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UBC Reports Mar 29, 1973

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MARCH   29,   1973,   VANCOUVER   8,   B.C.
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Editor, UBC Reports
Anyone who attempts a survey of employment
prospects for UBC's 1973 graduating class is likely
to be reminded of the classic cartoon about the
parson's egg that once appeared in Punch, the
British humor magazine.
The parson, who is depicted visiting one of his
parishioners for tea, is shown choking down a
partly rotten soft-boiled egg.
Asked by his hostess if he is enjoying his egg
the parson replies: "Oh, it's.very good — in parts."
Much the same can be said of the employment
outlook for 1973 graduates — parts of it are very
good but others are rotten and are likely to be
worse than in the past.
First, the good parts.
Graduates of professional Faculties such as
Commerce and Business Administration, Education, Forestry and Applied Science will find that
there will be adequate job opportunities and, in
some cases, a significant improvement over 1972.
Graduate students obtaining master's and doctor
of philosophy degrees in the Faculty of Science
are also likely to experience improved job prospects, particularly if they have a specialty in some
area dealing with ecology or the environment.
And now for the bad parts.
Indications are that students in most departments of the Faculty of Arts and Science who will
earn their bachelor's degrees this year will find
employment prospects even worse than in  1972.
Many of those graduating from professional
Faculties and Schools will find that they will have
to relocate or obtain positions in rural areas if they
want work. Officials at UBC and in professional
organizations emphasize repeatedly that there are
jobs available providing the graduate is mobile and
prepared to go anywhere.
These generalizations were gleaned from
recently published newspaper and magazine
reports, talks with UBC deans, professors and
department heads and executives of professional
organizations, as well as interviews with officials in
UBC's Office of Student Services.
The latter office, in addition to providing career
and other forms of counselling for students at all
levels, also operates a Placement Office which,
among other things, aids students in finding jobs
and provides facilities on campus for representatives of professions and industry to interview
Both Mr. A.F. "Dick" Shirran, director of the
Office of Student Services, and Mr. J.C. "Cam"
Craik, UBC's Placement Officer, say that interest
on the part of industry in the recruitment of
University graduates increased after the 1972
Christmas break.
Mr. Craik says that so far this academic year a
total of 201 recruiting teams from industry have
visited the campus to talk to graduating students,
the bulk of them from firms in the fields of
engineering, commerce and forestry. Last year a
total of 194 recruiting teams came to the campus.
"The halcyon years of the mid-1960s, when
recruiting teams from industry would visit the
campus for up to a week to see anyone who
walked in, are over," according to Mr. Shirran.
"Today, many prospective employers list their
requirements and invite applications through our
office. They then pre-screen all the applications
and invite selected students to meet them here for
intensive interviews before making their selection."
Last year Mr. Shirran did a study of the
post-graduation activities of students from seven
UBC Faculties and one School in an attempt to
provide information about the opportunities available for UBC graduates with different types of
training. The Faculties of Commerce, Forestry,
Applied Science, Law, Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Arts and Science and the School of Home
Economics were included in the survey.
A questionnaire was sent to the 1,941 graduates
and replies were received from 1,658, a response
rate of almost 85 per cent. The data were collected
during September, October and November, 1972,
or within four to seven months after graduation.
The results of the 1972 survey show that there
was an improvement in the unemployment rate for
both Forestry and Commerce graduates when the
1972 data were compared to the results of similar
Please turn to Page Two
Bachelor's Degree
May be Worth More
Than You
mmmm $;$» s, JIN
"0 you think you re
living in a disaster area as far as job prospects are
At UBC in 1973 that probably means you're
graduating from the Faculties of Arts or Science with
a bachelor's degree.
And what good is a bachelor's degree?
Well, it may be worth a good deal more than you
think, according to a couple of UBC job placement
experts and Mr. T.W. "Ted" Krell, a federal Manpower counsellor who claims he's had a great deal of
success in helping bachelor's graduates sell themselves
in the business world.
Despite the fact that Mr. Krell has never met his
two UBC counterparts, all three agree that job-
seeking students typically make a number of basic
mistakes in searching for jobs.
First, many students haven't any clear idea of
what they want to do and, as a result, are largely
ignorant of the opportunities open to them.
This is the opinion of Mr. Krell and Mr. A.F.
"Dick" Shirran, director of UBC's Office of Student
Services, which includes a job placement office
headed by Mr. J.C. "Cam" Craik.
In many instances, says Mr. Craik, the jobs that
students want exist only in their own minds because
of their lack of knowledge of the world outside the
Students also tend to think too narrowly and
categorically about jobs, says Mr. Shirran, and fail to
see possibilities in the full range of a company's
"Students often don't realize there is a great deal
of movement within an organization and the job one
starts in will provide experience that can lead to more
interesting positions." he says.
Mr. Krell, a UBC graduate with Arts and Law
degrees, says students should avoid telling a prospective employer that they'll take anything. "The first
thing a job hunter has to do is zero in on some aspect
of a company's operations that is of interest to him
or her," he says.
Which brings us to the second big mistake students
make. They often apply indiscriminately for work
without taking the trouble to find out anything about
potential employers.
10 help overcome this the
Office of Student Services has developed a voluminous set of files containing literature issued by
companies that are interested in recruiting university
Almost   every   company   spends   large   sums   of
Editor, UBC Reports
money on literature that describes its business function and the various departments which make up the
company. The files containing all this material are in
a public area in the Student Services Office and
available at all times to job-seekers.
The UBC office has also begun to accumulate a
series of cassette tapes that are designed to help
students conduct interviews with prospective
employers. One tape describes how to conduct an
interview properly, while a second does just the
opposite and includes just about every mistake that
can be made by a job-seeker.
There is also plenty of literature available in the
Student Services Office on such things as the preparation of resumes for submission to employers and
other topics allied to job hunting.
Next year, Mr. Shirran says, his office hopes to
organize a series of small seminars for students where
job-hunting techniques can be discussed.
But let's get back to Mr. Krell for a moment. He's
evolved a technique over the past two or three years
that you might find useful in your search for a job.
He got interested in the student job problem two
or three years ago when B.A. s began to appear in his
Manpower office and describe themselves as being
"disabled" by their degree. "I laughed at this at
first," he said, "but I soon same to realize that they
were serious when they said that to mention a B.A. to
an employer was a disability."
IHE first thing you have to
do, says Mr. Krell, is make a decision about the
industry you want to enter. You can do this by
visiting the Office of Student Services and looking
through their files of company literature or you can
find material in the public library system. If you're
interested in a particular company and want more
information, write or telephone the company direct.
Chances are they have a booklet or pamphlet that will
be sent to you.
In researching an industry or a company, try to get
beyond the generalities. Find out the number and
kinds of departments that make up the total
company picture. If you're a science graduate, be on
the lookout for such things as laboratories where
testing and analyses are carried out. Many companies
have them but you'd never know it from a cursory
glance at the company's organization.
Your next task — the really important one — was
developed by Mr. Krell after dozens of contacts with
companies   and 'unemployed   students.   It   involves
Please turn to Page Eleven
Continued from Page One
studies carried out in 1971. In Commerce the percentage
of those who were seeking employment but were
unemployed declined from 13.4 in 1971 to 5.1 in 1972,
while in Forestry there was a decline from seven per cent
in 1971 to zero in 1972.
Engineering graduates, on the other hand, experienced a significantly higher unemployment rate in 1972
than in 1971. The percentage of those who were
unemployed but seeking employment increased from 6.4
in 1971 to 14.1 in 1972.
Graduates in both Arts and Science also experienced
higher unemployment rates in 1972. The percentage of
Arts graduates who were unemployed but seeking
employment increased from 18.3 in 1971 to 21.4 in
1972, and the comparable figures for Science graduates
are 19.2 in 1971 ancl 20.5 in 1972.
In summary, then, unemployment rates for UBC
graduates who were available for work varied between
zero in Forestry to 21.4 per cent in Arts during the
months of September, October and November in 1972.
The unemployment rate for the entire 20-24 age group
in B.C. in the same period averaged around 11 per cent.
Mr. Shirran is reluctant to utilize his survey figures to
make predictions about job prospects in 1973 but he
does point to studies carried out by the United States
College Placement Council which indicate that there is
an upswing in the recruiting of engineers and commerce
On the other hand the College Placement Council
predicts that U.S. requirements for Bachelor of Arts
graduates in the humanities and social sciences will be
down 23 per cent in 1973 from last year.
"It seems likely that these trends noted in the
American placement situation will be reflected in the
Canadian situation,'' Mr. Shirran said. One of the
factors that complicates the employment picture is the *~
trend, noted by Mr. Shirran in several studies he has
carried out, for an increasing number of students to seek
work after they obtain their first degree.
"This tendency,"  he says, "is probably not one of
choice   on   the   part   of   the   students.   Many   would      ^
probably   choose  to   prolong  their education by continuing on to graduate or professional school, but entry
into such schools is becoming more and more difficult.
"Graduate schools have not expanded to the same
extent as undergraduate enrolment and the places simply
aren't available."
This is confirmed in conversations with a number of
UBC department heads. There are an increasing number
of applications for graduate work but a fixed number of
places. One Arts department head commented that this
situation could  be expected to improve the calibre of Jobs for UBC students are one of the main
concerns of the three people pictured at left. Mr.
A.F. "Dick" Shirran heads UBC's Office of
Student Services, which provides job and other
forms of counselling for students, and also
includes a Placement Office headed by Mr. J.C
"Cam" Craik. Mr. T.W. "Ted" Krell, a UBC
graduate who now works for the federal government's Manpower department, has developed a
procedure, described in the article beginning on
the opposite page, to aid students in finding
employment. Pictures by the IMC Photo Department.
students entering graduate studies since departments are
able to choose only those students with the greatest
■*   potential.
_^_ So much for generalities. What follows, in capsule
form, is a look at the 1972 employment experience of
graduates of some UBC Faculties and the outlook for
1973, based on conversations with UBC deans, department heads, professors, officials in the Office of Student
*■- Services and employees of B.C. professional organizations.
^ FACULTY OF ARTS. Last May UBC graduated 809
students with the bachelor's degree and 80.1 per cent of
them replied to the Office of Student Services' questionnaire on their post-graduation activities.
