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UBC Reports May 2, 1996

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Charles Ker photo
Zoology student Paul Guerette has been dissecting orb-weaving spiders for
his doctoral research. His work, published recently in the journal Science,
is aimed at finding out what makes spider silk as strong as steel and as
flexible as rubber.
PhD student unwinds
secrets of spider's silk
by Charles Ker
Staff writer
Spider webs are almost pure protein
so it's no wonder that spiders consume
their creations before they move on.
Spider web proteins have been consuming PhD candidate Paul Guerette since
1990 as he has tried to unravel how spiders produce silks ranging from Lycra-like
elastic fibres to fibres as strong as steel.
For the first two years of his doctoral
work, Guerette researched the physical
properties of webs by collecting them in
the Endowment Lands and measuring
their strength and elasticity back in the
lab. In January of 1993, he switched his
focus to molecular genetics in an effort to
explain their phenomenal properties.
It turns out that silks are made from
amorphous proteins that are cross-linked
and reinforced by tiny crystals. The degree of cross-linking and reinforcement
determines the nature of various silks.
For instance, dragline silk, which spiders use to dangle and to frame their
webs, contains 20 to 30 per cent crystal
by volume making it stiff,  strong and
tough. Spiral silk, which form the capture portion of a web, contains less than
five per cent crystal by volume which
creates low stiffness and high flexibility.
Guerette says the factors influencing
the formation and size of crystals include
the structure of proteins, control of the
genes that encode these proteins, and the
chemical and mechanical processing of
proteins during spinning. His investigation into these factors led him back into
the Endowment Lands where, to date, he
has collected about 300 orb-weaving spiders. (Araneus diadematus).
Orb-weaving spiders spin seven different silks expressed through seven distinct
glands, each containing a specific protein
or proteins. In Prof. John Gosline's biomechanics laboratory, the 27-year-old zoology student dissected the different gland
types under a microscope and froze them
with liquid nitrogen so synthetic DNA copies could be made later. Guerette has
cloned a family of seven genes that encode
the various protein sequences in the orb-
weaving spider's silk repertoire.
See SPIDER Page 2
Study shows
University grads fare
better in job market
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
University academic programs should
be expanded in B.C. because they produce graduates who have greater success
in finding jobs and earn better wages
than graduates of community colleges or
vocational and technical schools.
This is the conclusion of a new study
called The Economic Benefits of Post-Secondary Training and Education in B.C.:
An Outcomes Assessment, written by UBC
economist Prof. Robert Allen.
Using census data and Statistics Canada
surveys, Allen measured the labour market
For the complete report, see
Page 8
success of post-secondary graduates based
on actual outcomes—who finds jobs and
what salaries they earn.
Allen's study refutes the findings of
the B.C. Labour Force Development
Board's report Training for What?, which
last fall recommended a large expansion
in technical and vocational training programs over academic university programs.
The board, an agency ofthe B.C. Ministry of Labour and consisting largely of
business and labour representatives,
based their findings almost entirely on an
inadequate job forecasting model rather
than actual labour market outcomes in
B.C., Allen said.
As a result, their conclusions were
"seriously off the mark," he said.
See JOBS Page 2
Picosso 's Woman
author receives
Award of Distinction
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
Rosalind MacPhee, author of Picasso's Woman: A Breast Cancer Story, is
this year's winner of the UBC Alumni
Award of Distinction.
The award is presented each year by
the UBC Alumni Association in recognition of outstanding international achievements by a UBC graduate. Previous recipients include Pat Carney, Rick Hansen.
Pierre Berton and Nathan Nemetz.
MacPhee is being honoured for her
extraordinary accomplishments in raising awareness of breast cancer through
her book, speaking engagements and
advocacy work with the Canadian Breast
Cancer Foundation, B.C. Chapter.
Picasso's Woman is a courageous,
unsentimental account of her personal
struggle with breast cancer, a devastating disease that strikes one in every
nine North American women, many in
the prime of their lives.
"Our university has produced many
graduates whodeserve recognition for their
accomplishments. Ros MacPhee's accom-
See AWARD Page 2
Teacher Training
Teaching Trends: Faculty who love teaching share tips with others
Smoke Sell 5_
Professor Richard Pollay points the finger at tobacco marketing
Pension Parity 6
Forum: Economist Jon Kesselman queries the equity of pension reforms
Serious Service 16
For a quarter-century they've been serving the campus 2 UBC Reports • May 2, 1996
Continued from Page 1
"The board takes it almost as
a matter of faith that technical
trainees get jobs at high wages
that use the skills taught in their
programs, while arts graduates,
for example, face high unemployment and find only low wage
work in jobs that do not use their
university training.
"In fact, however, these impressions of labour market outcomes are grossly inaccurate,"
Allen said.
Statistics Canada figures
quoted in Allen's report show that
unemployment rates are actually
higher for graduates of technical
and vocational programs than for
almost all university programs,
including most arts program.
The study also demonstrates
that university graduates almost
always earned higher incomes
than graduates of other post-
secondary institutions.
For example, women with bachelor's degrees in almost every field
earn more than women with community college or technical and
vocational training. This includes
humanities graduates.
Men with university degrees,
meanwhile, often earn less than
men with technical certificates
in their 20s, but generally surpass them by a large margin as
they get older.
And while it is true that fine
arts graduates do make less than
other graduates, earning high
incomes is not necessarily the
primary motivation of many of
these students. In fact, humanities students who aimed for a
high income generally got one,
while those less motivated by
financial reward generally
earned lower incomes.
The report also questions the
notion that teaching people specific skills is better than teaching them general ones. Allen
found that even among graduates of technical and vocational
Continued from Page 1
plishments are, by themselves,
worthy of note. But she has done
her remarkable work while facing
the ultimate human challenge, and
has performed spectacularly. She
is an inspiration to us all," said
Debra Browning, Alumni Association past-president and chair ofthe
awards committee.
Picasso's Woman was published by Douglas & Mclntyre to
wide critical acclaim. It has won
Continued from Page 1
"We found that all proteins
cloned to date are genetically
related and there is an evolutionary basis for that relationship," says Guerette. 'The way
spiders control the physical properties of silk is through differential gene expression within different glands."
Guerette plans to take the bits
of gene he has cloned and engineer them into a special strain of
yeast. The yeast, in turn, will use
its own natural processing mechanism to express silk proteins in
the same gooey form as is found
in spider glands. This goo from
the glands becomes a fibre at the
molecular level when the spider
pulls on the substance causing
the protein chains to align and
Guerette says all seven genes
cloned share a nearly identical
portion of each other's protein
sequence. He adds this bit of
sequence will allow researchers
to review genetic libraries and
probe out silk genes from the
other 25,000 to 30,000 species
of spiders. Since many of these
species have evolved in different
ecological niches, they presumably produce fibres that may
have dramatically different, but
equally phenomenal, properties
from those produced by the orb-
weaving spider.
"Because we have an understanding of how spiders control
the physical properties of their
silks we have the potential to
start engineering fibres as flexible as a rubber band, as strong
as a steel rod or anything in
between," says Guerette. "How
we apply this new knowledge is
limited only by our imagination."
the Canadian Authors Association literary award for non-fiction
and CBC literary prize for best
personal essay. Now in its third
printing in Canada, it will soon be
published in the United States,
Germany, Norway and Israel.
MacPhee received her bachelor's and master's degrees in
Fine Arts at UBC, majoring in
creative writing. Picasso's
Woman began as a short personal essay for an undergraduate class and later became a
book-length master's thesis.
MacPhee is also the author of
three books of poetry and a short
novel. The Paris Notebook, which
won the University of Toronto
Norma Epstein Literary Award
for Fiction.
A unit chief and paramedic
with the B.C. Ambulance Service in Lions Bay, she was named
Lions Bay's Citizen of Distinction last year, only the second
person to receive the honour.
programs, few use the skills they
learned in school on the job.
"This is not an indictment of
academic university programs that
never claimed to teach skills tailored to particular jobs," Allen said,
"but it is a serious challenge to
technical and vocational programs
whose sole rationale is providing
employment-related training."
As well, arts programs are far
more effective for teaching
broader employment skills such
as writing and speaking, he said.
Training for What? also
claimed that arts and science
graduates cannot find jobs, so
they re-enter the education system seeking technical training.
Allen said that while it is true
that about five per cent of students
in technical and vocational programs already have university degrees, the reverse is also true. Nearly
eight per cent of university students have previously earned technical and vocational diplomas.
"Many students take more than
one program because they are
searching for what is right for them.
The fact that university graduates
enrol at BCIT is no more reason to
shrink UBC than is the converse a
reason to shrink BCIT," Allen said.
Please note, there will
be no Calendar in the
next UBC Reports.
The Calendar returns
with the June 13 issue.
(Deadline for
submissions is
noon,Tuesday, June 4.)
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Home: (604) 263-5394
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Con • graP# ulations
The May 23 UBC Reports will be a special Congregation
issue highlighting the achievements of more than 5000
UBC graduates.
Many special guests, family and friends are expected on
campus for this event. More than 40,000 copies will be
To reserve advertising space in this popular issue, call
822-3 I 3 I by noon, Tuesday, May 14.
Notice to
UBC Staff Pension Plan Members
Your Pension Board is pleased to invite you
to the Annual General Meeting
of the UBC Staff Pension Plan
to be held Thursday, May 23, 1996,
from 4 p.m. to 5:30 p.m.
in IRC Lecture Theatre 5 of the
Woodward Building,
2194 Health Sciences Mall.
Refreshments will be served.
Free parking passes will be
available at the door.
Edwin Jackson
Two heads are better than none.
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Jian Grttn
Income Tax,
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Life and
UBC Reports is published twice monthly (monthly in
December, June, July and August) for the entire university
community by the UBC Public Affairs Office, 310 - 6251
Cecil Green Park Road, Vancouver B.C.. V6T 1Z1. It is
distributed on campus to most campus buildings and to
Vancouver's West Side in the Sunday Courier newspaper.
Associate Director, University Relations: Steve Crombie
Managing Editor: Paula Martin (paula.martin@ubc.ca)
Editor/Production: Janet Ansell (janet.ansell@ubc.ca)
Contributors: Connie Bagshaw (connie.bagshaw@ubc.ca),
Stephen Forgacs (Stephen.forgacs@ubc.ca)
Charles Ker (charles.ker@ubc.ca),
Gavin Wilson (gavin.wilson@ubc.ca).
Editorial and advertising enquiries: (604) 822-3131 (phone),
(604) 822-2684 (fax).
UBC Reports welcomes the submission of letters and
opinion pieces. Opinions and advertising published in UBC
Reports do not necessarily reflect official university policy.
Material may be reprinted in whole or in part with
appropriate credit to UBC Reports. UBC Reports ■ May 2, 1996 3
Stephen Forgacs photo
Waste reduction coordinator Mary Jean O'Donnell predicts the introduction
of blue bins and a new recycling truck will increase the number of cans and
bottles recycled on campus.
Big blue bins take bite
out of campus waste
by Stephen Forgacs
Staff writer
UBC's Waste Reduction Program is
poised to take an even greater chunk
out of the waste UBC generates with
the purchase of a recycling truck and
implementation of a recycling program
aimed at cans and bottles.
"The new truck and the new blue
recycling bins will improve our ability
to recycle glass, cans and plastics as
well as the paper products we're already collecting," said Mary Jean
O'Donnell, waste reduction coordinator.  UBC collected  750 metric
Alumnus returns as Medicine dean
Dr. John Cairns has been appointed
UBC's new Dean of Medicine effective
Oct. 1, 1996.
Cairns, currently a professor andchairofthe Dept.
of Medicine at McMaster
University, is a UBC graduate who went on to a distinguished career as a clinician and researcher in the
field of cardiology.
"We are delighted that
someone with Dr. Cairn's
reputation as a researcher,
clinician and administrator
isjoiningus as dean of Medicine." said UBC President
David Strangway. "The fact
that he is one of our out-
standing graduates only adds to our pleasure in welcoming him to campus."
He replaces Dr. Martin Hollenberg, who steps
down after serving for six
years as dean.
"We are indebted to
Martin Hollenberg for his
years of leadership and
dedication. He has made
a tremendous contribution to teaching and research at the university,"
Strangway said.
Cairns graduated from
UBC's Faculty of Medicine in 1968 as president
of the Medical Undergraduate Society, winner
Teaching trends
Teaching Support Group
Excellent teachers give
colleagues helping hand
by Connie Bagshaw
Staff writer
Ifyou were a busy faculty member and noted for your teaching excellence,
would you work without pay?
That's exactly what members of UBC's Teaching Support Group have been
doing since the program's inception in 1991.
"Participants in the group tell us time and time again that they volunteer
because they really value teaching," said Alice Cassidy, a faculty associate in
the Centre for Faculty Development and Instructional Services (CFIS) which
administers the program.
"Sharing ideas about teaching and learning in a collegial setting is one of
the most treasured contributions ofthe centre."
Currently, there are 18 faculty comprising the Teaching Support Group, offering
confidential help to peers concerned about teaching styles, trends and techniques.
Each participant undergoes a 15-hour training course which includes
practice sessions, role playing and an extensive review of literature on peer
consultation and coaching.
The group also meets several times a year to discuss problems and strategies, and to offer encouragement and support to each other.
Cassidy, who oversees the program with associate Shauna Butterwick,
listed a diversity of teaching concerns addressed by the group including:
dealing with curriculum restructuring; teaching in a clinical setting; eliciting
classroom participation from shy students; and instructing large classes.
She stressed that the type of support an individual receives is flexible,
tailored to their needs, and constructive feedback, focusing on the individual's
strengths, is given to encourage self-assessment.
"After determining, through the initial telephone contact, some specifics to
help us pair the client with a group member, a number of options are available to the caller," Cassidy explained.
"Some may just need an opportunity to chat informally over a cup of coffee,
and others may request in-class evaluation, assessment of course materials or
co-ordination of student feedback."
In addition to fine-tuning the service to maximize the benefits clients receive.
Cassidy said they are also told about other programs available through CFIS.
Although there is no typical profile of who uses the service—calls come
from faculty without any teaching experience and from others who have spent
25 years in front of a classroom—they all have one thing in common, respect
for the importance of teaching, Cassidy said.
Anyone interested in learning more about the group and other programs offered by
CFIS is invited to visit the centre's web site at http://www.cstudies.ubc.ca/facdev
of the Hamber Gold Medal for highest
standing in the graduating class, and the
Hamber Scholarship for highest standing
over the four-year course.
After serving for several years as an intern, resident and research fellow at Royal
Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Cairns joined
McMaster in 1975 as an assistant professor.
He became a full professor in 1985.
At McMaster. Cairns heads or is a team
member of research projects into heart
attacks and other aspects of heart disease
that have attracted major funding from
government and industry. He has extensive publications in his area of research.
As well. Cairns is an attending staff
physician at McMaster University Medical Centre. Hamilton General Hospital,
and holds an associate appointment in
McMaster's Dept. of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatisties.
His clinical act ivit ies have been primarily in acute coronary care, cardiac catheterization and arrhythmia. He has directed coronary care units at two
McMaster hospitals and was coordinator
of the regional cardiovascular program
prior to becoming chair of Medicine.
