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UBC Publications

UBC Reports Nov 10, 1976

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 s«ClM-ClM-LECT10m-
reports
Vol. 22, No. 39, Nov. 10, 1976. Published by
Information Services, University of B.C., 2075
Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5.
ISSN 0497-2929. Judith Walker, editor.
'Lower Fraser won't
be the same again'
UBC's Westwater Research Centre,
established in 1971, completed its first
major study earlier this year — an
investigation of the condition of the
Lower Fraser River from the town of
Hope to the sea. The centre's findings
were published in a book entitled The
Uncertain Future of the Lower Fraser.
UBC Reports talked to Westwater
director Dr. Irving Fox about the
Fraser study and the future activities
of the centre.
UBC REPORTS: What were the
aims of Westwater in studying the
Lower Fraser?
PROF. FOX: to provide a
foundation for two things — first, for
the improvement of policies relative to
pollution and, second, to suggest ways
of improving the institutional
arrangements — the legal and
administrative arrangements — for
managing the Lower Fraser.
UBCR: In general terms, what
condition is the Lower Fraser in?
PROF. FOX: If we limit the
question to pollution, the Lower
Fraser was found to be in surprisingly
good shape. One reason for this is that
it's a remarkably big river — the third
largest in Canada — and has the
capacity to take quite a lot by way of
insults.
But there's a dark cloud on the
horizon — that's why the phrase
"uncertain future" was used in the
title of our research report. The Fraser
is receiving large amounts of toxic
material from a number of sources,
including sewage treatment plants,
storm sewers, industrial plants and
run-off from urban and rural lands,
either through river tributaries or from
farms that border directly on the river.
UBCR: Can you be specific about
the sources of toxic materials reaching
the river?
PROF. FOX: We know that the
major sources of pollution are
associated with urban-industrial
development. But we don't have a
good handle on the significance of the
discharges to the river by industries
because there are no good records of
the quality of such effluent.
Industries such  as metal finishing,
which use toxic materials in their
processing activities, are undoubtedly
an important source.
Sewage treatment' plants are
another obvious source, since not all
the toxic materials are removed when
PROF. IRVING FOX
sewage is treated. There are other
complicating factors, for example, the
lona Island plant south of Vancouver
receives run-off from both sanitary
and storm sewers.
When a rainstorm hits Vancouver —
and that's fairly frequently at this time
of year — the lona plant can't handle
Please turn to Page Two
See WESTWATER
UBC looks at
needs of
handicapped
An investigation of the needs of
handicapped students has been
launched at UBC.
A permanent committee on the
concerns of handicapped students,
established by President Douglas
Kenny, plans to hold its first public
meeting next Thursday (Nov. 18) at
1:30 p.m. in the Conference Room of
the Sedgewick Library.
Dick Shirran, chairman of the
committee and director of UBC's
Office of Student Services, said one of
the problems faced by the committee
is gathering information about the
number of handicapped students
registered at UBC and the nature and
extent of their problems.
Initially, he said, the committee
would be concerned with the needs of
students who have ambulatory
problems, particularly those confined
to wheelchairs.
"I hope any student who has a
problem getting around the UBC
campus will attend the meeting to
outline the difficulties they face as
students," he said.
He said the committee would
eventually broaden its investigation to
include students who are blind or
partially sighted.
Students who are unable to attend
the meeting can get in touch with Mr.
Shirran at 228-4326 or by visiting his
office in Annex F adjacent to the
Ponderosa Cafeteria.
Gym scene of
war service
UBC and community organizations
will take part in traditional
Remembrance Day ceremonies
beginning at 10:45 a.m. in the UBC
War Memorial Gymnasium tomorrow
(Thursday).
Representatives of the groups
participating in the ceremony will each
place a wreath at the foot of the
Memorial Wall in the main lobby of
the gymnasium during the ceremony,
which will be presided over by the
Rev. Henri C. M. Taudin-Chabot,
rector of St. Chad's Anglican Church
and chaplain of the Royal Canadian
Legion, Branch 142.
The traditional Last Post will be
sounded at 11:00 a.m., followed by
two minutes of silence. WESTWATER
Continued from Page One
the volume of material reaching it. The
plant has a by-pass system in periods
of heavy run-off which results in
quantities of raw sewage reaching the
river before undergoing treatment.
I don't think people realize how
many pollutants reach the river
through storm sewers. For instance,
most of the lead that reaches the river
comes from urban run-off. It reaches
the streets through the exhausts of
cars that use unleaded gasoline. A
heavy rain simply washes it into
streams and the storm-sewer system.