Of the 648 students who replied, nearly half of them
**-   — 46.1 per cent — continued in some form of formal
.^   schooling,    including    graduate    school,    professional
training  or  technical  school.   Education  was the predominant    choice    for    those    choosing    professional
Those who said they were seeking work made up 47.7
* per cent of the 648 respondents. The Student Services'
report notes that this proportion is higher in 1972 than
in previous years. In 1971, 40.2 per cent of Arts
graduates sought work and the percentage figure for
1964 was 31.
For those departments with ten or more graduates
*■    available for work in 1972, the social sciences depart-
^   ments  had  the  highest unemployment rate.  The percentages  of  graduates available  for   employment  but
unemployed were: Sociology — 36.8 per cent; Anthropology — 30 per cent; Economics — 26.1 per cent; and
Psychology — 22.2 per cent.
«" If the recent forecast by the U.S. College Placement
_ Council is accurate, job prospects for Bachelor of Arts
graduates will probably worsen in 1973. Department
heads and professors who keep track of job opportunities for Arts graduates say they can see little
indication that the trend of recent years will reverse
►    itself this year.
Job opportunities for graduate students in the
Faculty of Arts seems a little brighter. Psychologists
with master's and Ph.D. degrees are much in demand and
those who will graduate from UBC this year — ten to 12
— will have no trouble finding jobs.
Some departments say it's still too early to determine
"" the extent of job opportunities, even for graduate
students. Few, if any, graduate students in Mathematics
have found jobs and much the same applies to the
English department. Professors in both departments
responsible for job placement say that opportunities will
begin to show up in the next month or two when
regional college and university budgets are finalized and
teacher requirements become known.
Prof. Walter Young, the head of UBC's Department
of Political Science, says his graduate students report a
tight job market for those seeking posts in regional
colleges and universities.
Prof. Margaret Ormsby, head of UBC's History
department, says more applications for graduate work
have resulted from the job shortage. Her department
accepts 20 to 25 students for graduate work each year
and there are currently some 285 applications waiting to
be processed. The three Ph.D.s who graduated from
History last year have all found teaching posts, she says.
Dr. Michael Ames, the acting head of the Department
of Anthropology and Sociology, says graduates of his
department with a bachelor's degree aren't trained
vocationally and have had to take jobs unrelated to their
University training. He expects that in the future some
will elect to enter the Faculty of Education as fifth-year
transfer students, a possibility that has just opened up to
Graduates of professional schools within the Faculty
of Arts should have little trouble finding jobs, providing
they are mobile and prepared to take a post anywhere.
Dr. Melvin Lee, director of the School of Home
Economics, says graduates in his School who go on to
professional training in Education are assured of a job.
This' year, for the first time, a representative of the
Alberta government's Department of Agriculture visited
the School to recruit students. "I don't foresee any
employment problems for our graduates," Prof. Lee
Prof. Roy Stokes, director of the School of Librarian-
ship, says the job situation for graduates of his School
has been tight in recent years but those who are mobile
won't have any problems. The School of Social Work
reports much the same situation for its graduates. There
are positions available outside the urban areas, but many
are not always the graduate's first choice. Ms. Marjorie
Martin, executive director of the B.C. Association of
Social Workers, says that by the fall of this year there
should be increasing employment opportunities in B.C.
as the result of expansion of services by the provincial
government. She would like to see a study made of the
social-work manpower needs in B.C., which she says
would be useful for counselling prospective School of
Social Work students.
FACULTY OF SCIENCE. Just over 85 per cent of
the 457 Bachelor of Science graduates in 1972 replied to
Student Services' questionnaire on their post-graduation
activities. Of those who replied, 19.3 per cent went on
to graduate studies, 18.5 per cent entered professional or
technical training and 51.4 per cent said they were
available for work.
Of the departments which had ten or more bachelor's
graduates seeking employment. Mathematics had the
highest percentage of unemployed — 31.4. Compared to
1971,  unemployment  rates among  1972 graduates in
Computer Science, Mathematics and Zoology rose, while
unemployment for Geophysics and Geology graduates
There is little cause to be optimistic about improved
job opportunities for 1973 Bachelor of Science
graduates. Few Science departments keep track of their
first-degree graduates and those that do see little chance
of a reversal of last year's experience.
Many departments, however, note an upswing in
opportunities for graduate students, particularly those
who have specialized in environmental studies.
Prof. Peter Larkin, head of the Zoology department,
says that both the federal and provincial governments
are hiring in the fish and game and northern studies
areas. There is a shortage of graduates at the master's
level, he adds, and many master's students are postponing the writing of their theses to take jobs instead.
"There are good prospects ahead for the next four or
five years," he says.
Prof. Crawford "Buzz" Holling, director of the
Institute of Animal Resource Ecology, says none of his
ten to 12 graduate students will be unemployed for long.
They'll be snapped up by universities, governments and
consulting firms.
Prof. John Chapman, head of the Geography department, says he is surprised by the number of circulars
received by his department advertising university
teaching opportunities. He doesn't expect any of his
department's graduate students will lack for work.
Last year 44 of the 46 Pharmacy graduates replied to the
questionnaire. Only one graduate was found to be
unemployed and 1973 prospects are expected to be
equally good, as long as the graduate is mobile. There are
plenty of jobs waiting in the north and in rural areas,
according to Mr. Peter Bell, executive co-ordinator for
the B.C. Professional Pharmacists Society.
FACULTY OF LAW. Just over 91 per cent of the
1972 graduating class in Law returned the questionnaire
sent to them. Of the 163 respondents, 155 sought
articles with law firms and obtained them. Obtaining
articles in 1973 may be a bit more difficult, according to
UBC's dean of Law, Prof. A.J. McClean. This year's
graduates will "have to hustle a little more" than
graduates of previous years.
FACULTY OF FORESTRY. Of the 48 members of
the 1973 Forestry graduating class, 43 have jobs and the
rest aren't looking, according to Mr. Robert G.
Henderson, a lecturer in the Faculty who looks after job
placement. About 35 per cent of this year's class will be
employed by government and the rest by industry.
The unemployment rate for the 1972 graduating class
in Forestry was zero, an improvement from 1971, when
the unemployment rate was 6.1 per cent.
FACULTY   OF   APPLIED   SCIENCE.   Taken   as  a
Please turn to Page Ten
I F ALL you know is what
you read in the papers, then you would believe that
the way health care is provided in Canada is a terrible
mess. You can't pick up a paper, it seems, without
reading about difficulties in the health field —
complaints by patients, staff threatening to strike,
conflicting mixtures of medicine and morality,
recommendations from yet another commission, politicians warning that changes must be made.
The crisis in health care has been the talk of
people in health circles for about a decade. Recently,
concern has spilled over into the general public.
In Ontario a study financed by the Ontario
Medical Association to find out what the public
thinks of health cans has drawn a surprisingly large
number of briefs and large and sometimes emotional
crowds in the hinterlands of the province.
And in B.C. Dr. Richard Foulkes, head of a special
commission set up by provincial Health Minister
Dennis Cocke, has received more than 2,200 letters
and briefs since asking at the beginning of this year
for public submissions on B.C.'s health system.
Attempts to anticipate the needs and changes of
health care in the future by three men in the
University of B.C.'s Health Sciences Centre were dealt
with in the Feb. 22 edition of UBC Reports. This is
the second and last article on UBC's contribution to
some kind of solution.
A basic economic reason why the wind of change
is beginning to blow through our health system is that
a large amount of health care is done in hospitals.
Canada has gone on a hospital binge.
Hospitals are labor intensive. A lot of people work
in them. Wages paid to hospital employees in the past
have been depressed. But hospital workers of all types
have been demanding higher wages, and operating
costs for this and other reasons have rocketed. The
rate of increase in costs in acute care hospitals in
recent years has been about 14 per cent a year.
Hospitals, especially acute care hospitals, claim the
largest single cost of our health system. Their costs
are also increasing the fastest.
Many of the people who are treated in hospitals
shouldn't be there. They can walk, dress themselves,
wash themselves. Yet as soon as they occupy a
hospital bed they are waited on hand and foot at the
tax-payer's expense. Many are sent there by doctors
for a series of tests. Often hospitals are the only place
where facilities for carrying out these tests exist.
This emphasis on hospital use has led to a stream
of recommendations from commissions, study
groups, task forces and other investigating bodies. A
clear pattern of suggestions, many of them anticipated by health specialists at UBC, has emerged.
A- major theme is the creation of a health facility
that is half-way between a hospital and a doctor's
office, the two points of intense contact between
patients and health care. This middle ground is the
community health centre, a hospital without beds.
Last fall the Report of the Community Health
Centre Project recommended that community health
centres be built across Canada. The study, headed by
Dr. John Hastings of the University of Toronto, was
commissioned by the conference of federal and
provincial health ministers. One of the research,
co-ordinators for the project was Dr. Anne Crichton,
of UBC's Department of Health Care and Epidemiology in the Faculty of Medicine.
Perhaps the most important recommendation of
the report is for "the development by the provinces,
in mutual agreement with public and professional
groups, of a significant number of community health
centres ... as non-profit corporate bodies in a
fully-integrated health services system."
The report caused a stir in B.C. Though many
other studies had come up with similar suggestions,
the Hastings Report, perhaps because of coincidental
timing, was the one that finally removed the last
doubts from the minds of health professionals that
change would soon be upon them.
Shortly after the report was released UBC's Health
Sciences Centre sponsored a public meeting to discuss
the recommendations.
Representatives of nursing, occupational therapy,
dentistry, physiotherapy, pharmacy, hospital administration,   social  work, dietetics and  medicine made
Experts in health circles have been talking about the crisis in health care for
almost a decade. One of the solutions
proposed is community health centres,
half-way houses between a hospital ward
and the physician's office. UBC has
already established mini-community
health centres, where health professionals work as a team to create ....
UBC Reports Staff Writer
their case at the meeting. Their views mixed in the
neutral surroundings of the Health Sciences Centre
and reacted under the stimulus of Dr. Hastings, who
fielded questions and parried attacks for hours.
Among the 700 people attending was the man
responsible for working out a new health system for
B.C., Health Minister Dennis Cocke, who has already
announced he is in favor of community health
It's been said by some that one of the main hopes
of community health centres is that they will reduce
health costs. Health manpower and economic
specialists at UBC are sceptical about this claim. They
point out that money will be needed to build the new
centres and many new non-medical services will be
included in them. But even in the long run savings
will only come about if the hospital beds they replace
are no longer used, some observers say. Even then,
they say, savings will be minimal or non-existent and
at best the new centres will only hold down the rate
of increase of the costs of health care.
What some UBC health specialists foresee coming
from community health centres is a better quality of
"ambulatory" or primary care — health services now
rendered in the patient's home or in a doctor's office.
