a.m. Grad Centre Ballroom. $2.00 with AMS card; $2.50
without. Full facilities.
AEIfglfu, what dark secret did the fire
flames reveal? Happy Birthday
TYPING: Essays, theses, manuscripts,
reports, resumes, etc. Fast and accurate service. Bilingual. Clemy, 324-9414.
FAST, efficient typing. Reasonable
rates. 266-5053.
Selectric Correcting Typewriter, call
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99 — Miscellaneous
EUROPE — Camping and hotel tours
from 8 days to 9 weeks. AFRICA —
Overland expeditions London/Nairobi
13 weeks, London/Johannesburg 1€
weeks. KENYA Safaris - 2 and S
weeks For brochures contact Track!
Travel, Suite 300, 562 Eglinton Ave
East, Toronto, Ont. M4P 1B9.
Rent  cabin  day/week 732-0174  eves.
1 '^ 4558 W 10th
224-9112 or 224-5858
—Open to all registered, full-time and part-time UBC students.
— Entries restricted to previously unpublished, short stories.
Maximum length: 3000 words.
—Deadline: January 19,1979.
—For  further information  call  or drop  in  to  the  UBC  Alumni
Association offices at Cecil Green Park, 228-3313; or, check at
Speakeasy in the SUB. PAGE FRIDAY
•SOUTH AFRICA—A white South African speaks his mind
•SLAVERY— End of the European era of colonialism
•AFRICAN POETRY— Confront modern ways with tradition
•AFRICAN LEADERS —Measure up against western leaders
•SOUTH AFRICA TV —Complete government monopoly
•ETHIOPIA— Military triumphed over Lion of Judah
•AFRICAN COMMUNISM—Revolutionary regimes
•TANZANIA —UBC engineer describes  experience
•NIGERIAN NOVELISTS-changes in African life
•APARTHEID ECONOMICS-Controversy over speech {African communism]
Communists fill Africa power vacuum
In the last 10 years there has been a
dramatic increase in the number of revolutionary socialist regimes on the African
continent. The growth of Communist influence in countries like Ethiopia, Angola
and Mozambique within the past five years is
explained by a number of factors.
Most African states are too weak to resist
foreign penetration because they are socially
or economically backward. The Soviet Union
is willing to intervene in Africa and communism has attracted many African
politicians and intellectuals. They are attracted by the idea of a central government
which can consolidate political control over a
Another reason for the expansion of Communism in Africa is that the withdrawal of
the European colonial powers has left a
power vacuum and many of the new states
have underdeveloped political infrastructures.
Without trained industrial managers,
scientists and technical specialists, not to
mention competent civil servants and reliable
armed forces, many African countries aren't
well equipped to deal with the dangers of
tribalism, despotism and economic or political dominance by outside forces.
Military Coups
There have been over 25 military coups in
black Africa since 1960 and where there is no
overt military rule, the government is usually
a one-party state, sometimes founded on the
personality of a single leader or dominance
of one tribe.
One such leader systefn was Kwame
Nkrumah's in Ghana that lasted from 1957
to 1966, when he was overthrown by the army. And in Kenya, the Kikuyu tribe,
dominated the governing political party,
KANU, since independence.
Although some of these one-party states
allow popular participation in the political
process as in Tanzania, none of them can be
classified as western-styled democratic states.
Multi-party democracy is not applicable at a
time when most African states have widespread illiteracy, rampant tribalism and
severe economic underdevelopment. These
states need strong central governments
committed to social progress and economic
Strong leadership is what the African
states lack. They have mismanaged their
economic development to such an extent that
they are international welfare cases
dependent on help from such organizations
as the International Monetary Fund.
This economic incompetence seems to cut
across ideological boundaries.
Capitalist Zaire has been ruled by an
incompetent dictator, Mobutu Sese Seko,
since 1965. Nepotism and corruption have
flourished and the government of Zaire is in
debt to the IMF by more than $800 million
due to economic mismanagement.
boy watches as parents practice with wooden   weapons
Marxist-Leninism means rapid planned
modernization and anti-traditionalism to
many African intellectuals. They see their
native traditions as a barrier to rapid socioeconomic development. It also suggests anti-
imperialism and opposition to the European
capitalist colonial powers who occupied
Africa for hundreds of years.
One country that has come under a
Communist government in the past five years
is the Peoples' Republic of Angola. Under
the MPLA party, Angola is transforming
itself into a classic Communist state. The
MPLA was aided by Cuba and the Soviet
Union in its crushing military victory over its
political rivals, FNLA and UNITA, in the
civil war of 1975-1976.
The MPLA may not be successful, but
their intentions are clear. Since their
ascension to power in the wake of the
collapse of Portuguese rule in Angola in
1975, they have nationalized most industry
and limited the influence of the Roman
Catholic Church by placing education under
government control. They have also introduced co-operative agriculture.
The decisive help the Soviets gave to the
Angolans during the civil war demonstrates
their willingness to intervene in Africa. The
West was unable to assist either the FNJ^A
and UNITA because both groups had
received assistance from South Africa.
A similar combination of factors has
enabled the Soviet Union and Cuba to save
the   present   Marxist   military   regime   in
Since the military coup that overthrew the
feudal system in Ethiopia in 1974, pro-Soviet
elements within the Ethiopian armed forces
have managed to eliminate their rivals within
Ethiopia's ruling military council, the
Led by Lt.-Col. Mengistu Haile Mariam,
the Dergue have ruthlessly crushed both
leftist and rightist rivals within Ethiopia.
And with massive Soviet and Cuban military
assistance they have managed to defeat
Somalia in a major war fought over the
Ogaden desert region in eastern Ethiopia.
This combination of Soviet intervention
and internal revolution is not the only way
that Communist regimes can emerge in
Africa. In Mozambique the attractiveness of
Communist ideology to many in the
liberation movement that took power from
the Portuguese in 1975, FRELIMO, was
insufficient to ensure that a Marxist-Leninist
regime emerged upon independence.
The government of Mozambique, like
those of Angola and Ethiopia, has cut off
trade with Rhodesia, although it maintains
trade with South Africa to ensure its
economic survival. It has pursued a militant
socialist policy in domestic affairs and has
taken a pro-Soviet line in foreign affairs,
despite the fact that it is less dependent on
the USSR than either Angola or Ethiopia.
It can be argued that these three states are
isolated cases, yet many of the factors that
assisted radical takeovers in these countries
are present in other African countries;
poverty, illiteracy and an attachment of the
intelligentsia to Socialist ideology.
South Africa
Another factor that will almost certainly
lead to a massive increase in Soviet influence
is the crisis in South Africa. It is likely to lead
to a violent confrontation between the entrenched white minority and the black
majority. The blacks have been deprived of
the civil rights that the whites enjoy — such
as the right to vote in an all-South Africa
election and the right to organize labor
It is sometimes argued that the black
population enjoys social conditions far
superior to anything found in the rest of
Africa and therefore there should be no
But black South Africans do not live in the
rest of Africa. They live in South Africa and
know that they cannot determine their own
The alienation that this lack of political
power breeds among the black population of
South Africa has ominous consequences for
the future of the white regime, as the riots in
Soweto indicate.
This latent discontent could be easily
transformed into revolutionary violence once
the arms and training facilities are available.
The Soviets will be more than ready to supply
these as they have in the past struggles in
Angola and Mozambique.
Turn to PF 8
PRO-GOVERNMENT DEMONSTRATION . . .  supports Zaire's  president Mobutu Sese Seko during invasion crisis in  March  1977.
Page Friday, 2
Friday, November 24, 1978 I South Africa,
White South African speaks out freely
APARTHEID . . . the humiliation of a street search in Johannesberg
N.  D.  Nathan  is a professor of Civil
Engineering at UBC, and is a former South
The doctor takes his family to the movies
for the evening. On the way home they are
stopped by the police and are forced to get
out of the car and undergo a search. In this
process the doctor is treated as though he
were a common, but rather imbecilic
criminal. It is a humiliating experience,
especially in front of one's wife and children.
However, he is innocent of any offence
and he and his family are eventually, though
somewhat grudgingly, allowed to proceed.
They soon reach their home which is comfortable enough, but surprisingly without electric power.
Or is it surprising? He is a black doctor and
his country is South Africa. As a black man,
he is, of course, not allowed to develop his
full potential, or to enjoy the full fruits of his
talents, to live in the suburb of his choosing,
to win the respect of all his fellow citizens.
Although he is far away, his treatment
diminishes us all and we must concern
ourselves with his affairs. If we can save
anyone from suffering and humiliation, we
cannot sit idly by.
One strategy is to cut off trade and investment in countries with oppressive government such as South Africa and Chile. A
government is in power to manage the society
and the economy of its people. When the
economy is weakened to, the point of collapse, the government will also be weakened.
Political Strategies
The population will suffer in the short run.
But even those that formerly supported the
government will become so disaffected that
conditions will be ripe for a coup. A new,
more popular, government will be installed to
save the economy and to restore freedom.
In some cases, the army is used as the instrument of oppression. It may be then, that
as economic conditions deteriorate, the army
will become a more privileged class as in
Uganda, with a greater interest in preserving
the regime. In that case, any oppression will
deepen. Economic chaos has not generally
been a fertile ground for democracy. It has
often led to the suppression of liberty.
