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UBC Publications

UBC Publications

The Ubyssey Mar 6, 1975

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Array Barrett hits student elite
Premier Dave Barrett reminded
students here Wednesday that they
are a privileged group and there is
grass roots opposition to spending
large amounts of money on "airy-
fairy .education."
Barrett told a commerce alumni
dinner: "Don't get the idea that the
total community is behind the
"There are some people in the
community who feel the university
is out of reach," he said, "there is
populist opposition to the amount
of money spent on 'airy-fairy
Barrett was responding to a
question from Alma Mater Society
president Gordie Blankstein who
asked: "How about welfare for the
The premier said students spend
their time "in the comfort of people
who are sharing the experience
with you" but many people in the
community never have the experience.
He said he told the three
university presidents last year that
it would be much easier for him to
take the university's case to rural
areas if the hinterland saw some
evidence of the university's
"You've done it a bit (in extending programs to the community) and you got an increase in
your grant," he said.
Barrett told about 400 people at
the dinner in the faculty club
students must examine what they
give back to the community that
has subsidized them once they
"There are hard-nosed businessmen questioning whether they are
getting their money's worth," he
"You do have a privilege of going
to university. Tragically, it is not a
right in North America."
Answering another question,
Barrett apparently discounted the
possibility of education minister
Eileen Dailly resigning her cabinet
post. .
Saying calls for ministers'
resignations are routine "and the
best get two or three," he pointed
to the current opposition demands
in parliament for the resignation of
certain Liberal ministers.
"I don't expect any resignations
among the federal ministers and I
know of none provincially who will
be resigning either," he said.
He was responding to a general
question asking his criteria for
demanding a resignation. He said
he had none.
Dailly's resignation has been
demanded by the B.C. Teachers
Federation and opposition leaders.
Barrett responded with immediate "no comment" responses
when asked later by reporters to
answer questions on Dailly's firing
of all members of the education
For the fourth consecutive time,
the Wednesday night Alma Mater
Society council meeting was
cancelled or adjourned for lack of a
Only 18 of 38 councillors attended
Wednesday's joint council meeting
of outgoing and incoming AMS
councillors. Twenty-one are
required for a quorum.
The Feb. 26 meeting was adjourned after only one hour when
the number attending dissipated to
less than 21.
The Feb. 19 council meeting was
cancelled when only 17 councillors
showed up.
A special Monday night council
meeting was also cancelled for the
same reason..
department's research and
development division and on the
possibility of Dailly's resignation.
Asked by a student if there will
be a cut in provincial income tax,
Barrett added fuel to the
widespread conviction that there
will be an election next year by
laughing: "That's a good question.
You'll have to wait for next year's
Barrett's speech, combining
charming wit with strong
justification of NDP policies, was
clearly tailored for his audience of
commerce students, faculty and
businessmen graduates.
It was an audience that just as
clearly showed its scepticism of
the  premier   through   questions,
asides and occasional heckling.
But the dinner group also provided
the premier with considerable
laughter and applause.
Barrett talked money.
He pointed to the million-dollar
profits enjoyed by various companies the government has purchased, including Canadian
Cellulose (formerly Columbia
Cellulose), Plateau Mills and
Dunhill Developments, the
government housing company.
"We set out to eliminate the
myth that governments didn't
know how to run anything," he
The government should never
put itself in the vulnerable position
of depending on business decisions
not made "in the best interests of
the jurisdiction," he said.
Mincome, the guaranteed income for senior citizens, actually
provides "a major economic
support" for small business,
Barrett said.
"The fact that we guarantee the
purchasing power of 128,000 people
at $234 a month puts a lot of money
into the economy," he said.
Barrett told a questioner the B.C.
Development Corporation is out to
assist small indigenous businesses.
"The indigenous small entrepreneur in rural areas provides
the social stability that is needed in
a rapidly-developing non-urban
area," he said.
He noted the previous Social
Credit regime had never set up
such an agency. "This is the first
socialist government and this is the
first time there has been aid to
small business."
When a  forestry  businessman
asked   "is that socialism?"  and
added   that   businessmen   are
concerned about  future   govern-
See page 2: NO
PLOTTING  NEXT WAR three intent gents sweat and grunt over     Adie,
brilliance of each other's military genius. Left to right. General Peter     science
Col.  Peter "Rubbernose" Denny
1. enjov casual game in SUB.
—marise savaria photo
Private Bob White, all
BoG looks at alternative res funding
The board of governors finance
committee will investigate
possible alternatives to students
paying 18 to 25 per cent residence
fee hikes.
The decision came after a group
of residence students presented a
petition at Tuesday's meeting
bearing 1,466 signatures calling on
the board to investigate alternative
Young spurns arts dean post
The arts dean selection committee is considering 10
arts dean candidates, but former UBC professor
Walter Young is not among them.
Young, political science head at the University of
Victoria, said Wednesday he had received a letter
from Peter Suedfeld, committee chairman and
psychology head, inviting him to apply for the
position of arts dean.
Young said in a telephone interview he was flattered but has declined the offer because he does not
want to move away from Victoria.
"It was in many ways flattering," he said. "I just
didn't want to pack my family up again at this time.
I've got kids in high school."
Young said his decision has "absolutely nothing" to
do with the office or duties of art dean. "It's an interesting office and a very good faculty," he said.
And Young did not rule out the possibility of attempting to become arts dean when the position is
next vacant.
"I wouldn't rule anything out in the future," he
Young was head of UBC's political science
department before taking the Victoria post.
Several committee members refused Wednesday to
release names of the candidates under consideration.
However, committee member Lyn Bartram, arts 4,
said Wednesday the committee has received 10
See page 8: ARTS
means of funding UBC residences.
The committee will present its
finding to the board at its next
meeting, April 1.
"The board was sympathetic to
the students' plight,"' student
board member Svend Robinson
said Wednesday.
He said the board decided it
should look very seriously at how
the increases could be reduced.
"We should seek to find alternatives so that students don't have
to pay for the increase," he said.
The board had scheduled Totem
Park resident Keith Martens,
science 4, to be present at the
closed meeting to present the
petition, but in a surprise move
decided to admit a group of
demonstrators to the meeting.
UBC housing director Leslie
Rohringer reiterated his stand that
the increases are justified and that
the Joint Residences committee,
which includes five students,
unanimously supported the increases.
Martens told the board the
people he represents think it is
unfair that students should have to
shoulder the burden of increases.
He said books and clothes are
going up in price, job opportunities
aren't as great in the summer and
students from places like Prince
George and Kamloops have no
other place to stay upon arriving at
When asked by a board member
where he thought the money for the
increases should come from,
Martens said: . "I'm not a
Nadine McDonnell, former Place
Vanier residents' association
president, said students pay for 12
months mortgage with their eight-
month residence fee and that the
real losses occured through
summer conventions.
Rohringer told the board a
decision on financing has to be
reached by March 30, when the
fiscal year ends. Page 2
Thursday, March  6,   1975
No forest industry
takeover planned
From page 1
ment actions, Barrett responded:
"That's a good question."
"I am amazed that during the
previous administration that
question was never asked. You
took whatever was put on the plate
because the alternative was the
dangerous socialists."
Tenant act
still counts
Provincial rentalsman Barrie
Clark says he is still treating all
UBC residences as if they come
under the Landlord and Tenant
Act, despite an administration
application to have them exempted.
Clark said the administration,
through its lawyers, Sutton
Braidwood, applied to the attorney-general's department in a
letter dated Feb. 24 to have all
university residences exempted
from the act.
Failing a wholesale exemption,
the administration wants an
exemption from the 10*6 per cent
rent ceiling, Clark said.
A lawyer's report on whether
single residences are covered -by
the act will not be available for a
month, Clark said.
"In the meantime, we'll be
operating as though we have
jurisdiction," he said.
When former premier W. A. C.
Bennett expropriated B.C. Electric
and made it B.C. Hydro, "did you
rise up?" Barrett asked. "You
swallowed it out of fear."
"There is a place in the marketplace for a government presence.
We have no intention of
nationalizing the forest industry,"
he said.
To another questioner who said
businessmen never know if they
will be bought out, Barrett
reminded him that the government
has gone to the marketplace for
each corporate acquisition.
"We have purchased," he said.
"We haven't moved like the
previous government and expropriated. If you don't want to
sell, don't sell."
Barrett opened his speech by
comparing B.C.'s history so far to
that of an adolescent "and like an
adolescent we have normal schizophrenic outbursts."
He said the NDP's accession to
power is not so unusual given the
province's history of "radical
populism, both of the left and
Many socialist programs were
"picked off" by other parties, he
said, because they were ideas
whose time had arrived.
This is still happening with NDP
government programs, he said.
"It's   two   years   now   since   we
Written applications for membership on the AMS
Sub Management Committee are now being
accepted. Deadline is 3:30 p.m. Friday, March 14,
Interviews will be held noon, Tuesday and new
members will be expected to attend the
Committee meeting Friday, 12:30 p.m.
Address Applications to:
Lynne Batten,
Co-ordinator Elect,
AMS Offices,
Written applications for membership on the AMS
Finance Committee are now being accepted.
Deadline is 3:30 p.m., Friday, March 7, 1975.
Interviews will be held noon, Monday and new
members will be expected to attend the
committee meeting Tuesday at 3:30 p.m.
Address Applications to:
Dave Theessen,
AMS Offices,
brought in the land bill and mark
my words, no matter what happens
politically no one will ever go into a
political campaign saying 'if I am
elected I will destroy the land bill,'
because the bill has gone beyond
political rehetoric and become
common sense."