Community health centres will bring together many
individual health professionals so that they can share
common facilities.
For example, a physician in "solo" or individual
practice can't economically justify having a social
worker, nutritionist, physiotherapist or many other
health professionals in his or her office, though a
number of solo physicians do rely on other health
professionals in agencies such as the Children's Aid
Society and the Victorian Order of Nurses. But a
number of physicians working in a community health
centre can create their own health team.
Bringing in other health professionals makes sense
because  many   patients  have  health   problems that
IIHH Vol. 19, No. 7 - March 29,
IIISl" 1973. Published by the
llllll University of British Columbia
^aramf^aT anrj distributed free. UBC
REPORTS Rep0rts appears on Thursdays
during the University's winter session. J.A.
Banham, Editor. Louise Hoskin and Maureen
Flanagan, Production Supervisors. Letters to
the Editor should be sent to Information
Services, Main Mall North Administration
Building, UBC, Vancouver 8, B.C.
aren't medical or have only a small medical component. Some of these problems are economic,
psychological or social and are better handled by a
social worker, nurse or nutritionist or some combination of health professionals that may or may not
include a physician.
Apart from hoping to economize by grouping
community health professionals into larger and more
efficient units, community health centres also want
to head off health problems before they have a
chance to develop. This is a shift of emphasis away
from acute-care hospitals. Instead, health care will be
taken into the community, closer to the public.
This is already being done. Modern drugs have
stopped a great deal of illness in its first stage of
development. Drugs that have become available in the
last decade now allow family physicians to check
many psychological disorders that in the past would
have led patients to a hospital bed. The same is true
of much physicit illness. Antibiotics make it possible
for many infections to be cleared up before they
reach the acute stage that requires hospitalization. A
rarity on a hospital ward these days, for example, is a
case of mastoiditis or inflammation of the mastoids.
Preventive healtfe care could be much more effective
except that governments have avoided the opportunity. If governments would fluoridate water
supplies and make a serious attempt to cut down
smoking in Canada, for example, there would be a
dramatic reduction in pain, illness and financial loss
in the community.
UBC's Faculty of Medicine and a few others in
Canada have already set up community health
centres. UBC has three mini-centres in operation.
Health professionals in UBC's health schools provide
care to the public through the centres. The real job of
the centres, though, is to train student health
professionals and do research into the most effective
means of providing health care. The University pays
only for the teaching end of the centres' activities.
One reason for opening the centres is removed
from the health-team idea and is more internal to the
Faculty of Medicine. UBC's three mini-community
health centres were planned and two opened while
Dr. John F. McCreary was dean of the Faculty of
Medicine. Dr. McCreary, now Co-ordinator of Health
Sciences at UBC, said that it was said that medical
students weren't getting a representative view of
medical practice in their practical training with
patients in hospitals. In fact, concentrating practical
or clinical training in hospitals was probably bad. Dr.
McCreary said.
"For one thing, many of the medical problems
seen in a hospital setting are relatively rarely seen in a
physician's office. Appendectomies or repair of ruptures are routine surgical procedures done in
hospitals. But it might be a year or two or three after
graduating from medical school that a doctor sees
such cases in his own practice. Some family practitioners say they were taught to deal with acutely-ill
patients lying horizontally on a hospital bed, whereas
all the patients they see in their practice are vertical.
Medical schools reflect a fascination with rare diseases
instead of dealing with bread-and-butter medicine,
some say.
"Apart from training students in problems that
they rarely encounter as family practitioners, concentrated clinical training in hospitals often doesn't
prepare students for what they will have to deal with
on a day-to-day basis as practicing physicians," Dr.
McCreary said. "Some family practitioners say
medical students aren't being prepared to cope with a
teenager who complains about his parents, a woman
weeping over the doctor's desk, a man who says he
feels exhausted and impotent, a girl who's depressed,
or a boy who's dying.
"Another disadvantage to training medical
students exclusively in a hospital setting is that most
of their teachers are specialists. The clinical training
has been described as the most critical period in a
medical student's life. The ideas, ethics, detachment,
self-criticism, and compassion that a physician should
have are absorbed primarily during this period.
Clinical teachers must provide students with the
inspiration that hopefully will last them the rest of
their lives.
"The ratio of specialists to family practitioners
graduating from Canadian medical schools since the
Please turn to Page Nine
_____________________________ %?-?zm.*w$':$r '    ■%-Wf^^i
ION 197
& Calendar
Deadline for UBC Summer Session '73 registration is
May 1. Registrations received after that date will be
assessed a late registration fee of $20. No registration
will be accepted after June 1.
Requirements for admission to the University are
listed in the University Calendar. (To obtain a Calendar
see application form at the foot of this column.)
The maximum credit for Summer Session work in
any one calendar year is six units. Total fee for six units,
including the Summer Session fee, is $203, or $103 for
three units.
Room and board is available for Summer Session
students in the Place Vanier Residence on campus. Rate
sheets will be available on request after May 1 from the
Office of the Director of Residences in UBC's General
Services Administration Building.
The following corrections to the Summer Session
Calendar should be noted:
Page 1 — Innovations this Summer — No. 2 should
have read "Evening Courses this Summer Session, See
Page Six."
Page 24 - Education 308. Time should be 10:25
a.m.-12:20 p.m., NOT 8:15 a.m.-10:10 a.m. as indicated.
Page 27 — Education 478 — Prerequisite should read
"As of September, 1973, the prerequisite for Education
478 will be one of Education 489, English 309,
Linguistics 100, 200, 205, 300."
Page 36 — Mathematics 221. Pre-reading
recommended: D.C. Murdoch, Linear Algebra, Wiley and
Sons, Inc.
Page 41 — Registration procedure. Second line of
item should have had the page number 44 inserted.
Note re Education 301 {VA) — Introduction to
Education Psychology, and Education 302 (VA) —
Introduction to Educational Evaluation. Please see timetable on Page Six. These courses are not listed under
course descriptions.
The following two courses have been added since the
Summer Session Calendar went to press:
Education 494 (V/2) — Communications Media
Programs in Schools — Motion Picture Film and Television — Organizing, developing and teaching of motion
picture study programs in educational institutions. The
impact of film and television on the viewer. Limited to
20 students. Instructor: Mr. James Mulholland. Time:
Ten hours lectures a week, Monday through Thursday —
7 - 9:30 p.m., July 3 - July 25.
Education 496 (VA) — Motion Picture Production in
Education. Planning and production of educational
motion picture resources for use in achieving specific
learning objectives. This will include a study of motion
picture design, pictorial continuity in relation to learning
and production planning for educational purposes.
Limited to 20 students. Prerequisite: Education 414.
Instructor: Mr. James Mulholland. Time: Ten hours
lectures a week, Monday through Thursday — 7 — 9:30
o.m., July 26 -Aug. 17.
The Registrar,
University of B.C.
Vancouver 8, B.C.
please print   )
I am pleased to have the opportunity, through this
Summer Session '73 Supplement, to let you know about
the courses and events planned for July and August at
UBC's Point Grey campus. With this kind of advance
information, we hope that many of you will plan to use *
the resources of the University during the summer.
In co-operation with the participating Faculties and *"*
departments, we have planned a variety of credit
courses, some of which are being offered for the first
time during a Summer Session. In addition to our own
professors, we are very fortunate to have a number of ^
distinguished visiting professors teaching on our campus
this summer.
For the first time Summer Session will offer credit
courses in the evening. We feel there is a need to extend
our course schedule so that those people who must work
during the day have an opportunity to attend. Also, for
Session Goa
The following is a list of goals of Summer Session
• To provide a learning environment for new and
continuing students commensurate with their
academic, intellectual, professional, and/or cultural
• To achieve optimum utilization of campus facilities
and resources throughout the year. <-
• To lend both direct and indirect support to the
University s year-round program of graduate education and research.
• To provide an opportunity for school personnel and
other   professional   and   occupational   groups  that
require periodic updating of knowledge or qualifica- ~-
• To encourage departments to experiment with new
The following is a list of some of the visiting
professors at Summer Session 1973:
Dr. William Parker, who will be teaching Chemistry
230, is chairman of the Department of Chemistry at the
University of Stirling, Scotland. He is a fellow of the
Royal Institute of Chemistry.
Dr. N. Eugene Savin, Economics 301 and 302, is from
Northwestern University, in Chicago, but is on a
two-year leave of absence and is actually at the
University of Manchester, in England, at present. This is
the third summer he has taught at UBC. He will be
taking up a one-year appointment here this fall.
Dr. Eli Mandel, English 545, is a professor in the
Division of Humanities at York University, Toronto.
Dr. Ian Hilton, German 310/406, is from the University College of North Wales, Bangor, Wales. He lectured
at UBC during Summer Session, 1971, when he was an
associate professor at the University of Calgary.
Dr. H. Blair Neatby, History 426, was formerly with
the UBC Department of History. He is now professor
and chairman of the Department of History at Carleton
University, Ottawa.
Dr. Donald H. Blocher, Education 426, is from the
University of Minnesota. He has published two books, as
well as several parts of books, research publications,
articles, etc. He has been a guest lecturer at several
universities, a keynote speaker at numerous meetings in
the United States, United Kingdom and Canada and has
presented papers and acted as consultant to the Veterans
Administration Counselling Psychology Training
Dr. Jerzy J. Wiatr, Political Science 300, is a professor
at the Institute of Sociology at Warsaw University. He is
A sports program encompassing a sports camp for
boys and girls, a residential and day hockey school, a
soccer coaching school and a "Skate UBC" Summer
School, is being offered by UBC's School of Physical
Education and Recreation during July and August.
Enquiries about enrolment in any of the above
activities should be directed to: School of Physical
Education, University of B.C., Vancouver 8. Telephone:
228-3177 or 228-3197.
also vice-president of the Polish Association of Political *
Science. He has published extensively, including books
and articles in Western European languages.
Dr. Robert S. Albert, Psychology 301, is from Pitzer
College  in   Claremont,  California.  He has served as a J
research associate at Avistock Institute in London and at
the Harvard Medical College.  He has published many
papers as well as a book and a monograph.
Dr. Robert Sinclair, Geography 498, is from Wayne
State University, in Michigan. His fields of major interest
are the geography of Europe, political geography and
urban geography. Twice he has been awarded a Fulbright  1
Music, Theat
The summer music scene on campus hits a high note
with  the  presence  of  the   National Youth Orchestra, -"
which will  hold  its 1973 Summer Training Session at
UBC — for the first time ever in the West.