In spite of this danger, it is clear that
economic stability gives a government an air
of success. We feel it can affect the policies
of South Africa by economic pressure. It's
not simply for the sake of our own self-
esteem that we wish to avoid underwriting
the success of the South African government,
but because we hope to make a real contribution to the well-being of the non-white people
it rules. Therefore we should be reasonably
sure of the effects of our strategy.
But the circumstances in South Africa are
quite different. The government is not in
power primarily to manage the economy. It is
there with one overriding mandate: to
preserve the culture, language and the racial
purity of the Afrikaner people and to keep
them the masters of the country. There is no
hope that a sinking economy would cost it
that mandate.
Throughout their long and embattled
history the Afrikaner people have shown that
the preservation of their cultural heritage is
worth more to them than economic growth
or the esteem of nations. The government
can make any number of mistakes in other
spheres, but as long as it is true to that mandate it does not lose any of its voters.
Then what is the effect of disinvestment in
South Africa? A shrinking economy and loss
of jobs. The hardest hit are the blacks. Unskilled labour is the first to be laid off and the
least able to weather the hardships that
Inevitably, this must lead to an intensification of the most hated aspects of apartheid
as the dispossessed crowd the urban centres
to claim a stake in a dwindling economy.
The structure of apartheid has been
erected to control just such situations and to
maintain the present distribution of privilege,
power, and status in the community. Laws
which prevent blacks from owning property
in urban areas have effectively blocked the
emergence of a black middle class. These
laws are intended, in the end, to make every
black a visitor in South Africa from an
autonomous "Homeland".
Chief among these restrictions are the pass
laws which involve every black in a Kafkes-
que struggle to get a job in the city. It makes
it possible for him to be deported to a
Homeland he has never seen if he loses his
job. And it led to our doctor being stopped
and searched by the police.
The effect of these laws is greatest in times
of economic distress, and least in times of
economic buoyancy. The hardships they
cause, the disruption of families and the
despair are intensified by disinvestment.
Perhaps to the point of provoking a black
That is the explicit hope of those who advocate disinvestment. They have lost hope in
nonviolent progress and believe that
desperate measures alone can succeed. This is
not an unreasonable conclusion. But the consequences of this action should be carefully
If the stategy is successful, it means a decision has been taken to plunge the country into civil war and that the decision has been
made on behalf of those who will suffer
most. This is indeed a heavy responsibility.
What would be the probable outcome of
such a civil war? Do the victims themselves
want it? Is there really no hope of nonviolent
One cannot predict with certainty the
result of a civil war in South Africa, but there
are certain relevant circumstances one should
There is the nature of the people. The
whites of South Africa are not transients,
colonizers from abroad. They are white
Africans, particularly the Afrikaners who
came to stay more than three centuries ago.
They have no other home and they will not
go away.
They are an incredibly tenacious people.
They didn't hesitate to challenge and almost
humiliate the might of the British Empire at
the very peak of its power. Although they
eventually lost that war, they continued the
struggle by other means until they achieved
more than they could have dreamed of fifty
years later.
There is the strength of the state. South
Africa stands in the top twenty nations of the
world and she is an industrial giant in African
terms. This gives whites both the power to
defend themselves and the incentive. They
will not walk lightly away from what they
have wrought.
We may speculate on the nature of the
struggle. Insurgents would not be able to
make a frontal attack on the establishment.
The devices of terror would certainly be used
to win the allegience of the masses. One
could expect, eventually, a level of brutality
from both sides in direct proportion to the
distaste for set-piece battles. Such a struggle
could have no winners. Whatever happened,
the result would be chaos, a set-back from
which it would take more than one generation to recover. No one now involved would
enjoy the fruits of success.
There is compelling evidence that the victims of apartheid themselves do not generally wish to see a violent end. They, too, have
contributed mightily to the strengh of the
land and they do not wish to see it destroyed.
They simply want to be fully-privileged South
Africans themselves and to enjoy their share
in dignity.
A rare constructive contribution to the
South African scene was recently made by
the Arnold Bergstraesser Institute in
Freiburg, West Germany. They spent four
years conducting surveys in South Africa in
the first serious attempt to determine the real
view of both blacks and whites. They invited representatives of all factions to a conference to review the results.
The surveys showed that 68 per cent of
blacks believed that "improvements will only
come through patient negotiations between
black and white leaders." Sixty-one per cent
-of blacks believed that they should never
consider violence.
The outstanding black leader was found to
be Chief Gatsha Buthelizi of the Zulus. Mr.
Buthelezi is an aggressively outspoken and
thoroughly detested critic of the government.
But he has not yet advocated violence
although he warns the government that its
policies will probably provoke it, if they are
What can one do towards a non-violent
solution in South Africa? I cannot tell you.
But there are positive circumstances we
should bear in mind. The white parliamentary opposition is very small, but it is as
liberal as one could wish. The government is
afraid of betraying its mandate to preserve
Afrikanerdom, but the Frieburg polls showed the white electorate is far more receptive
to change than had been supposed.
Non-viefent Solution
White students at the English language
Universities often show great courage in opposing government measures and Afrika"ns
students show increasing signs of forsaking
blind loyalty to traditional views. The
English language press is aggressively liberal
and courageous in its oppostiion to Government policies although it does run ahead of
its readership in this respect.
The Afrikaans press is almost an arm of
the National Party, but even so, it can rebel
against government excesses. And judiciary
has a reputation for independance second to
none in the world. A South African trapped
by unfair laws can at least expect a fair trial.
Those who will have to live with the outcome, black and white, know that the solu-
Turn to PF 11
Pm     mm
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pr     9*  wsem*
DISINVESTMENT . . . can only lead to civil war and increased black suffering
Friday, November 24, 1978
Page Friday. 3 Ethiopia]
Dictatorship keeps Ethiopia in dark
"It's a sad story. Saddest of ai
for the millions of ordinary Ethiopians who . . . have little to look
forward to except the darkness of
increased chaos." —foreign correspondent Blair Thomson
"Ethiopia is a mystery in the
hands of God" —Haile Selassie,
July 1972
In September the military regime
which rules Ethiopia celebrated the
fourth anniversary of the coup
which brought them to power and
ended the 57-year reign of Emperor
Haile Selassie, the Lion of Judah,
King of Kings and Elect of God.
But this celebration of "popular
enthusiasm and patriotic
sentiment" was not greeted joyously by the Ethiopian People's
Revolutionary party, the
underground opposition to the
ruthless Soviet and Cuban backed
dictatorship known as the Dergue.
The EPRP, an organization
made up mostly of students,
teachers, disaffected civil servants
and trade unionists, is in a
desperate struggle to overthrow the
Dergue and its strong man, Lt. Col.
Mengistu Haile-Mariam.
The irony of the Ethiopian situation is that it was the students and
teachers who were instrumental in
supporting the military's ousting of
the 83-year-old emperor.
They had hoped that the new
government would deal with the
country's tragic famines and poverty rather than ignore the people as
Selassie had.
Those bright hopes were soon
According to Amnesty International, the Dergue executed more
than 10,000 people last year alone
as it strengthened its control in the
face of increasing popular opposition to its rule. And the French daily Le Monde recently estimated that
there are more than 100,000
political prisoners being held in
Ethiopia, most of them EPRP
The Dergue, which one observer
returning from Ethiopia said
operate "under the aegis of a
coarse, sadistic philosophy they
believe is Marxist Leninism with a
vocabulary acceptable to the
readers of Pravda and a method
worthy of the most bloodthirsty
French Revolutionary" faces,
other challenges.
In the northern province of
Eritrea the fight against the Dergue
is merely a resumption of years of
fighting with Selassie. The Eritreans
seek an independent state but
because the province provides
Ethiopia's sole access to the sea the
Dergue must crush the rebellion oi
face the prospects of becoming a
landlocked state.
Eritrea is one of the hottest trouble spots in Africa and also one of
. . . Ethiopian strongman
the most embarrassing for the
Cubans and Soviets. The Cubans,
who sent military units in to fight
Somali   troops   in   the   disputed
Ogaden desert battle last year, are
clearly giving the Dergue heavy support both financially and militarily.
And the Dergue wants Cuban help
in defeating the Eritrean rebels.
But the Cubans have supported
the Eritreans in their fight for independence for years, until they
began lending a hand to their new
found friends in Ethiopia. In 1969
and '70 Eritrean guerrilla leaders
trained in Cuba and observers
report that liberation forces still
paste Fidel Castro's picture inside
their tanks.
Cuba's attempts to force a
negotiated settlement upon the two
sides have failed. The Cuban ambassador and first secretary were expelled from Ethiopia after insisting
that the Dergue begin to seek a
political settlement in Eritrea.
Now that the Ethiopian fight
with Somalia is over, the Dergue
has decided on an all-out attempt to
conquer Eritrea. In recent months
Ethiopian forces have taken half a
dozen towns from the Eritrean
guerrillas, who held about 85 per
cent of the province in July, before
the latest offensive.
Ethiopia's future, as Selassie
said, still remains a mystery in the
hands of God. The Dergue may be
successful in retaining dictatorial
control of the country if its ruthless
tactics against the Eritreans and the
EPRP are continued and Soviet and
Cuban support is guaranteed. But
Eritrea may prove to be the straw
that broke the camel's back for the
Dergue, leaving the Cubans and
Soviets in what one Eritrean
described as "their own Vietnam."
and more
i ■ z 1
Factory to You
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Per Pair — Per Person
with this Coupon
| UBC 1
Page Friday. 4
Friday, November 24, 1978 African leaders \
Africa's future rests in leaders' hands
Since he came to power in 1971 Ugandan
President Idi Amin has become the most
recognized leader in Black Africa.