Cairns is also a fellow ofthe Royal College
of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and a
member of numerous professional associations and scholarly journal editorial boards.
tonnes of paper for recycling in the past
"At UBC, we generate enough garbage each year to fill the War Memorial Gymnasium to the rafters and to
overflow the Empire Pool," she said.
Prior to the purchase ofthe truck and
the distribution of the blue recycling
bins, which began April 29, collection of
cans and bottles was done through a few
central locations.
"The amount of cans and bottles we
collect has been growing gradually each
year since 1991," O'Donnell said. "Now.
as recycling on campus becomes more
convenient, we expect to see a tremendous increase in the volume of material
The Waste Reduction Program has
set a goal of reducing UBC's waste by
50 per cent by the year 2000 through
recycling or waste reduction initiatives. Although UBC recycled 27 per
cent of its waste last year, O'Donnell
said UBC faculty, staff and students
are going to have to make an effort to
be waste conscious in order to reach
the goal.
Two different sizes of blue recycling bins with wheels are available
for collection of recyclable materials
in offices and work areas that have
access to an elevator or are at ground
level. Smaller boxes and recycling
bags are available for areas without
elevator access.
The recycling bins represent one of
several initiatives underway through
the Waste Reduction Program. In an
effort to encourage people to be more
waste conscious, standard waste-paper baskets are gradually being replaced with mini garbage cans and
centrally located bins in offices across
"The mini garbage cans encourage
people to think about the waste they're
generating." O'Donnell said. "Although some people are sceptical
when they first see them, the program has been very successful in reducing waste in areas where the cans
are in use."
Master teacher Abbott
to be Pharmacy dean
Prof. Frank Abbott has been named
dean of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical
Sciences as of July  1,   1996—the 30th
anniversary of his appointment to the faculty.
"We didn't have to look
far afield to find the right
person," said UBC President David Strangway. "Dr.
Abbott has won the respect
of students and peers for a
career marked by truly outstanding teaching and research. He has the leadership qualities to guide the
faculty into its second 50
Official celebrations
for the faculty's 50th anniversary take place May
31 to June 3.
Strangway also praised
the work of outgoing dean John McNeill
whose many accomplishments include
overseeing the introduction of Canada's
first Doctor of Pharmacy Program (PharmD)
in 1991. McNeill served as the faculty's
fourth dean for close to 12 years. He steps
down to continue his internationally renowned research on the development of
vanadium compounds for the treatment of
Born in Saskatchewan, Abbott received
his Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy and
MSc from the University of Saskatchewan  and  a  PhD  from
Purdue University.
He joined UBC's Faculty of Pharmaceutical
Sciences as an assistant
professor in July 1966
and became a full professor in 1987. Abbott is head
of the Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
and holds an associate
position in the Faculty of
Medicine's Dept. of
Dr. Abbott has worked
for many years on the metabolism of anti-epileptic
drugs.  In  1993,  he was
recipient of the Canadian
Association  of Faculties  of Pharmacy
McNeil Award in recognition of his research contributions.
Abbott is the inaugural and five-time
repeat winner of the graduating class in
Pharmaceutical Sciences' Master Teacher
Award, and has also won the UBC Teaching Prize in Pharmaceutical Sciences and
the Bristol-Myers Squibb Award for excellence in teaching. 4 UBC Reports ■ May 2, 1996
Child-care to be based
on First Nations culture
by Stephen Forgacs
Staff writer
The First Nations House of Learning
(FNHL) will hire a cultural co-ordinator
to develop and implement programs for
its child-care centre thanks to a $40,000
grant from the Vancouver Foundation.
The grant is the second the centre has
received from the foundation and will
allow for the development of child-care
programs based on
First Nations cultural
FNHL Director Jo-
Ann Archibald said the
implementation of cultural programs will
make the Longhouse
Child-Care Centre
unique when compared to other childcare facilities.
The grant proposal to the Vancouver
Foundation set out the need for a cultural co-ordinator: "UBC First Nations
students have been concerned about the
effects that relocating to Vancouver for
their studies might have on their children who live away from the reinforcing
atmosphere of home communities. Specifically, they want their children's heritage and cultural values reinforced."
New programs are likely to include an
introduction to First Nations languages
and traditions such as games, crafts,
dance, singing and storytelling. Archibald
said the co-ordinator's role will involve
both the development and implementation of these programs, including bringing First Nations Elders and other representatives in for a variety of workshops
"...to improve the
university's ability
to meet the
educational needs of
First Nations."
aimed at children or parents.
Beyond the hiring of a cultural coordinator, activities aimed at strengthening the cultural components of the
centre include the acquisition of aboriginal toys; the completion of landscaping
including planting of "culturally relevant"
berry bushes, plants and trees; research
initiatives such as the development of a
parenting program, elder involvement,
and other graduate-level research
projects. FNHL staff will also document
^^^^^^^^^m all developments at
the centre in order to
provide an information base to share with
others who want to
establish similar centres.
The grant meets
the First Nations
House of Learning's
highest priority need
for phase two of the
development of the child-care centre.
The first phase, also funded by the
Vancouver Foundation and now complete, involved the construction of an
outdoor playground and the hiring of
child-care staff.
The centre, which has been in operation for a year, has the capacity to take
16 children in a mixed-age environment
from six-months to five-years-old. Children of First Nations students and staff
are given priority in admission to the
The mandate of the First Nations
House of Learning is to make the university's resources more accessible to First
Nations students and to improve the
university's ability to meet the post-secondary educational needs of First Nations.
Dofasco donation funds
chair in steel processing
by Stephen Forgacs
Staff writer
Canadian steel producer Dofasco Inc.
has donated $750,000 to UBC's Faculty
of Applied Science for the establishment
of a $1.5-million Dofasco Chair in Steel
The Dofasco Chair at UBC focuses on
bringing people together to
generate knowledge on processes through research," said
Indira Samarasekera, a professor in the Dept. of Metals
and Materials Engineering,
who will hold the chair position for the first five years.
The creation ofthe chair provides the university with a
great opportunity to further
research in ferrous metallurgy
and to undertake new
The Dofasco donation will
be matched with money from the President's Fund, which includes money generated through the development of the
Hampton Place housing complex at UBC.
As chair, Samarasekera will focus on
processing and metallurgical design of
advanced steel grades from continuous
casting, in which liquid is converted to
solid steel, to the rolling of hot sheets for
use in such products as automobiles.
Ian O'Reilly, Dofasco's general manager of Research and Development, said
the UBC chair, and another at McMaster
University, have been created to support
university research programs in jeopardy due to declining university funding.
The Canadian university community
has historically contained a wealth of
expertise in the field of ferrous metal-
lurgy," O'Reilly said. "We see the creation of this chair as an investment that
will ensure the continuation of leading-
edge university research programs and
will also help Dofasco to sustain its
technical and operational excellence into
the 21st century."
Samarasekera said the chair will also
support the research efforts of a junior
chair. The junior chair position will lead research aimed
at developing new sheet metals. Several other faculty
members will also be closely
associated with the chair program, she said.
"I will be looking at areas
where, if I don't have the expertise. I will bring other colleagues
into the program," she said.
"My role will include ensuring
a dynamic relationship as opposed to just one person interacting with one company."
Samarasekera, a faculty member since
1980, has been collaborating on research
with Dofasco for about two years and
was instrumental in putting forward
UBC's proposal for the chair.
"My job (in preparing the proposal)
has been to design and develop a program that might fit with what Dofasco
sees as in the interests ofthe company's
future, and what we see as intellectually
exciting and challenging for the chair
program," she said.
Dofasco, one of Canada's largest steel
producers, employs 7,000 people at a
plant in Hamilton, Ont. The company
produces a range of steel products for
use in automotive, construction, container and steel distribution industries
and other areas.
Stephen Forgacs photo
Children at the First Nations House of Learning child-care centre clamber
over the beach logs and new equipment in the recently completed playground.
The centre provides children of First Nations students and staff with an
environment that is supportive of their culture and heritage.
Program fills gap in
social worker training
Social workers' limited training in
intercultural and interracial issues has
prompted the University of British Columbia to launch a program to give professionals a better grounding in these
crucial areas.
"It's unethical to keep sending people
out into the workplace knowing what we
do about the social makeup of the province and knowing they are not properly
equipped to deal with
many ofthe situations
they will face," says
Carole Christensen, a
professor in UBC's
School of Social Work.
As director of UBC's
Skills and Knowledge
for Intercultural and
Interracial Practice
(SKIIP) program,
Christensen hopes to
fill an educational and
training void which exists across Canada.
Very few of the country's 27 schools of social work have mandatory courses on how to
deal with sensitive matters of culture and race.
Christensen says
the program was
prompted, in part, by a
national survey of
3,000 Canadian social workers published
by UBC's Centre for Health Services and
Policy Research in 1994. Half of those
surveyed said they needed training in cross-
cultural skills in order to remain relevant.
"When schools have no mandatory
courses in these areas, students likely
have the same prejudices when they
graduate as they did when they enrolled,"
said Christensen, who earlier chaired a
national study of curricula at schools of
social work.
The SKIIP program, offered through
UBC Continuing Studies, will be presented by academics and professionals
working in the field. The program consists of five courses: Community Development: A Cross Cultural Perspective;
Organizational Environment and
Multiculturalism; Immigration,
Multiculturalism and Social Work; and
Cross-Cultural Practice. The fifth course
is a practicum component which allows
participants to put what they have learned
to use. The program format will include
seminars, lectures and practice-based
assignments. The Community Development course begins in late May and runs
through June.
Christensen cites several examples of
how cross-cultural training can help social workers to become more knowledgeable about immigrant, minority and First
Nations populations.
         Christensen  says
that in the health sector, social workers are
often unaware of how
culture affects attitudes toward sickness
and health. Studies
document that the
criminal justice system does not treat all
cultural and racial
groups impartially,
with some receiving
harsher sentences
than others for similar infractions. Family therapists, too, may
inadvertently alienate
immigrant parents by
expecting them to conform to Canadian
norms about acceptable behaviour for
teenagers. Children
may even be removed from their homes
when social workers lack understanding
of a family system and family history that
differs from their own.
"By addressing these and other issues, the SKIIP program should help
social workers better serve our diverse
society," said Christensen.
SKIIP is designed as a certificate program and efforts are underway to have
the program recognized by the Board of
Registration for Professional Social Workers. The program is funded by a grant
from the federal government and the provincial Ministry of Skills, Training and
Labour. Guest lecturers include: social
work graduates Emery Barnes and
Darlene Marzari ofthe provincial government; former MP Margaret Mitchell; Paul
Winn, who holds degrees in law and
social work; and Assoc. Prof. Richard
Vedan from the School of Social Work.
Call 822-1433 for more information. UBC Reports ■ May 2, 1996 5
Professor investigates
tobacco advertising
by Stephen Forgacs
Staff writer
Prof. Richard Pollay is no stranger to
attention when it comes to the war against
the tobacco industry.
Pollay was the focus of a recent Washington, D.C. news conference as lead
author of a study entitled "The Last Straw?
Cigarette Advertising and Realized Market Share Among Youths and Adults,
Published in last month's Journal of
Marketing, the study concludes that 12- to
18-year-olds who already smoke are three
times as likely as adults to be influenced
by cigarette advertising in choosing
brands—a finding that tobacco critics are
now using to debunk the industry's claim
that its ads are targeted solely at adults.
Pollay, a marketing professor in the
Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, was first recruited by the
anti-smoking ranks in 1987. American
lawyers fighting on behalf of a "health
victim" asked him to undertake a study of
cigarette advertising.
"(The lawyers) wanted someone who had
expertise not just in cigarettes, but also in
advertising history generally, and who had
the ability to do studies using a technique
called content analysis. I had both, so I fit
their bill quite well," Pollay said.
Pollay's research and subsequent experience with tobacco industry lawyers convinced him it was a battle worth fighting.
"I was intrigued, one might even say
stunned, by what I learned because it was
clear that despite health problems associated with cigarette smoking, the advertising
was doing everything it could to communicate the healthfulness of the product."
During the 1987 case, a grueling three-
day cross examination by industry lawyers further piqued Pollay's curiosity.
"It was so aggressive that I think it was
intended to make me feel really weak in the
knees. But in fact it stiffened my spine,
and I wondered what they had to hide from
a marketing professor," Pollay recalled.
Following the cross examination, Pollay
began to notice events that suggested
someone might be trying to intimidate
him. His mail was stolen from his office
mail box, his phone acted strangely, his
neighbours were questioned about him,
and someone went through his garbage.
"The lawyer I was working with said it
was no coincidence. Because I was willing to testify against the industry, I was
being investigated."
Pollay's growing interest in cigarette
advertising and the demand for his expertise has kept him deeply involved in
the study of the industn/ from a marketing perspective for close to a decade.
He has written numerous papers on
the subject and testified in seven court
cases. Now, although teaching and reading on other areas consume some of his
time, work related to the tobacco industry commands much of his attention.
Pollay's first experience in court in
1987 marked the first time a court ruled
against the tobacco industry. The ruling
was later overturned on a technicality.
"None (of the court cases) have ever
yielded damage settlements. There has
never been a penny paid to a health victim
by the tobacco industry," Pollay said.
Pollay regards the involvement of several U.S. states in law suits against the
tobacco industry as a sign of pending
change. The states, suing to recover medical expenses claimed to result from smoking, have the financial strength to take on
the industry. Also, the courtroom dynamics are shifting because ofthe states'
position as "innocent victims" paying the
cost of others' decisions.
"It tends to put the tobacco industry
on trial," said Pollay, adding that individual health victims face a greater challenge in proving that they are in fact
victims as opposed to having brought
their situation upon themselves.
"It's like a rape case," he said of cases
in which health victims have taken on the
industry. "As the plaintiff you have to
walk on water before you're even going to
get a fair hearing."
Pollay deposits money he receives for his
involvement as an expert in court cases into
a UBC endowment account to support re-
Bureau speaks up
by Connie Bagshaw
and out
Staff writer
Are we just Stardust? Is your brain
necessary? Why was Canada covered
with ice 18,000 years ago? Call UBC's
Speakers Bureau and find out.
Since the 1970s, faculty and management and professional staff have been
lending their expertise to UBC's community outreach program on everything
from aromatherapy to waste water.
Currently, about 200 members ofthe
university community participate in the
program to produce a roster of more
than 750 presentations available to libraries, seniors' residences, community
centres, schools, clubs and associations
across the Lower Mainland.
'The Speakers Bureau assists in making the community aware of the excellence and academic diversity of UBC's
faculty and staff," says Charles Slonecker,
director of University Relations. "In addition, it continues to build a spirit of
partnership between the university and
the community which has always responded enthusiastically and appreciatively to this outreach initiative."
Paul LeBlond. a professor of Earth
and Ocean Sciences, is one of the longest serving members of the Speakers
Bureau. He joined soon after the program was launched by what was then
called Continuing Education.
Despite driving through rain-drenched
nights on several occasions to lecture
about coastal B.C. sea monsters or ocean
waves, LeBlond's "youthful enthusiasm"
which, he quips, first drew him to the
program, hasn't been dampened.
"I believe that we have a responsibility to teach a variety of people beyond the
classroom," LeBlond says. "For me, the
Speakers Bureau gives me an opportunity to talk about what I love to do, and
to get to know people other than colleagues and students."