Concluding, Barrett asked his
audience to "do a little thinking, do
a little reading and be cautious in
coming in coming to judgment.
". . .Our adolescence will last a
little longer. Then we'll enter into
the bloom of early youth. All I ask
is, don't rush to judgment."
NAMARUPA^.Buddhist Meditation and Study
Basic instructor in sitting meditation plus lecture and discussion on-
Buddhist philosophy and psychology will be the format of a 4 evening
seminar, March 10-13.
DALE TRIMBLE, who also leads workshops in Hatha and Jnana yoga, is
presently involved in a training program to develop Tibetan Buddhist
psychology for use in therapeutic communities.
He holds a degree in Oriental studies and has studied with Chogyam
Trungpa, Rimpoche —a Tibetan meditator master and teacher.
Fee for the 4 evenings is $20.00
For information contact
Take your picture home in One Hour and save up to
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3522 W. 41st Ave. 266-8225
Nitobe Basketball Classic
16 Teams with a chance at Glory
Thursday, March 6, 12:30 p.m.
War Memorial Gym
Superleague Hockey
Science Vs. Engineers
Thursday, March 6, 6:30 p.m.
Thunderbird Winter Sports Centre
Can Sig Voyt Be Defeated?
Find out Friday, March 7,12:30 p.m.
S.U.B. Games Room
All sponsored by U.B.C. Intramurals
and it has a lot to do with
projecting a man's personality.
Ask us about our protein body waves and any information on how to take care of your hair and skin. We also
retail the very best products on the market for the needs of your skin and hair.
We are located on the U.B.C. Campus. Come and see us. By appointment only —
call 224-5540.
Nobs Parlons Franqais
Mines Thursday, March 6,  1975
Page 3
Drugs, mental hospitals
fare for Soviet dissidents
—marise savaria photo
LITTLE CHANGE since youth for Janeen Brock, who stands by
portrait of herself as a child. Painting is part of exhibition put on by art
education students in SUB art gallery until March 13.
'U,S., Soviets will
start next big war'
Soviet dissidents are being put in
mental hospitals and are being
given drugs which cause permanent brain damage, a UBC
psychiatric professor claims.
Dr. Norman Hirt said in an
interview Wednesday he has
documented evidence that extensive numbers of intellectuals
and other dissidents in the U.S.S.R.
have illegally been put in mental
hospitals and tortured while being
Hirt said many of these
dissidents have been committed
without being present at the
hearing at which they are committed.
"They even have ambulances
waiting at public meetings," he
He   estimated   that   several
thousand   dissidents   have   been
placed in "special hospitals."
I   "They've invented drugs which
cause permanent brain damage."
Hirt said his interest in this
subject started many years ago
when he saw how patients were
"brutalized" in the "old time
bughouses" which were common
in Canada at the time.
He was disturbed by the medical
tortures suffered by prison camp
and concentration camp inmates
during World War II.
After the Nuremburg "medical
trials", which exposed these
atrocities, several nations, including the Soviet Union, resolved
not to allow such tortures and
empowered the  World  Health
The next world war will result
from a struggle between the U.S.
and the Soviet Union for Western
Europe labor historian Jack Scott
said Wednesday.
Scott told 70 persons at a seminar
on superpower politics both superpowers think Western Europe is
the key to world hegemony making
it the area most liable for conflagration.
The Soviet Union is the power
most likely to instigate a world war
according to Scott.
"The USSR is the more
aggressive and therefore the most
dangerous of the two superpowers," he said. "Soviet expansionism constitutes a real
danger of war."
Scott said the Soviet Union is
more threatening than the U.S.
because it has less internal dissent
and because smaller nations are
not aware of the USSR's designs
for world domination.
"Russian chauvinism has grown
over the years after the wishes of
the ruling clique," he said.
Soviet moves to gain power in the
Middle East are part of a "pincer
movement" to surround* Wester*
Europe, Scott said. The Soviets are
also attempting to acquire* naval
bases on the Mediterranean to
strengthen their encirclement of
Europe, he said.
The Sino-Soviet conflict along the
Mongolian border is primarily a
i . .
Mike the Nike strode from the
infamous back room.
"We have a winner.
"The envelope, please."
(Drum roll.)
". . .Ah shit. Let's go down to the
Leth — the lounge."
bluff by the Soviets to draw attention away from the Warsaw
Pact troops in Eastern Europe,
Scott said. He added the Soviets
have their best troops in Europe
and only second- and third-rate
battalions on the Chinese border.
But Scott emphasized the U.S. is
only less aggressive militarily at
present because of the major
setbacks in its imperialist ventures
in recent years.
Scott said U.S. leaders are
playing for time to heal their
wounds after defeat in Southeast
Asia, internal dissent and
economic trouble.
Scott said the detente the
Americans and Russians boast
about is a screen for their activities
to promote local wars and profit
from huge arms sales.
"The powers make a pretext of
protecting world peace," he said.
"Treaties are made to justify the
arms race. Confrontation is the
main characteristic of superpower
relations — not detente.
"The two superpowers share
equal status as oppressors of the
world's peoples."
Third world countries have just
recently awakened to the fact they
can resist superpower oppression
Scott said. He said they have
realized the superpowers rely on
third world resources for survival.
"The phenomenal success of the
Arab nations is a perfect example
of unity in the struggle against
superpower imperialism," he said.
Scott said the Arabs have inspired
third world countries to withhold
their resources and demand better
National independence
movements throughout the world
in developed and underdeveloped
countries have effectively slowed
superpower strivings for world
domination, Scott said.
Organization to set up a committee
to investigate any similar activities in the future if evidence
was given that such tortures were
being carried out. Such an investigation committee would have
full diplomatic immunity.
After reading the Soviet intellectuals were being held in
mental hospitals, Hirt began to
investigate this claim because of
his concern about such forms of
In 1971 and 1972, Hirt said he
visited Europe and Israel to interview and examine victims of the
Soviet mental hospitals as well as
to interview expatriate Soviet
Since then, Hirt said he has been
working to bring pressure on the
WHO to investigate the psychiatric
tortures. He has contacted world
medical associations and has
appeared before a U.S. senate
Only now, after years of effort, is
the WHO considering action on the
problem he.said. Hirt is currently
writing a book on the subject.
One group in England has
estimated that 7,000 patients have
been given the brain damage-
causing drug.
Hirt said he spoke to several
former mental patients, a father of
one of the patients and three
doctors, including a former KGB
psychiatrist. He also obtained
information through the samizdat,
the Russian underground  press.
This form of torture which
started in the  Stalinist era,  is
controlled by Daniel Luntz, who
"has the power of life and death
over patients," Hirt said.
There is widespread use of
isolation techniques inside the
hospitals, he said. The use of truth
serum is "kind of routine," Hirt
He described one torture in
which the victim is placed naked
inside a cage with a volume of one
cubic yard The victim is then
given drugs which cause his or her
muscles to convulse.
Other tortures include electric
shock treatments, beatings, and
even shootings. Drugs which
destroy brain cells and bring on
senility have also been given to
Hirt said he is trying to free the
dissenters "not for political
reasons, but for reasons of
The former patients he has
examined have been perfectly
normal  mentally, Hirt said.
"Psychiatrists have been
committed because they have
found some of these patients to be
sane," he said.
Amnesty International is
working to free several individuals
from the hospitals, while other
groups are attacking the problem
as a whole," he said.
Hirt said he would like to see a
gathering of all the expatriate
victims and of all the victims inside the Soviet Union to dramatize
the plight of the dissidents.
"It's a very horrible story," he
said. "It should be stopped."
Hi! I'm Gary Coull, the incredibly ugly Ubyssey editor-elect.
All night news boy wins
Ubyssey Appointments Editor
. Emanating from underneath a pile of spiked copy
deep in the bowels of a major metropolitan cop shop,
youthful, but credulous, police reporter Gary Coull
was; elected editor Wednesday of the 1975-76 Ubyssey s
Cowll said in an interview after the election that the
all-night radio boys will never believe his new
^Neither will my mother," said Coull. "She always
wanted me to be a lawyer."
But his mother, Kathleen Coull, said in an interview
his election was not unexpected.
"First he started growing sideburns, then he
started hanging around late at night at College
Printers," she said. "Then he grew a moustache and
he started hanging around later at the printers. Then
he grew a beard and now he sometimes doesn't even
come home at all."
As well as having a mother, sideburns, a
moustache and a beard, Coull has a voice which has
been likened to that of a poor man's Gary Ban-
nerman, a body like a 45-year-old California surf boy
and a walk like a constipated penguin.
"Generally, if everything's added up, Gary looks
like a rather astonished chipmunk," said Penelope
Peaches, arts 3, a former steady.
Coull's reportorial skills have received the same
praise as his general bearing.
"He can't write," Ubyssey editor Lesley Krueger
said in an interview. "He can't spell, he always gets
his quotes wrong and he has no feeling for the rhythm
of the Queen's English."
Former Ubyssey co-editor Vaughn Palmer was
even more direct. "He couldn't report his way out of a
paper bag," said Palmer. "We take this kid by the
seat of his nappies, teach him everything we know
and here he becomes editor.
"What's the job coming to?" said Palmer as he
stormed off into the night.
"A washout, a wipeout, a general dunderhead,"
commented Mike Sasges, Palmer's co-editor in 1973-
74, before he too disappeared.
"I quite concur," said John Andersen, co-editor for
the 1972-73 term, with a look to his former co-editor,
Jan O'Brien.