"The presence of these outstanding young musicians
from across Canada on our campus will give a tremen-
dous boost to the summer musical activities which, even
without the Youth Orchestra, are always one of the «'
major highlights of the Summer Session," says Dr.
Norman Watt, Summer Session Director.
"Without a doubt this will be the most exciting
Summer Session, in terms of musical activities, ever held
on campus."
The NYO will be heard in concert on the campus and »*
downtown,   with   dates  yet  to  be  announced.   Some
rehearsals will also be open to Summer Session students.
In addition to the NYO performances, the very
popular Summer Sounds program of noon-hour and
evening concerts will be held again this year. Noon-hour **
concerts will feature instrumental soloists, duets, trios, —
string quartets, jazz groups, brass and woodwind
ensembles, opera, electronic music ensembles and rock
The UBC Music department, in conjunction with the
Summer Session Association, is presenting a series of six ^
Thursday evening recitals and concerts, with the first
three featuring members of the department and the last
three by members of the National Youth Orchestra
K/l IRP   Ror>»rtc/l\/lar^h  OQ     1QT? MESSAGE
the first time, graduating high school students may now
make application to attend Summer Session.
Summer Session need not be all work and no play. To
this end, the Summer Session Association and this office
^ have planned a number of cultural and recreational
activities, most of which are open to the public as well as
to our summer students. The details of these activities
appear in this supplement.
We feel that there will be lots going on at UBC this
summer.  I hope you enjoy reading the supplement and
..whether you attend a musical or theatrical performance,
take a swim or take a course, I trust you will all take the
opportunity of getting to the POINT this summer.
___. Director, UBC Summer Session
Is Described
and innovative ways of presenting their courses and
*   programs.
.•To provide opportunities for part-time students and
qualified high school students to begin post-
secondary education, possibly in an exploratory way.
• To add variety and expertise to academic, professional    and  cultural   offerings  by   the   inclusion   of
*»   distinguished visiting faculty.
• To encourage and support those cultural and recreational programs conducted for the benefit and enjoyment of students enrolled in'the Summer Session.
• To provide students with an opportunity to complete
their degree requirements more quickly.
-9 To encourage the use of facilities, resources, arid
faculty by students of all ages by offering clinics,
workshops, and camps.
^Research Grant - in 1963-64 for Austria and in 1971-72
for Germany.
Dr. Wayne Suttles, Anthropology 304, is returning to
UBC this summer after an absence of 10 years. He has
done considerable work with the Northwest Coast
Indians and at present is working on a grammar and
texicon of the Musqueam dialect of Halkomelem and an
analysis of the ethnographic content of a body of
Musqueam texts.
Dr.   Kernial   S.   Sandhu,   Asian   Studies   206,   is' a
member   of   the   Geography   Department   at   UBC   at
present on two years' leave of absence as director of the
institute of Southeast Asian Studies in Singapore.
re Highlights
UBC will have its own summer stock company this
■--year at Summer Session '73. The company will be made
up of students from the Theatre department who are
seeking practical theatre experience following the Winter
Known as Stage '73, the company gives students an
opportunity to work in many areas of theatre ranging
vfrom production and acting to design and technical
Although final choices of productions have yet to be
made, this summer's program will consist of a musical, a
serious drama and a comedy. Performance dates have
*" been set for July 4-14, July 18-28andAug. 1-11.
A variety of films designed to entertain ancl educate
will  be featured during Summer Screen  '73 at UBC's
■^Summer Session '73.
^ The film festival starts July 9 and runs to Aug. 10.
There will be two showings of the same film each day, at
3:30 p.m. and 7:30 p.m., in the Hebb Lecture Theatre
on the East Mall.
The program is being developed from the suggestions
••'■of faculty members who will be involved in the Summer
Session. The majority of the films are being selected
from the National Film Board catalogue.
Mr.    Sandy    McGechaen    is    producer-director   of
Summer Screen '73.
Evening Courses Offered
Evening courses for credit are being offered this year
for the first time ever at a UBC Summer Session. Other
innovations at Summer Session '73 include admission of
Most of the campus cultural and social events during
UBC's Summer Session '73 are arranged by the Summer
Session Association, which serves as the students'
council for summer students.
The Association helps arrange noon-hour ancl evening
concerts and social and recreational activities around the
A Summer Session Loan Fund, established by the
Summer Session Association in 1947, provides loans of
up to $200 for Summer Session students, repayable by
March 1 of the following year.
This year's Summer Session Association executive
are: President — Mr. Fred Calhoun; Past President — Mr.
Jim Hegan; Vice-president/Secretary — Mr. Theo Meijer;
Treasurer — Mr. Jim Sullivan; Directors — Mrs. Fran
Carter, Miss Trish Hadfield. Producer-director of
Summer Sounds '73, a program of musical events, is Mr.
Michael Grice.
The Association has arranged for the use of Empire
Pool and other recreational facilities on campus during
Summer Session.
Ten free swims in the pool will be given all students,
athletic equipment will be available from the School of
Physical Education and Recreation from 8:30 a.m. to
4:30 p.m., and the War Memorial Gymnasium will be
reserved for recreation activity for summer students
from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday.
Intensive ten-week courses in basic Chinese and
Japanese are being offered for the first time during UBC
Summer Session '73.
The course in Japanese aims to teach basic grammatical structures and vocabulary of modern colloquial
Japanese through lectures, written exercises and both
oral and aural drills.
The instruction will be divided into lectures and drills
totalling four hours daily. During the first week, while
emphasizing the oral aspect of the language, written
forms will be introduced.
At the end of the session the students should have
mastered the basic grammatical structure of Japanese
and have a good command of a number of written
In the Chinese course the student learns to speak
Mandarin Chinese, to read written texts and to write
simple modern Chinese. Chinese characters are learned at
an average rate of 15 per day for a total of 750 by the
end of the course.
There will be five hours of supervised instruction each
day, including lecture drill and language laboratory
sessions. Successful completion of this course will
qualify students for further study in Chinese 200, 201
and 300.
A "package" of courses of special interest to teachers
of native Indian children is being offered at UBC's
Summer Session 1973.
Students may take any two of a grouping of four
courses — Anthropology 304 — Indians of the Northwest
Coast; Education 479 — Cross-Cultural Education
(Native Indians): Education 478 — Teaching English as a
Second Language; and Education 473 — Developmental
Another "package" of special interest to teachers of
home economics includes Home Economics 201 —
Foods; Home Economics 220 — Design Fundamentals;
Home Economics 312 — Clothing Design; Home
Economics 360 — Decision-making and Management in
the Family; and Home Economics 362 — Consumer
Seven courses covering Canadian topics aire being
offered. They are: English 446 — Canadian Literature;
English 545 — Studies in Canadian Literature; History
303 - History of the Canadian West; History 329 - The
Social Development of Canada; History 426 — Canada
After 1867; Political Science 200 — The Government of
Canada; Anthropology 420 — The Archaeology of
British Columbia.
students who have just graduated from high school, and
credit for University of Victoria courses.
The decision to offer evening courses for persons who
have full-time jobs is an example of the Summer Session
responding to new educational trends, says Summer
Session Director Dr. Norman Watt.
"Though it has generally been accepted over the years
that evening classes would not be popular during the
summer months, we have had many enquiries from
people who wanted to take evening courses. So we
decided to schedule a few this year."
Dr. Watt said a number of universities across Canada
have included evening courses in their summer programs
and enrolment has increased considerably. "Those without evening programs have experienced a decline in
enrolment, so the value of the evening courses speaks for
itself," he adds.
Evening classes will be offered in eight different
subjects with classes running from 7 p.m. to 9:30 p.m.
Monday through Thursday.
The following subjects will be offered:
Mathematics 100 — Calculus; Mathematics 121 —
Introduction to Linear Algebra; Psychology 301 —
Developmental Psychology; Psychology 308 — Social
Psychology; Music 135, 235, 335, 435 - Opera
Repertoire; Economics 470 — The Economics of Natural
Resources; Mathematics 311 - Elementary Number
Theory and Algebraic Concepts; Education 407 —
Introduction to the Study of Exceptional Children;
Education 494 — Communications Media Programs in
School; Education 496 — Motion Picture Production in
Education; Anthropology 304 — Indians of the Northwest Coast; Asian Studies 206 — Introduction to
Southeast Asia.
Dr. Watt said the Summer Session office has also been
receiving increasing numbers of enquiries from
graduating high school students who are interested in
taking courses because of a lack of summer jobs.
"Their reasoning is that not only can they get the
jump on the University year by taking some courses but
they can also familiarize themselves with the campus in
preparation for full-time enrolment in September."
Students will be permitted to register on the recommendation of their school principal and they will be
counselled to take only one course.
University of Victoria students will be able to take
credit courses at UBC and vice versa under a scheme
worked out for the first time this year. Astronomy 120,
Classical Studies 300 and 370, and Theatre 382 will be
offered at the University of Victoria, while University of
Victoria students will be able to take 50 courses at UBC
for equivalent credit.
"One of the reasons for the disparity is the larger
number of courses offered at UBC's Summer Session and
also the fact that UBC has a larger number of visiting
professors who will be offering courses of interest to
University of Victoria students," Dr. Watt says.
"We are delighted to have been able to co-operate
with Victoria," adds Dr. Watt. "It is mutually beneficial
because it also enables us to eliminate some otherwise
low-enrolment courses."
Twenty-four new courses, ranging from Anthropology 304 — Indians of the Northwest Coast to Education
565 — Earth and Space Science — are being offered at
UBC's Summer Session '73.
The majority of the new courses are being offered in
Education. "We make an attempt to keep up with the
rapid changes in education by providing courses that are
relevant to the teacher in the classroom," says Summer
Session Director Dr. Norman Watt, who is also an
associate professor in the Faculty of Education.
Education 487, for example, is an examination of
recent developments in elementary education with
emphasis on the study of open-area schools, non-grading,
team-teaching, techniques of individualized instruction
and use of learning-resource centres.
Education 565 is designed primarily for teachers who
wish to teach earth and space science in secondary
schools. Other new education courses include Education
489 — Applied Linguistics for Teachers and Education
565 — Special Course in Foundations.
Other new courses are being offered in Anthropology,
Computer Science, Economics, Fine Arts, Geography,
History, Italian, Mathematics, Psychology, Religious
Studies and Sociology. 'W*
Summer Session students will be able to
choose from the more than 200 courses
listed below. Most courses are valued at
three units. Unit values larger or smaller
than three are noted in brackets after
course numbers.