Human Resources Advisor Erna
Hagge is a new recruit to the Speakers
Bureau. Since last year, she has been
available to speak about personal presentation, presenting yourself for an interview and recruitment at UBC.
Like LeBlond, Hagge has what she describes as a "passion" for her subject and
wants to share it with her audiences whom
she hopes will benefit from the information.
'To help people move forward in their
self-confidence and assist them in an
informal way is very rewarding," Hagge
says. "Knowing that someone will walk
away from my presentation with new
knowledge that's helpful to them is why
I participate in the Speakers Bureau."
Both LeBlond and Hagge say they
would encourage people to join the
Speakers Bureau which is currently looking for new participants. For more information, call 822-6167 or fax 822-9060.
Former smoker and UBC marketing Prof. Richard Pollay has been on the
front lines ofthe battle against tobacco companies for a decade. He recently
released a study that shows the industry is targeting younger people with
its advertising.
search activities. He estimates $ 160,000 has
gone into the account from payments for his
expertise and royalties from a film he made
for education purposes.
Ironically, Pollay said the tobacco industry, by compensating for making
statements at depositions, is helping
fund his research.
Pollay, who smoked for 15 years, now
feels a moral obligation to stay involved in
the battle over cigarette advertising.
"I know there are not a lot of people who
have the kind of background I have, that is
with marketing knowledge and up to speed
on what is going on in the tobacco industry. So I can't easily say no."
Ultimately, he would like to see the
U.S. and Canada take action to drastically restrict cigarette advertising.
"We continue, generation after generation, to promote this product in ways
that make it attractive to youth. And I
think it's appalling because this is an
addictive and deadly drug. It's the single
most preventable cause of disease and we
should be doing something about it."
Faculty, students tackle
our ecological future
Eighty per cent of B.C. residents say they
turn off lights when leaving a room, turn
down the thermostat at night and recycle
newspapers, according to a UBC survey.
These are a few of the observations
found in Being Green in B.C., a report
based on a provincial survey of 1,652
residents. The report was one of several
presented at a day-long public forum this
month in Abbotsford dealing with the
past, present and ecological future ofthe
Fraser Basin.
UBC sociologist Neil Guppy, co-author of Being Green in B.C.. said environment ranked second behind unemployment as the most important problem
facing British Columbians today.
Guppy's report was prepared for the
$2.4-million Fraser Basin Eco-Research
Study. Entering its fourth year, the study
tackles a myriad of sustainability challenges in the 500,000-hectare region
stretching from Richmond to Hope. A
total of 27 UBC faculty and 35 students
from nine faculties have been involved in
the ambitious project.
In 30-minute telephone interviews,
survey participants were quizzed about
their attitudes towards environmental
issues. The survey's goal was threefold:
to determine how concerned British
Columbians are about the environment;
how "green" their behaviour is; and to
explore reasons for differences in their
'The poorest and least educated residents are just as likely as the richest and
best educated to care about environmental  problems," says Guppy,  who adds
that women are significantly more concerned than men about environmental
problems in local communities.
Among the report's other findings: 70
per cent of respondents said they recycle
tin cans; 43 per cent compost fruit and
vegetable waste; 47 per cent donate money
to environmental causes; and 43 per cent
have boycotted a product because of an
environmental concern.
Other presentations by UBC faculty at
the Abbotsford forum included: an historic economic overview of why the Fraser
Valley developed as it did; current and
intended use of land and resources by
First Nations; conflicts around issues
such as access to natural resources and
the perceived effects of pollution; peoples'
perceptions about the ecological health of
different bodies of water in the Lower
Mainland and what puts them at risk;
and issues associated with regulatory
compliance by businesses.
Forum presentations did not focus
solely on environmental change in the
valley. Prof. Bill Rees, director of UBC's
School of Community and Regional Planning, reviewed his findings on the global
impact of consumption decisions made
by people in the basin and the implications for a sustainable world economy.
The forum also featured a demonstration of a computer game developed at
UBC's Sustainable Development Research
Institute. The game shows players the
complex environmental ramifications resulting from their choices on matters
such as land use. population growth and
lifestyle in the vallev. 6 UBC Reports ■ May 2, 1996
Workshop fans interest
in geological science
Legend has it that a young Nisga'a
prince and his friends were responsible
for the volcanic eruption 250 years ago
that buried two native villages in the Nass
The bored boys caught two salmon,
slit their backs, stuck burning sticks in
one, sharp pieces of shale in the other
and laughed as the fish floundered in the
Soon after this brutal act, the sky
turned black, the ground rumbled and
the air began to smell. Today the Nisga'a
Memorial Lava Bed Provincial Park commemorates the site where roughly 2,000
villagers were buried by tons of lava
which flowed from a nearby valley into
the Nass River.
UBC geologist Mary Lou Bevier has
capitalized on local legend to attract native students into her field of geological
"First Nations are moving towards
managing their own natural resources
but in many cases they don't have the
expertise to do it," said Bevier, an authority on B.C. volcanoes. The best way to get
people interested in science is to make it
relevant to them and local legends help
do that."
The Geological Society of America recently asked Bevier to make a presentation on an educational program she helped
deliver last summer to 30 First Nations
Bevier and a geoscientist with the
Geological Survey of Canada were asked
by the North Coast Tribal Council Education Centre in Prince Rupert to run a
workshop for adult students ranging in
age from 19 to 45. The first day of the
two-day workshop had Bevier discussing her academic background, career
options in geology and exhibiting volcanic samples. She then showed slides
of erupting volcanoes, explained how
they are formed and what hazards are
associated with various types.
On day two students were taken to a
rock quarry and shown the proper method
of gathering rock samples and examining
embedded minerals with a hand lens.
The day ended with a trek to the lava bed
where the group discussed various legends as well as scientific aspects of vol-
After two days of geoscience training,
Simon Fraser University science educator
Alan McKinnon taught the class how to
present the information they had learned
back to people in their local villages.
"Prince Rupert is a regional centre
which draws people from tiny villages
that otherwise would have no access to
any kind of higher education at all," said
Bevier. "By reporting back to their home
To introduce students from communities in north coastal B.C. to geology,
Mary Lou Bevier explains how legendary local volcanic eruptions occurred.
communities, these adults students act
as role models and inspire local school-
aged kids into perhaps pursuing a science career."
The project was sponsored by the
Scientists and Innovators in the
Schools program centred at Science
World. Bevier hopes to conduct similar
workshops with other native communities in the province.
The Seniors Benefit: Equity for whom?
By Jon Kesselman
Jon Kesselman is professor of
Economics and director of the Centre
for Research on Economic and Social
Policy at UBC. A version of the following appeared in the Globe and Mail,
April 16, 1996.
The recent federal budget proposed
a sweeping reform of tax-supported
public pensions in a new Seniors
Benefit. This reform was touted as a
way to conserve public funds while
improving equity. Yet, the proposed
scheme leaves unanswered the
question of "equity for whom?"
The Seniors Benefit raises three
basic issues of fairness—between
similar individuals, across the generations, and for persons at low versus
high income levels regardless of age.
Remarkably, a brief review of the new
scheme shows it to be deficient in all
these major dimensions of equity.
Individuals who were aged 60 or
more as of New Year's Eve, 1995, will
be insulated from any possible loss
when the Seniors Benefit becomes
effective in 2001. They will be given a
choice between the new benefits and
their existing benefit rights. Only
those at higher incomes will find it
attractive to stick with the existing
benefits, so it is mainly the Old Age
Security (OAS) benefits that are
relevant in this comparison.
Let us take those individuals who
celebrated their 60th birthdays on
New Year's Day, 1996, just one day
after the limit for insuring no loss
under transition to the Seniors
Benefit. Beginning in 2001, such
persons with incomes of $52,000 will
get no OAS, and their Seniors Benefit
will be zero at that income level. Yet
persons born one day before them will
get to keep their full OAS benefits,
which are now about $4,800 per year
and are fully indexed for inflation.
To purchase an equivalent indexed
annuity at age 65 would cost about
$60,000. Hence, the sharp distinction
between those who are insulated from
the transition and those who are not is
like a gift of $60,000 to the members of
one group or a penalty of $60,000 to
members of the other. This can hardly
be an equitable distinction, given that
the two are separated by only one day
in age, and both have paid similar
taxes over their working lives.
Turning now to the intergenerational
aspect, the Seniors Benefit again turns
principles of equity on their head. All
persons who are now seniors, and those
who were at least 60 at the end of 1995,
will be insulated from any possible
losses in moving to the new scheme. All
the losses from the transition to the new
scheme will be borne by those who are
now middle-aged, young adults, children, and generations to follow.
Current retirees already are enjoying
the largest windfalls from the start-up of
the Quebec and Canada Pension Plans.
Their benefits from those plans far
exceed their lifetime contributions. The
generations to follow will reap a much
poorer return on their Quebec and
Canada Pension Plan premium payments because of the imbalances in the
way those schemes were structured for
their first generation of beneficiaries.
It would be more equitable to ask the
generation that is receiving the large
CPP windfalls to sacrifice something for
future generations from their non-
contributory public pensions. Instead,
the younger generations are being asked
to sacrifice their future pensions to
secure the financial position of those
now retired at comfortable and higher
incomes. This may be a politically astute
move by the government, but that does
not make it fair.
The government argues that its
provisions for transition to the Seniors
Benefit are fair because they give
individuals at least five years' notice
before the change. But can we reasonably expect many individuals who are
now aged 59, or even 50, to save an
additional $60,000 per person
($120,000 per couple) prior to retirement to offset their loss of the full OAS?
Reducing public outlays on pensions
will, of course, impose losses on some
groups in some generations. The
question is how to spread this burden
fairly across the various groups and
generations. If savings are not achieved
in the public pensions part of the
government budget, groups of the nonaged who have already suffered in
recent years will suffer even more.
Do we really place the well-being of
middle- and upper-income retirees
above the needs of those persons at the
lowest incomes on account of disabilities, joblessness, and single parenthood? The answer, apparently, is yes, if
we are to judge by the federal and
provincial budgets of recent years.
The current OAS with its tax
clawback makes net payments to single
retirees with incomes up to $85,000 and
to retired couples with total incomes up
to $170,000 (and even higher if their
incomes are not equal). The Seniors
Benefit will reduce the maximum
income levels at which benefits will be
paid to $52,000 for singles and $78,000
for couples. Yet, we might ask why
public payments should go to persons at
even those relatively high income levels,
when programs for society's most
disadvantaged are being curtailed on
almost a daily basis.
We might consider reforming the
tax-financed public pensions so that
their benefits cease at more modest
levels. For example, why not fully
phase out the Seniors Benefit at
incomes of about $35,000 for singles
and $50,000 for couples? These figures
are more than double the threshold
levels for poverty, and most seniors
enjoy lower costs than the non-aged
with respect to home mortgages,
raising children, and food and
transport needs.
It would be easy to overcome the
key deficiencies of the proposed
Seniors Benefits, which are its
delayed implementation (five years
away) and its confusion of
grandparenting provisions with a
proper allowance for transition. A
reconfigured Seniors Benefit would
offer a transitional period of 10 or 15
years over which the income ceiling
for benefits is gradually reduced and
the targeting of benefits thereby
gradually increased.
Unlike the budget's proposals, no
generation would be spared the
impact of reduced benefits at higher
income levels. There would also be no
need to maintain both the current
array of pension and tax provisions
and a separate Seniors Benefit
scheme for decades into the future.
With these changes, the Seniors
Benefit could save larger amounts and
truly deliver on the promise of improved equity. These changes do not
undermine the genuine gains offered
by the government's proposal—full
indexation of benefits and thresholds,
payments to couples based on their
combined incomes, and simple
delivery of benefits based on tax filing.
The proposed variant of the
Seniors Benefit could be fully
operational by next year. There is no
need to wait until 2001 to begin to
achieve the budgetary savings or the
improved equity of reform. The
savings could be redirected through
enhanced federal transfers to the
provinces to allow them to maintain
their safety net for society's most
disadvantaged—and for the health,
home-care, and institutional services
that seniors themselves use so
heavily. Calendar
UBC Reports ■ May 2, 1996 7
May 5 through June 15
Monday, May 6
Biochemistry and Molecular
Biology Seminar
Regulation Of Gene Expression In
Early B. Lymphocytes. Dr. Jim
Hagman, National Jewish Hospital,
Denver. IRC#4. 3:45pm. Refreshments at 3:30pm. Call 822-9871.
Tuesday, May 7
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Analysis Of The Conjugates Of
Reactive Matabolites Of Valproic
Acid. Sashi Gopaul, grad. student. IRC#3. 12:30-1:30pm. Call
Centre for Applied Ethics
Utility Theory And Ethics.
Philippe Mongin. Centre National
de la Recherche Scientifique,
France. Continues May 14. Angus 413. 2-4pm. Call 822-5139.
Wednesday, May 8
Respiratory Research
Seminar Series
Viruses And Asthma: Where Are We
Now? Dr. R. Hegele, Pathology. VancouverHospital/HSC, 27751 leather
St., 3rd floor conference room, 5-
6pm. Call 875-5653.
Lunch-time Demonstration
David Tarrant Does Containers.
David Tarrant. Educational Coordinator, UBC Botanical Garden. UBC Bookstore, 12:30-
1:30pm. Call 822-2665.
Orthopedics Grand Rounds
The Facet: Current Concepts. Dr.
Bethan Chancey, Dr. Rob Vande
Guchte. Vancouver Hospital/
HSC Eye Care Centre auditorium,
7am. Call 875-4111 local 66276.
Thursday, May 9
Centre for Applied Ethics
Health Care And Risk In The New
National Health Service: Issues
Around Commissioning Services.
Chris Bennett. U of Warwick. Angus 415, 2-4pm. Call 822-5139.
Friday, May 10
Pediatrics Grand Rounds
Drug Eruptions In Children. Dr.
Julie Prendiville, Pediatric Dermatology. GF Strong auditorium,
9am. Call 875-2307.
Saturday, May 11
Slide Show/Lecture
Nature In Focus. Graham
Osborne, photographer. UBC
Bookstore, l:30-2:30pm. Call
Sunday, May 12
Sixth Annual Perennial
Plant Sale
Thousands Of Unusual Plants
Plus Talks By Six UBC Garden
Personalities. UBC Botanical
Garden parking lot, 10am-4pm.
Garden admission free, donations
appreciated. Refreshments available. Call 822-9666.
Monday, May 13
Biochemistry and Molecular
Biology Seminar
Protein Ubiquitination: What It
Does, How It Works And Why
Anyone Should Care. Michael
Ellison, Biochemistry, U of Alberta. IRC#4, 3:45pm. Refreshments at 3:30pm. Call 822-9871.
Wednesday, May 15       Friday, May 31
The Ninth Regular Meeting OfThe
Senate. UBC's Academic Parliament. Curtis 102, 1822 East Mall.
8pm. Call 822-2951.
Orthopaedics Grand Rounds
Intrinsic Hand Deformity: Causes
And Management. Dr. P.T.
Gropper, Dr. B. Perey. Vancouver
Hospital/HSC Eye Care Centre
auditorium, 7am. Call 875-4111
local 66276.
Friday, May 17
Pediatrics Grand Rounds
Pulmonary Surfactant. Dr. Alfonso
Solimano, Paediatrics Newborn Services, Children's Hospital. GF Strong
auditorium. 9am. Call 875-2307.