"I always thought he was good," O'Brien objected.
Coull, a part-time Province reporter, said the
Ubyssey staff elected him "because of their good
taste, their indiscriminate taste in liquor — they like
cheap, Okanagan wine — and because they had little
choice. It was either me or a Honeywell editing
The editing terminal declined comment on its
narrow defeat. Pag. 4
Thursday, March  6,  1975
Barrett's audience wider than one room
Parking space around the faculty
club-Freddy Wood area was limited
Wednesday night as crowds gathered
to see two hit plays.
The Tempest was playing over at
the real theatre. Premier Dave
Barrett was packing them in at the
faculty club.
Somewhat hostile faces were
turned toward the improvised
podium at the beginning of the
speech, but these changed to amused
tolerance as the speech and later
question period rolled on.
This was in the main because the
speech was so superbly tailored to
the business interests represented
there. When Barrett talked about
government takeovers of private
industry — Dunhill Development
Corp., Canadian Cellulose, Kootenay
Forest Products — he spoke in terms
of profits rather than social benefits.
The speech sounded like a humanized, I - may - be - a - social - worker
- but- damn - it - I - realize - I'm -
running - a - business, rendering of a
balance sheet.
As has been observed, Barrett
plays well to an audience — but to
only the particular audience he is at
that   moment  dealing  with.
Barrett's trouble is that his
conception of his audience is limited.
He must learn it's not just the people
in the room he has to reach, but it's
also those who will be receiving
reports of this meeting through the
now omnipresent media.
And until he does, he's going to
confuse the public. These business
men might like him now, but they're
not going to after his next speech to
the B.C. Fed is reported. And when
the Fed reads reports of Wednesday's
meeting, they're going to be a bit
suspicious about his intention toward the workers. Until his next
speech to the Fed's next convention.
So Barrett has to learn to balance
his speeches, keeping in mind his
audience isn't as limited as the
confines of a particular room.
Otherwise his statements will
become more distrusted.
Lethe we
This afternoon, while sitting in
SUB cafeteria, after a somewhat
tedious lecture in anaesthetic
procedures, three of my friends
and I noticed in your paper that the
SUB management committee had
decided on a new name for the
alternate facility.
We all agreed it was a very interesting and promising choice.
Over our coffee we decided it was a
pity none of us had seen fit to enter
the naming contest; I suppose we
hadn't enough faith in our
imaginative powers.
But John mentioned that even
though the bar had a new name, it
lacked an appropriate slogan, and
urged us to test our wits thinking of
We puzzled over this while
sipping our coffee, and a little
while later, Bill (the oldest and
brightest of all of us), came out
Come, all take hands,
'Til   that   conquering   wine   hath
steeped our sense
In soft and delicate Lethe.
We all commended him on his
verse until we were interrupted by
the impulsive George, who blurted
Remember thee! Remember thee!
'Til Lethe  quench  life's  burning
His impetuous grin indicated he
was quite pleased with his little
effort and we were very aware he
was trying to lord it over us.
Not to be outdone, John scratched his somewhat round head,
fidgetted with his glasses and
Lethe, the river of oblivion rolls
Her watery labyrinth, whereof who
Forthwith  his former state  and
being forgets,
Forgets   both   joy   and   grief,
pleasure and pain.
Very well done, but all is not lost
— my turn is yet to come! A couple
of seconds passed and I had it!
No,  no, go not to Lethe,  neither
Wolfs-bane,   tight-rooted   for   its
poisonous wine;
Nor suffer thy pale forehead to be
By   nightshade,    ruby   grape   of
As we were leaving, while emptying our dull coffee down the
drains, Bill mentioned that it was a
pity Sam and William couldn't
have been with us that afternoon.
He thought they would have the
name Lethe, too.
I didn't think they would have
been in concordance.
J. Kates
arts 1
With help from
S. Narod
science 4
Unfortunately, our time was
Grad class president Tom
deWolfe allowed the meeting to be
left open to court action which
would nullify the meeting for the
second time, because of unconstitutional financial decisions
The meeting was frustrated to
attend because the committee
seemed to have no regard for even
the inadequate rules now present
to ensure that there is at least a
semblance of carrying out the
wishes of the class re the $22,000.
DeWolfe stubbornly overruled
members of the grad class who
pointed out the unconstitutionality
of the ratification of the Gage
This project should be put on the
mail ballot on an even footing with
other projects. Although the chair
was rightfully challenged, it was
upheld, mainly because deWolfe's
engineer colleagues were present
en masse.
When the quorum was
challenged, he declared a quorum
present at the same time he
recorded in the minutes a head
count 200 less than the 437
We would like to commend Ron
Walls and Frank Tichler for
fighting to have the constitutional
rules for the distribution of this
money upheld. They stood up to an
ignorant confused and harrassing
crowd (mainly engineers) and
enlightened many of us pointing
out the mistake being made.
Audrey Soroka
Linda McKague
Jennie Stewart
Marie McDowell
Debra Dumville
Susan Craze
Carol Smith
Megan Hum
Charlie Butt
Kathy Stringer
Karen Skarpness
all rehab 4
In response to a frustrating grad
class meeting on Feb. 25, it seems
ridiculous that the organization is
even in existence.
The meeting and the issues involved were controversial and
well-publicized; therefore about as
large a turnout as could be expected was there — approximately
five per cent of the grad class.
Everyone knew about the
meeting, no one was barred from
coming, the people who had an
opinion strong enough to vote were
there — the others obviously do not
care. After all, how can one expect
people to come to a meeting to
abstain? Therefore why not consider the votes 95 per cent abstention?
However any organization must
be run by the constitutional laws. If
that organization cannot get the
people out to form a legal quorum
to do business then there is no
sense having the meetings and that
organization should not be in
The grad class' is a fallacy
anyway as there is no longer any
group or class feeling. It is just not
feasible to get 4,000 people
together. Perhaps people should
put their fees toward their own
faculty's grad class which would
be much more meaningful and a lot
less hassle.
The only problem is, how to get a
quorum of apathetic people to vote
to make such a change.
Jackie Thibodean
Liese Marshall
Margaret Gilmour
rehab 4
Why may I ask, do the Ubyssey
staffers concern themselves with
the totally irrelevant (to UBC) and
off-campus issues that continually
appear on these pages?
Is it because the staffers are all
so alike in their biased way of
thinking, that their "anti-
establishment" dogma takes
precedence over everything else?
One example that comes immediately to mind is this preoc-
cupatiop with the CKLG radio
strike. First of all, why should we,
the students support CUPE local
686? If they think they deserve to
be paid more why don't they come
out here for five years, as incidentally, some of us do.
Secondly, and more importantly,
how can the Ubyssey even begin to
pretend that it represents the line
of thought at the campus by
signing a staff editorial "per, the
students at UBC?" I think you'll
find the vast majority of students
would not want to be represented
by a presumptuous gang of biased
idiots like yourselves.
We, the undersigned, were
among the members of the grad
class who attended the general
meeting last Tuesday.
MARCH 6, 1975
Published Tuesdays, Thursdays and Fridays throughout the
university year by the Alma Mater Society of the University of
B.C. Editorial opinions are those of the writer and not of the AMS
or the university administration. Member, Canadian University
Press. The Ubyssey publishes Page Friday, a weekly commentary
and review. The Ubyssey's editorial offices are located in room
241K of the Student Union Building.
Editorial departments, 228-2301; Sports, 228-2305; advertising,
228-3977. Editor: Lesley Krueger
"Let's impeach the editor-elect!" cried one. "Yes," cried another. "Just
initial this." And they did: LK, DFR, BRW, SV, MS, MS, MK, RM, CG,
MG, JMcM, TB. GxC demurred.
So until the opportunity presents
itself again I'll waste my time
listening to what I want, favoring
who I want, and reading this
publication that presents the most
puerile pap imaginable.
Ron Joseph
engineering 1
Per most of the 'geers on campus
P.S.: Food for thought!
Do you staffers realize that the
expense account of this utterly
useless publication would feed
thousands of hungry
Bangladeshians (or a few score
corrupt officials where most of the
aid goes anyway), for a year?
Apart from all the other considerations involved in the CKLG
strike, we must point out the obvious: CKLG AM and especially
FM are the most-listened-to radio
stations by UBC students. Ergo,
the connection.
Besides, we like to think students
have minds broad enough to oc-
cassionally encompass issues
wider than the teapot tempests
that are the usual rule out here.
It is gratifying after spending
four years on this campus to finally
have my name printed in black and
white in The Ubyssey. This
gratifying moment also served to
be very informative.
Little did I know I was chairman
of the committee looking into
lifetime membership in the AMS
and little did I know I was supposed
to be at a meeting on Monday,
March 3.
I will, however, admit to
proposing the idea to our illustrious
council as I thought it at least
deserved some discussion. (Sorry,
At that time, a lot of people
expressed a concern for contributing monies toward a pool that
they would not be able to use.
Further commitment to this
committee has been negligible.
Peter Affleck
forestry rep
I have noted with alarm the
increase of a practice which one
can only call The Greying of the
If there is a large expanse of
nice, green grass, people
inevitably walk across it, quickly
wearing down an ugly path. The
people are just as inevitably
followed by a bulldozer and a
concrete truck who turn the abstract footpath into a permanent
concrete eyesore.
Someone in physical plant — or
whoever decides the physical
appearance of the campus —
seems to have adopted a policy of
not following a master plan but of
following pedestrians: wherever
they walk, a path must be made. I
would like to demonstrate this
theory: a group should find a nice,
large expanse of lawn and start
walking around it in circles.