He has attained notoriety around the
world as a ruthless dictator who disposes of
his enemies and thoroughly oppresses his
people. Yet he is also the laughing stock of
world leaders, albeit a brutal one, and he is
quickly leading Uganda to an economic
Like so many African leaders he came to
power as the result of a military coup and has
held the reigns of power tightly ever since.
Amin is the yardstick by which many people
measure Africa's political development and
in the West he has become a symbol of
Africa's leaders.
But as others have noted before, to judge
all African leaders by the actions of Amin is
as ludicrous as judging all European leaders
by Hitler.
While modern Africa has produced its
share of tyrants such as Amin or Ethiopia's
Mengistu Mariam, or its mediocre leaders
such as Omar Bongo of Gabon or its,
arrogant egocentrics like Bokassa of the
Central African Empire, it has also produced
great leaders and statesmen such as Julius
Nyerere, Jomo Kenyatta, Kenneth Kaunda,
Leopold Senghor, Kwame Nkrumah and
Samora Machel.
These men and others have made a more
lasting contribution to the development of
Africa than Amin or his kind could ever hope
to. They are intelligent leaders who have
worked to build truly independent nations
out of the foundations laid by the European
colonial empires.
Julius Nyerere of Tanzania is probably the
most respected of all Africa's leaders and he
ranks as one of the finest heads of state
anywhere in the world.
Nyerere was born to a large and fairly unsuccessful family in 1922. He is a member of
one of the smaller tribes in Tanzania, the
Zanaki, and is regarded as the founder of his
As is the case with so many of Africa's
leaders he was first educated at the best
schools in his area and then completed his
university training in Britain.
He was instrumental in forming the Tanganyika African National Union in 1954
which became the leading nationalist
movement in the then British colony.
On December 9, 1961 the colony achieved
full independence and Nyerere became Chief
Minister. One month later he pulled his first
of many political surprises by resigning in
order to devote his energies to reorganizing
TANU from a nationalist movement to a
political party prepared to run a government.
The following year the young country
became a Republic and Nyerere returned to
centre stage as President, receiving 97 per
cent of the popular vote. Since that time he
has been one of the most popular leaders in
Africa and he has held power and popular
support to the present.
Nyerere is a believer in what he calls
"scientific socialism," a political doctrine
which accepts the basic principles of
socialism but is still open to change and fluctuation.
He has pursued a policy of non-alignment
with the big powers and is a strong
proponent of Pan Africanism. He was also
an important force in the founding of the
Organization of African Unity.
Nyerere is probably best known and most
respected for his stand against foreign
domination and neo-colonialism. He has
spoken out against the inequalities of the so-
called free market system and has stated
probably better than anyone else the difficult
economic position that most Third World
nations face.
Recently Nyerere addressed a special
message to all foreign envoys in Tanzania on
the proposals from certain western nations
that a military force be created to protect
Africa from Soviet penetration and
He claimed that the Cubans and Soviets
are involved in only two countries, Angola
and Ethiopia, and that they have been invited
there by the legitimate governments. He sees
any force created by western European or
North American powers as an insult and a
threat to Africa. He concluded his statement
by reminding his audience of the purpose of
the struggle for freedom.
Struggle for Freedom
"The purpose of Africa's independence
struggles was the freedom of Africa and
Africans. Our independent governments
must not become the instruments through
which foreign domination is maintained in a
new form. Rather, they must be the instruments through which the peoples of
Africa develop themselves and their countries and enlarge their freedom until it means
a life of dignity for every individual
"We have a long way to go — all of us —
in every African nation. But Tanzania Will
resist every attempt to circumscribe our development and to prevent it moving in that
direction. It will resist any attempt to reassert
and strengthen the domination of Africa
under cover of a pretence to defend Africa."
A close friend of Nyerere's and a follower
of many of his political beliefs is Kenneth
Kaunda, President of Zambia since 1964.
Kaunda is known essentially as a man of
peace who led his country to independence
without a drop of blood being shed. He has
been re-elected to office three times in the 14
years he has been head of state and has
established a level of popular democracy that
is rare in Africa.
But Kaunda has been faced with a difficult
struggle. Zambia is basically a one-industry
state, almost entirely dependent upon the
sale of copper. The nation's economy
fluctuates with the price of the metal.
At the moment, Zambia is experiencing an
economic crisis which threatens to bankrupt
JULIUS NYEREHfc OF TANZANIA . . . probably Africa's most respected leader today
the country and Kaunda may be forced to
forego his socialist principles and encourage
foreign investment.
He has been reluctant to do this so far
because he believes that with foreign investment will come foreign control. But as he
himself admits he and his United National
Independence Party have been unable to
stimulate economic growth.
Kaunda is, like Nyerere, highly regarded as
an international statesman and he is almost
always one of the leading lights at Commonwealth Conferences.
His weakness may be that, unlike Nyerere,
he is not a strong governmental leader. Many
observers believe that Zambia's development
will once again begin to accelerate when
other, more adept politicians can effectively
enact Kaunda's theories.
But despite his failing Kaunda must stand
as one of the great leaders of Africa. He is a
man who has had a great influence upon the
development of Pan Africanism and the
COOPERATIVE HOUSING ... is a major concern of Zambians in Lusaka
building of a true African independence.
Both Kaunda and Nyerere came to power
through elections held at the end of the
period of colonial rule. Many other African
leaders, however, have attained power
through such events as revolutions or coup
d'etats. Probably the most notable revolutionary leader in Africa is Samora Machel of
Machel is a Marxist who led the independence struggle against the Portuguese in
Mozambique throughout the 60's and into
the 70's. When Machel and his liberation
group FRELIMO took power on June 25,
1975 they brought about the end of 400 years
of colonial rule.
The Portuguese approached the government Of their colonies differently than the
majority of the other European powers did
and as a result when they were finally driven
out the new leaders faced some pretty
staggering problems.
The illiteracy rate was over 90 per cent,
most of the urban population consisted of
shanty settlements and health care was
deplorably underdeveloped. And of course
Mozambique's economy was nearly completely dependent upon South Africa and
Rhodesia, two nations totally opposed to
And the Portuguese settlers destroyed
factories, farms, equipment and roads before
they left.
When Machel took power he realized that
he must move quickly but carefully' to
develop his nation. One of the first priorities
he set was to make peace with the white
settlers who had remained behind.
He reaffirmed FRELIMO's opposition to
racism of any kind and immediately offered
citizenship to any Portuguese who had been
born in the former colony. He also appointed
two whites to his cabinet and several others
to high-ranking governmental positions.
These were wise moves in a country that
needed as many educated and trained personnel as possible but so far they have failed
to stem the flow of Portuguese that are
But Machel is optimistic that some of these
people will eventually return. In the
meantime he has  turned his attention to
Turn to PF 12
Friday, November 24, 1978
Page Friday. Ii fcolonialism and African artsi
Slavery and missionaries
create black maris burden
One myth that dies hard is that the white
man's burden was to colonize and develop
Black Africa. Actually the West Europeans
gained great wealth and political power from
their African colonies. They expropriated a
history and a culture. There was never a
white burden. It fell entirely on black
Blacks in Slave Ships
It is said that many Africans were ignorant
about Europeans and believed they were being taken across the ocean to be slaughtered
as meat for white giants.
The dilemma for colonial Africa, caught
between the nations Holland, France, Spain
and Portugal was never so graphically
represented than by bound Africans loaded
in rival European ships and heading for
workhouses and plantations all over the
A slave wearing a neck ring used as a punishment and to
prevent escape
Slavery has always existed in Africa, but
never on the massive scale undertaken by
West Europeans with their keen commercial
They had the skill of effective organization
and were systematic about everything they
did. Between 1451 and 1870 over 14 million
Africans were taken as slaves, of which 10
million were still alive when they reached
their destinations in Europe and the
The modern slave trade began when Portugese ships sold black slaves they had taken
from Africa at a market in Lisbon. At first
the Africans had been taken captive to provide information about their country, but a
lucrative business soon developed.
English slavers entered the market in 1562
with Sir John Hawkins, the Elizabethan
privateer who sent his men ashore to surprise
the natives whom he later sold for about 25
pounds a head.
The European traders held forts on the
African coast and used these enclaves both as
a. collection depot for slaves and as a rallying
point for slave raids into the interior.
Even in those years, Europeans maintained
that they were helping the blacks. They often
baptised them with holy water before they
took them aboard the slavers. The men who
supported the institution of slavery said they
were freeing blacks from primitive living conditions and exposing them to a more advanced society.
There were terrible consequences for the
Africans. In 1781, Captain Luke Coll-
ingwood of the slaver Zong, drove his slaves
overboard in 130 person lots so he could collect the insurance on them. He had
discovered he would get more money on the
slaves as cargo insurance than by selling
The Africans were an economic commodity and stacked like cordwood beneath ship's
deck, 450 people with a six foot by one foot
area to each man and slightly less for the
women and children.
Still there were many Europeans against
the trade and who finally brought the
business to a close in the late 19th century.
One of these men was the English missionary
David Livingstone. He helped stop the trade.
But then it was Europeans who began it.