Wednesday, May 22
Orthopedics Grand Rounds
TBA. Vancouver Hospital/HSC Eye
Care Centre auditorium, 7am. Call
875-4111 local 66276.
Thursday, May 23
UBC Board of Governors
Open Session. Board and Senate
room, Old Administration Building. 6328 Memorial Road, 9am.
Clicking With Faith Popcorn. Faith
Popcorn, SUB auditorium,
7:30pm. Tickets $5 at Bookstore,
or charge by phone 822-4749.
International Exchange
Great Expectations: Building A Vision For Internationalization In Post-
Secondary   Institutions.   Mark
Webber,  York  U.  Curtis,   1 lam
12:30pm. Call 822-5546/822-3753.
Friday, May 24
International Exchange
Consorting With Strangers: International Partnerships And Domestic Alliances. Mark Webber, York
U. Curtis, l:30-3pm. Call 822-
Pediatrics Grand Rounds
Changing Concepts In Autism:
What Is In And What Is Out? Dr.
Helena Ho, Behaviour Program, and
Dr. Linda Eaves, Psychology, Sunny
Hill Health Centre. GFStrongauditorium, 9am. Call 875-2307.
Sunday, May 26
10th Pacific Institute on
Addiction Studies
Core Prevention Training: Working With Violent Youth; Multiple
Diagnosis; Managing Changes And
Transition. UBC. Continues
through May 29. Call 874-3466.
Monday, May 27
Visiting Scientist Lecture
Engineering Polyketide Drugs. Jim
Staunton, Chemistry, Cambridge
U. Chemistry D-225, centre block,
11am. Call 822-3266.
Tuesday, May 28
Cooperative University-
Provincial Psychiatric
Liaison Workshop
Dual Disorders: Combined Substance Abuse And Mental Disorders. Continues May 29. Prince
George Civic Centre, 8am-6:30pm.
$200. Call 822-7971.
Pediatrics Grand Rounds
Common Mechanisms In Defects
Of Eyes And Ears. Dr. Christopher
Lyons, Ophthalmology, Children's
Hospital. GF Strong auditorium.
9am. Call 875-2307.
Thursday, June 6
Institute of Asian Research/
Canadian Chinese Painters
Art Exhibition
Lotus And Water Lily Paintings.
Continues to June 10. Asian Centre auditorium, 10am-6pm. Call
Friday, June 7
Pediatrics Grand Rounds
Thalassemia - Current Management Issues And Future Trends.
Dr. Ron Anderson. Dr. John Wu.
Dr. Yigal Kaikov, Haematology/
Oncology. GF Strong auditorium.
9am. Call 875-2307.
Monday, June 10
Anatomy Course
Comprehensive Review And Upgrading Of Knowledge Of The Human
Back And Limbs. Continues through
June 21. Friedman 313. 8:30am-
4pm. Registration fee before May 10.
$800; $900 after to May 31. E-mail:
dmford@unixg.ubc.ca. Call 822-
Wednesday, June 12
Surgery Grand Rounds
Rationale For New Radiation
Treatment Strategies. Dr. Thomas Keane, Radiation Oncology.
GF Strong auditorium, 7am. Call
No calendar next issue
Next calendar deadline:
noon, lune 4
Badminton Drop-In
Faculty/Staff/Grad Students are
welcome at the Student Recreation Centre, Mondays. 6:30-8pm.
and Wednesdays, 6:45-8:15pm.
Bring your library card. Check for
ratkay@unix.infoserve.net or call
Faculty. Staff and Grad Student
Volleyball Group. Every Monday
and Wednesday, Osborne Centre,
Gym A, 12:30-l:30pm. No fees.
Drop-ins and regular attendees
welcome for friendly competitive
games. Call 822-4479 or e-mail:
Morris and Helen Belkin Art
The Innocence Of Trees: Agnes
Martin and Emily Carr. Guest
curated by David Bellman. March
14 - May 25. Tuesday - Friday;
10am-5pm; Saturday, 12-5pm.
1825 Main Mall. Call 822-2759.
Faculty Development
Would you like to talk with an
experienced faculty member, one
on one, about your teaching concerns? Call the Centre for Faculty
Development and Instructional
Services at 822-0828 and ask for
the Teaching Support Group.
Fitness Appraisal
The John M. Buchanan Exercise
Science Laboratory is administering a comprehensive physiological
assessment program available to
students, staff, and the general
public. A complete fitness assessment with an interpretation of the
results takes approximately one
hour and encompasses detailed
training prescription. A fee of $50
for students and $60 for all others
is charged. For additional information or an appointment, please
call 822-4356.
Parents in Long-Term Care
Daughters with a parent in a care
facility are invited to participate.
Study focuses on the challenges of
visiting/providing care and its effect on well-being. Involves interviews/responses to questionnaires. Call Allison, Counselling
Psychology at 946-7803.
Clinical Trial in Dermatology
A study comparing two oral medications. Famciclovir and
Valacyclovir in the treatment of
first episode of Herpes Zoster (shingles). Age 50 and over. Division of
Dermatology. 835 West 10th Avenue, 3rd floor. Reimbursement
for expenses. Call 875-5296.
Surplus Equipment
Recycling Facility
Weekly sales of furniture, computers, scientific etc. held every
Wednesday, noon-5pm. SERF,
Task Force Building, 2352 Health
Sciences Mall. Call 822-2582 for
Garden Hours
Nitobe Memorial Garden, Botanical Garden and the Shop-in-the-
Garden are open 10am-6pm daily
(including weekends) until Oct. 13.
Call 822-9666 (gardens), 822-4529
Guided Tours of Botanical
By Friends of the Garden. Every
Wednesday and Saturday, lpm,
until Oct. 13. Free with admission. Call 822-9666.
English Language Institute
Homestay. English-speaking families are needed to host international students participating in ELI
programs for periods of two to six
weeks. Remuneration is $22/
night. Call 822-1537.
Clinical Research Support
The Clinical Research Support
Group which operates under the
auspices of the Dept. of Health
Care and Epidemiology provides
methodological, biostatistical,
computational and analytical support for health researchers. For an
appointment please call Laurel
Slaney at 822-4530.
Explore Your Stress Coping
Psychologists in the Counselling
Psychology Department need clerical workers to participate in a
study looking at work-related
stress, over two months. If interested contact Marlene at 822-9199
(Stress Lab).
Vancouver Hospital Studies
Volunteers are needed as control
group for research study. Study in
volves two test sessions. Each test
session will involve two test days
and will be one week apart - total
time 16 hours. Volunteers should
be between the ages of 18-65 and
will be paid $ 100 for the completion
of both test sessions. Call Arvtnder
Grewal, Monday-Friday, 10am-
2pm, 822-7321.
Parents with Babies
Have you ever wondered how babies learn to talk? ... help us find
out! We are looking for parents
with babies between 1 and 14
months of age to participate in
language development studies. If
you are interested in bringing
your baby for a one hour visit,
please call Dr. Janet Werker's
Infant Studies Centre, Department of Psychology. UBC. 822-
6408 (ask for Nancy).
Department of Physics and
Astronomy Physics Summer
Camp for Grades 4-7
Registration is under way for
Physics Summer Camps for students in grades 4-7. The Physics Outreach Program in the
Department of Physics and Astronomy is holding four one
week sessions beginning July
8. For camp and fee information call 822-3853 or email:
outreach@physics. ubc.ca.
Bilingual Language and
International Leadership
Summer School for Grades
Japanese and English. July 21 -
August 10. 1996. BC students
join high school teens from Japan and learn Japanese, International leadership and cultural similarities and differences. Cost $975 ( may be offset by hosting a Japanese student). Enquiries 822-1545 or
The UBC Reports Calendar lists university-related or
university-sponsored events on campus and off campus within the Lower Mainland.
Calendar items must be submitted on forms available from the UBC Public Affairs Office, 310 - 6251 Cecil
Green Park Road, Vancouver B.C., V6T 1Z1. Phone:
822-3131. Fax: 822-2684. Please limit to 35 words.
Submissions for the Calendar's Notices section may be
limited due to space.
Deadline for the June 13 issue of UBC Reports —
which covers the period June 16 to July 13 — is noon,
June 4. 8 UBC Reports ■ May 2, 1996
May 2, 1996
Members of the University community
Subject: The Economic Benefits of Post-Secondary Training and Education
in B.C.: an outcomes assessment
Please find attached a copy of a report by Prof. Robert Allen. Economics Dept.
I asked him to prepare this in response to the B.C. Labour Force Development
Board's Report Training for What?
M. Patricia Marchak
Dean, Faculty of Arts
Recently the British Columbia Labour Force Development Board released its first
study called Training for What?. This report recommended a large expansion in
post-secondary technical and vocational training programs in the province.  The
Board also concluded that university "applied" programs like Engineering should
be expanded modestly, while "academic" university programs like the Arts should
be contracted.
"While there is no gap in the capacity of the province's universities and
university colleges to produce the numbers of university graduates that will
be required, there appears to be a relative over-supply of graduates in
academic programs and an under-supply of those in applied." (TFW, p. 43.)
These conclusions are based almost entirely on the Canadian Occupational
Projection System—the COPS model. Very little attention in Training for What? is
given to actual labour market outcomes in British Columbia. The Board takes it
almost as a matter of faith that technical trainees get jobs at high wages that use
the skills taught in their programs, while Arts graduates, for example, face high
unemployment and find only low wage work in jobs that do not use their university training. In fact, however, these impressions of labour market outcomes are
grossly inaccurate caricatures of the truth.
This study critically assesses the recommendations of the Labour Force Development Board and finds them seriously off the mark. Part I reviews the COPS
forecasting model, which is the analytical core of Training for What?, and shows
that it is an inadequate base for educational planning.  Instead of using an
unreliable forecasting model to decide which programs to expand and which to
contract, Part II contends that B.C. would be better advised to study the actual
experiences of graduates. Those programs whose graduates find jobs and earn
good wages should expand while other programs should remain as they are or
contract. The rest of the paper uses data from Statistics Canada surveys to
measure the labour market success of graduates of post-secondary programs in
Part III explores who gets jobs. Training for What? claims "that university graduates, particularly those in academic disciplines, are having increasing difficulty
finding work." (TFW, p. 25.) An examination ofthe data, however, shows that
unemployment rates are higher for graduates of technical and vocational programs than for almost all university programs, including most Arts programs.
The view of the Labour Force Development Board is far off the mark.
Part IV examines who pursues further education after graduation. The Labour
Force Development Board is concerned that Arts and Science graduates cannot
find jobs, so they are recycling through the system. It is shown that many university graduates, including most Arts graduates, enter other programs after getting
their BA degrees. Most enter master's programs or professional programs for
which their BAs are prerequisites. This is not recycling.
What is surprising is that many graduates of technical and vocational training are
recycling by entering other programs rather than working—a quarter of the
graduates of short-term technical training programs and one-third of the graduates of community college technical/vocational programs (not university transfer
programs) had completed or enrolled in another training or educational program
within two years of completing their studies. This finding is quite unexpected in
view of the Labour Force Development Board's belief that one learns a skill and
then gets a job. When a technical graduate enters a university program instead of
working—that is recycling.  It is a far bigger phenomenon among technical and
vocational graduates than it is for university graduates.
The most striking fact about educational outcomes in Training for What? is the
observation that 14% of the students at BCIT have university degrees.  The Board
interprets this to mean that too many university graduates are being produced.
In fact, the Statistics Canada data show that cross-enrolments go both ways.
While 4.9% ofthe students in technical/vocational programs had university
degrees, 7.8% of students in universities had technical/vocational diplomas.
Many students take more than one program because they are searching for what
is right for them. The fact that university graduates enrol at BCIT is no more
reason to shrink UBC than is the converse a reason to shrink BCIT.
Part V examines what skills students learn. The Survey of 1990 Graduates shows,
as expected, that technical and vocational students and undergraduates in
applied university programs are more likely to learn skills related to a particular
job than are Arts and Science students. However, the Survey also confirms that
Arts programs are more effective in teaching generally broader "employability"
skills like writing and speaking than are other programs.
Part VI examines whether graduates use the skills they learned in school on the
job. In fact, few from any program do. This is not an indictment of "academic"
university programs that never claimed to teach skills tailored to particular jobs,
but it is a serious challenge to technical and vocational programs whose sole
rationale is providing employment-related training. More generally, this finding
calls into question the notion that training people in specific skills is better
preparation for the world of work than training them in general skills.
Part VII examines how much money people make. The data used are from the
Public Use Sample Tape ofthe 1991 Census of Canada. The sample of
B.C. residents is studied. These data allow the comparison ofthe lifetime earnings
profiles of people with different degrees. It is shown that short-term technical
training programs have some pay-off for men but none for women, contrary to the
view ofthe Labour Force Development Board. However, two-year community
college programs have a pay-off for men and a smaller one for women. By this
measure, there is a case for the expansion of technical and vocational programs,
but the case is more limited than the Labour Force Development Board suggested.
Next the earnings of university graduates are examined. The situation is somewhat different for men and for women. Women with terminal bachelors degrees in
almost every field earn more than women with community college technical/
vocational training at every age. This includes humanities graduates, although the
premium is not as great for them as for other university fields. Men with university degrees often earn less than men with technical certificates in their 20s but
generally surpass them by a large margin at older ages. This career path is
characteristic of the fields in which most men enroll—social sciences, commerce,
engineering, and natural sciences.  Men with degrees in the humanities and fine
arts often earn somewhat less than men with community college credentials.
Based on earnings there is a case for expanding most university programs.
Part VIII examines the economic situation of graduates in fine arts and the
humanities. Most graduates in these fields are women, and they generally earn as
much or more than women who graduated from community colleges but less than
women with other kinds of bachelor degrees. In interpreting these figures, it
should be borne in mind that they apply to the minority of graduates in these
fields who did not undertake postgraduate studies and thereby earn higher
returns.  Furthermore, many people who entered these programs were not primarily motivated to earn high incomes but had other educational objectives. Indeed,
the Survey of 1990 Graduates shows that the humanities students who aimed for
a high income got one, while the ones less motivated by financial reward generally
earned the lower incomes.
Part IX summarizes the findings of the paper. The returns to highly focused
technical training are small or. in the case of women, non-existent. Two-year
community college technical/vocational programs are more successful in generating higher incomes, so there is a case for their expansion. Most university graduates, however, have better employment prospects and earn higher incomes than
college graduates, so there is an even stronger case for expanding universities.
Part I: How Good Is the COPS Forecasting Model?
Projections with the COPS (Canadian Occupational Projection System) forecasting
model are the analytical core of Training for What?. These forecasts indicate that
employment for people with technical certificates or community college technical/
vocational credentials will grow enormously. The employment of high school dropouts, high school graduates, and university graduates will change only marginally.
The COPS forecasts can be understood by imagining they take place in the
following sequence of steps. First, census data are used to compute how many
people with each educational credential are employed in each industry per dollar
of output of that industry. These ratios are called "input-output coefficients."
Some industries like business services, health, and education used university
graduates intensively, while others like retail trade, wholesale trade, personal
services, and food, beverage, and accommodation hardly employed a single
graduate. These past employment patterns are built into the input-output coefficients. Second, the growth of output of each industry is projected into the future.