I am certain that if the experiment is repeated often enough,
the pedestrians will be followed
soon by the construction equipment. Another exercise: have the
group walk halfway across the
virgin path, then turn around and
walk back to the starting point.
This would cause great confusion
among the construction crew.
Seriously, we are supposed to be
concerned with the ecological
aspects of the area in which we
study and work; and all of us are to
blame for this particular process of
destruction of natural areas. If we
try to resist messing up a nice
patch of lawn, and incidentally get
a little more exercise by walking
the few steps around it, perhaps we
can stop the overreacting physical
plant from immortalizing our sins
in concrete.
Paul E. Thiele
Crane librarian head
Re: law library. Beyond a few
administrative problems, the
criticism of the law library printed
recently (Ubyssey, Jan. 30), is
The grey complained of is not
"dull, utilitarian and oppressive"
but rather it is the silver of a
refined analytical mind. To introduce indiscriminate
"decorative" elements would be a
Windows have been used
metaphysically to symbolize the
directions from which the legal
profession should discern
jurisprudence. The lack of a
suggested monumental platform
customary with the legal architectural genre is a brilliant
statement about our society's
future, entry is at ground level.
Read the bevelled detailing
unifying this organic composition;
edges do not confront, but accommodate.
A reasonable comparison is the
para-brutalist Woodward library.
Use its main stacks stairway and
assess space perception, texture,
and detailing relative to the law
staircase after the surface
newness has seasoned. •
The value of this surprisingly
urban architectural statement will
be understood once the total
Oxonian-Mumford grouping is
completed in April.
T. Arnett
grad studies, architecture
According to the Oxford dictionary, the word "per," when
used as an English preposition,
denotes the following: Through,
by, according to, as stated or indicated by.
Therefore, your use of the
preposition in your article in
Friday's Ubyssey (Dear Mr.
Premier (Axe Dailly. . . Sincerely,
The Ubyssey staff, per: The
students at UBC) implies that I
agree with what you have written
and have told you so.
But I have told you nothing.
Ergo, a suggestio falsi (misrepresentation) on your part. And you
say Dailly is incompetent!
Bill Harrison
arts 4 Thursday,  March 6,   1975
Page 5
Wow! The Ubyssey? It's a super
fine source of information for the
bulk of staff and students here, and
I do appreciate your efforts in
producing it.
However, I have recently
discovered that a lot more can be
done to improve your service to us.
I hasten to remark that the paper
has always been silent on issues
which affect students from a group
that can correctly be classified as
"minority," e.g. the African
Let me cite a few instances:
1) A few months ago the International House on campus
organized a panel discussion on the
third world. Two Nigerians, one
East Indian and one Malaysian
discussed the problem of
development as it relates to their
2) Within the past four weeks the
International House organized two
panel discussions on Nigeria and
Ghana respectively on the
following dates: Feb. 6 and Feb. 27.
3) During the Bread for the
World week, there was a panel
discussion (Feb. 26) in which
African students expressed their
views on the problem of hunger in
the third world, from various
Your personnel did not deem it
fit to report any of these
discussions in any issue of this
paper, The Ubyssey. It is my
conviction that many students and
members of staff (faculty, administrative and auxiliary staff)
on this vast campus still lack any
true knowledge about Africa or the
third world in general.
If these people are not able to
attend symposia on the third
world, your paper will be doing a
greater service by reporting the
important discussions that usually
take place in our meetings. To
those African students who spoke
at the symposium sponsored by the
Bread for the World committee, I
say: "Bravo!"
As regards the letters from
Messrs. Wilkinson (geography 2)
Feb. 25, Kyle (arts 4) and Wood-
burn (science 3) Feb. 28, I am not
opposed to the idea that they are
free to express their views.
However,  there are occasions
when one has to be cautious in
exercising this, right — especially
when one is not well informed on
the subject matter.
I do admire their honest- attempts to offer solutions to the
problem of hunger in the third
world. Thus, I would be prepared
to offer them free consultations on
the third world. I do believe that
some other students from the third
world would be willing to assist me
in arranging free tutorials for
those first or second world
Thereafter, they will be equipped
with sufficient knowledge to
become "experts on the diverse
problems of the third world.
Ezekiel Qlumuyiwa
education grad studies
Once again the staff of The
Ubyssey proves that little
knowledge can be a dangerous
thing. (I am of course referring to
the Ubyssey's reply to the
responses generated by Mr.
Wilkinson's letter of Feb. 25).
Henceforth I would suggest that
whenever you want to get information concerning populations
you consult a biologist and leave
the mathematicians to themselves.
As you say, populations do indeed start off growing in an exponential fashion, but this doesn't
continue, as you imply. If it did the
universe would long ago have been
filled with plants and animals from
our and other planets. (A lot of
people don't believe this to be the
case because we haven't yet met
anybody from another plant.)
Any population eventually
reaches a maximum value; from
there it remains constant, or falls
off suddenly. The former occurs if
the amount of food available just
meets the demands of the
population, and the latter occurs if
all of a sudden the food supply is
severely limited.
I suspect that this second
alternative is the more likely — it
could be the result of a change in
the weather such as the recent
drought in Africa.
So your basic assumption is
Next you suggest that once a
righteous government gets into
power it should be given all the
money it needs to help feed the
people and then to help educate
them. This is clearly ridiculous
because the more food you give
them, the more people you have to
feed, as I'm sure you've heard
If we give aid at all, we should
first make sure that the people are
educated (especially with respect
to contraception and the reasons
for population control), and then
feed them when the population has
stopped growing and is becoming
(Feeding them first, and then
having more to feed is analagous to
our current situation with inflation.
The workers are demanding higher
wages to cover the rise in the cost
of living, which results in the
elevation of prices to cover the
labor costs. You know where that's
taking us.)
Your final ecstatic triumphant
statement (the argument tp end all
arguments) tells us to look at
China, which has all but completely solved all of her own
problems. What you neglected to
mention is that she did it all by
herself, without "massive foreign
aid and educational training".
Steve Clark
science 2
Well, since I started this whole
thing, I might as well keep in
I was glad to see that my letter
generated some (wow!) response
on this rather apathetic campus. I
intentionally took a Devil's Advocate stance in my letter to see if
anyone would elaborate on the
huge problem facing all of us.
In bits and pieces, the sense has
filtered from the nonsense. From
the many replies printed, two
rather familiar points arose.
Firstly, the fact that present aid
programs are not achieving any
positive goals, and some feel they
are even "genocidal" in consequence. These programs when
contrasted with Western
capitalistic manipulation and
exploitation serve to expose the
farce of the present concept of a
global community.
Secondly, it has surfaced that in
order to relieve the huge
disparities between production and
consumption the Western cultures
must roll back their dynamic
economies and scales of consumption.
This entails, as one might
imagine, a great deal of attitudinal
rethinking — mostly on the
Western side. The main stumbling
block is that fundamental reality —
there is no global community.
I personally hope that somehow
this can change. Mason Dixon
sums it up very well. . . "You
David Wilkinson
geography 2
I just thought I'd give a word or
two of comment about an item
appearing in your rag that made
my already impalatable budget
burger slightly less digestible
today. Re: Ron McCallum's letter
(Ubyssey, Feb. 28)' "Demand
(that) every individual of child-
bearing age maintained by such
artificial food) support be
One thing that I can say is, that's
awfully white of you, bud. Of
course, as another student of
Malthus, Darwin, pointed out, the
fittest in a population will survive.
However, the definition of fit given
was the ability to have the most
surviving offspring. The more
children (grandchildren, etc.) the
more fit.
This is essentially what I believe
McCallum fears! Just imagine
being in a position to feed those
who might some day outnumber
his (beloved) kind. And if they
were still hungry, they might even
demand food from his- own mouth
(at the point of a gun, even!). You
certainly have a well developed
survival instinct, yourself,  fella!
Not to let that happen, the only
course Ron could foresee is forced
SUB Theatre 75C
Thu. 7:00, Sat.,
Sun. 7 & 9:45
No show on Friday
Please show A.M.S. card
sterilization (not education). In
other words, limit the reproductive
fitness of the population. If this was
carried out for two or three successive generations in one
population, the race would simply
peter out.
Of course, McCallum probably
meant to let a few non-needy types
off the hook, but this would
severely restrict the adaptability
of the surviving population in the
fact of the hostile environment.
Wouldn't it be slightly cheaper to
let the population starve and thus
stabilize itself via competition for a
common resource, finally to adjust
numerically to present conditions?
It is much less damaging to the
surviving population to restrict
numbers of individuals than of
genotypes. After all, that is the
conclusion drawn from Darwin's
work, based directly on Malthusian
And in those days of world-wide
genetic communication, the culling
out of large numbers of genotypes
from a population in such an unnatural manner is highly
detrimental to the future of the
entire species. (For those with
foresight enough to think in terms
of species rather than individuals.)
Eric Cabot
grad studies, botany
The Ubyssey welcomes letters
from all readers.
Letters should be signed and
Letters should be addressed to
the paper care of campus mail or
dropped off at The Ubyssey office,
SUB 241 K.
Dance To
International House
Friday, March 9, 1975
at 9:00 P.M.
Tickets: $1.50 at door
Members $1.00
The Skiing Canadian.
Molson Canadian.
Brewed right here in B.C. Page 6
Thursday,  March  6,   1975
Canadian interest sold d<
Canadian University Press
It was a little magic for the people.