200 Introduction to Social Organization
304 Indians of Northwest Coast
420 Archaeology of British Columbia
206 Introduction to Southeast Asia
335 Japanese Literature in Translation
Chinese 180 (6)  Beginning Chinese Workshop
Japanese 180 (6)   Beginning Japanese Workshop
Principles of Biology
Cell Biology I: Structural Basis
Cell Biology II: Chemical Basis
General Ecology
Principles of Genetics
Non-Vascular Plants
Vascular Plants
200 (V/2)
201 (1%)
209 (154)
210 (V/2)
103 General Chemistry
205 Physical-Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry
.230 Organic Chemistry
331 Ancient History
310 Greek and Roman Literature
151 (V/2)        Fundamentals of Accounting
190(1%)        Fundamentals of Business
291 (V/2) Introduction to Computers in Business
317 (V/2) Pre-WIBA Introduction to Data Processing
352 Pre-MBA Managerial Accounting
375 Personal and Business Finance
591 (114)        Seminar in Business Policy
592 (V/2)        Seminar in Business Administration
210 Algorithms and Programming
310 Advanced Programming and Data Processing
301 Writing Techniques
Principles of Economics
Intermediate Microeconomic Analysis
Intermediate Macroeconomic Analysis
The Economics of Natural Resources
Special Advanced Course
(2 sections) Literature and Composition
(4 sections) Literature and Composition
Seminar for English Majors
(6 sections) English Composition
(5 sections) Children's Literature
Approaches to Poetry
(2 sections) Shakespeare
Canadian Literature
American Fiction
Studies in Canadian Literature
301 (1%)
302 (1%)
125 History of Western Art
181 Design Fundamentals
335 Renaissance and Mannerist Art
339 19th and 20th Century Art
110 (2 sections) First-Year French
120 Contemporary French: Language and
202 Studies in French Language and Style I
302 Studies in French Language and Style II
306 French Phonetics
412 The Nineteenth-Century Novel
101 Introduction to Physical Geography
200 (r/2) Human Geography
337 (V/2) Introduction to Political Geography
350 (r/2) Introduction to Urban Geography
371 (154) Research Techniques in Geography
396 (V/2) Geography of Monsoon Asia
498 Geography of Europe
105 Physical and Historical Geography
First-Year German
Second-Year German
German Literature 1800-1900
Studies in Nineteenth-Century Drama
Nineteenth-Century Realism
History of the Canadian West
Expansion of Europe in the Atlantic Area
Medieval English Institutions
Modern Japanese History Since 1868
Canada After 1867
Communist Movements in Eastern Europe
Since 1900
220 (114)
Design Fundamentals
312 (1%)
Clothing Design
360 (154)
Decision-Making and Management in the
362 (V/2)
Consumer Problems
First-Year Italian
First-Year Latin
200 General Linguistics: Part I
100 (2) (2 sections) Calculus I
121 (1) (2 sections) Introduction to Linear Algebra
221 (2) Linear Transformations in Euclidean Space
222 (1) Elementary Algebra
305                 Statistics
310 Geometry
311 Elementary Number Theory and Algebraic
413 Introduction to Mathematical Logic
200 Introductory Microbiology
321 Music Appreciation, Twentieth-Century
326 Music Appreciation
135/235/335/435/ (1) Opera Repertoire I,II,III,IV
100 Introduction to Philosophy
301 Ethics
Field Hockey
Soccer, Speedball, Speed-a-way (women)
219 (1)
226 (1)
230 (1)
Swimming I
Square Dance
251 (1)
Track and Field II
301 (1)
Educational Gymnastics
361 (154)
Prevention and Care of Injuries
362 (VA)
Adapted Physical Education
365 (VA)
Training and Conditioning for Competition
366 (r/2)
Physical Activities for Young Children
381 (VA)
Sociological Aspects of Sport
Mechanics, Electricity and Atomic Structur
200 (T/2)        The Government of Canada
201 (V/2)        Foreign Governments
300 Development of Political Theory:
Basic Concepts and Issues
200 Experimental Psychology .
301 Developmental Psychology
308 Social Psychology
311 Individual Differences
316 Methods of Research
546 Seminar in Psychological Problems
202 Introduction to the Study of Western
Religious Traditions
341 Islamic Art and Architecture
Social Stratification (formerly
Sociology 315)
100 F irst-Year Spanish
200 Second-Year Spanish
200 Theatre Practice (formerly Theatre 300)
320 History of Modern Theatre
100 Introduction to Plastics and Graphic Arts
201 Drawing
302 Painting
401/402         Painting II and III
403/413 Ceramics and Modelling II and III
101 Elementary Theory
309 (3 sections) General Science for
Elementary School Teachers
301 (iy2)
302 (11/2)
370 (r/2)
371 (154)
403 (V/2)
404 {VA)
417 (T/2)
426 (T/2)
431 (T/2)
436 (T/2)
437 (114)
440 (T/2)
481 (T/2)
482 (iy2)
483 (T/2)
488 (T/2)
494 (T/2)
496 (T/2)
501 (T/2)
504 (T/2)
549 (T/2)
556 (T/2)
557 (T/2)
558 (T/2)
562 (154)
580 (T/2)
677 (T/2)
678 (T/2)
Introduction to Education Psychology
Introduction to Educational Evaluation
Music Education
Physical Education
(2 sections) Human Development
(2 sections) Psychology of Adolescence
Curriculum and Instruction for Young
Modern Theories of Education for
Young Children
Mathematics for Elementary Teachers
Methods of Teaching Elementary
School Mathematics
The Library in the School
(2 sections) Philosophy of Education
Mental Retardation
Art (with Education 425)
Home Economics
(2 sections) Social Studies
Curriculum and Instruction in Primary Grades
(3 sections) Introduction to the Study
of Exceptional Children
General Science
Introduction to Adult Education
(2 sections) Communications Media and
Technology in Learning
Speech Education
Educating the Slow Learner and
Emotionally Handicapped
Language Development in the Exceptional
Curriculum and Instruction in Art II
(with Education 404)
Personnel Services in the Schools
(3 sections) History of Education
Primary Learning Disabilities
Behavior Disorders in Children
Teaching Maladjusted Children
Special Study in Home Economics
An Introduction to Educational
(3 sections) Educational Sociology
Guiding Reading Programs for Junior
and Senior Secondary Schools
3 sections) Developmental Reading in
the Elementary Grades
Remedial Reading
Teaching English as a Second Language
Cross-Cultural Education (Native Indians)
Introduction to Research in Education
Introduction to Statistics for
Research in Education
Statistics in Education
Recent Developments in Elementary Education
Problems in the Teaching of Elementary
School Mathematics
Applied Linguistics for Teachers
The Selection of Library Materials
(2 sections) The Acquisition and
Organization of Library Materials
The School Library: Sources of Information
Communications Media Programs in Schools
Motion Picture Production in Education
Fundamentals of Human Learning and
Special Topics in Human Learning and
Review of Research in Methods of
Teaching Art
Review of Research in Methods of
Teaching Social Studies
The Development of Science Curriculum
Materials      ,
Comparative Education
Social History of American Education
Individual Tests
Educational Television
Problems in Teaching Secondary School
Basic Contributions to Administrative
Administration of the Educational Program
Administration of the Elementary School
Administration of the Secondary School
Laboratory Practicum
Curriculum Organization in the
Elementary School
Curriculum Organization in the
Secondary School
Special Course in Mathematics
Special Course in Earth and Space Science
Special Course in English
Special Course in Foundations
The Regional, Junior or Community College
Advanced Seminar in the Supervision of
Problems in Education — Guidance
Advanced Seminar in Adult Education
Current Developments in Higher Education
Theories of Vocational Development
Counselling Theory and Procedures
356 Electronics in Industrial Education I
358 Electronics in Industrial Education II
359 Millwork Theory and Practice
452 Technology of Building Construction I
453 Automotive Theory and Practice I
454 Patternmaking and Foundry Practice
457 Technology of Metalworking III
463 Technology of Synthetic Materials
467 Automotive Theory and Practice II HEALTH
Continued Jnun Page Four
end of the Second World War has been out of whack.
Only 30 per cent of medical graduates went into
family practice in Canada during the 1960s. There are
many reasons for this preference for specialized
practice. One is that the examples of medical practice
in the clinical training of students have been predominantly specialized. If physicians are to be able to
work in a community health centre, they should be
trained in such a setting."
But ironically the ideal community health centre
operating in the best of all worlds could make little
use of family practitioners as they are now trained,
according to Dr. D.O. Anderson, professor and head
of the Division of Health Services Research and
Development in UBC's Health Sciences Centre.
Community health centres can theoretically be
divided into three separate but related spheres of
activity, says Dr. Anderson: health surveillance,
restoration and maintenance.
Health surveillance of the population might be
automated. A patient's urine or blood specimen
might be routinely screened by mechanical methods
for abnormalities. Computers ancl special technicians
would be heavily involved here.
If something abnormal is discovered, and if the
abnormality or disease can in fact be treated, then the
patient would be sent to the health restoration area
of the community health centre. No one really knows
how much health restoration would be done by
physicians. Perhaps a major role would be played by
specialists in nursing, rehabilitation medicine or other
non-medical health groups.
Patients passing from health restoration would go
to the health maintenance area of the community
health centre. Here groups of specially trained,
non-medical health staff would ensure that the
patients' health was kept up and directions followed.
The staff would be trained to detect whether patients
needed to be referred once again to the health
restoration group.
Dr. Anderson says that this structure assumes the
presence of physicians only as a part of the health
restoration group of the community health centre.
The majority of health professionals in the centre
would be non-medical; the physicians would be called
upon to do only what they can do best. They would
be superb diagnosticians and therapeutic specialists,
says Dr. Anderson.
The gatekeepers to this kind of system, the people
who would make first contact with the patients and
decide what services are best suited for them, could
be specialists in preventive medicine or primary care.
Dr. Anderson says they could be either a new breed
of family "physicians" or specially trained nurses
such as a new type of nurse often mentioned in this
role, the "nurse practitioner."
This is a highly contentious issue to family
physicians. They have had to weather for years the
abuse and predictions of colleagues in medical specialties that family physicians would be replaced by
specially trained nurses.
According to Dr. Anderson, their fears may be
ungrounded. B.C. has more family doctors per capita
than any olher province. If community health centres
were established in B.C., use would be made of the
manpower already available and it would be unlikely
that other health professionals would be trained for
the same role.