Third, the input-output coefficients are used to calculate the number of people
with each educational qualification needed to produce the forecast output levels.
These forecasts show large increases in the employment of high school drop-outs
and high school graduates since they comprise a large share of the workforce,
especially in the industries that the COPS forecasts presume will grow rapidly.
Fourth, the input-output coefficients derived from censuses are altered to preclude this outcome. The coefficients are changed to eliminate the employment
growth for high school drop-outs and high school graduates by raising the qualifications for jobs in shops, restaurants, bars, etc. to technical training certificates
or community college technical/vocational diplomas. This upgrading of jobs is
essentially speculative. Evidently, if it were postulated that university graduates
would become restaurant entrepreneurs, the employment of university graduates
would have risen significantly. As it is, of course, the COPS model predicts no
growth in the employment of university graduates since hardly any have been
employed in the industries that are projected to grow the most.
How reliable are the COPS forecasts? Reliability can be gauged by seeing how well
the model simulates past history. It does a rather bad job. Consequently, there is
no reason to believe it will do a good job in forecasting the future. Two deficiencies
of the COPS model explain why its forecasts cannot be relied upon for educational
planning. First, as is evident from the description ofthe model, the skill upgrading is essentially arbitrary. One could easily imagine other scenarios in which the
model would simulate a large growth in the employment of university graduates
or, indeed, no employment growth for any post-secondary graduates.
Second, the great temptation with the COPS model is to interpret the employment
projections as forecasts for the demand for different types of labour. These
demand projections can then be compared to the capacity of the educational
system to produce the requisite number of graduates and "skill gaps" (demand
less supply) can then be identified. The Labour Force Development Board succumbs to this temptation, and Training for What? goes on at length about the
"gaps." UBC Reports ■ May 2, 1996 9
This interpretation would make sense only if technology dictates the skill distribution of the workforce. There are industries where one can imagine a close relationship between output and the employment of people with various skills. For
instance, a school teacher has a class of about twenty-five students, so increasing
the number of students by 10% requires 10% more teachers. Installing the
plumbing in a house of specified characteristics requires a specific number of
hours of plumbers' labour. There is also a close relationship between the number
of doctors and nurses, on the one hand, and the number of patients treated on
the other. Examples of this sort could be multiplied, but a little reflection indicates that the ratios are not technologically determined. Machinery and materials
can substitute for skills, and skills can substitute for each other. Video and
computers allow teachers to instruct more students. Paraprofessionals can
replace teachers in many activities. The substitution of plastic for metal pipe cuts
the hours of plumbers labour. Similarly, in medicine, paraprofessionals can do
the work of doctors, and modern technology allows the substitution of medicines
and equipment for people.
Even in examples like the building trades, education, and health where the
employment of craftsmen and professionals might be thought to be technologically determined, rigidity is far from complete. In other industries, like restaurants or
shops, there is simply no reason to imagine any necessary relationship between
skill requirements and output. In these industries, flexibility is the name of the
In most parts of the economy, the skill distribution of the workforce is at the
discretion of management. Therefore, employment patterns are determined by the
supply of skills as well as the demand. In the past, for instance, if there had been
more university graduates in Canada, the increment would not have been
unemployed. Instead, their employment would have been greater, and employment patterns would have been different. The COPS forecasts would have projected a greater employment of university graduates. A major reason the COPS
forecasts are in error is because the labour market is flexible, while the model is
Part II: Alternative Approaches to Planning Post-
Secondary Training and Education
The inability of the COPS model to predict the evolution of employment in detail
means that other approaches must be used to plan post-secondary education. I
rely on two. First, I investigate the actual labour force experience of
graduates. Unlike the COPS model, which speculates in an unreliable manner
about the future, I see what has happened to graduates in the recent past.
Training for What? contains many offhand remarks about this, but it does not
investigate labour market outcomes systematically. A careful examination of the
facts shows that the recent experience of university graduates is much more
successful than the view propounded in Training for What?, while the experience
of technical/vocational trainees is far less successful.
Second, many economic problems can be analyzed in terms of prices as well as
quantities. The COPS model focuses on quantities (number of jobs, number of
graduates). Instead I analyze prices (i.e. the wages of various jobs). Training for
What? contains not a word on this important subject.
There are two reasons why wages matter. In the first place, they provide a gauge
of the contribution that education can make to economic growth. The key idea is
that the wage measures the productivity ofthe employee, i.e. the additional net
output produced by that person. A competitive firm expands employment so long
as additional workers add more to net output than they cost in wages. Expansion
ceases when additional net output eventually falls to equal the wage. Since more
educated people earn more money than less educated people, the implication of
the theory is that more educated people are more productive (in the view of
employers) than less educated people. Furthermore, educating people causes
economic growth since the wage premium of the educated person equals the
additional GDP attributable to that person's education. This theory is, of course,
an abstraction that ignores many features of labour markets, but it provides a
link between education and economic growth.
In the second place, wages matter because they characterize the different futures
for which we can prepare for our children. Since B.C. is only a small province, it
could probably rely on migration from other provinces or countries to supply its
needs for educated workers. In that case, however, the high wage jobs would all
be held by people from other places, and children growing up in British Columbia
would be condemned to low wage work unless they (or more likely their parents)
paid to educate them elsewhere. It is in order to provide the children growing up
in the province with better chances in life—particularly higher wage jobs—that
B.C. must operate a large post-secondary education system. And to decide which
programs are the best bets for our children, we must examine the wages earned
by people with different educational credentials.
The remainder of this paper implements the approaches just discussed by measuring and analyzing labour market outcomes like unemployment rates and
wages. These indicators all show that Training for What? puts too much emphasis
on technical/vocational training and not enough on university education, including "academic" programs in the humanities and social sciences.
Part III: Who Gets the Jobs?
The recommendations of the Labour Force Development Board are predicated on
an optimistic view of training in specific skills.   Implicitly the report assumes that
people who are trained in specialized skills get jobs using those skills upon
finishing their program. They stay with those jobs, earn high incomes, and
thereby contribute to the growth of the provincial economy. In contrast, the Board
assumes that people with university educations, especially in the "academic"
areas like the fine arts, humanities, and social sciences, cannot find work since
they lack skills. Therefore, they remain unemployed, work for low wages in jobs
not requiring degrees, or seek technical training. For these reasons, the Board
recommends an expansion of training and a reduction in "academic" university
A first test of this view is to see whether technically/vocationally trained students
are really more successful in getting jobs than university graduates, particularly
Arts graduates.  To examine this question, I use data from Statistics Canada's
Survey of 1990 Graduates. This was a survey conducted in June. 1992. of people
who had graduated in 1990. I use the public microdata file sample of 12,331
respondents from western Canada. The survey asked detailed questions on
degrees obtained, field of study, employment experiences, and further schooling
undertaken since graduation.The respondents included people who had completed skilled trades training programs of at least three months duration, community college technical and vocational programs, and university undergraduate and
graduate programs. It is important to note that none ofthe community college
respondents were in university transfer programs. Field of study was also indicated, so one can compare the unemployment situation of people with bachelor
degrees in the humanities to that of skilled trade trainees, for example.
Table 1 shows the unemployment rates of people with various credentials in 1992,
two years after graduating. (The table excludes people who were enrolled in
another educational program.) In contradiction to Training for What?, the graduates of employment-related technical programs did the worst with an unemployment rate of 14.6%. Graduates of two year technical/vocational programs did
somewhat better, for their unemployment rate was 8.6%.  However, this performance was surpassed by graduates of almost every undergraduate university
program. Unemployment rates in applied university programs ranged from 2.6 to
6.9%. In academic programs, fine and performing arts graduates did have the
highest unemployment rate at 17.0%—not much more than that of technical
trainees. Graduates in mathematics and science did better than technical/
vocational graduates but not quite as well as graduates of community college
technical programs. All other "academic" university graduates—including, in
particular, humanities graduates (at 5.8%)—did better than technically trained
students. The stereotype of the unemployed Arts graduate and the employed
technician is a fantasy unsupported by the facts.
Table 1: Unemployment rates of
graduates without further schooling two
years after completing
... 14.6%
Community college	
"Applied" university
Nursing & other health	
"Academic" university—Arts
Fine & Applied Arts 	
... 17.0
Social Sciences	
"Academic" university—Sciences
Agriculture & Biology 	
Math & Physical Sciences	
... 10.8
Note: General and unclassified bachelor's degrees are excluded.
Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada, Survey of 1990 Graduates, 1992,
public microdata file.
Part IV: Who Seeks Further School?
An important fact of student life is that many students continue their studies
after completing their first post-secondary program. This has implications both for
measuring the income gains due to education and forjudging the costs. The
Labour Force Development Board is concerned that "substantial numbers of
students"—particularly university graduates in "academic" programs—are "recycling through the system" (TFW, p. 24.) The Survey of 1990 Graduates allows
this behaviour to be monitored for the first two years following graduation.Table 2
summarizes the results.
Table 2: Percentage of students who completed or entered at least one other
training/educational program in the two years following completion
Trades/technical 26.4%
Community college 32.7
"Applied" university
Education  27.9
Commerce 40.5
Engineering 34.2
Nursing & other health 31.4
"Academic" university—Arts
Fine & Applied Arts 50.0
Humanities  57.7
Social Sciences 51.9
"Academic" university—Sciences
Agriculture & Biology  34.2
Math & Physical Sciences 41.0
Note: General and unclassified bachelor's degrees are excluded.
Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada, Survey of 1990 raduates, 1992,
public microdata file.
The table shows that university graduates had very high probabilities of entering
another program. Over half of Arts graduates took further education. The proportion is closer to 60% for students in their twenties. This is not surprising since the
BA has traditionally been regarded as a stepping stone to professional work. In
other university faculties, including "applied" programs, postgraduate study was
very common.
What is really surprising about the further education of graduates is the large
fraction of graduates from technical/vocational programs of less than two years
(26.4%) and from community college technical/vocational programs (32.7%), who 10 UBC Reports ■ May 2, 1996
completed or enrolled in another program within two years of completing their
diploma or other credential in 1990. Since technical/vocational programs are
supposed to be terminal programs, this is recycling of a serious magnitude. In
view ofthe high unemployment rates for those technical/vocational students who
did not continue their education, it looks as though a very large fraction never
made it from the skills classroom to skill-using work. Since the specific skills
taught by these programs are their only rationale, the immediate entry of their
graduates into other programs represents a significant waste of resources.
The Survey of 1990 Graduates shows the type of program chosen by students who
continued to study after their 1990 graduation.lt is important to analyze these
data since the issue has received such emphasis in Training for Wliat?. Indeed,
the only statistic in the report concerning educational outcomes is the finding
that 14% ofthe students who enroll in BCIT have university degrees (TFW, p. 24.)
This is taken as an important indicator that universities are not teaching the
skills that employers demand. But this fact takes on a different significance when
viewed in the context of the Suruey of 1990 Graduates. It shows that 17.4% of the
BA's in the humanities, fine arts, and social sciences who entered another program did, indeed, enter a technical/vocational program of some sort or
other. However, there was also a reverse flow. 17.9% of the short-term technical/
vocational graduates who continued their studies entered a university program as
did a very substantial 45.7% ofthe graduates of community college technical and
vocational programs who pursued further study. (It is worth reiterating that the
community college graduates discussed here were not in university transfer
programs.) The data show that university graduates enrolled in technical programs, and graduates of technical/vocational programs enrolled in universities.
The Labour Force Development Board is worried about "increasing recycling'
within the post-secondary system." (TFW, p. 24.) The phenomenon is greater
among technical/vocational graduates than among university graduates.
The Survey of 1990 Graduates also recorded the highest level of schooling
achieved before entering the program from which the students graduated in
1990. 7.8% ofthe students awarded a bachelor or first professional degree in
1990 had graduated from a one or two year technical or vocational program (not a
university transfer program) before entering university. Likewise, 4.9% ofthe
students who completed a vocational or technical program of two years or less
had a university degree when they enrolled in the program. That there are university graduates at BCIT does not mean that universities should be downsized any
more than the presence of BCIT graduates at UBC means that BCIT should be
downsized. Both patterns indicate that students discover more about their
abilities and aspirations as they progress through school.
Part V: What Do Students Learn in School?
The Labour Force Development Board is emphatically of the opinion that the
"post-secondary learning system" should teach students the right skills. Training
for What?, however, is none too clear as to what those skills are. Sometimes the
right skills are narrowly defined and tailored to particular jobs, as when Training
for What? says "future skills requirements point more toward career/technical
and vocational training" and "there is also a significant gap in the ability of the
learning system to meet the need for short-duration, targeted training aimed at
specific skills development—what might be termed just-in-time training." (TFW,
p. 29.) Sometimes, however, the right skills are (in the jargon of the Board)
"employability skills,"—abilities which have heretofore been called the talents of a
person educated in the Arts. These skills include the abilities to read, write, listen.
and speak effectively, knowledge of languages, the ability to think critically and
solve problems, basic numeracy, the ability to access and apply specialized
technical knowledge, and the capacity to "continue to learn for life." (TFW, p. 21.)
The methodology of the Labour Force Development Board is badly adapted to
assessing changes in the demand—and supply—of these skills. The demand for
general skills is particularly hard to simulate, both because they are so generalized, and because they increase the productivity of particular skills. Who provides
these skills—especially employability skills—is also murky.
The Survey of 1990 Graduates throws some light on who provides what skills.
Students were asked whether their program provided them with "the skills needed
for a particular job." The answers are not surprising—graduates of technical/
vocational programs and applied university programs felt that they had learned
specialized skills to a much greater degree than did graduates of Arts
programs. Of more interest, however, were questions about "employability
skills." Table 3 summarizes the responses to the question "did your program
develop your skills in writing well?" The highest score was earned by the humanities where 69.3% answered "to a great extent," followed by the social sciences with
45.7%. Other programs were far behind. Only 26.8% of the graduates of community college technical and vocational programs felt that their programs had
increased their ability to write well "to a great extent." A similar pattern character-
Table 3: Did your program develop your skills in writing well? Percentage
who answered "To a great extent"
Community college 26.8%
"Applied" university
Education  28.6
Commerce 24.2
Engineering 15.5
Nursing & other health 30.9
"Academic" university—Arts
Fine & Applied Arts 27.7
Humanities  69.3
Social Sciences 45.7
"Academic" university—Sciences
Agriculture & Biology  25.4
Math & Physical Sciences 20.8
Note: General and unclassified bachelor's degrees are excluded.
Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada, Survey of 1990 Graduates. 1992,
public microdata file.
ized the answers to the question "did your program develop your skills in speaking well?" The humanities students again led the way followed this time by
education and fine arts.
University Arts programs have always concentrated on teaching the "employability
skills." Not surprisingly, students find that Arts Faculties do it more successfully
than other programs. To spread competence in "employability skills." the provincial government should make education in "academic" programs (including the
Arts) more widespread by integrating it into more technical/vocational programs.
Part VI: Are Skills Taught in School Used on the Job?
Are the skills taught in B.C.'s schools, colleges, and universities used in the
workplace? The Labour Force Development Board believes that there is a problem
in this area with respect to university graduates in "academic" areas. The "underemployment of graduates [of academic university programs] is increasing." (TFW,
p 29.) There is, indeed, a problem with the underutilization of skills in B.C. That
problem includes university graduates but extends beyond them and involves
technical and vocational graduates as well. The underutilization of skills does not
indicate an imbalance between colleges and universities but is. instead, a feature
of the persistence of high unemployment in Canada as a whole.