While some storm sewers are
connected with treatment plants, such
plants do not remove all toxic
substances, and in the case of the lona
plant it is necessary to by-pass the
plant when a heavy storm occurs.
UBCR: Would better treatment
plants eliminate the pollution
problems on the Lower Fraser?
PROF. FOX: To a certain extent
treatment plants will greatly reduce
bacterial pollution. But we think there
could still be a high bacterial count in
the river because of the run-off from
lands that drain into the river, which
carry such materials as animal wastes
that cause bacterial pollution.
Also, there appear to be
cross-connections, probably
inadvertent, between domestic and
storm sewers in the Lower Mainland,
and this isn't helping to keep the river
clean.
UBCR: Can you summarize the
report's recommendations.
PROF. FOX: I think our most
important recommendation is that
public agencies should attack the
pollution problem in a comprehensive
fashion. Such a program would include
efforts to control pollutants at their
source and generate better data for
management purposes as well as utilize
sewage treatment plants.
Of major importance is the need to
develop a better understanding of the
aquatic ecosystem so that the effects
of pollution, in the long and short
runs, can be estimated more precisely.
We recommend that the Greater
Vancouver Regional District — the
organization representing the cities
and municipalities bordering on the
river — launch a study to find the
specific sources of toxic discharges so
they can be controlled at source and
never get into the sewer system. I've
already mentioned the metal-finishing
industry in this regard and there's
some evidence that the City of
Vancouver is taking steps to control
toxic materials from this source.
UBCR: What about the lona Island
problem?
PROF. FOX: We ask that a careful
study be made of the by-pass system
that combines sanitary and storm
sewers. One device that might be
considered is a system of storing water
in the sewer system during a storm and
then letting it out in controlled
amounts after the storm is over.
The report also contains some
suggestions for incentives to people
and industry to keep toxic materials
out of the river. We mention economic
incentives — almost automatic penalty
systems — for those who discharge
toxic materials that will eventually
reach the river.
UBCR: Is there a need for some
overall agency to co-ordinate a
long-range program for the river?
PROF. FOX: The problem is one
for the Greater Vancouver Regional
District. Its member cities and
municipalities have to come to grips
with the realities of the situation.
One of the interesting things about
control of the river is that the various
levels of government involved —
federal, provincial, and municipal —
are co-ordinated to the extent that
they don't overlap and each knows
what the other is doing. What is not
happening is a comprehensive thrust
by all parties to carry out the
important studies of the kind we've
proposed.
So we've recommended that the
GVRD set up an environmental
protection department, not to take
over what other levels of government
are now doing, but to add to what is
currently being done and to
co-ordinate a comprehensive research
and control program.
We've suggested that these activities
could be funded by a very modest tax
based on the gallonage of discharges
into the river. Even a modest charge
would give such an agency more
money annually than was spent by
Westwater on its study of the river.
UBCR: How much did you spend
and who contributed?
PROF. FOX: We spent about
$600,000 over a four-year period. The
major contributors were the Inland
Waters Directorate of Environment
Canada, the federal Fisheries Service,
the Canada Council and UBC.
It's a bit difficult to be precise
about the number of people involved
in the study. Ten people devoted
their full or part time to it and there
were a substantial number of students
involved, particularly during the
summer.
The participants were drawn from a
wide range of disciplines, including
chemists, biologists, oceanographers,
planners, economists and even a legal
expert. It was a very broadly based
interdisciplinary group.
UBCR: Is there any evidence that
your recommendations are being taken
seriously?
PROF. FOX: Yes, there is. I've
already mentioned that the City of
Vancouver has instituted an
investigation to remove toxic materials
at their source.
And the provincial and federal
agencies have agreed to an on-going
program of monitoring as a follow up
to our studies to keep track of changes
that are continually occurring in the
river.
UBCR: You're optimistic then
about the Lower Fraser's future.
PROF. FOX: I'm cautiously
optimistic. As a result of the
Westwater study, I don't think the
Lower Fraser will ever be the same
again. We've changed the whole
perspective on the Lower Fraser and
the various agencies are going to be
very sensitive to what we've said. I
think, too, they'll be very concerned
about being criticized for not reacting
to what we've proposed .
There's still the risk that a lack of
action could result in a continuing
build up of toxic materials which
would result in some rather dramatic
changes in a few years. Then a long
period would have to elapse before the
river could be brought back.