UBC's first mini-community centre was opened
near the Vancouver General Hospital and is called a
Family Practice Teaching Unit. Its opening was
delayed for two years while the Faculty of Medicine
found money to support it. Under the provincial
medical payment scheme, only the services of a
doctor are paid for in community health centres. The
salaries of other health professionals must be financed
out of the physicians' fees. This difficulty, common
to many other provinces, must be removed before
community health centres can be opened on a large
scale. UBC subsidizes part of the salaries of nonmedical health professionals.
The community health centre near VGH has on its
staff two full-time and one part-time family practitioners, a registered nurse, and a family health nurse
who has received further specialized training, a social
worker, a home economist, a part-time physiotherapist and a part-time pharmacologist.
UBC's REA CH medical centre on Commercial Drive in Vancouver's east end is headed by Dr. Roger Tonkin,
shown chatting with a visitor outside the Centre. Picture by Peter Thomas.
Medical students from each year of the four-year
medical program are taught by family practitioners in
the unit. First-year students learn to interview
patients. By their fourth year they are allowed to do
a complete examination of patients, make a diagnosis
and suggest treatment. They visit patients in hospital
and make house calls with nurses attached to the
unit. The fourth-year students are also encouraged to
deliver babies under the supervision of family practitioners attached to the unit.
Other health students are tutored by members of
their profession and integrate with other health
students and health professionals.
The registered nurse, for example, is responsible
for co-ordinating the movement of patients from one
health professional to another or from one treatment
centre to another. She arranges for tests, after
consulting a physician, and carries out some of them
After the first examination by a physician, the
family health nurse is responsible for care of the
mother during the pre-natal period and the period
immediately after birth. She is trained to deal with
minor childhood illnesses and does most of the birth
control counselling at the unit. She also explains to
parents the growth and development of children. The
family health nurse works in close co-operation with
a physician.
She makes hospital visits to ensure that the
transition of patients from the hospital to convalescence is continued. And she makes house calls on
patients suffering from such conditions as high blood
pressure, congestive heart failure and arthritis,
checking their condition and medications.
The social worker visits the homes of patients to
assess the home environment, helps patients get in
touch with social organizations or employment
agencies and does individual, marriage and family
The home economist gives diet information to
mothers while they are pregnant and after the birth
of their child, and provides special diets to patients
with individual problems such as obesity and ulcers.
Dr. H.C. Slade, director of the unit, says the extra
time and information nutritionists are able to give
patients has resulted in the best record of weight loss
he has seen.
The physiotherapist is involved in the treatment of
muscle spasm and strains, a common complaint
among athletic school children and working men. She
also counsels patients with chronic respiratory
problems, who benefit from breathing exercises, and
provides rehabilitation exercises and treatment for
arthritic patients, often following up treatment in the
home or where the patient works.
Another Family Practice Teaching Unit was
opened in UBC's new James M. Mather Building on
the University campus last summer. Compared with
the middle- to working-class clientele of the Family
Practice   Teaching   Unit  at  VGH,   the  Unit on  the
University campus caters to a large segment of young
student and faculty families. Within two minutes of
opening its doors in the James M. Mather Building
last fall, while office and medical equipment was still
being unpacked from boxes, a mother wheeled a
pram down the walkway into the Family Practice
Teaching Unit and the unit unceremoniously was in
It has two full-time family physicians, a half-time
pediatrician, a public health nurse, a social worker, a
clinical nurse and secretarial staff. Students in
medicine, nursing and home economics now pass
through the Unit. Eventually, as the Unit's case load
increases, other physicians will be added to the Unit,
bringing it closer to a community health centre.
A large investigation is now going on to find out
how effective a team of health professionals is in
meeting the primary health needs of patients. Called
Project TEAM — which stands for Team Effectiveness
And Measurement — the study is being done through
UBC's Department of Health Care and Epidemiology
which is responsible for the Family Practice Teaching
Units. The investigation began last year, financed by
the Department of National Health and Welfare, and
is made up of five sub-studies.
One sub-study is developing a computerized record
system. Another is finding out how patients view
their needs. This is linked to a third sub-study which
deals with the health professionals' assessment of the
patients' needs. Researchers expect to find some
discrepancy between the two views.
The fourth sub-study's long-term goal is to determine whether it costs more or less to provide primary
health care to patients through the health team than
through the present health system. The investigation's
aims are related to the level of needs of the patients.
The first task, though, is to identify and determine
costs of the various activities provided by the health
team, such 'a's how much it costs to teach students
and how much to serve patients. Results so far show
that about 68 per cent of the costs go to patient
services and 32 per cent to teaching.
The last sub-study is to make researchers aware of
any effect they have on the operation of the Unit and
to decrease the professional barriers between the
health team members.
REACH has received more publicity than. UBC's
two other mini-community health centres. Its style
and origin are different from those of the Family
Practice Teaching Units. It opened in mid-1969 on
Commercial Drive in Vancouver's Grandview area at
the invitation of the Grandview-Woodland Park Area
Council. Dr. Sydney Israels, head of UBC's Department of Pediatrics, put down the first month's rent
out of his own pocket for the former fruit and
vegetable shop.
REACH was opened on a shoestring by Dr. Roger
Tonkin of UBC's Department of Pediatrics. He
received a grant from the John and Mary Markle
Foundation. The type of grant was for investment in
Please turn to Page Ten
Continued from Page Nine
a promising young medical man and not in buildings
or equipment. It went towards paying part of his
salary. With the grant in his pocket he applied for
more funds and got grants from the Vancouver
Foundation. Local and medical students helped him
convert the premises into a health centre.
One-third  of  the  population around  REACH  is
Chinese   and   one-third   Italian.   They   provide   the
stability of the area. Most of them have their own
family physicians and medical insurance.
The bulk of REACH'S clients are the type of
mobile population that uses many services. Their
problems are usually multiple — marriage crises,
children doing badly in school, chronic skin, ear and
nose infections, poor living conditions.
The other group of afflictions could be classified
as rejects from the present health system. For
example, people with chronic psychiatric problems.
Often family physicians in conventional practice
don't handle these cases well, not because they don't
have the ability but because they simply don't have
the time.
Perhaps an abnormally high percentage of the
patients at REACH aren't covered by medical insurance because of various loopholes in the insurance
system. Newcomers to Canada, for example, must
wait 12 months before becoming eligible for government-assisted insurance. This is typical of most
provincial systems. Some months REACH writes off
up to 25 per cent of professional fees as un-
collectable. When REACH patients with neither
insurance coverage nor money need to be referred to
specialists, Dr. Tonkin says, the specialists in private
practice often don't bother to bill them.
REACH — a non-profit, charitable association run
by a board of health professionals, housewives,
teachers and others — is basically financed through
two channels. One is the B.C. government's Medical
Services Commission, which covers medical services
provided by two full-time and one half-time family
physicians, a full-time pediatrician (Dr. Tonkin) and a
half-time pediatrician, a registered nurse and a nutritionist.
Backing up the medical side of REACH is a lab in
the back of the Centre where routine tests are done.
The Killam Scholarships program administered
through the Canada Council will be discussed at three
meetings on the UBC campus on April 3 and 4.
Visiting UBC to describe the program will be Mrs.
Erika von Conta Bruce. The overall intent of the
program is to support outstanding research, outstanding scholars and promising post-doctoral
students in the arts and sciences.
Killam Scholarships fall into three categories:
1. Senior Research Scholarships "to support
scholars of exceptional ability engaged in research
projects of far-reaching significance." The awards are
for research in the humanities and social sciences and
interdisciplinary studies in which there is an effort to
link any of the sciences, medicine or engineering with
any of the social sciences or humanities.
2. Killam Post-Doctoral Research Fellowships. A
total of six fellowships are offered annually, three in
the social sciences and humanities and three in the
sciences, medicine or engineering.
3. Izaak Walton Killam Memorial Scholarships are
designed to honor and assist distinguished research
workers in the sciences, medicine and engineering.
The awards of up to $30,000 a year are designed to
allow individuals to develop a major new synthesis or
Deans, department heads or their designates will
discuss the program on April 3 from 9:30 to 12 noon
in the Board and Senate Room of the Main Mall
North Administration Building.
On April 4 interested members of the faculty are
invited to discuss the program from 9:30 to 12 noon
in the Board and Senate Room of the Main Mall
North Administration Building. Graduate students
and post-doctoral fellows are invited to a discussion
on April 4 from 2:30 to 4:30 p.m. in the Board
Room of the Thea Koerner Graduate Student Centre.
and a pharmacy. Patients without insurance pay a flat
$2 fee for lab work regardless of what is done. The
pharmacy provides REACH patients with prescription
drugs at cost. The few who can't pay get them free.
Highly innovative services have been financed
through federal Local Initiative Program grants which
will total $110,000 by this spring. LIP grants are the
second major source of financing. Two dental assistants and a nutritionist are on LIP grants. Soon, two
more nurse practitioners, a writer, project coordinator and others will be hired.
Before REACH opened, a survey was made of the
district's health needs. Apart from dispelling the
area's welfare image, the survey drew attention to a
serious need for dental care. REACH opened a small
preventive dental program, which has now moved
into an adjacent office formerly used by a real estate
company. By the end of this year it will hopefully
increase from a three-chair operation to six chairs in a
large office across the street. REACH has limited
itself to preventive dentistry during the day. Tw6
independent evening services offer dental care at '
REACH. UBC dental students, under supervision,
volunteer "free" dental care two evenings each week.
This isn't part of their academic program. The
Vancouver and District Dental Society operates a
fee-for-service emergency clinic every evening.
"We decided to stick to prevention," Dr. Tonkin
said, "because if we opened our doors to treatment
we'd be flooded and we'd never get around to our
primary aim, which is prevention. We've been told
that the only way of reducing the long-term incidence
of dental disease in the area is to concentrate on
Like the Family Practice Teaching Units, REACH
is most interested in the treatment of families in its
own community. But two years ago, when the youth
community was in great need of health services,
REACH was able to respond and youths from all over
the city made their way to the centre. REACH staff
was soon able to interest and co-ordinate other
agencies in the city to look after the youths so that
REACH could return to its first priority, providing
service to its own community.
REACH nutritionists have been involved in the
vegetarianism and food fads which youth has recently
Continued from Page Three
whole, 1972 graduates of the Faculty of Applied Science
had a bad experience. The overall unemployment rate in
1972 was 11.4 per cent, up from 4.9 per cent in 1971.