Livingstone travelled over 30,000 miles, a
third of the African continent and made a
rough map of nearly 3 million square miles of
territory. He discovered the great river
Zambezi. His was the most respected British
name in Africa and he was known as the
greatest among the African travellers from
1840 until his death in 1873.
Ironically, explorers like Livingstone often
had to depend on the inland slave traders for
transportation or shelter while travelling in
Africa. Still more galling to Livingstone was
that he opened up new country, he was aiding
the slave traders who followed his routes.
Livingstone also began the British penetration into Africa. "I go to Africa to try to
make an open path for commerce and Christianity."
Diamonds in the Dost
There is an interesting account of a South
African journey David Livingstone undertook with another white man. The account is
supposed to establish Livingstone as a visionary with remarkable insight into the
African situation and as a man with a clear
perception of human nature.
While the two men travelled together, Livingstone stopped several times to pick up
some pebbles, examined them, then threw
them away. Days later, the other man
remembered the incident and asked Livingstone about the stones.
"They were diamonds," said Livingstone
who had recognized them by their shape and
colour and because he had studied geology.
"Can you find your way there again?" the
man asked.
"Yes," smiled Livingstone, "but you
Apparently, Livingstone knew that if he
told anyone where the diamonds were
located, then the entire area would be overwhelmed by Europeans and simple native life
would be destroyed.
But we must ask outselves whether Livingstone indeed had any control over the
European development of Africa. He
couldn't stop that development and he must
have been naive or misguided not to realize
that he was destroying the basis for these simple native lives by converting the blacks to
Christianity and encouraging them to live in
missionary settlements.
The religion he brought was a strange mixture of evangelical Christianity and Victorian
cultural values. He broke down tribal relationships and customs. He discouraged the
nomadic native ways of life and he complained about their nudity.
"Good manners," said he, "are as
necessary among barbarians as among the
Even worse, Livingstone saw himself as a
kind of African saviour and even suffered
from some feelings of persecution. He writes
in his diary.
"But wilt Thou permit me to plead for
Africa? The cause is Thine. What an impulse
will be given to the idea that Africa is not
open if I perish now! See, O Lord, how the,
heathen rise against me as they did Thy
The Written Words
Finally Livingstone died and his two native
porters who will remain relatively unmen-
tioned and unnamed in the history books,
embalmed his body and made a careful inventory of all his papers and scientific instruments. Susi and Chumaly placed these
things in watertight boxes to protect them.
The courageous porters carried Livingstone's
body 1,500 miles to the coast in a nine month
Livingstone was the explorer and for that
he was given credit. The expedition wouldn't
have been led by a Susi or a Cumaly. But
their act of fidelity and love may have a
greater value. They were not trying to fulfill
an ambition or a pledge to find the source of
the Nile, or claim new territories.
They carried Livingstone unasked and
unrewarded. They weren't trying to find
some superhuman obstacle as Livingstone
was, to test their determination and strength.
Livingstone had finally died a victim of his
own indomitable will.
The natives were not docent creatures.
They simply had no need to explore and exploit their environment. The European
voyages of exploration had just been trading
runs to develop new markets and find
salable resources.
The blacks did not live in that kind of
society. Individualism and competition were
not stressed. Black tribal groups emphasized
group values, collateralism and discouraged
individual variation for the sake of unity and
We have never given Africans credit for
those different values and their complex and
non-European society.
Six months after Henry Morton Stanley
had his historic meeting with David Liv-
/ '/■:
Page Friday' 6
Friday, November 24, 1978 colonialism and African artsl
stone, he was travelling upriver with some
Livingstone's journals and threatened to
ot one of his native porters when the man
ost dropped them into the river,
he conflict between the two cultures is
ght by that moment when one man's life
neasured against the written word. The
:k man is in the water to his neck and a
te man's ideas are written down as notes.
ch he cannot understand in a box he car-
1 on his head.
Africans had a rich oral tradition. They
had singers, poets and historians. But they
didn't keep written records so when the
Europeans arrived and changed their society
that oral tradition was lost.
This is how Europe established cultural
hegemony over Africa and expanded such
stereotypes as "Darkest Africa" and African
barbarism. They recorded a European
history of exploration and they ignored the
culture that existed before them.
Henry Morton Stanley-
threatens to shoot
one of his bearers
when the man nearly
drops the package
containing Livingstone's
letters and journal
'S. J     r'Mfjkt  <•* ^^A f J f    f      i     .       Iff'
African poets struggle
culturally and politically
The poets of Africa confront modern ways
with black tradition. Their aim is to
discriminate between the beneficial aspects
of the modern world and the mad ones.
"I am completely ignorant
of the dances of foreigners
And I do not like it,
Holding each other
Tightly, tightly
In public,
I cannot.
I am ashamed.
Dancing without a song
Dancing silently like wizards
Without respect, drunk."
— Song of Lawino
Modern poetry is alive and well in Africa.
A westerner is surprised by the large number
of its major poets.
Many African poets were educated in
Europe, but were also involved in the struggles for African independence. They are caught between two
worlds. Having been deeply influenced by
white culture, they now seek to rediscover the
value of their black heritage.
One poet, Okot p'Bitek, has had an
enormous impact on modern African
literature with his narrative poems such as
song of Lawino and The Horn of My Love.
It is a long, biting satire on modern Africa
written from the point of view of a
traditional tribal woman named Lawino. In
it, she publicly airs her complaints about her
husband, Ocol: a black man quickly
assimilating to modern white culture.
"He no longer wants me
In cruel jokes he laughs at me
He says I am primitive
Because I cannot play the guitar."
— Song of Lawino
Lawino is from a North African tribe
called the Acoli. A tribe which p'Bitek wants
to ennoble. Recently he published a book of
traditional Acoli oral poetry and songs.
p'Bitek dedicated the book to his literary
colleagues at the University of Nairobi
because he wanted to honor them for a
revolution they started by demolishing the
old English Department and replacing it with
the Department of Literature, the central
core of which is African.
p'Bitek believes literature is to be enjoyed.
He is critical of anthropologists and folk-
lorists who pluck songs, proverbs and riddles
from Africa, then kill them by analysis, and
bury   them   in   inaccessible   and   learned
journals. He wants to bring the songs and
stories of the Africans back to life.
"My husband's house
Is a mighty forest of books,
Dark it is and very damp,
The steam rising from the ground.
Hot thick and poisonous. . .
. . .all our young men
Were finished in the forest
Their manhood was finished
In the class-rooms,
Their testicles
Were smashed
With large books!"
—Song of Lawino
The Song of Lawino is a compassionate
and sometime comical look at black Africans
who have forgotten their traditions for the
glitter of modern culture. In a chapter entitled "There Is No Fixed Time For Breast
Feeding," Lawino fumes about her stupid
husband who has bought a watch. She worries that time has become her husband's
master, and that he rushes from place to
place like a small boy, without dignity.
Lawino is also skeptical about political
matters. Her husband is the leader of the
black Democratic Party whose members
greet each other with clenched fists. She sees
that even when Ocol is supposed to be
fighting against the whites for independence,
the party rivalries between blacks are so great
that the poor and starving are ignored.
"And while the pythons of sickness
Swallow the children
And the buffaloes of poverty
Knock the people down
And ignorance stands there
Like an elephant,
The war leaders
Are tightly locked in bloody feuds,
Eating each other's liver. ..."
—Song of Lawino
But the political realm is still crucial to
African poets. Another of Africa's greatest,
Leopold Senghor, has played his part for
black dignity not only through literature, but
through direct political involvement. He is
the President of Senegal.
Senghor is a poet-statesman-scholar. John
Kennedy said that he was the major architect
of his country's independence because not
only did he write his nation's laws he also
wrote its poetry and songs.
Senghor is first a poet, but he is also
known for his political brilliance. In a book
called On African Socialism he outlines his
theory that European socialism should be
grafted onto the roots of African com-
It is a theory he developed in the heat of
battle. Senegal gained its independence in
1964, but as far back as 1948, Senghor was
writing poetry and fighting against the
French colonialists.
"There we were all together, my comrades
Those who were good at school
and me, like countrymen who have just
from abroad in the first days of war
And my first playmates and others
and still others. . .
For the last assault on the
Administrative councils
that govern the governors of colonies."
Hosties Noires, L. S. Senght
Senghor aims to balance what he feels is
the onesidedness of communist materialism
with the philosophical theories of the Jesuit,
Teilhard de Chardin. He believes there is
room for such integration.
Although Senghor is openly involved in
the modern world, he is united with poets
like p'Bitek in respect for his own African
heritage. Both poets struggle culturally and
politically with the hope of once again being
reconciled with their African source.
"Peace will come, the Angel of Dawn
will come, the
song of the preposterous birds will come
The light of the dawn will come. . .
I shall sleep the sleep of death
by which the poet is fed."
—Nocturnes, L. S. Senghor
Part of the African struggle for freedom
and recognition will be armed and violent,
but we can be assured that it will also be
deepened by the beauty of African poetry.
Friday, November 24, 1978
Page Friday. 7 African literature\
Nigerian authors profile new culture
Nigerian novelists are creating an
exciting addition to an emerging
African literature. These authors
have been writing fiction for the
past 25 years, although they have
just begun to receive international
recognition for their work.
The majority of these authors
come from Nigeria and are
descendents or members of the Ibo
tribe. They write about the changes
in African life since the infiltration
of white society. But the first story
to come from Nigeria was not
concerned with changing culture.