Two aspects ofthe underutilization of skills have already been discussed. The first
was unemployment. The unemployment rate was highest among short-term
technical trainees. The rate was, also, higher among community college technical/
vocational graduates than among most university graduates. Unemployment
represents an even greater loss of economic output than does underemployment.
The second example of underutilization was "recycling." that is students undertaking a second training program after they have completed a first. This problem
was far greater among technical and vocational graduates than among university
graduates. The technical and vocational graduates were all in terminal programs
to prepare them for jobs. Only a few university graduates entered programs for
which their degrees were not prerequisites and thus can be said to be recycled.
Recycling is greatest among technical and vocational graduates—probably because they have trouble finding work (as evidenced by their unemployment rates)
and because university graduates generally earn more money (as will be shown
Two other factors account for the underutilization of skills.   First, some people
(especially women) drop out ofthe labour force. There is not much difference
across programs in this regard. Second, and much more important, many people
end up in jobs that do not require the skills learned in school. The Labour Force
Development Board discussed this problem only with respect to university
graduates. However, the problem also afflicts technical and vocational graduates.
We can gain some insight into how many graduates find their training or education relevant to their work from the Survey of 1990 Graduates. Table 4 shows that
only 28.8% of technical trainees and 37.3% of community college technical/
vocational graduates were employed two years after graduation in jobs "directly
related" to their schooling. University "applied" programs achieved the highest
percentages—education led the way at 52.9%. Fine arts, humanities, and social
sciences had low scores since they do not teach specific skills. The low percentages of graduates employed in jobs directly related to studies is a far bigger mark
against technical/vocational programs than it is against Arts programs since the
rationale of the former (but not the latter) is teaching skills that will be used on
the job.
Table 4: What is the relationship of the studies completed in 1990 to the job
you held last week?
Percentage "directly related"
Trades/technical 28.8%
Community college 37.3%
"Applied" university
Education  52.9
Commerce 28.8
Engineering 44.3
Nursing & other health 53.2
"Academic" university—Arts
Fine Arts 9.6
Humanities   12.3
Social Sciences  14.9
"Academic" university—Sciences
Agriculture & Biology   18.3
Math & Physical Sciences 29.5
Note: General and unclassified bachelor's degrees are excluded.
Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada, Survey of 1990 Graduates, 1992,
public microdata file.
There are four reasons for the low fractions in Table 4. First, some people are not
in the labour force. Second, some people are unemployed. Third, some have
taken another program, so they are no longer working in a job using the skills of
the program completed in 1990. Fourth, the job they have does not require the
skills they learned in the program they finished in 1990.
Table 5 shows the relative importance of these factors. (This table is based on the
mathematical identity explained in the notes to the table.) Unemployment and
dropping out of the labour force were relatively unimportant in explaining the low
carry-over of skills to employment since their associated proportions in Table 5
were close to one. The important factors were the pursuit of further education,
and the low utilization of school-taught skills on the job. It is striking that, of
people who were working and who did not take further training, less than half of
the technical trainees and only five-eights ofthe community college technical/
vocational graduates had jobs directly related to their schooling. If people with
training in specific skills do not end up in jobs using those skills, then what is
the point of their training? UBC Reports ■ May 2, 1996 11
Table 5: Factors accounting for graduates not working in jobs for which they
were trained
Table 7: Women—Average annual full time earnings, 1991
A      =      Bx      CxDxE
Trades/technical 288   =  .950 x  .847   x .736   x .487
Community college 373        .973       .912       .673       .625
"Applied" university
Education  529 .973 .950 .721 .793
Commerce 288 .991 .940 .595 .520
Engineering 443 .979 .929 .658 .740
Nursing & other hi  532 .967 .973 .686 .824
"Academic" university—Arts
Fine Arts 096 .872 .805 .500 .273
Humanities 123 .906 .936 .423 .342
Social Sciences 149 .974 .914 .481 .349
"Academic" university—Sciences
Agriculture/Biology 183        .979       .929       .658       .740
Math/Natural Sciences  295        .931       .884       .590       .607
A—proportion of graduates employed in jobs directly related to schooling
B—proportion of graduates in labour force
C—proportion of graduates in labour force who were employed
D—proportion of employed graduates had had not taken a second course
E—proportion of employed graduates without a second course who were
employed of a job directly related to their schooling
Column A equals the product of columns B through E. If the proportions in
columns B through E all equalled one, then all graduates would be working in
jobs directly related to their programs two years after completion. The smaller
the value shown in columns B through E, the more important is that factor in
diverting graduates away from jobs directly related to their programs.
Note:  General and unclassified bachelor's degrees are excluded.
Source:   Calculated from Statistics Canada, Survey of 1990 Graduates, 1992,
public microdata file.
Part VII: Who Earns the Most Money?
Another criterion for assessing an educational program is the incomes earned by
its graduates. The 1991 Census of Canada allows one to compare the lifetime
earnings of people with different educational credentials. Tables 6 and 7 summarize the information for residents of British Columbia. The figures in these tables
are average annual earnings for full time employees. Two tables are presented
since the experiences of men and women were different. The tables contrast the
value of technical training and community college technical/vocational programs
with a high school diploma as well as the value of university degrees with technical and vocational training.
Tables 6 and 7 show a very mixed return to short-term technical training. The
average earnings for men with technical certification were above those for high
school graduates at all ages. It was another story for women, hov/ever. They did
not receive higher earnings for completing short-term training programs, so there
was no economic case for those programs.
Table 6: Men—Average annual full time earnings, 1991
No high school diploma   26474
High school diploma  27386
Trade Certificate 31349
Community College  30663
University, less than BA 32952
Bachelor degree, all 31678
"Applied" university
Education  32346
Commerce  30490
Engineering 37603
Nursing, etc  33004
"Academic" university—Arts
Fine Arts 20440
Humanities  21904
Social Sciences 31739
"Academic" university—Sciences
Agriculture/Biology 27589
Natural Sciences  31854
Bachelor + certificate 28734
Law  29375
Medicine 47833
Masters 39343
Doctorate 20798
Note: Bachelor degrees do not include first professional degrees in medicine
or law. The latter are estimated by partitioning the sample using
information on occupation and industry of employment.
Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada, Census of Canada. 1991, Public
Use Sample Tape.
32150        42351
41919        43220        45518
47697 56617 71724
Two-year community college programs for both men and women did have a
significant pay-off compared to a high school diploma. For men, earnings were
increased 10-15% compared to what they would have been with only high school
completion. For women, the earnings gain was less. This result parallels the
situation for women with trades training.
Both men and women earned more if they had a university degree than if they did
No high school diploma   19524
High school diploma 21002
Trade certificate 20756
Community College  23680
University, less than BA   25382
Bachelor degree, all  29000
"Applied" university
Education   29539
Commerce 31146
Engineering 33614
Nursing etc 35562
"Academic" university—Arts
Fine Arts 22368
Humanities   25720
Social Sciences 27079
"Academic" university—Sciences
Agriculture /Biology 26423
Natural Sciences 28118
Bachelor+Bachelor in Ed 29910
Bachelor-(-Education cert  27288
Bachelor+certificate 28447
Law 32731
Medicine 32023
Masters 26846
Note: Bachelor degrees do not include first professional degrees in medicine or
law. The latter are estimated by partitioning the sample using information
on occupation and industry of employment.
Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada, Census of Canada, 1991, Public
Use Sample Tape.
29165        28990        40634
27027        36183 37629
35941        39557        37629
not. The gain in earnings, however, was greatest for women. The premium started
at $5320 per year for women in their 20s and rose with age. (In considering these
figures it is important to remember that they apply to people who did not obtain
further degrees.) This premium was very strong for applied university degrees but
also existed for the academic programs such as the social and natural
sciences. Fine arts graduates did not usually earn more than community college
graduates, but that is the only group for which that could be said.
Men with bachelor degrees (and no postgraduate training) had earnings only
slightly above those of technically trained men in their 20s. At older ages, however, the average university graduate earned considerably more than the average
community college technical/vocational graduate, especially in the popular fields
of study, e.g. social sciences, commerce, engineering, and natural sciences. The
lifetime earnings of men with terminal bachelor degrees in these fields exceeded
the lifetime earnings of men with technical vocational degrees.
Men in other fields like education, nursing and other health fields, the humanities, and fine arts earned about the same over their lifetimes as community
college graduates. It is important, though, that there are not many men in these
areas. Women with degrees in these areas do much better compared to community college graduates than do men, which is a reason why students in these
areas tend to be female.
Experience differences explain why men in their 20s with university degrees did
not earn more than men with community college or technical training diplomas or
other credentials. The non-university programs are of shorter duration than the
university programs, so their graduates start working at a younger age. Therefore, the average 25-year-old, for instance, with only trade certification has more
experience than the average community college graduate, who, in turn, has more
experience than the average university graduate. Consequently, the person with
less schooling earns relatively more money. When work experience is held constant, the earnings advantage of the technical/vocational graduates
disappears. Thus, the Survey of 1990 Graduates records earnings two years after
the completion of a program. The average graduate of a short-term technical
program who was working full time earned only $23,000, while the average
community college technical/vocational graduate in his 20s earned $27,000, and
the average university graduate in the humanities earned $28,000 with other
fields earning more.
The high figures shown in Table 6 for technical and vocational graduates in their
20s are averages of the low earnings of inexperienced people aged 20-24 and of
the much higher earnings of more experienced people aged 25-29. For men with
trade qualifications, for instance, the figures are $25,000 and $34,000, respectively. Since the university graduates start working at an older age, the university
graduates in their 20s shown in Table 6 are quite inexperienced and earn low
salaries. The Survey of Graduate figures for the earnings of university graduates
with two years of experience were similar to the census earnings figures for men
in their 20s shown in Tables 6.1
The jump in the earnings of university graduates when they turn thirty can be
confirmed by tracking groups between the 1986 and the 1991 censuses. People
who were 25-29 years old in 1986, for instance, were between 30 and 34 years of
age in 1991. Table 8 compares the earnings of the same age cohorts of men and
women in 1986 and 1991 for various degrees and fields of study.   In all fields,
including the Arts, university graduates received big increases over this period.
Indeed, the percentage increases of university graduates were greater than the
' In general, the earnings figures in the Sumey of 1990 Graduates corroborate those in the
Census. An important exception, however, is men in their 20s with humanities degrees.
The Survey of 1990 Graduates reports an average annual earning of $28,000 rather than
the S22.000 shown, in Table 6. 12 UBC Reports • May 2, 1996
increases realized by community college graduates.  Table 8 shows university
graduates overtaking community college graduates in earnings as they passed
thirty. These results are particularly important, for they show that, even in the
unfavourable labour market of recent years, university graduates of all sorts
establish themselves economically by their late 20s and thereafter earn higher
incomes than community college graduates.
Table 8: The earnings jump after age 30: Average annual earnings
Table 9:   When you decided to enrol, how important was it for you to
improve your chances of a good income?
Trade certificate	
Community College ....
University, less than BA . 26365
Bachelor degree, all
"Applied" university
Nursing etc 	
"Academic" university-
Fine Arts	
Social Sciences	
"Academic" university-
Agriculture/Biology .
Natural Sciences 	
Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada,
Census of Canada, 1986,
Census of Canada, 1991,
Public Use Sample Tapes.
The earnings figures for undergraduate degrees shown in Tables 6 and 7 understate the value of a university education since many graduates enter masters and
professional programs that lead to higher incomes. As indicated earlier, over half
of Arts graduates continue their education. Tables 6 and 7 show the average
earnings of people employed full time with masters degrees, law degrees, and
medical/dental degrees.  In evaluating the economic return to undergraduate
programs, it is necessary to include the high earnings of the professional programs that they feed into.
The Labour Force Development Board found it puzzling that people wanted a
university education and attributed it to "entrenched societal attitudes about the
value of white-collar work." (TFW, p. 36.) The figures discussed here show that the
preference for a degree is perfectly rational in terms of the economic gains for
almost all programs. Most university graduates have lower unemployment rates
and higher lifetime earnings than people with only high school diplomas or
technical /vocational credentials.
Part VIM: The Economic Situation of the Fine Arts and
It is widely believed that graduates in fine arts and the humanities do poorly in
the labour market. A full consideration of the facts indicates that there is not a
serious problem. So far as earnings are concerned. Table 7 shows that women in
the humanities—and the majority of humanities graduates now are women—earn
more than community college graduates, and women in fine arts do about as well
over their lifetimes as community college graduates. Men do not do as well, but
there are not many men going into these areas.
Moreover, most people with a BA in the humanities get a further professional
degree for which the BA is a prerequisite. Many get masters degrees in the humanities or other fields, law degrees, or education degrees. The "employability"
skills taught to humanities students have a high pay-off in these areas. Since the
extra return to further study is very high and (officially or in practice) requires a
bachelors degree, the combined BA and graduate work should be thought of as a
single—lucrative—unit. All of these options propel students into much higher
income levels.
Finally, as noted above, humanities students are often less concerned about their
earnings prospects than students in other programs. The Survey of 1990 Graduates asked respondents "When you decided to enrol, how important was it for you
to improve your chances of a good income?" Table 9 shows the proportion who
answered "very important" by field of study. The chance of a good income was
very important to most students in most programs, but not in the humanities.
Thus, three quarters of the community college technical/vocational students said
the chance to make a good income was "very important," as did 78% of the
commerce students and about two-thirds of other university undergraduates.
However, only 45% of the humanities and 39% of the fine arts students felt as
strongly about the chance of making a good income. Students pursued these
subjects as much for their intrinsic satisfaction and importance as for the income
they expect to receive after completing the programs. This finding runs counter to
the view of the Labour Force Development Board that "research has shown that,
across all program areas, students have strong expectations of preparing themselves for work and improving themselves financially." (TFW, p. 36.) Moreover, it is
of some interest that humanities graduates who said the chances of a good job
were "very important" had considerably higher incomes than those graduates who
thought money was less important—$33,000 per year versus about $20,000 for
men and $27,000 versus $20,000 for women. A humanities degree was no
impediment to those who sought a lucrative job. However, on the average, the
objectives of fine arts and humanities students are different from those of other
students, and those differences ought to be recognized in educational planning.
Percentage Who Answered "Very Important"
Community College   75.9%
"Applied" University
Education   67.6
Commerce  78.3
Engineering 65.7
Nursing & Other Health  60.5
"Academic" University—Arts
Fine & AppliedArts   39.4
Humanities  44.8
Social Sciences  68.0
"Academic" University—Sciences
Agriculture/Biology  64.9
Math/Physical Sciences   65.9
Note:  General and unclassified bachelor's degrees are excluded.
Source:  Calculated from Statistics Canada, Survey of 1990 Graduates. 1992.
public microdata file.
Part IX: Why do University and College Graduates
Compete for Jobs?