There was considerable variation in the unemployment
rate, however, when looked at on an option basis. Two
options — Mineral Engineering and Engineering Physics
— had a zero unemployment rate, but the rate for the
Faculty's seven other options varied between five per
cent (Chemical Engineering) and 20 per cent (Agricultural Engineering). There were, however, only five
graduates in the latter option. The three options with
the highest unemployment rates just below Agricultural
Engineering were: Electrical — 15.8 per cent; Civil —
14.3 per cent; and Mechanical — 10.5 per cent.
There are strong indications that the situation for
engineers will improve substantially in 1973. U.S.
surveys, the UBC Office of Student Services and the
comments of UBC faculty members all point to this.
Here is a breakdown by various options.
Electrical Engineering. Department head Prof. Donald
Moore says more students — 32 or 33 — have jobs this
year than at the same time last year, when some 23 had
found employment.
Prof. Moore says that if the economy continues to
improve there's likely to be a shortage of engineers in
Canada by 1975-76. He bases his prediction on an
American manpower report delivered to the U.S.
Congress in 1972. The report says there is already a
widening gap between the supply of engineers and
demand in the U.S. And Canada, Prof. Moore says,
usually lags behind the U.S. by a couple of years.
Mechanical Engineering. Dr. James P. Duncan, the
head of the department, says his graduates are receiving
more unsolicited enquiries regarding summer jobs and he
feels that this is a harbinger of better full-time job
opportunities. Another member of the department feels
partial revival of the aircraft industry in eastern Canada
will mean some new jobs. Prof. Duncan says he's just
returned from a conference in California where the
situation referred to above by Prof. Moore was discussed. Prof. Duncan feels that the U.S. engineering
manpower problem will  mean that Canadians will  be
offered jobs in the U.S., thus worsening the Canadian
supply situation. As for his 1973 class of graduates he
says jobs won't be easy to come by but he expects all
will be employed within three months of graduation.
About 50 per cent had job commitments by mid-March.
Mineral Engineering. Department head Prof. John B.
"Blue" Evans says there are as many jobs available for
his graduates in 1973 as there were in 1972. His problem
is that he has twice as many students graduating in 1973
and, as a result, half of them have still not found jobs.
Metallurgy. Prof. Edward Teghtsoonian, the head of
the Metallurgy department, says virtually all his
graduates have had job commitments for a month or
more, which is an improvement over last year and
comparable to the situation three years ago. All
metallurgy graduates will be working in Canada this
Civil Engineering. Demand for civil engineers is
increasing, according to the Association of Professional
Engineers, but employers want men with experience.
Students who have had experience during the summer
will probably stand a better chance of employment,
particularly those who have had experience on municipal
projects such as sewers and roads.
Mr. Eric Evans, Pacific area manager for the Technical
Service Council, an industry-sponsored, personnel consulting organization in the fields of engineering and
commerce, says UBC engineering graduates are regarded
as among the best educated in Canada.
He advises engineering graduates not to be discouraged by unemployment figures because a lot of
people who are said to be currently unemployed are in
reality between jobs as a matter of choice. He says many
companies which employ engineers are in a variety of
businesses and are looking for graduates who are
adaptable and flexible. While they don't want job-
hoppers, he says, they don't regard an engineer who has
had two or three years' experience with another
company as being unstable.
School of Architecture. Prof. Henry Elder, the
School's director, says that in the past three months
there has been an upward swing in the demand for
architects. He doesn't expect his students will have
problems this year.
Mrs. Lorraine Sharrock, executive secretary of the
Architectural Institute of B.C., confirms that there is an
increasing demand for architects with experience. The
Institute has 20 vacancies listed at the moment, whereas
last year at this time there were virtually none. Many of
the openings are outside the Vancouver area and it helps ■
to be mobile, she says.
School of Nursing. UBC will this year graduate some'
92 nurses with degrees and diplomas and there are twice
that number of jobs waiting for them. The ten who will
graduate with a master's degree will be in even greater
demand, says Dr. Muriel Uprichard, the School's
director. Demand is high in metropolitan areas and even
higher elsewhere.
ADMINISTRATION. Commerce graduates of 1972 experienced a significant improvement in job opportunities
over 1971. The unemployment rate dropped from 13.4
per cent in 1971 to 5.2 per cent last year and there is
every indication of another improvement this year.
Graduates in the accounting option are in particular
demand and Master of Business Administration
graduates are almost all employed now, according to the
Office of Student Services.
Office of Student Services did not survey the post-
graduation activities of students from Agricultural
Sciences. A check with Faculty department heads
indicates that there are adequate job prospects for the
1973 class.
Prof. Warren Kitts, head of both Animal and Poultry
Sciences, says demand for graduates in these two areas
has remained stable in recent years and he has yet to
hear that a 1973 graduating student lacks a job.
Prof. William Powrie, head of Food Science, says
opportunities are expanding for his graduates and there
simply aren't enough graduate students to fill the posts
available. He says it's a bit too early to make predictions
about jobs for the 1973 class.
Prof. Charles Rowles, head of Soil Science, says more
and more opportunities are appearing for Soil Science
graduates but not every one in the 1973 class has a job
yet. He says he expects the provincial government's
controversial Bill 42, if implemented, will affect the
demand for soil scientists.
FACULTY OF EDUCATION. Persistent reports of a
teacher surplus in B.C. are misleading, according to Miss
Ann Dahl, of the Employment Information Service of V
been experimenting with. Now the shift of emphasis
is to the needs of older people in the community. The
LIP-sponsored nutritionist is especially concerned
about geriatric problems in the community. By
working with groups in the community she is showing
older people how best to take advantage of the recent
increase in old age pensions so that pensioners can
have a balanced diet and yet have some money left
over for other things.
An old bakery next door to the original FIEACH
clinic has been taken over and converted to a meeting
place for older people in the area. Some haven't been
out of their rooms for 18 months. The drop-in centre
is linked to the geriatric nutrition thrust.
The first student legal aid office in Vancouver was
opened at REACH by UBC law students and still
operates there one night a week. The centre has also
been used by the City of Vancouver health and
welfare departments. Medical and pharmacy students
are taught at the clinic.
On a less formal basis nursing and social-work
students visit the centre and dental hygiene students
work at the clinic under the supervision of local
'dentists and dentists of UBC's Faculty of Dentistry in
the evenings.
REACH follows a different philosophy from the
Family Practice Teaching Units, a different style.
Though finding the money to open the Family
Practice Teaching Units was as difficult as scraping up
the money to start REACH, the clinic on Commercial
Drive remains more financially vulnerable. Its LIP
grants won't last forever. Careful structuring of the
Family Practice Teaching Units aims primarily at
training students and the public through the health
team. REACH has adopted a more flexible structure.
That's the way Dr. Tonkin prefers to have it.
"I hope REACH continues to be a small operation
with good people attached to it who are interested in
exploring the frontier. While other groups are now
getting into some of the health needs of youth, we've
already moved on to something else.
"If you think of research in terms of an experimental design, then I have to say that we're not doing
any. But as far as I'm concerned the whole place is
research because we're trying to find out things that
are new to Canada."
the B.C. Teachers' Federation. There has been a surplus
in the Greater Victoria and Vancouver areas for some
years, she says, because some teachers refuse to leave
these areas for rural districts where opportunities are
Additional grants made to some school districts
resulted in a flurry of hiring in late 1972 and early 1973
with the result that the number of teachers seeking work
through the BCTF was reduced from 530 to 230.
The provincial Department of Education says B.C.
universities supplied less than 85 per cent of the
beginning teachers required in 1972 and less than 75 per
cent in 1971. Reduction of class sizes this year from 30
to 25 at the elementary level will mean a higher demand
for teachers.
All this adds up to a fairly rosy picture for 1973
Faculty  of   Education  graduates,  especially  if they're
• prepared to go anywhere. Specialists in home economics,
instrumental music and special education are in great
graduates initially associate themselves with an established dentist to get experience before branching out on
• their own, according to Faculty Dean Dr. S. Wah Leung.
In most cases this association is arranged on a private
basis. In general the metropolitan areas and the
Okanagan are well supplied with dentists,, but there are
opportunities galore in the Kootenays apd the north,
according to Mr. Ken Croft, the managing director for
. the College of Dental Surgeons of B.C.
School of Rehabilitation Medicine. Graduates of this
School in the Faculty of Medicine have had no problems
in recent years in finding employment and there are
plenty of positions available in 1973, according to the
School's director. Dr. Brock Fahrni. Demand is high in
metropolitan areas and there are even more openings in
rural areas.
School of Community and Regional Planning.
Students in this School in the Faculty of Graduate
Studies are deeply involved in writing their graduating
theses at the moment, so only a quarter of the
17-member graduating class have job commitments. The
School's acting director. Prof. Brahm Wiesman, says he
doesn't anticipate the rest will have problems finding
positions. A recent survey by the School of its 190
graduates revealed that only two were unemployed.
The University of B.C.'s James M. Mather
Building on Fairview Avenue on the east side of
Wesbrook Crescent will be officially opened at 4
p.m. Wednesday, April 4.
Present will be UBC's Chancellor, Mr. Justice
Nathan T. Nemetz; other members of the University's Board of Governors; President Walter H.
Gage; Dr. John F. McCreary, Co-ordinator of
Health Sciences at UBC; and Dean David Bates of
the Faculty of Medicine.
Officially opening the building will be Mrs.
James M. Mather. The building will be named in
honor of her late husband, who played a leading
role in establishing UBC's Faculty of Medicine and
developed what was formerly the Department of
Preventive Medicine, now incorporated into the
Department of Health Care and Epidemiology.
Dr. Mather was head of preventive medicine at
UBC for 14 years and was assistant dean of
Medicine for seven years before retiring in 1966.
Almost completely obscured by its magnificent
treed surroundings., the building is still unknown
even to most people familiar with the UBC
A number of health groups are housed in the
two-storey building. One is the Faculty of
Medicine's second Family Practice Teaching Unit,
designed to show students in the health sciences
the type of health problems they are likely to face
in general practice.
Health professional students will also be taught
to work together as a health team and to share
responsibilities rather than work separately as
unco-ordinated individuals.
About 2,500 persons from the Wesbrook area
are registered with the Unit as patients. The Unit
can handle up to 5,000 people and is especially
interested in providing health care to families.