Amos Tutuola was the first
fiction writer to gain any recognition in the western world. Tutuola
wrote The Palm Wine Drinkard
(sic) with only a primary education
and it was the west's first exposure
to African literature. In a semi-
literate style, he tells an extremely
imaginative tale which draws most
of the material for his adventures
from Nigerian legends.
Tutuola's tale is difficult to read.
Because of his lack of education,
the somewhat disjointed adventures
cannot be readily called a novel.
The first novelist emerging from
Nigeria who wrote in a professional
style was Chinua Achebe. Considered the forerunner of African
literature, Achebe tells of the conflicts between the old and new ways'
of life in Africa.
Achebe's first and possibly best
From PF 2
This is what the Soviets are doing
now in Zimbabwe, (Rhodesia)
where the Soviet armed Patriotic
Front has almost won its war with
the Ian Smith regime. The
emergence of a Marxist-Leninist
regime is at least quite likely upon
the collapse of the white minority
government there.
It is a mistake to believe that in
either Zimbabwe, or in Azania,
(South Africa) that a revolutionary
regime would be "moderate" or
committed to some vague form of
African socialism.
The question emerges as to what
the West should do. The answer is a
simple one. Stay out of southern
Africa. Let the revolutionaries and
the Soviets destroy the white
minority regimes. Because of internal political considerations the
West cannot back the
revolutionaries in South Africa. It
must not identify itself in any way
with the white minority regimes of
South Africa or Rhodesia.
It cannot back any internal
settlement with conservative black
leaders that leaves the whites with
any political or economic support
disproportionate to their numbers.
Supporting the present South
African government would gain the
West the lasting enmity of black
Even though the revolutionary
regimes that will emerge will be
Communist and anything but
democratic, we must not make the
mistake of aligning ourselves with
the doomed cause of a white
foothold in South Africa. By their
arrogance, the white inhabitants of
South Africa have guaranteed a
Communist takeover in South
The West cannot compete with
the Soviets for the affection of the
poor and the disenfranchised in
Africa because we will not help
them destroy those whom they
believe oppress them. Instead, the
West must allow black governments
to come to power in Africa which
can organize these countries for
rapid social modernization.
novel Things Fall Apart, describes
the tribal life through the eyes of
the protagonist Okonkwo. The
story is set in the Ibo village of
Umuofia in the second half of the
19th century.
Two tragedies are described by
Achebe. The tragedy of Okonkwo
and the tragedy of the village, both
of which occur when the white man
invades the tribal society and causes
things to fall apart.
Through religion and government, Okonkwo sees his people
succumb to the alien society. Okonkwo, a strong and commanding
figure cannot cope with the destruction of the tribal tradition. He
finally  hangs  himself in  despair.
Achebe seems to be making a
comment on the fate of the natives
of Nigeria. Many have had to either
adjust to the white colonization of
Africa or leave their homeland.
They have been symbolically hung
just as Achebe's character Okonkwo.
Another novel, No Longer at
Ease, is a sequel to Things Fall
Apart and describes the corruption
which befalls Obi, Okonkwo's
grandson when he is' exposed to a
"civilized" culture. Unfortunately,
the book is not well written.
A Man of the People, another
novel by Achebe, expands on the
idea of the corrupting influence of
the whites. It shows how some
natives can become morally bankrupt. The antagonist, Chief the
Honorable M. A. Nanga, MP, is a
Nigerian politician who has learned
all of the dirty tricks of western
political circles.
He is contrasted with the young,
uncorruptible Odilli who challenges
Nanga's political office, but finds
his innocence blinds him to the
various subtle and not so subtle
devices which Nanga uses to put
Odilli out of the running.
Achebe shows the difficulty that
the true natives have in coping with
other members of their race who
have lost the tribal morality.
Where Achebe is a worldly
author, Cyprian Ekwensi, a
colleague, is more of a best-seller
author. The majority of his books
concern the urban setting and its
effect on the people who live there.
Ekwensi shows how the white
colonization of Nigeria has
destroyed the tribal authority and
left the western 'evils' of materialism, greed and individualism. One
of the basic principles of native
culture was always collectivism,
which meant that the tribe worked
as a single entity. The influx of an
unfamiliar white society and culture
shattered the ancient values.
Jagua Nana is one of Ekwensi's
most interesting novels. The title is
the name of a Nigerian prostitute.
She is a metaphor for the moral
decay brought by western desires
for money, status and power.
Jagua Nana begins the story with
all the comforts of western society
and corrupts everyone she meets
until they are finally as depraved as
Another author, Obioma Eligwe,
has written two delightful tales
about Nigerian culture which are
both easy to read and loaded with
underlying social themes. They are
found in a book called Beside the
Other authors from Nigeria
repeat the theme of change in their
novels,  poetry and  plays.  Wole
Soyinka and T. M. Aluko are two
of the better known writers.
The numerous authors from
Nigeria are becoming better known
in the west, but already their
material is considered outdated in
their own country. A second wave
of authors is washing away the "old
guns" of Nigerian literature.
Nigerian novelists present many
interesting ideas. They provide an
alternative view to the African
situation and one which is written
from experience and not mere
Page Friday. 8
Friday, November 24, 1978 \Tanzania\
UBC engineer aided Tanzanians
"I've seen women walk for hours
to a muddy puddle, dip their
buckets in and then easily swing
these buckets which I could hardly
lift, onto their heads and walk
home again."Water is a valuable
commodity in Africa and is what
former AMS president, Tony
Hodge was sent to find.
"Tanzanians are fantastic people." Hodge speaks of them with
the warmth and great respect born
of association. In July of 1976,
Hodge, who was council president
for the '70-'71 term, found himself
on a plane bound for Tanzania. He
left three days after he handed in his
master's thesis to UBC's engineering department.
He worked in Africa in a team of
ten Canadians for two years on a
ground water study by CIDA, the
Canadian International Development Agency, an arm of the federal
government. "Canada has an excellent name (in Tanzania) and it's
not all deserved," Hodge says.
The study Hodge was involved in
is a small part of Tanzania's national self-help program, Ujamaa,
the brain-child of Julius Nyerere.
Nyerere has been president of Tanzania since its creation in 1964 when
Zanzibar and Tanganyika united
and is trying to lead his country to
self-sufficency." It's walking a line
between the great powers,'.' says
Hodge "and picking the best from
all of them."
Obtaining foreign aid is part of
this tightrope act. Nyerere planned
to bring in experts in soil, transportation, water and other facets of
community planning so that the
scattered tribes could be gathered
together in the most favorable
village locations.
"Unfortunately the political process got ahead of the practical process"   says   Hodge.   Villages  had
already been established when he
arrived. But the study still provided
"a planning tool for the Tanzanians
to better utilize their own
Hodge was in charge of two drill
rigs and travelled around the country drilling for water. Besides a
regular crew of two helpers, Hodge
was accompanied by several Tanza-
nian workers who were being trained on the job. Hodge acted as
engineer and resource person. The
Tanzanians gained practical experience while learning from a professional.
The family unit is strong in Tanzania and all the Tanzanian
workers' families travelled with
them in the bush. A tent camp
could consist of twenty to thirty
people carrying all their personal
belongings. Hodge admits that this
large entourage is not efficient to
the western mind. It slows things
down, especially when moving from
place to place, but it can be more
At work the Tanzanians would
wear jeans, boots and a shirt, yet
lounging at home they would still
wear traditional wrap-around skirt.
With the birth of a new nation and
the death of tribal warfare the traditional role of men has changed
quickly and dramatically.
No longer warriors and
defenders, Tanzanian men must
find places as workers in the new
society. Women are still primarily
keepers of home and hearth but
change is intruding into their lives
as well.
Hodge was welcomed by the Tanzanians and accepted even though
he was not the same. "My skin is
white, I've had eight years of
university and I come from
Canada. They accept me under
those conditions but not as a Tanzanian."
TANZANIA . . . finding water was a problem for engineer Hodge
Hodge does not speak Swahili
and that proved a severe handicap
to him. He always needed an interpreter to talk with the Tanzanians.
Swahili is the official language of
Tanzania. It is a coastal language
originating in Zanzibar and used
to unify over 120 tribes, each with
its own language or dialect. Swahili
was the merchant language. Slaves
taken in tribal wars were sold by the
coastal tribes to Arabs and Zanzibar was the base of an infamous
slave trade.
Now the universities feature
courses in Swahili literature. Books
and plays are written in Swahili.
Most Tanzanians except for a few
Masai tribes deep in the bush speak
this national language.
The proud and independent
Masai have resisted the government
program of villagization. They continue to herd cattle and follow the
old ways. Members educated at
university also return to the tribe1
and pick up the continuous thread
of life. They wear colourful robes
and beads and carry spears and
The Makonde are skilful carvers
of intricate and surrealistic ebony
sculpture. They come from the
southern coastal region, but have
moved north to Dar Es Salaam, the
capital city to be closer to the
markets for their carvings. The
Makonde scar their faces and
file their teeth to points
Hodge recalls one young woman
in particular. "She had these fantastic geometrical designs on her
cheeks and forehead. The designs
complemented her own beauty. I
found her very beautiful."
Tanzania is the area where many
explorers including Stanley Livingstone entered Africa to search
for the head waters of the Nile.