After weeks of hype advertising and
threats that the show would be cancelled if
we all weren't good, the Syncrude Magic
Revue hit town, starring Imperial Oil and its
sidekicks Peter Lougheed, Donald Macdonald and a cast of billions.
The show was slick,  and well stage-
Bonner... joined MacBlo.
managed — no one disputed that — but what
caught the attention of several reviewers
was that it was not original. By now
Canadians must be getting bored to tears by
American-produced legerdemain.
It was the old sleight-of-hand trick where
our resources are whisked away from under
our very eyes while a mysterious hand drops
a few pennies in our pockets. It was used
before when the Yanks got a river, this time
they got the Alberta tar sands and $1.4
The similarities between the Columbia
River Treaty and the Syncrude deal were
noticed by several observers critical of
federal-provincial harmony in lining the
pockets of multinational oil companies.
B.C. premier Dave Barrett said Syncrude
was a worse deal than the Columbia treaty
— if that's the case, that's bad, because that
treaty, is costing Canada far more than even
the most pessimistic opponents predicted
over a decade ago.
The Columbia is one of the world's most
powerful rivers, rising in the Rocky
Mountains of southeastern British Columbia
and flowing north through the Rocky
Mountain trench for about 220 miles before
looping south at a point called the Big Bend,
near Mica Creek.
From this point, about 100 miles north of
Revelstoke, the river flows south into the
U.S. where it eventually completes its 1,200-
mile long course at the Pacific Ocean near
Portland, Oregon.
One of its main tributaries is the
Kootenay, which rises near the Columbia's
source but flows south, passing the
Columbia within a mile at Canal Flats, north
of Cranbrook. The Kootenay flows into the
U.S. and near Libby, Montana, turns north
and flows back into Canada, where it joins
the Columbia near Trail, after first
widening to form Kootenay Lake.
Including the Kootenay, almost 30 per
cent of the Columbia River basin was under
sovereign control of Canada, until Sept. 16,
1964 when that sovereignty passed into the
hands of the U.S. through the vehicle of the
Columbia River Treaty.
If Canada had developed the river according to plans worked out by the late
General Andrew McNaughten, national
defence minister under MacKenzie King
and chairman of the Canadian section of the
International Joint Commission, prior to the
treaty's signing, Canada could have
retained control over its portion of the basin.
But more importantly, McNaughten's
plan development could have provided
about 70 per cent more power at less cost
than under Columbia development.
As well, water could have been diverted
from the Columbia system into the
Saskatchewan River to provide water for
the Prairies.
The Saskatchewan Power Corporation
had determined that such diversion was
economical, but only the diverted water
could be used to produce power, offsetting
the cost of pumping it over the continental
divide. The. river that would have been
tapped for the diversion was the Kootenay.
However, the treaty made such a proposal
unrealistic. Water can be taken from the
Kootenay, but cannot be used to generate
The McNaughton plan called for diversion
of the Kootenay into the Columbia, rather
than allowing full flow through its natural
To do this, a large dam would be built on
the Kootenay near Bull River, east of
Cranbrook, backing the Kootenay into the
Columbia. Another large structure would be
constructed on the Columbia at Luxor, near
This arrangement would provide
maximum upstream storage in Canada,
above Mica, which most experts agree is
one of the best locations on the Canadian
system to locate a hydroelectric dam.
James Ripley, a professional engineer
and editor of the Southam business
publication, Engineering and Contract
Record, wrote that Mica is the "hub of any
Canadian development . . . and the key to
profitable development of Mica is to make
sure it can be supplied with Kootenay
The amount of power that can be
generated at a site is a function head (the
Waterfall on the Columbia.
Fulton ... treaty a big sell tit.
distance the water falls) and magnitude of
the flow. With more storage of water behind
a dam, the flow through the turbines can be
The reason why storage is important is
that rivers don't flow at the same rate
throughout the year. This high, variation
results in poor economy of power plant
operation and poses a flood threat.
From May to August, 70 per cent of the
total annual flow of the Columbia River
enters the Pacific.
"It is as simple as this," Ripley said, "on
a river such as the Columbia where storage
is essential, you locate your main power
generating plants at the high head sites
(Mica), then arrange for upstream storage
to keep up the head of water behind the
power plants."
Although the Canadian section of the basin
was almost undeveloped, the Americans
had heavily developed its section of the
"The U.S.. . . has seen to it that the treaty
fulfills these requirements (maximum
upstream storage) as far as the U.S. is
concerned. The 10 U.S. plants are located
between Grand Coulee and Bonneville (near
Portland) on the lower Columbia.
"The treaty gives them Canadian storage
directly upstream from Grand Coulee — a
perfect combination," Ripley said.
Under a 1909 Canadian-American
agreement — the Boundary Waters Treaty
— it was totally within Canada's power to
proceed with the McNaughton plan without
reference to the U.S., according to the
principle that the upstream nation can
develop its portion of the river as it sees fit.
As one critic of the treaty said at the time,
Canada held all the aces, yet still managed
to come out of negotiations with a treaty that
only benefits the U.S.
Not only did the U.S. get a dam at Libby,
which Ripley claims transferred control of
the Kootenay, which is "essentially a
Canadian river," to U.S. hands and which
represents 25 per cent of the storage
capacity of the Canadian basin, "but the
treatyls main storage site is on the Arrow
Lakes, north of Trail.
Storage behind the High Arrow dam,
where no power will be generated, is entirely for the benefit of American plants.
"Arrow gives them effective control of the
Columbia because of its location and
because the criterion for its operation is to
optimize output for the system as a whole,
which, of course, is largely American,'
Ripley said.
Adding insult to injury, Canada losl
money on the entire venture, and B.C
taxpayers are now footing the bill for loans
that have had to be floated to meet Canadiar
obligations under the treaty.
B.C. premier W. A. C. Bennett said at the
time that "power from the Columbia will not
cost a nickel."
Instead it will cost millions.
Canada received a total of $343 millior.
from the U.S. but undertook to build (al
Canadian expense) the Mica, High Arrow
and  Duncan  dams.   The   Americans,   ol
course, paid for the Libby dam, but Canada
does not share in power from that project.
Although the treaty expires in about 5(
years,  control  of the   river  remains   in
American hands.
One section of the agreement says thai
Canada is required to operate Canadiar
storage to prevent floods in the U.S. forever.
Even Davie Fulton, justice minister in
Prime Minister John Diefenbaker's cabinet
and the chief Canadian negotiator at the
treaty talks, said the Columbia is the
"greatest sellout since the Indians gave
away Manhattan."
The simplest evidence of the treaty's
sellout nature was that it was ratified
almost immediately by the U.S. Senate, Thursday,  March  6,   1975
Page 7
vn river in Columbia pact
ter Diefenbaker and the then-president
wight Eisenhower, signed it in January,
61, but it was not ratified by Parliament in
mada until 1964.
During this interval, Diefenbaker and the
Miservatives were replaced by Lester,
sarson and the Liberals, who had opposed
e agreement while in opposition. Upon
eir election, the Liberals re-entered
(gotiations with the U.S. and came up with
protocol to the treaty, which they said,
ade it a better deal for Canada.
But the protocol was basically public
iations floss and did nothing to sub-
antially change the original treaty. This is
•oven by the fact that the U.S. Senate did
it have to ratify the protocol, as it would
ive if any real changes were made.
The Columbia treaty was accepted by the
deral government because Bennett's
icial Credit government insisted that it
as the only pattern of development it
)uld allow.
Although international treaties are a
deral responsibility arid the Columbia falls
ider federal jurisdiction because it is an
ternational river, resources belong to the
ovinces, requiring federal-B.C. co-
leration in the development of the
ilumbia-Kootenay basin.
The key to the entire basin was the Libby
im. With it built, diversion of the Kootenay
to the Columbia — the heart of the Mc-
aughton plan — was impossible.
The Libby dam ensured that Canada lost,
id it was Bennett that gave the Americans
id the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
lich wanted the massive Libby project as
showcase, the opportunity to drop about
ar million cubic yards of cement into the
wtenay River near Libby, backing the
rer 42 miles into Canada, sealing off
rever any Canadian attempt to develop
e basin in its best interests.
Bennett gave the Columbia away because
said he didn't want the Kootenay valley
»oded, which it would have been if the
cNaughton plan had been followed.
But, what Bennett was conveniently
•getting was that Libby flooded 18,000
res of the best farmland in the East
totenay region without providing any
nefits to Canada.
\nd the High Arrow dam, which the
aericans wanted to provide storage for
;ir existing plants, but which wouldn't
ve been built under a plan designed- to
rve Canadian needs, flooded out an entire
lley and forced the often-bitter relocation
about 2,000 people.
Developing the Columbia to serve
inadian interests required that part of the
ilumbia-Kootenay valley be flooded,
sveloping the river to make Grand Coulee
d other American dams more efficient
meant the Arrow valley would be inundated.
Bennett chose the latter course.
But Bennett was anything but a boring
politician and the reason why he sacrificed
the Columbia are interesting, if not a little
Bennett was a showman, and liked big
shows —huge projects that would capture
the imagination of the public long enough to
secure their votes, and in the early '60s
political requirements of the former hard-
Barrett ... Syncrude deal worse.
Dief ... signed pact.
ware-merchant-turned-statesman meant a
big splash in northeastern B.C.
The,splash would be created by a dam
across the Peace, now fittingly named after
its creator.
However, the Peace project, while
spectacular, wasn't very economical, and if
huge amounts of Columbia power at low
prices were available, there was no sense
proceeding with it.
Jack Davis, research director of B.C.