And we can ill afford to allow that
to happen. The Fraser is extremely
valuable to the economy of this
province in terms of the salmon run
alone. B.C. stands to lose a great deal
if it doesn't respond to our findings.
UBCR: Has Westwater been doing
other things while the Lower Fraser
study was going on?
PROF. FOX: Yes, we have. With
the help of a grant from the
Rockefeller Foundation, David Le
Marquand, of our staff, has been
investigating the management of
international rivers.
Over the past two years, he's been
looking at the various factors — the
politics, economics and physical
factors — that foster or inhibit
agreement on the management of four
rivers that cross international
boundaries or serve as borders between
countries.
UBCR: What were your
conclusions?
PROF. FOX: We found that
countries are motivated to agree or
disagree by a substantial njmber of
political and economic factors. And in
their efforts to devise agreements
between countries on the management
of rivers, the parties frequently fail to
take these motivations into account
and consider what each has to do to
satisfy the needs of the other.
The study is now complete and will
be   published shortly as a  book.   Itls
2/UBC Reports/Nov. 10, 1976 also attracted the attention of the
United Nations and we've recently
completed a paper for them on the
management of international rivers for
the World Water Conference to be held
in 1977 in Buenos Aires.
UBCR: Is Westwater planning any
additional studies?
PROF. FOX: There are two
underway.
As a result of the study on
international rivers, the Rockefeller
Foundation has asked us to look into
the role of the International Joint
Commission in dealing with
environmental problems on the border
between Canada and the U.S. We have
a grant to study the role of the IJC
and determine whether there's any
way of strengthening that body as an
instrument for promoting agreement
between the two countries. This study,
incidentally, is being sponsored jointly
with UBC's Institute of International
Relations.
UBCR: You said you had two
studies underway.
PROF. FOX: We're proposing to
undertake a five-year research program
on the management of coastal
resources in B.C. It's widely felt that
the land along the sea and the waters
close to the land pose some very
special problems in the development
of policies for the wise and efficient
allocation of resources.
This delta land, and the adjacent
estuarine waters, are very sensitive and
productive in a biological sense. The
waters are valuable for fish production
and oyster beds, to name only two
factors, and the land near the water is
valuable for agriculture and as a
nesting area for wild fowl, for
instance.
We can't study every little inlet on
the B.C. coast, of course. Dr. William
Rees, of UBC's School of Community
and Regional Planning, is currently
going over data on the coast and
developing an overview of the current
situation and the problems that exist.
By next summer we hope to have
some representative situations
identified for more intensive study.
We're also working on the
methodologies to evaluate the
environmental effects of a given action
in a specific coastal area. By next
spring we'll move into a research
program that will look at the problems
of these areas from a policy point of
view.
We'll be working closely with the
provincial and federal governments on
this study. Ultimately, our aim is to
suggest an approach for policy
development and decison-making that
will preserve and conserve these
sensitive coastal areas.
UBC quarterback Dan Smith, who helped to lead Thunderbird football team to a
36-10 victory over the University of Saskatchewan Huskies last Saturday,
brandishes the Hardy Cup, emblematic of the western Canadian championship,
while talking to cheering crowd. It was the first time in 12 years that UBC has
won the western football championship. Coach Frank Smith takes his team to
London, Ont, Saturday (Nov. 13) to play the University of Western Ontario
Mustangs for the Central Bowl championship. If the 'Birds win that one they'll
participate in the College Bowl on Nov. 20 in Toronto for the national college
championship. Picture by Jim Banham.
the music box
MONDAY, NOV. 15
8:00 p.m.    UBC   BAROQUE   ENSEMBLE  play   Music  of  Vivaldi,  J.  S.  Bach,
Telemann, J. C. Bach arid K, P. E. Bach. Recital Hall, Music Building.
WEDNESDAY, NOV. 17
12:30 p.m.    NOON-HOUR CONCERT. The Loban-Adaskin Duo play Music of Bach,
Bloch and Brahms. Recital Mali, Music Building.
THURSDAY, NOV. 18
12:30 p.m.    FACULTY RECITAL. Hans-Karl Piltz, viola, and Dale Reubart, piano,
play   Music  of   Bloch,   Hindemith  and Marquis.   Recital  Hall,  Music
Building.
8:00 p.m.    ALUMNI   CONCERT  SERIES. Thirteen  UBC faculty  members play
Music of Brahms, Hindemith, Poulenc and Mozart. Recital Hall, Music
Building.