UBC's first Family Practice Teaching Unit was
opened   in    1969   near   the   Vancouver   General
Hospital. Both Units are administered by the
Division of Primary Care in UBC's Department of
Health Care and Epidemiology, which occupies the
first floor of the James M. Mather Building with
other divisions in the department, including
Epidemiology and Biometry, Health Services
Planning, Public Health and Environmental
On the second floor is the headquarters of the
new Department of Medical Genetics, which will
also continue to have clinical space at the Health
Centre for Children where most genetic counselling of parents or prospective parents takes place.
The Division of Audiology and Speech Sciences
in the Department of Pediatrics is also on the
second floor. It formerly operated out of offices
above a grocery store near the University.
The division offers a two-year master's
program. Six students are currently enrolled.
Statistically, about 350 audiologists and speech
pathologists should be practising in B.C. Only
about 70 actually handle the speech and hearing
problems of the province. The division's program
is trying to narrow the gap. Sixteen students will
enrol in the first year of the program this fall. The
program was begun in 1969 through a $150,000
grant from the Kinsmen Rehabilitation Foundation of B.C.
The building was constructed by the Van
Construction Division of Van Vliet Construction
Co. for $801,770. Total project cost of the
26,040-square-foot building was $1,096,645.
Source of funds was: federal Health Resources
Fund, $526,390; P.A. Woodward Trust, $422,443;
Senator N.M. Paterson, $50,000; Vancouver
Foundation, $45,000; Kresge Foundation,
$26,812; Kinsmen Rehabilitation Foundation,
Architects were Paul Smith Associates of
Continued from Page Two
making what he calls a "descriptive academic inventory."
Here's what you do. Sit down and list every course
you have taken during your University career. Then,
think carefully about each course and, in half a dozen
sentences, describe the content of each course and
what you learned from it.
When you've completed the inventory, match it up
with the research job you've done on the industry of
your choice. Chances are, says Mr. Krell, you'll be
able to link a group of courses you've taken with
some aspect of a company's operations.
Mr. Krell cautions that you may not be able to
reach your objective immediately and suggests that
you look for an opening that will lead eventually to
the area you're interested in.
In making an application to a company you should
point out that you have taken the trouble to do some
research on the company or the industry and indicate
that you want to discuss the application of your
specific knowledge to the company's operations.
A student, for instance, who is interested in
getting into personnel work or industrial relations
might not be able to get into those departments
immediately, Mr. Krell says. In that case, he says, the
student should seek a position in the company's
warehouse, say, where he can become familiar with
company operations and make contact with
employees. At the same time, the job-seeker should
make it clear that his ultimate goal is personnel or
industrial relations work.
Mr. Krell also emphasizes that industry does a lot
of promotion from within and companies are always
on the lookout for people who are prepared to learn
their operations thoroughly.
Mr. Krell claims that his method has been highly
successful. He's never done a thorough survey of the
success encountered by those he's counselled, but, of
the ones he's done followup work with, he found that
70 per cent of them had found jobs using his
In fact, he said, so many students Began to pour in
on him for assistance that he had to end individual
counselling and meet students in groups to explain his
technique. At the moment he's been transferred to a
temporary job in Manpower's Richmond office but
hopes to return to student job counselling soon.
Students, he claims, don't realize how much
potential they have as the result of university study.
The computer science graduate who's hired as a
programmer one day may find himself giving a series
of lectures to company employees on the application
of computer techniques withir the company. As a
result, the student's training in English, mathematics
and computing all come into play, he says.
Mr. Krell has some interesting case studies to prove
that his technique works. "I had a girl come in one
day with a Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in
drama," he says. "She had had an interview with a
company that makes pleasure boats and which was
looking for a girl who would attend meetings and
conventions, set up a booth and talk to people about
the company's products.
"I went over her inventory, discovered the drama
and theatre courses, and suggested that she go back to
the company and try to sell herself on the basis that
these courses had given her a feeling for creative
arrangement of the company's products." She got the
Another student with a degree in urban planning
visited Mr. Krell's office after having been turned
down at every city and municipal hall he had applied
to. "He had prepared an excellent resume," Mr. Krell
says, "and his goal was to be a townsite planner.
"We discussed his problem for a while and then I
suggested that he investigate the possibilities of
employment by a major oil company. I pointed out
that these companies often embark on large developments which involve close relations with municipal or
city planners in terms of urban planning. It wasn't
long before he got a job with a major oil company.
"Another graduate who visited me — a former
player for the B.C. Lions — had obtained a bachelor's
degree in mathematics. I suggested he try to get in
with some company on a training program leading to
a chartered accountancy with the aim of becoming a
management consultant. Six weeks later he phoned
me to say he was launched on the career I'd
Mr. Krell has a great many more case studies to
point to, all of which seem to confirm the more
generalized statements of UBC officials concerned
with finding jobs for students. In short, students
often fail to exploit the potential which their
university career has conferred on them.
Maybe Mr. Shirran sums it all up when he says: "I
get the impression that many students lack some
honest-to-God enthusiasm for a joa. Their chances of
getting a job will improve if they ;how some bounce
and convince an employer that they're willing to
wade in with their sleeves rolled up." Contact
LIVELY ARGUMENT marked Alumni Association-
sponsored debate during Open House on the resolution "that formal university education is obsolete."
Participants were, left to right. Prof. Geoffrey
Durrant,    UBC    English    department;   Mr.   William
Bruneau, of UBC's Education Faculty; moderator and
head of the UBC Classics department, Prof. Malcolm
McGregor; Prof. Walter Young, head of UBC's Political Science department, and Prof. John Ellis of Simon
Fraser University. Kini McDonald photo.
An Evening with S.I. Hayakawa,
known semanticist
and author.
May 28, 1973
Hotel Vancouver
6 p.m.
$6.75 per person.
For further information and tickets:
contact the UBC Alumni Association,
6251 N.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver
8, B.C. (228-3313).
Debate Decides University Not Obsolete
The Alumni Association's program for UBC's
Open House '73 was highlighted by a friendly clash of
wits in the Student Union Building.
The occasion was an Oxford Union-style debate on
the motion: "Resolved that formal university education is obsolete." About 150 alumni and students
were on hand to hear Prof. Walter Young, head of the
UBC Political Science department, and Prof. John
Ellis, of Simon Fraser University, speak in support of
the motion. Their opponents were Mr. William
Bruneau, assistant professor of Education at UBC,
and Prof. Geoffrey Durrant, of UBC's English department. Chairman of the debate was Prof. Malcolm
McGregor, head of UBC's Classics department.
Prof. Young said declining enrolments were indicative of the fact that formal university education as
currently practiced is obsolete. The reason why, he
argued, was that the university has changed in
character over the years.
"We have become in our universities production-
oriented," he said. "We are concerned primarily with
output. We direct our attention less and less to what
education really ought to be all about and more
toward producing graduates."
Speaking against the motion, Mr. Bruneau maintained that university education would be obsolete if
the social functions, instruction and research of the
university had nothing whatever to do with the real
world, but that this was not the case with UBC.
He said certain politicians and progressives believe
a university should be a force for social change, but
the primary function of the university is to teach a
careful, disciplined approach to the problems of
learning and of life. "The university," he said, "is not
a political force, it's fundamentally a disciplined
intellectual force."
Prof. Ellis, arguing for the affirmative, said that
formal university education is obsolete because its
elements — of full-time, day-time study by young
people exclusively — were no longer tenable, and had
been proved so by such a new institution as Britain's
Open University.
"The second reason why formal university education is obsolete is because the professors are not
seriously interested in teaching," he said. "The
internal reward system of the university is not based
on a professor's teaching record but on the length of
his publications list."
A third reason, he said, is that the internal
decision-making structures of the university are them
selves obsolete. "Senates, faculties, departments,
personal fiefdoms, tenure — they all institutionalize
the status quo and make it impossible for the
university to respond to a changed society."
In supporting the motion, Prof. Durrant agreed
that some structures and processes of the university
needed reform, but maintained that the basic purpose
of the university, to develop in people a disciplined
approach to learning and a critical approach to life,
were as necessary as ever.
"A university is really an attempt to bring minds
together so that there will be something like the
process of an atomic explosion," he said. "When you
get enough intelligent people interested in using their
minds together, you get critical mass and extreme
Prof. Durrant argued that the "world outside is, in
general, a cleverly organized stupidity" and "what the
community needs from its university products is not
well-rounded personalities but sharp cutting edges,
critical edges that will cut into the rubbish and
nonsense that clogs this society at present."
A vote was held and it was declared that the two
speakers arguing against the motion had won the
Governments Urged to Do
More Long-Term Planning
Mr. Robert Bonner, chairman of the board of
MacMillan Bloedel, has charged that the failure of
governments to engage in long-term planning makes it
difficult for business and industry to function efficiently.
Mr. Bonner urged governments to conduct more
long-term planning and to announce changes in
economic legislation in sufficient time to allow
business and industry to adjust to the new conditions
without loss.
He made the comments in an address to the annual
Commerce Dinner attended by about 350 Commerce
alumni, faculty, students and downtown businessmen
on March 8 in the UBC Faculty Club. The annual
dinner, co-sponsored by the Commerce alumni,
faculty and students, is designed to encourage closer
contact between the University and the downtown
business community.
"Government involvement in the private sector is
the most flourishing activity in Canada today," Mr.
Bonner told his audience. "Public policies can destroy
enterprise and we have only to look at the insurance
business to see what I have in mind."
He pointed to federal income tax reform, the
federal government's proposed new Competition Act
and the B.C. government's new Land Commission Act
as examples of increased government involvement in
the economy in a manner which has great impact.
"I think the time frame within which government
operates is far too short," said Mr. Bonner. "Modern
government continues to operate on an annual cycle
which it has inherited from an agrarian past."
While the plans and budgets of governments tend
to be developed on a year-to-year basis, he said,
business and industry are having to plan two and
three years in advance due to the complexity of
modern economic affairs. Business planning, he said,
can be frustrated by changes in government policy
brought in too quickly.
"The lead time for the development of a new pulp
mill or other enterprise is two to three years," he
said. "Within that period there could be at least six
budget speeches and the project could be rendered
unprofitable before it was completed."
Mr. Bonner also urged businessmen to become
more involved in politics in order to close the
"comprehension gap" that exists between the business community and the public and the various levels
of government.
MR. ROBERT BONNER, chairman of the board of
MacMillan Bloedel, chats with Dean Philip White,
head of the Faculty of Commerce, during reception
prior to annual Commerce Dinner. Vlad photo.


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