Electric-and later parliamentary assistant
to Prime Minister Lester Pearson (the man
primarily responsible for negotiating the
protocol to the treaty) estimated that the
cost-benefit ratio of the Columbia was
superior to that of the Peace.
Bennett ordered the B.C. Energy Board to
prepare a cost-comparison study of ifie two
projects, and, according to Derrick Sewell,
a University of Victoria water expert:
"The terms of reference for that study
loaded the dice in favor of the Peace."
When B.C. Electric told Bennett that it
wouldn't buy the more expensive Peace
power, thus cutting off the project from the
Lower Mainland market, Bennett took the
company over, but at a more than adequate
Having disposed of the McNaughton Plan,
whose benefits would have been too great
for Bennett to overawe with the Peace
development, and now with the corporate
opposition taken care of, Bennett Could
However, there is still.one name missing
from the entire scenario, and that is a name
long familiar to Canadians.
The Canadian Pacific Railway, born of
sellout, continues to grow and profit from
sellout. But in the case of the Columbia
River Treaty, it was party to a sellout of
almost treasonous proportions.
While   Bennett   was   able   to   benefit
politically from a treaty that hamstrung
development on the Columbia, the CPR was
in a position to benefit financially from a
• treaty provided storage in the right places.
Canadian Pacific is no longer just a
railway, and part of the reason is that the
federal government gave the CPR millions
of acres of land as an "incentive" to build
the railway. It also took over railways which
governments had given land to as well, and
by happy circumstance, some of the land
had good stuff in it — like minerals.
Cominco, Canadian Pacific's mining arm,
is a highly visible operation in the
southeastern corner of B.C. Kimberly, just
north of Cranbrook is the site of a large
Cominco mine, while Trail is dominated by
the huge Cominco smelter.
CP carries some political weight in B.C.
Robert Chodos, in his book on the CPR, said
that by 1970, "it was estimated that
Canadian Pacific owned or controlled at
least a billion dollars in assets in B.C.,
making it by far the largest corporation in
the province."
Kootenay had been diverted into the
Columbia, West Kootenay Power's
Kootenay sites would have gone to waste.
But with the Libby dam built, providing
upstream storage for West Arm plants and
thus maximizing power generation there,
Cominco and the CPR could make some
According to some sources, Cominco
stood to gain about $3 million a year from
the operation of Libby storage, and although
the Americans can regulate Libby storage
however they want, under the treaty, Gwyer
said there is "no way the upstream storage
can hurt downstream power generation."
Releases from Libby and Duncan have
"But Bennett was anything but a
boring politician and the reasons
why he sacrificed the Columbia are
interesting, if not a little strange."
B.C.'s second largest corporation,
MacMillan Bloedel, is now 12 per cent owned
by Canadian Pacific Investments. And
although CP's investment in MacMillan
Bloedel dates from 1963, after the treaty had
been signed, J. V. Clyne, chairman of the
forest products company, has been a CP
director since 1959.
Also, according to 1960 financial reports,
Gordon Farrefl sat on both MacMillan
Bloedel and Cominco boards; two other
MacMillan Bloedel directors were directors
of the Bank of Montreal, which has some
common ownership with CP; two others sat
on advisory boards of Royal Trust — the
Bank of Montreal's trust company — and
two other directors were, at that time,
directors of Western Canada Steel, a
Cominco subsidiary.
One-third of all MacMillan Bloedel
directors had, as the Columbia River Treaty
was being negotiated, at least one direct link
with the CPR-Ba.nk of Montreal group.
James Sinclair, now the father-in-law of
Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, was,
during the early '60s, a director of the Bank
of Montreal and a member of the B.C.
Energy Board.
When Bennett's attorney-general, Robert
Bonner, got tired of politics in Victoria in
1968, he crossed the Georgia Strait to
Vancouver and took over as head of MacMillan Bloedel.
Obviously, this much economic power
must have left an impression on Bennett
when CP informed him that development of
the McNaughton Plan would hurt CPR interests.
Running Cominco's Kootenay operations
requires a lot of power, and to this end, a
Cominco subsidiary, West Kootenay Power
and Light had built the largest power dam to
that date on the Columbia system -— the
270,000-.kilowatt Waneta dam on the Pend
d'Oreille River, just south of Trail, where it
joins the Columbia — and had five hydroelectric installations on the Wes,t Arm of the
Any development ol, the Columbia-
Koofenay was going to affect Canadian
Pacific, and packing its usual political
punch, it let both federal and provincial
politicians know it.
Bill Gwyer, now chief executive officer of
West Kootenay Power and Light (which,
strangely enough was not "nationalized" by
Bennett when he took over B.C. Electric),
said in an interview that the McNaughton
Plan would have an adverse effect on power
sites on the West Arm, and that Cominco's
opposition to the plan was expressed in
private negotiations with the Federal and
provincial governments.
Gwyer added that "opposed" is too strong
a word to express the company's objections,
but "we did point out certain disadvantages."
If McNaughton had been successful in
pressing his scheme of development and the
benefitted both Cominco and West Kootenay
Power, Gwyer said. In 1973, the company
concluded an agreement with Bonneville
Power Authority, the American agency that
operates dams on the U.S. section of the
Davis... set protocol.
Columbia, reducing flows from Libby to a
level that can be handled by West Kootenay
Another West Kootenay Power
spokesman, Joe Drennan, said there has
been a "substantial gain to our plants from
Libby and Duncan."
Without the McNaughton plan, Cominco
has been able to prosper in the Kootenay
area of B.C. For CP, the treaty was good
The combination of Bennett's political
myopia and the CP's desire for profit
resulted in Canada being cheated out of a
river, whose wealth McNaughton said was
the "ransom, not of a king, but of an empire^	
Caragata is a reporter for The Victoria
Colonist. Page 8
Thursday,  March   6,   1975
'To aef best settlement'
CUPE forms strike group
A strike committee has been
formed by the UBC local of the
Canadian Union of Public Employees, local president Ken Andrews said Wednesday.
The union, whose contract expires March 31, has reached
agreement with the university on
all issues except wages and the
form future wage increases' will
take, Andrews said.
"The distance we are apart on
wages and the format is not acceptable," he said.
Andrews declined to spell out the
union's wage demands but said the
union did not want to receive the
wage increases on a straight
percentage basis as the university
has proposed.
"We formed the strike committee because we intend to get the
best settlement in B.C. if not in
The strike committee would coordinate all the union's activities
during a strike, he said.
When asked if he thought a strike
was a likely possibility, Andrews
would say only, "we're getting
prepared for that possibility."
The   union   has   passed   a
contract — no work resolution
Andrews said there will be a
"critical meeting" between the
two parties on March 11.
University negotiator John
McLean said he is "hopeful that
there will be a settlement," but
declined further comment.
Andrews said some progress has
been made in the negotiations and
added that he thinks the university
is negotiating in good faith.
The CUPE local represents most
of the staff at UBC. Wages earned
by union members range from $550
per month for food services
general workers to $1,271 per
month for electrical trades
- those backbenchers are
entering the great spring
and   need   your  aid.   Take
Make a few friends and a few dollars.
Register with the UBC Tutorial Centre,
Speak-Easy. Fee $1. Phone 228-4557.
We'll drag them out of their dark
corners for you.
A program of the UBC Alumni Association.
Arts dean candidates
mainly Canadian
From page 1
nominations for   candidates both
inside and outside UBC.
"There are no women candidates," Bartram said. "Most of
the candidates are Canadian."
Bartram said the committee has
decided to keep names and
curriculum vitae of all candidates
"If information was leaked
suspicion would probably fall on
students   and   we'd   lose   our
Grad assistants seek
union at York campus
graduate assistants association
has applied to the Ontario Labor
Relations Board for certification
as a bargaining agent for more
than 1,000 grad assistants at York
The application, the result of
almost a year of organizing among
part-time teachers, demonstrators
and markers, is the'second effort
currently before the board.
Board examiners, the
association and the University of
Toronto are still haggling over
2,000 U of T TAs.
The association is already
certified at Victoria College, where
negotiations for a first contract are
At York, the GAA has called for a
pre-hearing vote to determine the
wishes of the graduate assistants
Once that hurdle is cleared, the
association hopes to be certified in
time to begin bargaining in the fall.
The York application indicates
the growing interest in unionism
among teaching assistants in the
The original application for
certification at the U of T was
made less than a year ago. Since
then inquiries about unionizing
have come from campuses across
the province and tne York drive
has been successfully completed.
University administrators seem
as anxious to stop the union drives
as the teaching assistants are to
launch them. The U of T application has been bogged down for
months while the university trys to
unravel its own structural complications enough to mount legal
counter attacks to the GAA's application.
credibility. The students on it (the
committee) are pretty token
anyway," she said.
Another committee member,
Robert Marris, arts 3, said Wednesday the committee has not yet
set deadlines for closing
nominations or narrowing the list
of candidates.
"Hopefully the committee will
come to a decision by July 1,"
Marris said.
Former arts dean Doug Kenny
will become administration
president at that time. Robert Will
is acting arts dean.
Capri f-^i
. and
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|    .   PHONE Choice of 3 Sizes
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224-6336 steaks - sea foods
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Hours: Monday to Thursday 11 a.m. to 2 a.m.
Friday & Saturday 11 a.m. to 3 a.m. - Sunday 4 p.m. to 1 a.
Something to"cheers"aboui:
Now the glorious beer of Copenhagen is brewed right Jrere in Canada.
It comes to you fresh from the brewery. So it tastes even better than ever.