FRIDAY, SATURDAY and SUNDAY, NOV. 19, 20 and 21
8:00 p.m.    UBC OPERA WORKSHOP. French  Tickner directs Music of Verdi,
Mozart, Moore and Salieri. Old Auditorium.
UBC Reports/Nov. 10, 1976/3 NEXT WEEK AT UBC
Not ices must reach I nf or mationServ ices. Main Mall North Admin. Bldg., by mail, by 5 p.m. Thursday of week preceding publication of notice.
MONDAY, NOV. 15
12:30 p.m. CANCER RESEARCH SEMINAR. Brenda
Morrison, Health Care and Epidemiology, UBC, on
Breast Cancer Screening. Library, Cancer Research
Centre, Block B, Medical Sciences Building.
3:45 p.m. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SEMINAR. D.
Bouclin, Mechanical Engineering, UBC, on
Galloping Oscillations in Water Flows. Room 1215,
Civil and Mechanical Engineering Building.
4:00 p.m. ASTRONOMY AND SPACE SCIENCE SEMINAR.
Dr. J. E. Hesser, Cerro Tololo Inter-American
Observatory, Chile, on New Observational Clues
about Chemical Evolutionary Processes in the
Galaxy and Its Nearest Neighbour. Room 318,
Hennings Building.
8:00p.m. ARCHAEOLOGY
Johnson, Rochester
on Master Potter
Lasserre Building.
IMMUNOLOGY SEMINAR.Prof. Denis Burger,
Universitv of Oregon Medical School, Portland, on
Characterization of Transfer Factor. Salon A,
Faculty    Club.
LECTURE.     Dean     Robert
Institute of Technology, N.Y.,
Afghanistan.   Room    102,
TUESDAY,
10:30 a.m.
12:30 p.m.
3:30 p.m.
4:30 p.m.
8:00 p.m.
NOV. 16
FINE   ARTS   GALLERY.   Exhibit   of   works   by
British sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi. Continues until
Dec.  11. Tuesday through Saturday — 10:30 a.m.
to 5:00 p.m. Basement, Main Library.
BOTANY     SEMINAR.     Dr.     C.     J.     Marchant,
Botanical   Garden,   UBC, on  The Control of Cliff
Erosion by Plants. Room 3219, Biological Sciences
Building.
ENGLISH    COLLOQUIUM.    Dr.    R.   M.   Jordan,
English,   UBC,   on   Must   There   Be   Unity?   The
Parlement of Foules.  Lounge, 5th floor, Buchanan
Tower.
OCEANOGRAPHY   SEMINAR.   Dr.   Nival   Antia,
Pacific Environment Institute, West Vancouver, on
Growth    of   Marine    Phytoplankters   on   Organic
Sources   of   Nitrogen.   Room    1465,   West   Wing,
Biological Sciences Building.
CHEMISTRY  SEMINAR.   Dr.   K.   A.  R.  Mitchell,
Chemistry,     UBC,     on     Low    Energy     Electron
Diffraction. Room 250, Chemistry Building.
PHARMACEUTICAL   SCIENCES   LECTURE.  Dr.
Ernst    W.     Stieb,     University    of    Toronto,    on
Pharmacy's   Symbols:   Past   and   Present.   Lecture
Hall 5, Woodward Instructional Resources Centre.
WEDNESDAY, NOV. 17
12:30 p.m.     PHARMACEUTICAL  SCIENCES  LECTURE.  Dr.
Christopher A. Rodowskas, American Association
of Colleges of Pharmacy, on Pharmacy Manpower:
Development and Utilization. Lecture Hall 4,
Woodward Instructional Resources Centre.
PHARMACOLOGY SEMINAR. Dr. Thomas L.
Perry, Pharmacology, UBC, on Further Studies of
Two Dominantly Inherited Diseases: Huntington's
Chorea and Cerebellar Atrophy. Room 221, Block
C, Medical Sciences Building.
ENGLISH EDUCATION LECTURE. Bob Steele,
Education, UBC, on The Development of Imagery
in the Expressive Arts. Room 111, Ponderosa
Annex E.
CHEMICAL    ENGINEERING    SEMINAR.   A.    K.
Mitra,    Kharagpur,    India,    on    Heat   Transfer   in
Single-   and   Two-Phase   Flow   with   Jet   Mixing.
Room 206, Chemical Engineering Building.
STATISTICS   WORKSHOP.   Prof.   Ross   Prentice,
University of Washington, on Statistical Models for
Failure-Time Data. Room 321, Angus Building.