When the earnings data are combined with occupation data, they throw light on
another issue that concerned the Labour Force Development Board: namely, that
graduates of academic programs "are competing for the same work as college
graduates." (TFW, p. 25.) Three occupations where this is happening are management, sales, and service. Many men who completed college and shorter term
technical programs work in these areas, as do many men with BAs in social
science. Table 10 shows the earnings realized in these fields by nonuniversity
graduates, social science graduates, and commerce graduates.  The latter, of
course, are from the "applied" academic program dealing with these areas.   People
with master's degrees (many of whom are MBAs) are also included for comparison
Table 10: Annual earnings of men in three occupations, 1991
Managers /Administrators
No high dchool diploma	
High school diploma	
Trade certificate	
Community College 	
BA—Social Sciences 	
No high school diploma 	
High School diploma	
Trade certificate	
Community College 	
BA—Social Sciences 	
No high school diploma 	
High school diploma	
Trade certificate	
Community College 	
BA—Social Sciences 	
Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada
f Canada,
2991, Public
Use Sample Tape.
What is striking about Table 10 is the success of university graduates, in general,
and of social science graduates, in particular. Begin with managers and
administrators. Among men in their 20s, people with trade qualifications and
community college technical credentials earn more than managers with bachelor
degrees and almost as much as people with master's degrees or postgraduate
certificates. The situation changes, though, as people gain experience. The
earnings of all educational categories rise with age. Men with technical or vocational training plateau out at about $55,000 per year. (It is of some interest that
community college graduates in their 50s who are managers do not earn more
than high school drop-outs in the same occupation.) The earnings of university
graduates, however, continue to rise so that the average manager with a university degree earns $70,000 or more. These are the men who are senior managers
and administrators in the large public institutions and private corporations in the
province. Senior management in B.C. is drawn mainly from university
graduates. It is of some interest that social science graduates do somewhat better
than commerce graduates at these levels and, indeed, almost as well as
MBAs. This is an indication that general abilities rather than specialized skills are
the keys to success in the high levels of management.
It is a similar story in sales and service occupations. Generally speaking,
community college graduates do no better than high school graduates in
these activities. When they are in their 20s. university graduates in sales do
not earn more than people with vocation or technical training, although even UBC Reports ■ May 2, 1996 13
in their 20s university graduates do better than others in service
occupations. After their 20s, however, social science and commerce graduates
rapidly pull ahead of those without university education and earn much
higher incomes in their 40s and 50s.
To return to the concerns ofthe Labour Force Development Board, it is true that
many university Arts graduates compete with community college graduates in the
same occupations. In the cases discussed here, however, this is not because the
university graduates could not get better jobs. The salaries they earn in management, sales, and service are comparable to the average salaries shown in Table 6.
The university graduates compete—successfully—against college graduates because
university training makes the university graduate more productive, and because
returns to that productivity can be realized in management, sales, and service.
These considerations also resolve a question the Labour Force Development Board
found mysterious: namely, why employers preferred to hire university graduates.
"Do employers really want and need university graduates as opposed to career
and vocational ones?"  (TFW, p. 23.) The question could be sharpened by adding
"even though the university graduates cost more." Unless one wants to argue that
businesses do not minimize their costs, the answer is that the businesses pay
more for a university graduates since the graduates are more productive. In other
words, the earnings figures discussed here can be interpreted as measures of
productivity. Since social science graduates, who lack specific skills in management, sales, or service, earn as much as anyone, the high returns to university
graduates in these areas represent the returns to general skills. The pay-off to
learning to write well at age 20 comes at age 50, both to the individual and to his
or her employer. The focus of the Labour Force Development Board on specific
skills means that it fails to understand the supply and demand for people in
management, sales, and service.
Part X: Conclusion
The evidence reviewed in this study points to general conclusions about the roles
of vocational training and education in British Columbia.
First, a large post-secondary education system is important to British Columbia
for economic reasons. Since people with more education—including graduates of
academic university programs--earn more than people with less education,
providing more college and university educational opportunities increases the
lifetime earning prospects of children growing up in B.C. Moreover, the high
earnings of university graduates indicate that they make a substantial contribution to economic growth, so expanding colleges and universities is important to
the economic development of Canada.
Second, the COPS model is not an adequate technology for forecasting the demand for various skills in B.C.. so educational planning cannot be based on that
model. It has become a truism that bureaucrats cannot "pick winners" when it
comes to industrial investment and physical capital formation. The COPS model
will not make them any better when it comes to human capital formation.
Third, under these circumstances, the best guide to expanding the post-secondary educational system is whether students want to take a program. For most
students outside the fine arts and humanities, the decisive consideration is
whether the program leads to a job paying a high wage.
Fourth, most technical training programs are not strong candidates for expansion
since the unemployment rates of their graduates are high and. in the case of
women, the wage premium over simply finishing high school is nonexistent.
Fifth, two-year community college technical/vocational programs have a higher
economic pay-off than do shorter term technical trades programs. This may be
because the specific skills they teach are more valuable, or it may be that they
teach more general "employability" skills simply because they last longer.
Sixth, it is remarkable that the more specific the skill training, the higher the
unemployment rate.
Seventh, university Arts programs are more effective than any other program in
teaching "employability" skills. The employability skill content of vocationally
oriented programs could be increased by incorporating more Arts education into
Eight, most university programs generate higher returns than are realized by
community college students. Unemployment rates are low and wages are high
even for Arts students. That is the reason many students want university
degrees. That is also a good reason for expanding university programs.
The Board ofGovernors took the
following actions at its meeting held on
March 21, 1996.
The following 1996-97 ancillary
budgets, and any rate changes contained therein were approved.
• Applied Research and Evaluation
• Athletics and Sport Services
• Biomedical Communications
• UBC Bookstore
• Computing and Communications
• UBC Food Group
• Housing and Conferences
• Parking Services
On the understanding that the recommendations have met all the requirements of
the AMS constitution, the following
requested increases and redirection of
Student Association fees were approved
with effect from September 1, 1996.
The portion of the existing AMS fees
presently designated for the support of
Athletics ($7.00) be redirected in the
following manner:
• an additional $1.50 to intramurals
• an additional $.50 to the World
University Service of Canada
• to AMS external and university
lobbying and advocacy, and
• to AMS Resource Groups
The Alma Mater Society fee be increased by $3.00 per student for three
years for the purpose of establishing
the Mrs. Evelyn Lett Childcare Bursary
The Engineering Undergraduate Society
fee be increased by $5.00 per student
to establish the Engineering Undergraduate Student Endowment Fund.
The Commerce Undergraduate Society
fee be increased from $8.00 per student
to $16.00 per student for the purpose
of ensuring minimum funding for clubs
and committeees, the Cavalier, and
subsidies to intramurals.
The Law Students Association fee be
increased from $12.00 per student to
$50.00 per student for support of the
Association's activities.
The Board authorized the University
signing officers to execute the Innovative
Projects Fund Agreement between the
Alma Mater Society and the University
that provides for the University to recover
its costs of operating the commercial space
in the Student Union Building.
Academic and Student Affairs
Acting on Senate recommendations, the
Board approved the following:
• Enrollment quotas for 1996-97
• Establishment of a Professorship in
Accounting to be known as The CA
Professorship in Accounting
• Establishment of the Centre for
Advanced Wood Processing
Employee Relations
The agreement with the Faculty
Association on Reduced Appointments
was approved.
The Board approved the Faculty
Housing Assistance Program.
The Board approved the following
• Records Retention and Disposition
• University Archives
• University Killam Professors
In addition, deletion of the following
policies was approved:
• Policy #48-Reduced Workload
Responsibility:  Faculty
• Policy #66-Use of Residences During
Winter Session
• Policy #77-Travel and Absences from
In response to the resignation of Ms
Barbara Crompton as a member and
Chair of the Board on February 26,
1996, Ms Shirley Chan was elected
Board Chair for the period March 21,
1996, to August 31, 1996.   (The Board
at its meeting on July 20, 1995, elected
Ms Chan as Board Chair for the period
September 1, 1996, to August 31,
1997, to succeed Ms Barbara
Crompton whose term of office as a
member of the Board would have
expired on September 5, 1996.)
Ms Evelyn Carroll was appointed to the
transition Board ofthe B.C. Women's,
B.C. Children's and Sunny Hill Hospital.
Dr. Joanne Emerman was appointed as
the Board's representative to replace Dr.
William Cullen on the following Councils:
• B.C. Medical Service Council
• Council of University Teaching
Hospitals (COUTH)
Dr. Bernard Bressler was appointed to
the Board of Directors of PAPRICAN to
replace Dr. Martha Salcudean.
Dr. John A. Cairns was appointed
Professor of Medicine, without term,
and Dean of the Faculty of Medicine for
an initial term of five years and six
months from January 1, 1997. through
June 30, 2002.
Dr. Barry McBride was reappointed
Dean of the Faculty of Science for a six-
year term from July 1, 1996, through
June 30, 2002.
Other Business
As required under Section 24 of the
University Act, the Board declared a
vacancy on the Board because of the
resignation on February 26, 1996, of
Ms Barbara Crompton.
The Board designated the week of October
13-19 as "UBC Health Sciences Week."
March 1996
The Board of Governors at its meeting of
March 21. 1996 approved thefollowing
recommendations and received notice
about thefollowing items:
Barry C. McBride, Dean, Faculty of
Science, July 1, 1996 to June 30, 2002.
Brian Elliott, Head, Department of
Anthropology & Sociology, July 1, 1996
to June 30, 2001.
Kenneth Bryant, Head, Department of
Asian Studies, July 1, 1996 to June
30, 2001.
James Caswell, Head, Department of Fine
Arts, July 1. 1996 to June 30, 1997.
Serge Guilbaut, Head, Department of
Fine Arts, July 1, 1997 to June 30, 2002.
Richard Hodgson, Head, Department of
French, July 1, 1996 to June 30. 2001.
Peter Stenberg, Acting Head, Department of Germanic Studies, July 1,
1996 to June 30, 1997.
Jesse Read, Director, School of Music,
July 1, 1996 to June 30, 2001.
Marion Crowhurst, Acting Head.
Department of Language Education,
Jan 1, 1996 to June 30, 1996.
Peter Danielson. Acting Director,
Centre for Applied Ethics, Jan 1, 1996
to June 30, 1996.
John Schrader, Director, Biomedical
Research Centre, May 1, 1996 to Apr
30, 1999.
Clive Duncan, Head, Department of
Orthopaedics, Jan 1, 1996 to June 30,
Ross Petty, Acting Head, Department of
Paediatrics, Jan 1, 1996 to June 30, 1996.
Gary Relyea, Assistant Professor, School
of Music, July 1, 1996 to June 30, 1999.
Peter Darke, Assistant Professor. Faculty
of Commerce & Business Administration,
July 1, 1996 to June 30, 1999.
Kai Li, Assistant Professor, Faculty of
Commerce & Business Administration,
July 1. 1996 to June 30, 1999.
Tan Wang, Assistant Professor, Faculty
of Commerce & Business Administration, July 1, 1996 to June 30, 1999.
Bonny Pierce, Assistant Professor,
Department of Language Education,
July 1, 1996 to June 30, 1999.
Paul Wood, Assistant Professor, Department of Forest Resources Management,
July 1, 1996 to June 30, 1999.
Younes Alila, Assistant Professor,
Department of Forest Resources Management, Feb 1, 1996 to June 30, 1999.
Michael Burgess, Associate Professor,
Centre for Applied Ethics/Department of
Medical Genetics, Jan 1, 1996 (tenured).
Continued Page 14 14 UBC Reports • May 2, 1996
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C. James Frankish, Assistant
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Care & Epidemiology, Nov 1,
1995 to June 30, 1998.
Clive Duncan, Professor,
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Jan 1, 1996 (tenured).
Joy Kirchner, General Librarian, Ubrary, Feb 26, 1996 to
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Forest Resources Management,
June 29, 1996.
John A.R. Coope, Professor,
Department of Chemistry,
June 30, 1996.
Carl Seger, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer
Science, Dec 31, 1995.
The Board learned, with regret,
the death of:
David C. Thomas, Associate
Professor, Department of Educational Psychology & Special
Education, Feb 20. 1996.
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will keep your home clean and
safe anytime from May-August
'96. N/S, no pets, one daughter,
prefer Southlands/Dunbar. Will
tend yard, plants, mail etc. Call
Joni 261-3806.
Housing Wanted
(non-smokers), and cats, require
home near UBC for 1-3 years from
July onward. Unfurnished o.k.
References, c.v., etc., available.
Phone collect (604) 633-2644 or fax
(604) 633-2638
smokers, no children, no pets,
desire a 1 /2 bedroom apartment/
townhouse at Hampton Place.
Minimum 1 year lease. Call Robert
O'Connor 682-8087.
Non-smokers, no pets, require three-
plus-bedroom, furnished house,
condo, or townhouse. West side
preferred. July- AugustSeptember/
96. Call Sandra 876-9998.
excellent references) seeking 2-
3 bedroom house or suite on
westside for June or July 1st.
Please call 255-5265.
KITS with male staff member. Very
comfortable, quiet, spacious,
furnished 2 bedroom apartment
in ideal location one block from
Kits pool. N/S, no pets. $600/month
inc. utilities/parking. Available
immediately. Tel. 737-8094.
For Sale j
for sale by owner. Kerrisdale, 800
sq. ft. Financing available.
$139,000. Tel. 270-2094.
MAY 14
Count Yourself In!
perfect spot to reserve
accommodation for guest
lecturers or other university
members who visit throughout
the year. Close to UBC and other
Vancouver attractions, a tasteful
representation of our city and of
UBC. 4103 W. 10th Ave.,
Vancouver. BC. V6R 2H2. Phone
or fax (604)222-4104.	
accom. in Pt. Grey area. Minutes to
UBC. On main bus routes. Close to
shops and restaurants. Inc. TV, tea
and coffee making, private phone/
fridge. Weekly rates available. Tel:
222-3461. Fax:222-9279.	
and breakfast. Warm hospitality
and full breakfast welcome you
to this central view home. Close
to UBC, downtown and bus
service. Large ensuite rooms with
TV and phone. 3466 West 15th
Avenue. 737-2526.
coast, Vancouver Island, by
Chesterman Beach; 2 1/2
bedrooms, nice view, hot tub,
good for writing and hiking. May
17-June 27: rates and length of
stay negotiable; June 28-Sept, 1:
$130/day. Phone Scott Fraser, 1-
604-725-2489, or e-mail:
campusforJuly 1 -August20. No
smoking, no pets. $ 1800. Call 224-
1831.  _   	
three bedroom + den older
home, furnished. 41 st and Dunbar
area, quiet street, near UBC and
buses. No smokers, no pets.
$1800/month inc. utilities. Call
264-1922. _    _    _
HOUSE,availableJune21 till Aug.
31st, 1996. Southlands, close to
UBC/shops/buses/golf courses.
Living room, family room. No
smokers. Tel. 266-5706 or fax.
family home, completely
renovated and beautifully
furnished, 5 minutes from UBC,
beaches,        etc. Great
neighbourhood, 5 bedrooms, 3
baths, available for July/August.
Ideal for visiting professionals and
executives, or if renovating in the
area. (604)266-0162.
KITS LOCATION. One bedroom
apartment with garden and
view. Available June and July.
Suitable for quiet individual or
couple. Non-smoking.
References and damage
deposit required. Call 734-0489.
E-mail: wildafr@worldtel.com.
HOUSE. Near UBC, beach, parks,
(4th and Blanca). Fabulous views.