Hodge did not find the climate as
severe as one might expect. He
thinks that "British explorers exaggerated to titilate Victorian sensibilities back home."
The land has incredible beauty.
There are many large, untouched
game reserves. Hodge pointed out
that these reserves have been
established in areas which are still
wild. Although there are no fences
for protection, the animals have
retreated before the onward press
of civilization to the relative safety
of the reserves where they have congregated in great numbers.
The country varies a great deal as
there are beaches along the coast, a
lake region towards the west and
mountains in the southwest and the
Ol Doinyo Lengai — the Mountain of God. The sonorous music of
the Masai language expresses the
beauty found in the crater
highlands of the Masai homelands.
Africa's highest mountain,
Kilimanjaro, and the Serengeti
Plains, a large national park, are
both found in northern Tanzania
and are the country's best known
landmarks. But as Hodge says,
"That's what you hear about
because that's what the big money
is interested in." And the big
money is in tourism.
Dar Es Salaam has a few hotels
but tourists have not yet discovered
Tanzania. The Tanzanian government does not seem to be pushing it
either in Hodge's view. "They want
to keep Tanzania for Tanzanians
first." This may be the more prudent course considering that the
disadvantages of tourism often
outweigh the advantages.
The border between Kenya and
Tanzania was closed about a year
and a half ago due to tourists being
carted into northern Tanzania to
view the sights which Hodge maintains are more beautiful on the Tanzanian side of the border. The Kenyans reaped the benefits of currency exchange and tourist support ser-
SUKUMA WOMAN . . . working in her family's field
vices while taking advantage of
Tanzanian scenery.
Tanzania felt it was not receiving
its fair share of the profits and closed the border. But Hodge says,
"Once people discover it (Tanzania), you won't be able to keep
them away. It's so spectacular."
In Tanzania Hodge was immersed in an alien culture, so different in
fact that the people even think differently. But it is an experience
which Hodge appreciates. "They
have different ways of reasoning. I
can't explain it. The different
reasoning is due to different
backgrounds. It would strike me
when I was talking to someone and
I'd realize he saw the problem in
completely different terms."
"No matter what your political
bent, the self-help program is good
for people. They want to feed
themselves and not be dependent on
others. Coming back to B.C. I feel
the time we spent over there was
TANZANIANS . . . ride bicycles to generate power in village
Friday, November 24, 1978
Page Friday. 9 A WEDDING
SHOWTIMES Capitol. 3:00 5:15 7:30 9:50
Columbia 7:30 9:45 MATS. Sat. Sun. 2:00
Page Friday. 10
Friday, November 24, 1978 South Africa
African South ambassador draws fire
UBC economists and theologians
have violently criticized a speech
given by South African ambassador
John Becker Tuesday.
The speech, given to an economic
convention at the Bayshore Inn,
centred around the western world's
dependency on South African
mineral resources, and the" benefits
that the African continent derives
from South Africa's presence.
"South Africa is one of the top
five mineral-producing countries in
the world," said Becker. "What
distinguishes South Africa in this
select group is her extraordinarily
large share of world, in particular
Free World, mineral resource
"Of even greater significance,"
he said, "we have mobilized these
resources to supply . . . the industrialized mineral-consuming and
largely resource-deficient countries
of the west."
Becker went on to list numerous
minerals and raw materials for
which the U.S.A. and the CECD
BECKER . . . speech hit
goes on
From PF 3
tion must include them both. The
overseas media have created an
impression of a white population
bent on white domination and a
black population intent on a black
In fact, I believe the vast
majority of Blacks and a very
significant proportion of Whites
are for neither of these extremes.
These are all factors on which a
solution can be built.
No good can come of making the
Whites of South Africa feel that
world opinion is so consistently and
so blindly hostile that they have
nothing more to lose, and might as
well ignore it. And it must be
recognized that the mixture of
cultures and living standards in that
complex land constitute real
problems which no one else has
been able to solve. Not even
Canada where goodwill abounds
and the dimensions of the difficulty
are trivial by comparison.
The Blacks of South Africa are
doing reasonably well in the
struggle for existence. But they are
losing the struggle for dignity. I
believe they want to gain ground in
the latter without losing the former.
If you shoot down the plane to save
the passengers from the hijacker,
they will be grateful for your
concern, but may deplore your
BLACK SOUTH AFRICANS ... a dispossessed and politically disenfranchized group
countries are virtually import
dependent, such as platinum and
"It should be clear to all," said
Becker, "that the concentration of
virtually all known world reserves
and future production capability of
gold and platinum in South Africa
and the Soviet Union must have undeniable implications regarding the
security of the future world,
particularly western supply."
He added that South Africa
controls the Cape of Good Hope
sea route, and thus 65 per cent of all
Middle East oil that goes around
that Cape, clearly implying that the
West could lose that supply if the
government of South Africa should
fall into the wrong hands.
"South Africa today generates
the overwhelming proportion of its
capital requirements internally,"
said Becker, "and can, if necessary,
maintain a reasonable economic
growth without any net inflow of
foreign capital."
But Becker's statements sparked
strong disagreement on the UBC
campus. Reverend Don Johnson of
the Lutheran Campus Centre, who
has been to South Africa and
possesses considerable background
concerning the political and.
economic situation there, called it a
"typical South African speech."
Johnson said that the whole idea
of the speech was that the present
South African government must be
maintained or else the western
world will lose vital oil and mineral
"But I don't think there is any
indication   that   political   change
would threaten western supply,"
said Johnson. "The only people
that might stand to lose something
would be the multinational corporations, and the whites who now
dominate South Africa, not the
western world."
Johnson also said that he was
doubtful that South Africa would
be able to keep on developing
without future western investment,
as Becker had claimed.
"To me it is very questionablt
whether they would be able to
maintain their police state and
military without the prop of
continued western investment,"
said Johnson.
Economics professor Stuart
Jamieson also had some comments
on the speech.
"Interestingly enough," said
Jamieson Thursday, "Becker
identifies South Africa as a part of
the free world which is a strange
term to use for a country that keeps
four-fifths of its population in
Jamieson summed up the main
body of the speech as saying "you
need us, so you bloody well better
support us, no matter what you
think of apartheid." But he said
that the argument that we must
support the present government to
maintain a stable supply of
resources does not hold water.
"This stability argument can be
turned around," he said, "in that
maintaining the existing system of
apartheid is maintaining an explosive situation."
Concerning the ambassador's
constant reference to economic
reality, Jamieson said that "what
he (Becker) refers to as economic
realities are strictly facts and figures
concerning the output of South
African industry. Nothing on
division of labor and income,
nothing on the fact that per capita
income of whites is something like
20 times that of blacks. Or that the
vast majority of blacks are kept in
conditions of poverty."
"In view of those economic
realities the ambassador neglected
to mention," said Jamieson, "it is
amazing to read the final paragraph
of his speech transcript."
The paragraph Jamieson referred
to reads thus:
"May I conclude by saying that
as far as our beliefs and values are
concerned, we in South Africa have
a high regard for such matters as
the maintenance and advancement
of national identities, freedom of
religion and the opportunity for
individuals to pursue their own
Turn to PF 16
Friday, November 24, 1978
Page Friday, 111 I African politics |
Single party systems work in Africa
From PF 5
defusing tribal differences, creating
adequate health services and
establishing a rural and industrial
The other major thrust of
Machel's current plans is to increase the education of Mozambicans by making free
education available to all. Since
independence primary school
enrolment has doubled to 1.3
million, secondary enrolment has
tripled to 10,000 and more than
400,000 adults are involved in
literacy classes.
Due to the massive problems
facing Machel at home he has not
yet exerted the same influence upon
Africa as a whole as have his
colleagues such as Nyerere, Kaunda
or Leopold Senghor of Senegal. But
many expect him to be one of the
great African leaders of the future.
Although many of Africa's
leaders of the past and present have
been weak and ineffectual or
dictatorial, others have made
lasting contributions to their
countries and the world.
Most African heads of state are
leaders of single party systems or
military governments. But this does
not mean that they are all dictators.
Nyerere, Kaunda and Machel are
among those who head single party
democracies. This means that they
have chosen to accept a certain
political viewpoint, in most cases
socialism, and have disallowed
parties opposed to other forms of
political theories.
Although this may not fit the
western concept of democracy it
appears to have been quite effective
in many African* nations. In developing countries there is little or
no time for the often frivolous
debate which comes from a multiparty system.
These people are trying to build a
social and economic infrastructure
which can ensure the day-to-day
functioning of a country. They
have not yet built up the kind of
civil service and bureaucracy which
can keep a country running while
two or three parties go at each
In Tanzania, Zambia and
Mozambique elections are held
every few years. At those times
candidates from within the national
parties can contest any position.
This winter Zambians will be
going to the polls and it appears
that Kuanda will be seriously
challenged for the presidency. And
even if he holds on, as he most
likely will, it is expected that many
Turn to PF 13
Student Admin. Commission
1978 - 1979
For positions on:
At the A.M.S. Business Office, Rm. 266, S.U.B.
Applications close 4:00 p.m. on FRI. DEC. 1
12:30 2:50 5:05 7:25 9:45
Sunday 2:50 5:05 7:25 9:45
^■■■k^       WARNING:   Occasional   nudity,   suggestive   scenes   coarse
■l^mm^      language throughout. B.C. Director.