HISTORY   COLLOQUIUM.   Dr.   Edgar  Wickberg,
History,   UBC,   on   Immigration   and  Community
Organization  in Vancouver's Chinatown:  1900 to
the Present. Penthouse, Buchanan Building.
ANIMAL RESOURCE ECOLOGY SEMINAR. Dr.
L.   Dill,   Simon   Fraser   University,  on   Refraction
Ballistics    in    the    Archer    Fish.    Room    2449,
Biological Sciences Building.
3:30 p.m.
4:30 p.m.
12:30 p.m.
3:30 p.m.
8:00 p.m. SENATE MEETING. Free tickets for interested
members of the University community are
available from Frances Medley, 228-2951. Board
and Senate Room, Old Administration Building.
THURSDAY, NOV. 18
12 noon WORKSHOP   ON   RESEARCH,   SCIENCE   AND
TECHNOLOGY. Dr. Steven Globerman, York
University, on Methods for Studying the Rate of
Diffusion Technology and Comparison of
Diffusion Rates in Canada. Fee, $25, includes
luncheon and papers. E. D. MacPhee Executive
Conference Centre, Angus Building.
CHINESE STUDENTS' ASSOCIATION and
ASIAN STUDIES DEPARTMENT LECTURE. Dr.
Graham Johnson, Sociology, UBC, on Impressions
of China During My Recent Visit. Room 106,
Buchanan Building.
CELL BIOLOGY GROUP SEMINAR. Dr. J. W.
Berger, Zoology, UBC, on Regulation of DNA
Content in Paramecium: Some Implications for the
Cell Cycle. Room 2321, Biological Sciences
Building.
CENTRE FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENTS. Habitat
film preview. Three films from the Middle East.
Room B79, Woodward Instructional Resources
Centre.
ARTS LECTURE. Prof. S. Andreski, University of
Reading, England, on Over-Development and
Mental Pollution. Room 204, Buchanan Building.
FINE ARTS LECTURE. Dean Ellis, artist, on My
Past and Recent Art Works. Room 102, Lasserre
Building.
OMICRON KAPPA UPSILON HONORARY
DENTAL SOCIETY LECTURE. Prof. Charles L.
Bolender, University of Washington School of
Dentistry, on Trends That Will Affect
Prosthodontics. Anatomy Lecture Theatre, Block
B, Medical Sciences Building.
MANAGEMENT SCIENCE SEMINAR. Prof. F.
Granot, Commerce and Business Administration,
UBC, on A Parametric Primal Algorithm for
Discrete Chebyshev Linear Approximation. Room
321, Angus Building.
CHEMISTRY SEMINAR. Dr. Robert B. Morin,
Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, on
Recent Studies in the Cephalosporin, Penicillin and
Related Areas. Room 225, Chemistry Building.
GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES LECTURE. Dr. Roger
G. Walker, McMaster University, on Facies Models
for Sandy Fluvial Systems. Room 330A,
Geological Sciences Building.
APPLIED MATH AND STATISTICS
COLLOQUIUM. Prof. Michael P. Mortrell,
University College, Cork, Ireland, on A
Stroboscopic Procedure for Nonlinear Waves.
Room 2449, Biological Sciences Building.
PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM. A. W. Overhauser,
Purdue University, on Fundamental Experiments
with a Neutron Interferometer. Room 201,
Hennings Building.
ZOOLOGY SEMINAR. Dr. Herman Rahn, State
University of New York at Buffalo, on Strategies
of Birds' Eggs; Water Regulation, Metabolism, and
Altitude. Room 2000, Biological Sciences Building.
NOV. 19
PEDIATRICS GRAND ROUNDS. Dr. Ross Parks,
University of Illinois, on Re-evaluation of the
Father's Role in Infancy. Lecture Room B,
Heather Pavilion, Vancouver General Hospital.
FINANCE WORKSHOP. Prof. Oldrich Vasicek,
University of California, on An Equilibrium
Characterization of the Term Structure. Room
325, Angus Building.
SATURDAY, NOV. 20
8:15 p.m.     VANCOUVER  INSTITUTE  LECTURE. Dr. Kaye
Lamb, former Dominion  Archivist, on Mackenzie
King and History:  Use and Abuse of His Diaries.
Lecture Hall 2, Woodward Instructional Resources
Centre.
3:45 p.m.
4:00 p.m.
8:00 p.m.
FRIDAY,
9:00 a.m.
3:30 p.m.
4/UBC Reports/Nov. 10, 1976

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