Non-smokers. July 16-30 $1500.
Call 224-0156.	
BASEMENT suite available June 1
- mid-August. Near UBC. $450/
month. Call 264-9621.
partially furnished. Large living
and study area. Fireplace. Near
UBC. Available mid-August to
June/97. References required.
Damage deposit. Call 264-9621.
TERM rental. Furnished 2
bedroom, 2 bathroom, TV,
parking, W/D and view. 10 mins
to UBC. Great location in Kitsilano.
Excellent for visitor. Available May
1. Rate $100 per night. $600 per
week. Please call 224-2177. Fax
mins. from Horseshoe Bay,
beautiful waterfront cottage, 3
bedrooms, 2 baths. Fully
equipped kitchen (no d/w),
linens, right on Maple beach.
Refs. $900.00/wk. Call 822-2611
or (604)886-7357.
Next ad deadline:
Noon, May 14	
Peter Wall Institute for
Advanced Studies
Short-listed candidates
for the position of Director
Dr. Kenneth R. MacCrimmon
Professor, Faculty of Commerce
and Business Administration
"Creative Processes as a Guide to Research"
Monday, May 6, 1996 @ 5:30 pm
Public Forum @ 7:30 pm
Dr. Rhodri Windsor-Liscombe
Professor, Dept. of Fine Arts
"Reconstructing Modernist universality
in post-war Canadian architecture"
Tuesday, May 7, 1996 @ 5:30 pm
Public Forum @ 7:30 pm
All events will be held in the Coach House at Green
College, 6201 Cecil Green Park Road. UBC Reports ■ May 2, 1996 15
T-bird notes
by Don Wells
Thunderbird Athletics
UBC men's eight competed at the prestigious Royal Henley Regatta at Henley-on-
Thames in July 1994.
New rowing program
open to public
UBC rowing coach Mike
Pearce admits he has a
problem. He is the man who
is currently in charge of
maintaining a legacy which
began in 1932 when a young
oarsman named Ned Pratt
was the first UBC student to
win an Olympic medal—a
bronze in double sculls.
Pearce's problem is money.
Specifically, money for boats, a
boathouse and more opportunity for his best athletes to
compete so that the Olympic
legacy can endure. But don't
mistake that for a cry for help.
He also has a solution, and it's
a good one.
Pearce and his assistant
coaches recently unveiled
their plans to stage an eight-
week program aimed at
introducing neophytes to the
sport of rowing. Any corporate
or community group will
experience a rigorous training
program from certified UBC
coaches, some of them former
Olympic competitors, ending
with a full-fledged regatta on
False Creek and a post-race
barbecue and awards party at
the Vancouver Rowing Club.
Similar programs are
available annually in Victoria
and in Sydney, Australia and
they have proven extremely
popular, not to mention
lucrative. The program offered
by Victoria City Rowing Club
has grown to involve an
enormous field of competitors
and puts six-figure profits into
club coffers at the conclusion of
its wind-up regatta.
Noting the recent explosion
of participation in dragon
boat racing in Vancouver.
Pearce is confident that the
UBC Corporate Community
Challenge will experience
similar success.
"It offers the same camaraderie as dragon boating, but it
also offers first-timers a chance
to experience a sport which is
steeped in history and tradition, particularly in Vancouver,
at almost three times the speed
of a dragon boat!"
The program, which runs
May 27-July 19, offers a range
of instruction from safety and
boat handling to training
regimens and racing tech
niques. All training and racing
will be done in "eights" which are
boats that require a team of eight
rowers and one coxswain. Teams
should find 10 people to provide
an extra person in the event of an
absence, illness or injury and be
members of the same company,
club or affiliates of the same
group or association. Spouses
and family members are also
Each team must have a
minimum of two men and two
women, excluding coxswain,
and each participant must have
basic swimming skills.
Size is not a barrier, according to Pearce, who stresses
"winning teams are the result of
close teamwork, enthusiasm, a
willingness to learn and absorb
a lot of rowing information in a
short period of time. The
coxswain should be small in
stature but big in confidence. A
strong voice helps too!"
The participation fee is $1,200
per team and includes two nights
of training per week, trophies and
medals, the post-regatta barbecue, insurance and a one-year
membership in the Canadian
Amateur Rowing Association.
Proceeds will go toward
overcoming what Pearce says
are the only obstacles standing
in the way of continuing the
legacy which the late Ned Pratt
began in the 1932 Olympics.
"Right now we have national
team men and women, but they
need more opportunity to
compete at an elite level to make
that final step toward top
international events," said
Pearce. "We also need a better
boat for our women's team and
the price tag is in the
neighborhood of $25,000. Then
our next objective is to build a
boathouse on False Creek."
While competing at the
University ofWashington Regatta
in Seattle. Pearce and his crew
members were awestruck by the
Husky boathouse and itt,
adjoining museum. "The ghosts
of rowing past are in every crack
and crevice." said Pearce. who
has also visited the fabled
boathouse at Harvard. "It's a
shame that we haven't been able
to better preserve our history."
Shame indeed. With all due
respect to Pratt, who most people
remember as a renowned
architect, UBC rowers really
vaulted into international
prominence in 1954 when a
UBC crew won the British
Empire Games gold medal on
the Vedder Canal. The following
year another crew was a finalist
at the prestigious Royal Henley
Regatta. The next year was an
Olympic year and, under the
late and legendary Frank
Read, UBC's four-man crew
won a gold medal and the eight
took home silver.
Another silver medal
followed in 1960 and in 1964
George Hungerford and Roger
Jackson won gold in the pairs
event. Twenty years later Pat
Turner and Paul Steele were
members of a gold medal
winning eight at the '84
Olympics. That same year
UBC's women rowers stepped
up to the medal podium, led by
three-time Olympian Tricia
Smith. Along with pairs
partner Betty Craig, she won a
silver medal.
In 1992, UBC rowers were
in both the men's and women's
gold medal winning eights.
UBC's Mike Rasher and
Megan Delahanty were
members of those crews and so
were former students Kathleen
Heddle, Brenda Taylor and
Jessica Monroe. And with the
qualifying events for the Atlanta
Games fast approaching, UBC
graduates Jack Walkey and
Emma Robinson are training
hard to be the next
Thunderbird athletes to stand
on top of the podium to strains
of O Canada and the admiration of millions of television
viewers throughout the world.
Strange that when Pearce
talked about what comprises
a winning team, he forgot to
mention the importance of
goal-setting. Strange because Pearce and his
devoted team of assistants,
alumni, and supporters like
John Richardson. Norman
Hildes-Heim. Rob
Hartvikson, Peter Andrews
and David McLean appear
to be very focused on several
big goals— more Olympic
medals, hopefully a World
Championship, and maybe
even a win at Henley. But for
now it's regattas, a boat and
a boathouse.
For more information on
the UBC Corporate Community Challenge, call the UBC
Rowing Office at 822-5631.
by staff writers
Natalie Dakers, manager of life sciences technology
transfer in the University-Industry Liaison Office, has
been elected vice-president, Canada, for the U.S.-
based Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM).
Dakers will represent the Canadian membership on the
AUTM board and within the organization, highlighting Canadian issues and increasing the profile of the Canadian membership.
Within Canada, Dakers will work with member universities
and affiliated organizations to address and resolve common
issues related to technology transfer.
The AUTM represents more than 1.500 technology transfer
professionals in universities, hospitals, research institutes,
government and industry.
Mike Mosher has been named head coach of the UBC
Thunderbird's men's soccer team.
Mosher is a former T-Bird who played on three CIAU
champion teams, four years in the Canadian Soccer League
and four seasons with Canada's Olympic team.
Mosher's father, Dick, coached the T-Birds from 1986 to
the end of last season and will continue to coach the women's
Mike Mosher came to UBC in 1987 and was named Canada
West All-Star three years in a row. He was captain of Canada's Olympic team from 1988 to 1992. He graduated from
UBC in 1992 with a BPE and is completing a master's degree
in Sport Management.
Marilyn Dewis. who recently retired as an assistant
professor in the School of Nursing, has won an
Award of Excellence in Nursing Education from the
Registered Nurses Association of B.C.
Dewis, who taught for more than 30 years, was coordinator of the UBC-Vancouver Hospital Joint Baccalaureate in Nursing program—an innovative program that was the
first of its kind in Canada.
She also developed nursing curricula, wrote chapters for
nursing textbooks and reviewed nursing texts for major
publishing houses.
As a researcher, she is recognized internationally for her
work in injury prevention.
David Stapells, associate professor in the School of
Audiology and Speech Sciences, has been honoured
by the editors of the journal Ear and Hearing for his
research on tone-evoked auditory brain stem response
The Outstanding Research in Audiology and the Hearing
Sciences award was granted for a study that addressed the
early identification of frequency-specific hearing loss in
infants and young children. It is the second time Stapells
has won the award.
Agriculture to give
international option
UBC's Senate has approved a
new study option in International
Resource Systems within the BSc
(Agr) degree.
'The objective of this program
is to provide students with a
good science foundation, a second language, cultural sensitivity and both academic and
firsthand knowledge of resource
systems in Canada and abroad,"
said George Kennedy, director of
International Programs in the
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences.
"Graduates  from  this  pro-   '■
gram will have the global per
spective  increasingly required  *
for jobs in agriculture and other
resource sectors."
The program, which begins
this September, will help students develop cross-cultural
awareness through language and
cultural training during a year of
studying abroad, he added.
Students will study a resource
theme such as aquaculture. plant
protection, wildlife or nutrition
and food safety, and will focus on
one of three regions: Asia Pacific;
Europe; or the Americas.
The program requires students to earn 12 language credits and to experience education
abroad. For example, students
choosing the Asia Pacific region
may take Chinese, Japanese,
Korean or Indonesian at UBC
and spend their third year at one
of more than 20 partner institutions in Australia, Hong Kong.
■ lapan. Korea, Malaysia. New
Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan. Study tour
opportunities carrying academic
credit are also available in Indonesia and Japan.
Applicants must have completed first-year Agricultural
Sciences. Arts or Science with a
70 per cent average.
For more information, cal! 822
2193. fax 822-2184 or semi e
mail to iprogram@unixg.ubc.i 16 UBC Reports • May 2,1996
25 years of service
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
Le Marquand
32 staff members join club
after 25 years of service
UBC's 25 Year Club welcomes
32 new members this year—
staff who have given a quarter-
century of service to the university.
President David Strangway will
host the new members at the
26th annual dinner May 16 at the
Totem Park Residence Ballroom.
The new members are:
■   Gay Huchelega. Agricultural
Gilles Galzi. Animal Science
Elaine Le Marquand,
Botanical Garden
Melvyn Davies. Botany
Liane Darge. Chemistry
Isabel Spears, Child Study
Robert Paton, Dental Clinic
Anthony Leugner, Electrical
Jill Darling, Financial
Rosanne Rumley
You could say Rosanne
Rumley is UBC's version of a
talk show host—she's organized the most high-profile lectures on campus for two decades now.
After a stint ■■^^mh^mmm
as departmental secretary in Geophysics and
landed     the    	
coveted  position of administrative assistant
for the Cecil H. and Ida Green
Visiting Professorships in 1977.
Since then the job has expanded and today includes the
Dal Grauer Memorial Lecture,
the J.V. Clyne Lecture, and the
venerable Vancouver Institute
lecture series, among others.
Founded in 1916, theVancouver Institute is one of North America's premier town-gown events,
attracting audiences of up to 1,200
to hear scholars, scientists, authors and prime ministers speak.
Some ofthe notables Rumley
has hosted include Margaret
Atwood, Timothy Findley, Conor
Cruise O'Brien, Stephen Lewis.
Marilyn French, Alex Colville
and Joseph Campbell.
"We have had some truly
amazing people here, and yet
for the most part they are in-
We have had some
truly amazing
people here..."
—Rosanne Rumley
credibly gracious. Only a very
small element are difficult, and
we seldom have a cancellation."
Rumley occasionally finds herself in the spotlight instead of in
her usual place
■■■^mm^^h behind the
scenes. A lyric
soprano, she
once sang with
choirs, but today limits her
      to    weddings
and funerals.
"I adore Verdi and Puccini. I
don't have the dramatic voice to
sing it. but I do anyway!"
Virginia Anthony, Health
Care and Epidemiology
Violet Gee, Housing and
Nancy Wyatt, Library
Penne Huggard. Library
Ann Hutchison. Library
William Chong. Medicine
Joyce Scott, Oral Biology
Mary Anne Potts, Physics
Mohammed Ali Plant
Paul Chang, Plant
Arthur Crisp. Plant
Irene Growchowski. Plant
John Heady. Plant
Doris Lee, Plant Operations
James Medley. Plant
Larry Mosser. Plant
Kyriakos (Gus) Vlachos,
Plant Operations
Ashley Herath Plant Science
Edith Singh. Psychiatry
Alvia Branch, Registrar's
Colleen Mullen. TRIUMF
Gerald Paulsen, University
Computing Services
Rosanne Rumley. Visiting
Professors Program
Paul Chang
The pride Paul Chang has in
his workplace is obvious as he
tours a visitor
around Ber- ^^^■■■■■■■m
wick Centre—
a campus preschool that integrates special needs kids
with  children
from the sur-     	
rounding community.
The facilities are impressive:
The kids who come
here are really
—Paul Chang
Elaine Le Marquand
It was watching other UBC
employees that first planted the
seed in Elaine Le Marquand's
mind—she wanted to work in a
A horticulturalist, she has
worked for the past 22 years at
the  Botanical
Garden's ^^^^^^^^™
nursery on
south campus, propagating plants
for its famous
collection of
rare and exotic
Le Marquand spent her first
three years at UBC working in
the library, but she soon realized
that her interests lay elsewhere.
"I got tired of pushing paper
every day," she said. "I'd look
outside and see people working
there and I'd think. That's where
I want to be.'"
An avid gardener at home,
she left her library job and after
about a year, got an entry level
job at the nursery and has since
worked her way up to her current position.
^^^^^^^^^™ "Things
just worked
out nicely for
me. I really
enjoy coming
in every day.
Every day is
a good day."
A bonus is
the nursery's location on South
Campus Road, far from the hustle and bustle of the campus
"It's like coming out to a country retreat every day. It's really
Every day is a good
—Elaine Le Marquand
large, well-equipped classrooms
with  three  teachers  for each
class   of   12
■■■■■■■■■■■■■     kids, a music
room, gymnasium, even an
indoor  pool.
Two-way mirrors      allow
parents, visi-
      tors  and  researchers  to
view   classrooms from observation areas.
Operated by the Vancouver-
Richmond Association for Mentally Handicapped People, the
building is maintained by UBC.
"The kids who come here are
really lucky. This is a wonderful
place," said Chang, who maintains the building, as well as
the  Mather Building and the
Adult  Education building on
Toronto Road.
The people at Berwick must
think Chang is pretty wonderful too, judging by the poem
about him, called "My Friend,"
written by parents on behalf of
their child and printed in a
Originally from China, Chang
lived in Spain for several years
before arriving in Canada in 1970.
He joined UBC a year later.
The secret to enjoying your
job, he said, is to find ways of
constantly learning new things.
This love of learning has rubbed
off on his own children, both of
whom are now enrolled in
graduate programs at UBC.
"I'm really proud of them,"
Chang said.


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