And Carlsberg is sold at regular prices.
So let's hear it, Carlsberg lovers. "One, two, three ... Cheers!" Thursday, March 6,  1975
Page 9
kstore gets
kick-back from Time mag
OTTAWA (CUP) - The Carleton
University bookdstore is currently
receiving a commission for
providing advertising space in
their books for Time magazine
subscription coupons.
According to bookstore manager
Frances Moore, Time "just prints
up the coupons and sends them to
Moore said she didn't know how
many coupons were placed in the
books by bookstore personnel.
The bookstore receives a commission for each completed coupon
which is mailed to Time Inc. and
although Moore refused to divulge
the amount of the commission the
bookstore receives, she stated it
was "worthwhile."
She said the operation was
inexpensive since the only cost was
the labor involved in placing the
coupons in the books.
Bookstore  supervisor  Darcy
The Egyptian newspaper Al-
Ahram reports that the Walt
Disney organization has floated an
offer to build a new pyramid
outside Cairo — not as a tomb, of
course, but as a tourist attraction.
Not to be outdone by the ancient
pyramid builders, the Disney
pyramid would be constructed of
glass, and house some sort of
Egyptian-style Disneyland. It
would stand alongside the three
great pyramids of Giza near Cairo.
The paper said the Disney
organization had also offered to set
up an elaborate sound and light
spectacle focusing on the Giza
The government had no immediate comment on the offer.
423 W. Broadway
(10:15-6:15)   '
Charters Youth Flights Eurailpass
Overland Tours CNR/CPR
Amtrak — Ameripass!
• invisible
• attractive
• immediate comfort
Legros said one coupon is placed in
each book.
"We are trying to render a
service to the student by providing
magazines that will help with
essays and other work."
Legros said the Time coupons
are the only ones which are placed
in books.
Moore stated reaction to the
coupons was "amazing."
Time Inc., in Toronto said the
bookstore probably acts as any
agent or salesman, receiving a
commission on the basis of subscriptions sold. Time Toronto
stated however that all university
subscriptions are handled through
their College Bureau in New York.
Henry Makow, one of three
Carleton students arrested and
charged with trespassing following
a Nov. 8 sit-in at Time's Ottawa
offices, said he felt the bookstore
should not advertise Time
He said the bookstore should be
less concerned with business
matters in such situations.
"It would be nice if the bookstore
would take a political stand and
didn't do business with Time."
Time has a circulation in Canada
of over 500,000 and of the usual 70
pages per issue, five are dedicated
to Canadian 'affairs.'
Time magazine has no Canadian
shareholders and Time Canada is
wholly owned by its American
Open Thurs. 6th March 1:30 p.m.
Close Thurs. 13th March 1:30 p.m.
Nominations can be picked up
in Buchanan 107
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FRIDAY UNTIL 9 P.M. '•' Page 10
Thursday,  March   6,   1975
Deadline is April 1 for
applications to Contact Canada.
Contact Canada is an
international exchange program
featuring sessions in July and
August open to Canadians
between 18 and 23.
Applications and information
are available at International
House or phone 228-5021.
Hot flashes
fragments off right now in the
Page Friday desk of the Ubyssey
office (SUB 241-K) because our
special campus creative writing
issue is coming out soon.
The deadline is Monday folks
so rush your gems in right away.
experiences in the worker's
movement in Israel. He will be
speaking at noon in SUB 205.
The forum is sponsored by the
Revolutionary    Marxist    Group,
Hurry   and   drop   your  short
stories,      poems      and      prose
Nineteen years ago-Joe Flexer
was in the Sinai fighting for Israel.
On Monday he will be speaking as
a member of the -Revolutionary
Marxist Group about the
prospects for a united socialist
Middle East.
Flexer brings to UBC first hand
Tween classes
Testimony    meeting,    noon,    SUB
General   meeting,  noon, SUB  213.
Film:    Fireball    Worlds,    info    on
spring   cruise  and   carnival,   noon,
SUB 200.
Meeting, noon, SUB 105B.
Executive   elections,   noon,   Angus
Group meditation, tape, noon, IRC
Info     night:     renewable    natural
resources,    film,   job   descriptions,
7:30 p.m., IH 404.
The   Ascent   of   Man,   12:35   p.m.
and 1:35 p.m., SUB auditorium.
Executive nominations close today,
anytime, SUB 216A.
Harold Langenberg speaks, 7:30
p.m., Lutheran campus centre.
Regent college principal Jim
Houston speaks on ethics of
work-leisure in the '70s, noon, SUB
Provincial museum person Wayne
Campbell speaks, noon, biosciences,
General meeting, noon, SUB 211.
Theodore Roszak discusses
Community in informal seminar,
10:30 a.m. to noon, room 1, 5760
Toronto Road.
Alberta MP Jack Horner speaks,
noon, SUB 119.
Executive meeting, noon, SUB 224.
Bishop Frank Taylor speaks on the
mormons and temples, noon, Angus
Fellowship    meeting,    7:30    p.m.,
1962 Acadia Road.
Dance  to   Hurricane,   International
Pick  up daycare protest petitions,
alt day, SUB 230.
General  meeting,  noon, SUB clubs
Jacquie   • Henderson      speaks     on
history   of   international   women's
day, 8 p.m., 1208 Granville.
Wycliffe   Bible   translation,    noon,
SUB 205.
They couldn't pick a more
appropriate place to do it.
Where else but the place where
the worst slop ever to pass as food
is served up—.UBC.
Yes folks, the UBC health
sciences centre is bringing the
author of Nutrition and Dietetic
Foods and Value of Food to UBC,
4:30 p.m., Tuesday in IRC 1.
Students, faculty and staff
pissed off at UBC's inadequate
daycare facilities are urged to
attend a protest meeting today in
the SUB conversation pit.
The meeting takes place 11:30
a.m. to 2:30 p.m.
Steaks - Pizza - Spaghetti - Lasagna - Ravioli - Rigatoni - Chicken.
Mon. - Thurs.
4:00 p.m. - 3:00 a.m.
Fri. - Sat.
4:00 p.m. - 4:00 a.n
Mon. - Thurs.
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Fri. - Sat.
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Any persons interested in applying for Pool
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qualifications and experience to:
11415-84 Ave.,
MAY 7-AUG. 29-$379
MAY 28-AUG. 30-$379
Book by March 7th
Book by March 27th
Room 100P S.U.B., University of B.C.   224-0111
RS., MARCH 27 AT 7:00 & 10:00
Kris Kristofferson
Rita Coolidge
Op*n Dairr 10-5.30
RATES:   Campus - 3 lines, 1 day $1.00; additional lines 25c.
Commercial - 3 lines, 1 day $1.80; additional lines
40c. Additional days $1.50 & 35c.
Classified ads are not accepted by telephone and are payable in
advance. Deadline is 11:30 a.m., the day before publication.
Publications Off he. Room 241, S.U.B., UBC, Van. 8. B.C.
5 — Coming Events
10— For Sale — Commercial
WE PRINT anything, 350 novelty designs, we specialize in clubs and
team shirts. T-Shirt Tree, 27 West
Cordova  St.,  683-2933.
C.   &  C
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Ice    Skates,    Hockey   Sticks,
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, Open:   4-9 p.m.   Thurs.,
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11 — For Sale — Private
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1973 YAMAHA 659, excellent condition,
12,000 mi., accessories included, new
tire, $1400. 224-9826.  Dave, room 4851
20 — Housing
35 - Lost
$10 REWARD for return of my wallet,
lost in PIT last Friday. No questions
asked.  Phone 736-6163 after 6.
70 — Services
Thousands of  Research Papers.
Custom   Research
Student Resume Services
1969 W.  Broadway, Vancouver, B.C.
Phone: 738-3714
Office hours: 1:00-5:00 p.m. Mon.-Sat.
70 —Services (Continued)
2 Passport,
Visa*, Application Photos
U.B.C. SPECIAL $1.95
Regular $2.95
(Negative yours to keep free)
3343 W.  Broadway
Phone: 732-7446
80 — Tutoring
85 — Typing
home. Essays, Thesis, etc. Neat accurate work. Reasonable rates. 263-
ing of any kind. Margo McFee, 304—
1965 W. 8th Ave., Vancouver. Phone
and  Marine  Drive).   266-5053.
FAST EFICIENT electric typing (near
(41st and Marine  Drive). 261-9428.
90 - Wanted
99 — Miscellaneous
ARE YOU FLYING east for Easter? If
so will you Chaperone my children?
I have a ticket booked to New York
area, leaving March 26 and returning
April 7. I will pay 10% of the fare.
Phone  228-0998. Thursday, March 6,   1975
Page 11
Athletes must help themselves
This is the final article of a four-
part series on athletics at UBC.
Previous articles have dealt with
athletic decision-making, the
discrepancies between the men's
and .women's programs, and
athletic financing. In this article
the Ubyssey sports staff looks at
how the athletic program can raise
With the athletic budget getting
increasingly tighter and no relief in
sight it is imperative that the
program do all it can to help itself
There are two possible sources of
funds within the athletic program,
the events themselves and activities related to them.
A total of $4,900 was expected to
have to be raised from admissions
to athletic events this year.-Only
four sports; ice hdckey, football,
basketball and rugby, contributed
to this. Soccer, swimming (after
the new pool is built), and
wrestling have the potential to join
the club of contributing sports.
There is also room for the totals
to be greatly increased, as the
hockey team is the only team in the
entire program to draw consistent
crowds of an appreciable size.