SHOWTIMES:   12:10  2:05  4:05  6:05  8:05
Sunday 2:05 4:05 6:05 8:05 10:05
How in the world
you drink Kahlua?
Black Russian
Brown Cow^WAKah'Ua and V<X,ka
Kahlua and Milk
Ihe International liqueur.
For some interesting recipe suggestions write Kahlua, Box 747, Station "K" Toronto, Ontario, M4P 2W8.
EVENINGS 7:00 9:30
CAMBIE at 18th
| An unforgettable saga of people... Their
passions, loves and desires.
Based on ihe novel by HU6H MaclENNAN
Show Times: 7:30 9:30 4375 w. 10th
w^ic   I NEED
SHOWTIMES: «•■"■■"■»"■»
TALES 7:30 10:00 GLASSES 8:55
/*%*■ "
NOTE: Not for children WARNING: Nudity, crude &
mmm~mm± suggestive sex comedies.
■#*MjT B.C. DIRECTOR. "'"^SO™'6*"
For the Trips of Your Lifetime
Page Friday, 12
The complete Genesis Concert
Movie, The Concert that made
With James Coburn
Music by Rick Wakeman
The most Astounding Action
ever seen on film.
Friday, November 24, 1978
4375   W. 10th I African politics
MACHAL . . . revolutionary
From PF 12
current members of government
will be defeated.
During local elections in Mozambique last year 10 per cent of the
candidates proposed by FRELIMO
were rejected and in future elections
it is expected that the general
population, which has only voted
once in 400 years remember, will
become more active in choosing
who will govern them.
Even in many countries which are
ruled by military governments a
crude form of democracy exists.
Very few military leaders can last
long without popular support. Idi
Amin and Ethiopia's Menghistu,
who both have firm control of
strong armies, are the notable
But recently in Ghana the longstanding military leader General
Ignatius Acheampong was removed
from power in a bloodless coup
when it became apparent that he
intended to ignore the results of a
referendum in favor of a representative government.
The new government has not yet
won the confidence of the
population and is moving carefully.
It realizes that unless it shows a
more responsive attitude to the
general public, it too will go.
This kind of popular democracy
has occurred over and over again in
Africa during the past 20 years. It is
certainly not recognized as the most
suitable form of political
organization but it has proven
effective for many developing
In the next two years Ghana and
Nigeria are both scheduled for a
return to civilian rule and this past
summer Upper Volta elected a
popular government for the first
time since 1966.
It's clear that the trend in Africa
is away from military rule and
towards a participatory electoral
system. While it will be many years
before the majority of Africa's
leaders are freely elected the change
is coming.
In the meantime leaders such as
Nyerere, Kaunda, Machel and Lt.-
Gen. Olesegun Obasanjo of Nigeria
will stand as among the most
enlightened leaders in Africa.
They are not saints; they have
crushed demonstrations and imprisoned some of their opponents.
They have committed as many
questionable acts as any other
world leader.
But when one considers the
incredible economic, social and
political problems they face as
leaders of poor and underdeveloped
nations then they must command as
much, and in some cases, more
respect than any of the most
famous and popular leaders of the
past or present.
When measured against the early
leaders of other developing nations,
the John A. MacDonalds, the
George Washingtons and the
Charlemagnes, they stand up well.
It is to be hoped that it will not be
left to history to recognize their
"Maybe you don't believe
he six days to create the
world. Actually I thought
bout it for five days and di
he whole job in one. I'm
really best under pressure.'
Thurs. 7:00
Fri., Sat., Sun. 7:00 and 9:30
AMS card MUST be shown.
Only one guest per AMS card please!
lake a crash course
THE CONVINCER lets you find out for
yourself what it's like to be in a car crash—
and walk away smiling.
It's a crash simulator that moves at less than
10 km/h. The convincing part comes when
it stops moving. Instantly. That's when
you realize what would have happened if you
hadn't used the seat belt.
THE CONVINCER is touring colleges and
senior secondary schools in Greater
Vancouver and Victoria through courtesy of
the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia.
It's coming your way to demonstrate the
importance of seat belts—even at low speeds.
Climb aboard. You won't find a better crash
course to save your life.
We're trying to save you more than money.
Friday, November 24, 1978
Page Friday, 13 South Africa
No gov't fair play in
South African network
Operations in the South African
Broadcasting Corporation indicate
that apartheid has invaded South
African life to a fantastic extent.
Beyond the strict government race
regulations on marriage, work,
education, travel, sexuality and the
electorate, there are the hidden persuaders of the human mind like the
state controlled media.
The national television service,
SABC, has been in operation since
1976 when the government lifted its
30-year ban on TV. SABC is hardly
an objective news service and
during any race riots or disturbances that it covers, there is no
attempt to quote or interview the
demonstrators. Thus important
issues are never discussed or even
presented to SABC viewers.
The government soft-sells these
incidents. One particular film clip
showed the South African police
firing their rifles into a crowd of
unarmed black demonstrators. In a
a 30-year campaign against forming
a South African network.
Nicknamed "Albert the Box,"
Hertzog had developed the unique
notion that TV had caused Britain
to lose an empire and that it would
similarly undermine the South
African state.
National Party members finally
convinced Hertzog and his supporters among the leading church
figures that the SABC would enrich
the religious and spiritual life of
South Africa.
Today, Sunday programming is
exclusively devoted to religious
matter and has no commercials.
Hertzog reacted very favorably and
Americans provide the South
Africans with communications
technology and syndicated TV
shows like Mary Tyler Moore,
Kojak and Police Story. The South,
Africans also attempted to buy
some British programmining, but
were met with a British Trade
Union boycott protesting apartheid.
In South Africa, one TV channel
Turn to PF 15
Bamboo & Rattan Products—Stoneware & Gifts
Kung Fu Shoes & Tatami
%ho6 Special
On All Items Not On Sale
836 Granville St.
(off Robson St.)
Vancouver, B.C.
Tel. 684-6715
Offer Expires
Dec. 31, 1978
typical Orwellian scenario, the
voice-overs didn't quite match the
screened image. The newscast was
accompanied by a police department bulletin saying that they
"were forced to open fire."
There is no pretence of fair play
at SABC. Ruling National Party
candidates received over twice as
much air time as the three other
parties combined.
"SABC is nothing more than one
of the government's campaign
arms," shouted one angry opponent and there was good reason
to believe his charge.
SABC actually began amid
considerable resistance despite the
obvious advantages the government
derived from a TV station that they
owned and operated. Former
cabinet minister Albert Hertzog led
was later heard to remark that TV
was "not so bad" after he made a
guest appearance on the boob tube.
But beyond this ludicrous and
barely credible South African
political figure there is a much
grimmer reality. The SABC has a
1,000-member staff with no black
employees because they are neither
trained for the positions nor would
they be allowed to <<»cept them.
Effectively, blacks are non-
persons in the network produced
shows. If they are represented at
all, then they have either walk-on
roles as menials or domestics.
Recently the South African
government and the major U.S.
television networks contracted a
series of programming deals. The
San Pietro, in the classic Italian tradition.
San Pietro is a flavourful, premium wine reminiscent of the lively
wines of Tuscany in Central Italy. The Italians have a word for such a
wine... "brioso", which means exuberant.
San Pietro captures this true Italian character through specially
selected grapes and the astute blending of our skilled cellarmaster.
San Pietro Red. Hearty, full-flavoured, and naturally dry.
San Pietro White, Mellow and soft with a hint of sweetness.
FRI., NOV. 24
10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.
3123 W. Broadway
Jacqueline Bisset & Robert Shaw
IN "THE DEEP" 9:30
Sid Spencer
James Caan — Elliott Gould
Sean Connery
Rated Mature
Phil Silvers
Adults & Students- $2:00
Liter White Magic — Magic Flute!
hair studio inc..
master charge
[224-1922   i VSA
224-9116' immmm
5784 University (Naxfto Bank of Commerce)
Page Friday, 14
Friday, November 24, 1978 I Black Africai
Page Friday will he publishing a
special Fine Arts students issue
in January, We know there9s a lot
of talent on this university
campus and we'd like to see some
of your work. Please bring any
short fiction, poems, photos or
graphic art to our office in
242K SUB.
Put your name, phone number,
year and faculty on each piece.
Either leave us with a self'
addressed envelope or you can
pick up your work on January 17,
1979. The deadline for all
submissions is December 6,
so please hurry.
Office of the Speaker
Legislative Assembly of British Columbia
University of British Columbia
November 30, 1978 - 12:30-1:30
Student Union Building, Room 211
Competition for the 1980 Legislative Internship Programme is now open.
Working with Members of the Legislature, doing
research and assisting with matters administrative,
legislative, political (constituency concerns) — providing first hand experience of the political and policy
process for the intern. During the internship there will
be regular seminars on provincial government and
politics conducted by faculty from the three universities,
as well as an opportunity to work in a government
Majors or Honours graduates in Political Science,
History, Economics or Sociology from the University of
British Columbia, Simon Fraser University and the
University of Victoria.
A maximum of 10 Legislative Internships.
January 1st - May 31st, 1980.
February 1st, 1979.
All interested students are cordially invited to attend the above meeting. Those students
unable to attend may obtain complete information from the participating departments on
Television is
in one color
From PF 14
serves two language groups,
English and Afrikaans, the patois
derived from a 17th century Dutch
dialect. These groups split five and
one-half hours of daily air time.
There is no effort to provide a
service to the black population.