As has been said before, the
installation of lights at Thunderbird Stadium would facilitate
larger crowds for the field sports..
Lighting would enable games to be
played on Friday night, when the
campus is fairly active, rather
than Saturday afternoon, when
most students have just gotten
back into shape from Friday night.
Night games for football, soccer
and rugby, would also make it
easier ■ for off-campus people to
come. Appeal to off-campus sorts
is important for two reasons. First,
this is where most admission sale
money is generated. Second, large
off-campus attendance is the
criteria by which downtown media
judge how much emphasis to put
on sports events.
A present problem for the
athletic program is their limited
publicity budget. The grand sum of
$2,200 was set aside for publicity
and promotion, and amount not
adequate for one of the "major"
As a consequence the athletic
department must rely almost
solely on the downtown media to
reach off-campus. The radio and
television people virtually ignore
Canadian intercollegiate sport and
the papers reduce its function
almost to that of filler. It seems
strange that this is the case while
'the Rose Bowl and professional
basketball have received constant
The rationale for this is that the
people want professional and other
"big time" sport. For evidence the
large crowds that attend Canuck
games are contrasted with the
mothers and girl friends that are to
be found watching a Thunderbird
football or rugby game.
The argument that if more ink
and air time were given to intercollegiate sport more people
would support it makes the issue
completely circular.
What is -needed is a full time
public relations man in the athletic
office. It would be his job to keep
the media supplied with information and generally promote
UBC sport off-campus.
The quality of the competition
certainly is equal to or greater
than that supplied elsewhere in
town but non-professional leagues.
Football is the big exception, but
hopefully Frank Smith's rebuilding
program will help that. In any case
it doesn't appear that a football
team has to win to draw fans in this
town, if it is given enough
publicity. Given night games
connected with social functions it is
not unreasonable to aim for
average crowds of ever a
The soccer team were national
champions this year, they certainly  should be drawing  more
\ #*,<"*#^
*- -^rWvS
—marise savaria photo
PRESTON WILEY, the Thunderbird rugby team scrum half, prepares to unload pass in game played before
typical small crowd at Thunderbird Stadium. Although they are one of the finest rugby sides on the
continent, games played on weekend afternoons, draw few supporters.
than the dozen or so who currently
attend their games.
Both men's and women's
basketball teams are the best the
province has to offer this year. A
high calibre of entertaining
basketball is played. It shouldn't
take much exposure to bring
double the fans they drewthis year.
The hockey team has been
drawing well but there is still room
for improvement. Without a doubt
they are the third best in the
province, right behind the Canucks
and Blazers. The Junior "A"
teams draw well but play an inferior brand of hockey. Interleague
games between Canada West
teams and Western Canada
Hockey League (Tier 1 Junior
"A") have produced lopsided
victories for the university teams.
The rugby 'Birds one of the top
rugby teams in Canada, but have
drawn inconsistently. They should
be drawing an average of just
under a thousand for a night game.
When the new covered pool is
built UBC's very successful
swimming team will have a home
base in an ideal location. This
means that their potential drawing
power will be high.
The wrestling team had three
home dual meets this year and
drew crowds of 20, 150, and 300 in
that order. Wrestling has taken
over from basketball as the
number two spectator sport on
dozens of American campuses. It
appears it has every possibility of
becoming popular here.
The key to drawing for all these
sports is publicity and exposure.
One is not going to develop without
the other, but the university can
get the ball rolling by starting a
major publicity drive.
Still its effect is going to be
limited unless most of the major
event can be scheduled at night,
when most people are able to attend.
By holding social events in
conjunction with night games a
considerable amount of money can
also be raised. A beer garden or
dance held after the game, or a
barbecue before hand, would be
relatively easy to run and are
proven ways to make money.
Teams not involved in the night's
action could be held responsible for
staffing such  events.  That way
extra people would not have to be
hired to bartend or man doors, and
. those getting the most out of the
athletic program would be putting
the most into it.
If student radio station CITR can
land a FM license it will have
important advantages for the
athletic program. CITR is already
broadcasting hockey games, it will
not take all that much to expand
this service to football and
basketball. An FM CITR would
then be broadcasting the play-byplay of three of the most important
sports (in terms of potential
revenue) throughout the lower-
This additional coverage,
coupled with news and sports
reports, would provide a valuable
link between the campus and those
who don't live in residence.
Overall it looks as though there is
an lot that can be done to
strengthen the athletic program
short of raising the student athletic
fee above its present five dollar
UBC's athletic fee is the lowest in
Canada, but this does not in itself
constitute a good reason to raise it.
It has been pointed out that the
administration, faculty, staff, and
both the federal and provincial
governments are not giving what
they should. Let's wait until
everyone is contributing before we
talk about increasing the price of
the shares.
off to
The basketball 'Birds left
Wednesday f6r Waterloo, Ontario
and the Canadian Intercollegiate
Athletic Union National Championships.
They are scheduled to play their
opening game tonight against the
St. Mary's Huskies of Nova Scotia,
the Atlantic Conference champions.
UBC won the national title the
last time they played in the tournament.
Second Class Starts Soon
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Canadian-University Press
Colleges and universities in
Quebec recently celebrated their
Winter Carnivals. This provided a
rare opportunity to celebrate by
getting drunk, partying, screwing
around and generally doing one's
best to forget about the world.
Student    governments     and
collegiate      administrations
generally fell all over one another
to promote this "harmless fun." "
Bdola, boola.
Meanwhile, the latest official
statistics for the past month show a
drop in industrial production in
North America of almost four per
cent. (At this rate industrial
production will be down to zero in
2.1 years.)
Unemployment figures for the
last month jumped by around 20
per cent in North America (from
around six and one-half per cent to
about eight per cent, so that around
10 million previously employed
workers are now turning up at the
unemployment offices.
Unfortunately, these figures, like
most numbers and percentages,
have an almost impersonal quality
about them.
To know 10 million men are out of
work seems to make less impact
than knowing one's own father has
just been laid off.
To read that industrial
production is dropping faster now
than at any time since 1937 obviously makes less impact than
seeing one's own campus closed
down by financial cutbacks.
The real problem is that the
gathering chaos foreshadowed in
these figures has barely
penetrated the awareness of the
inmates of the ivory towers.
It has certainly made almost no
impression on the habits of
"scholarship" and "disinterested
Truth" of their warders, the
academic monks. The latter still
insist on training their charges for
the civilities of a non-existent
world (complete with non-existent
They have little or no interest in
discussing the troubled world of
tomorrow, the world of economic
depression, social unrest and the
possible collapse of the capitalist
Nor do they have any great interest in discussing the world of
today, a world of skyrocketing
unemployment, inflation, strikes
and industrial contraction.
They are so set on teaching their
little curriculums they have long
since forgotten what the
curriculum was supposed to teach..
Of course academics make, on
the whole, fairly comfortable
salaries. And, as long as the
paychecks keep coming, they
obviously have little incentive to
worry about much else.
The really sad thing is to see
students, many of* whom may
shortly be joining the bread lines,
deceived studying irrelevant
curriculums in pursuit of nonexistent jobs in a non-existent
It is perhaps even sadder to see
students dissipating their talents in
winter carnivals, pot parties, card
playing,  streaking and  whatnot.
Many are of course dimly (or not
so dimly) aware of the complete
irrelevance of their courses and
prefer partying and gambling to
the officially sanctioned forms of
dissipation of the regular
Perhaps they have chosen the
more satisfying of two evils, but
they are dancing on the edge of a
volcano, a volcano that is already
sending tremors through the length
and breadth of the system and
which may shortly blast it apart.
There are also many who have a
pretty good idea of the gloomy
shape of things to come, but prefer
to keep their heads in the sand,
hoping against hope that the
trouble will somehow go away and
leave them and theirs in peace.
Finally, there are those who
have gradually come to realize
that the house is burning down
around them, but feel so powerless
in the face of it they adopt an attitude of helpless resignation.
Again perhaps this is preferable
to the gleeful ignorance of the
academics and volcano dancers,
but it is of little use in avoiding the
The first point to realize is that —
despite my loose usage of the word
volcano — a depression is not a
natural disaster, but a social
problem. Men and women have
made the imperfect institutions of
this system. Men and women can
change them.
We can indeed change them in
such a way as to avoid the boom-or-
bust fluctuations of the capitalist
business cycle.
Despite the many glaring
bureaucratic inequities of these
societies, their existence clearly
points the way toward the only
possible solution to the present
capitalist economic crisis and
people have got to reclaim their
economy from the private
profiteers that have brought it to
its present mess, and run it in the
over-all publicinterest (that is, by
collectively planning production,
employment and consumption in
the service of over-all human
needs rather than in the service of
private profits.)
grin bin
3209 W. Broadway
"(Opp. Liquor Store and Super Valu)>]
Art Reproductions
Art Nouveau
Largest Selection
of Posters in B.C.
Photo Blowups
from Negs & Prints
Jokes-Gifts, etc.
Right on
Directly Behind Bank
Village Coiffures
Newest Cutting and
Styling by
Miss Betty and
 Miss Maija	
No app't necessary!
Special Student Prices
2154 Western Parkway
(in Village)
2nd Annual
Thursday, March 6
SUB Ballroom
8:30 p.m.
50c Per Card — Good All Nite
10 Games — $100 Top Prize
Facilities Provided
Sponsored by U.B.C. Intramurals.
Suzi Quatro
March 28th
8 p.m.
Keef Hartley's
New Band
$4 Students $5 Non-students $6 Door
Tickets now on sale at AM.S. office
Student Union Building


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