SABC argues that there are no
black viewers and this is quite true.
Unlike their white counterparts,
most blacks have no electricity in
their homes. Generally this is
because they live in segregrated
townships in outlying areas around
South   African   cities.   The   few
battery operated TV sets which
might be available to them are far
beyond the income of most
potential black viewers.
South Africans who work at
SABC and support apartheid have
ingeniously provided us with an
answer to this criticism. Although
the network is directed by whites to
a white community, SABC is
pledged to begin a separate channel
for black viewers sometime before
the next century.
is believ'
You wont
find a better
Isn't it the best beer you've ever tasted?
Friday, November 24, 1978
Page Friday. 15 I African politics |
'Speech slanted'
From PF 11
material advantage within a system
of free enterprise.
"Because of this we put a high
priority on such goals as creating
effective political institutions
through which each national group
can control its own affairs and
cooperate with its neighbors. ..."
Rev. Johnson saw this concluding statement as a veiled
reference to the South African
government's "homelands' policy"
which is currently causing the
relocation of the country's different
tribes of blacks into individual
Johnson says that this policy
amounts to placing 80 per cent of
the country's population on 15 per
cent of the land (land which is
devoid of natural resources) and
then exploiting the population as
migrant labor.
Since these homelands would be
technically separate from South
Africa, Johnson explained, the
migrants would be due none of the
rights of citizenship.
Johnson was also critical of that
portion of the ambassador's speech
which stated that South Africa
contributes substantially to the
economic well-being of the rest of
the continent.
Becker praised his country's role
in the African political community,
saying that South Africa produces
22 per cent of the continent's total
output of goods and services, and
supplies more than 50 per cent of all
Africa's electricity.
"Approximately two million
workers from African countries are
employed in South Africa," said
Becker, "and it is estimated that an
additional two million inhabitants
of these countries are dependent on
the income of their relatives who
work in South Africa."
Student Discounts
Our ,
&te/uvus&ot:   KXSJ
Educational Center
Call Days Evenings l Weekends
University Village Bldg.
4900 25th Avenue N.E.
Seattle. Washington 98105
Becker went on to describe in
some detail development projects in
African countries that have been
initiated by the South African
"The main thrust of South
Africa's contribution in the field of
development aid lies in the provision of technical and administrative assistance. (Our)
highly sophisticated medical
research and clinical facilities are at
the disposal of neighboring
countries when needed," said
But Johnson counters that
Becker is blowing South African
aid out of proportion.
"The countries that he (Becker)
talked about were Malawi, Botswana and Mozambique," said
Johnson. "As far as Mozambique
is concerned, since they have
become socialistic they will accept
nothing from South Africa.
November 4,1974:
Ihe day Bob Dean
changed his mind.
Bob Dean had some notions
about the banking business
that weren't too flattering. "Too
big and impersonal," he said.
"I'd get lost in the shuffle," he said.
On November 4,1974-
a few months after graduating
from UBC- Bob met one of
Toronto Dominion's recruiters.
He learned about a young,
progressive company that was
interested in what he had to
say-and in what he did with his
future. He learned about
TD's management opportunities
in everything from market
research to international banking.
He learned he could even like
the banking business, too.
Three promotions later, Bob
Dean is doing fine and well
at TD. You could, too. Talk to
one of our campus recruiters
on November 27, 28 and 29.
The bank where people
make the difference
Our recti liters will be on campus to change 'vista j
ALLEN GINSBEWtTappears at the PNE Gardens Saturday at 7 p.m.
Support a cause while enjoying
yourself! There will be a special
jreenpeace Support Dance, this
>at., Nov. 25, at 8:30 p.m., held at
he Russian Community Centre,
>114 W. 4th Ave. La Tropicale Reggae Band will be playing. Advanced
icket sales only, with tickets
ivailable at the Greenpeace Foun-
iation and at Quintessence Records
)r phone 525-3230 for reservations.
Ending Nov. 25 at Pumps, 40 E.
Cordova St., is the Video Cabaret,
a witty and lively presentation of
the contradictions of post-punk
theatre. Nov. 24 and 25, showtime:
9 p.m. Tickets are $4.00 at the
American poet Allen Ginsberg is
in town and will be reading and
singing selections of his poetry this
Saturday night at 7 p.m. at the PNE
Gardens. There'll be a big party and
dance afterwards. Tickets are
Proceeds from the concert are going to Talon Books, whose Canada
Council grant has been reduced.
Talon Books are one of the most
important literary publishers in
Western Canada and have published many of Canada's foremost
writers. So come out, have a good
time at the Gardens and support
Talon Books.
The Burnaby Art Gallery, 6344
Gilpin St., presents a special
Christmas exhibition, Nov. 26 to
Jan. 9 which will feature illustrations for children of all ages. From
fact to fantasy, poetry and legend
to text book drawings and colour
separations, this exhibition of illustrations for children's books by
B.C. artists should appeal to the
child, parent, and teacher alike.
Sun, Stars and Standing Stones
will be the topic of guest speaker
Michael Ovenden, Thurs., Nov. 30
at the Vancouver Planetarium, 1100
Chestnut   St.    Dr.    Ovenden   is
familiar    with    many    of   the
megalithic sites in Britain and his
lecture will deal with Stonehenge
and similar sites and the remarkable
knowledge of the ancient people
who built them.
the sound approach to quality
KA-3500 Stereo Amplifier
40 Watts Per Channel, Min. RMS at 8 ohms,
20-20k Hz no more than 0.2% Total Harmonic Distortion
Advanced Electronics, High Power and
Low Distortion at a Surprisingly Low Price!!
"You Deserve The Difference"
2053 West 41st
Bank Financing
Luncheon Smorgasbord
Authentic Chinese Cuisine
in the West at a
Reasonable Price
from 4:30 p.m.
10% Discount on all
cash pick-up orders
2142 Western Parkway
PSt    U.E.L. Vancouver, B.C.
11:30- 3:00 Mon. - Sat.
5:00- 1:00 Mon. - Sat
5:00- 11:00 Sunday
Sausage Rolls
Meat & Vegetable
Potato Chops
Ice Cream      	
112 for in
Buy one. get second one FREE
Offer good on Nov. 25 Et 26
4401 W. 10th at Trimble
Just 4 blocks from the gates.
Open For Lunch
Open Till 2:30 Weekdays
3:30 Weekends
12:30 Sundays
738-9520        I  DOWNTOWN
or 738-1113      I   1359 Robson
361 B W. Broadway)        688-5491
Dining Lounge - F"H Facilities -
Take Out or Home Delivery
Late delivery call ln hour before closing.
Salad Bar * Caesar Salad
Charbroiled Steaks * Seafood
Licensed Lounge
Free Delivery
Open Daily from 11 a.m.
SUNDAY from 4 p.m.
4450 W. 10th Ave.
224-3434 224-6336
PancaKe House & Restaurant
Breakfast Special
2 eggs, pancakes
with bacon or sausage
Chargex Accepted
Hours: Mon.-Fri. 9:00-11:00
Sun. & Holidays 9:00-8:00
2741 West 4th Avenue
4510 W. 10th Ave.
2.904 W. 4+*. AVE.    733-37I.3.
'An eating experience not to be under
estimated as one of the best mexican restaurants north of California.' Thats what
it is all about!
3525 W 4th at Collingwood
g3^v WEEK
f    ZINGO
I Next Week
^Monday to
Groups of
IO or more.
Friday, November 24, 1978
Page Friday. 17 Closer
to the Musical Truth
JT-V11G Tuner
D PLL FM Demodulator in IC Form
I  11.6 dBf [2.1 uV] Sensitivity and 55dB
DTwin Tuning Meters
G Wide 240 mm Frequency-Linear Tuning
Here's a new JVC high-fidelity tuner to make
an ideal mate for any of the new JA-S stereo
integrated amplifiers, particularly the JA-
Sl 1G. Add a turntable and a pair of speaker
systems and your audio system is ready to
move you into an exciting musical adventure. Among the many first-class
features of this well-built model are its big
twin tuning meters.
JA-S11G Amplifier
D30 Watts per Channel, Minimum RMS,
Both Channels Driven, into 8 ohms, from
20Hz to 20kHz with no more than 0.1 %
Total Harmonic Distortion
[ JTwo-Deck Dubbing & Tape-2 Terminals on
Front Panel
If you want an easy-to-operate amplifier with
perfect performance, the JVC JA-S11G is
the one to hear. We've stripped off all the
frills, retained only useful features like two-
deck and two-speaker-pair connection
facilities. Moreover, since it's a JVC, we've
made doubly sure it meets super hi-fi performance requirements to bring you Closer
to the Musical Truth.
KD10 Cassette Deck
3-Position Bias/ Equalizer Switches
ILowWow&FlutterofO.06% WRMS
Automatic Input Selector
: Gear/ Oi l-Damped Cassette Lid
Tape Amount Scale
The KD-10 is priced even lower than
other JVC decks, but still includes the
following features: 5 -LED Peak
Indicator, a Timer Standby Facility,
Automatic Input Selector, JVC's
electronic governor motor and more.
In line with other, more expensive
decks, performance parameters —
such as a high signal to noise ratio
(56dBfrom peak level, weighted) —
guarantee long years of musical enjoyment. The KD-10 is a high value,
high performance deck at a budget
^Chance 23995
Page Friday. 18
Friday, November 24, 1978


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