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UBC Reports Mar 27, 1969

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THE . . .
i ,-
t     x1"
What G
• Hit
Is a Board of Governors?
See pages two ancl three
How Hard Do UBC Professors Work?
See pages ten and eleven
HELP! I've Got A Bug In My Ear
See page nine THE question, "What good is a Board of Governors?" is being asked with increasing frequency
on the campuses of Canadian universities. For a
growing minority the verdict is implied in the tone in
which   the   question   is  asked.   And   the  verdict   is
Boards of Governors at Canadian universities have
been criticized in terms of their functions, composition, and performance. I am writing solely with reference to the University of British Columbia, but the
same sorts of comments pro and con are being made
at other universities. It is convenient to consider these
criticisms in succession, but it is clear that in the
minds of many the criticisms are related. For example, the intensity of some of the comments would be
quite different if the composition of the Board were
altered drastically.
A few facts about the Board of Governors at the
University of British Columbia provide a background
for considering some of the criticisms.
Under the Universities Act of 1963, the Board of
Governors is responsible for the "management, administration, and control of the property, revenue,
business and affairs of the University." In elaboration
it is made clear that the Board has authority to: 1.
appoint all persons who work for the university; 2.
establish and maintain faculties and departments; 3.
construct and maintain buildings; 4. prepare and a-
dopt the current and the capital budgets; 5. decide
upon the amount of student fees; 6. restrict the number of students in each faculty, "having regard to the
resources available."
The Act qualifies the power of the Board to make
faculty appointments by requiring that each recommendation for appointment or dismissal must have
the approval of the President. The Act also restricts
the authority of the Board in establishing faculties
and departments by requiring that the Board can act
only with the approval of the Senate. I intend to
write an article in this series on the University Senate.
It is sufficient to say here that the Act assigns to
Senate "the government, management, and the carrying out of curriculum, instruction and education
offered by the University."
A perusal of university acts across Canada fails to
indicate how in practice the scope for initiative by
the Board of Governors at state universities in Canada
has been curtailed progressively. The process continues. Why has this occured?
One obvious factor has been that as the universities of the country each year have pressed their case
for large increases in grants, the respective provincial
governments have shown an increasing willingness to
exercise their authority not only with respect to providing operating grants, but also in connection with
capital expenditures. It is difficult to imagine any
large state university in Canada now or in future embarking upon a new program involving the expenditure of millions of dollars without securing the support of either the Provincial or the Federal Government or both.
Even the scope of raising funds privately is restricted. This is partly because of the mounting levels of
personal and corporation income taxes. It is also due
to the need to relate money spent from private
sources within the context of spending public funds.
The one remaining source of significant net revenues,
student fees, is one of such political sensitivity that
the scope for discretion is limited. On the expenditure side the growing influence of faculty members in
the universities has made it increasingly difficult for a
Board of Governors, in their concern for the public
good as they see it, to act contrary to majority faculty opinion.
The Board consists of eleven members, as follows:
1. the Chancellor, elected by the graduates of the
university; 2. the President, who is appointed by the
Board; 3. three members of Senate elected by the
Senate; 4. six members of the public appointed by
the Provincial Cabinet.
Faculty members other than the president, members of Parliament or of the Legislative Assembly,
employees of the Department of Education, and
school principals or teachers are not eligible to be on
the Board.
The most frequently heard comments relate to the
composition of the Board, but the criticisms of its
functions, while more recent, are more far-reaching. I
shall list the former first, and afterwards give my own
reaction to these comments.
1. The public interest is over-represented on the
Board.   I  do not know how many faculty members
2/UBC Reports/March 27, 1969 ,
would go as far as my friend. Professor Gideon
Rosenbluth, who in principle would prefer that there
be no public representatives on the Board. But
many—probably a majority of the faculty, and many
students who have considered the subject thoughtfully—do not believe that all the Board members except the President should be lay members. Matters to
be decided frequently are so complicated and require
such a background of knowledge that lay members of
the Board cannot be expected to have either the
knowledge or the time to make the wisest decisions.
Moreover, their set of values and attitudes, their philosophy of life, may diverge considerably from that of
many students and faculty. In short, the public, even
if ideally represented on the Board, should not have
so much influence.
2. The lay members of the Board are selected from
too narrow a segment of the public interest, both in
terms of their occupational backgrounds and their
place of residence. In the last quarter of a century
nearly all the lay members of the Board have come
from a background of business or from law, medicine,
engineering or journalism. They have been highly successful in their careers. With rare exceptions their
homes have been in Vancouver or West Vancouver.
3. Under the Act the President has too much
power and too much responsibility as the sole academic spokesman on the Board. There is the possible
temptation on some controversial issues to present to
the Board evidence that supports his recommendations, while passing unobtrusively over, or even omitting evidence that might point to different conclusions.
4. The faculty should have representatives on the
Board, preferably by election, to provide support for
the President on issues where he and the university
may benefit substantially. Moreover their presence
may serve as a check on presidential prerogatives and
help ensure that divergent faculty viewpoints are considered by Board members in their decision making.
5. Students should have representation on the
Board to ensure that their interests are kept in mind.
6. The number of Board members is too small to
perform the functions assigned to it without taking
up a great amount of time of conscientious Board
members. I am informed that it takes at least 40
hours a month for the typical Board member, and
more for members who are chairmen of important
standing committees of the Board. This fact in itself
restricts severely the number of public-spirited citizens who would be willing to serve.
In principle, all of the above criticisms could be
met by substantial changes in composition of the
Board and a limited increase in its size. I turn now to
more far-reaching criticisms which carry no such
7. The existence of a separate Board of Governors
at each university is not only unnecessary but undesirable. As early as 1966 President Claude Bissell of
the University of Toronto publicly advocated the
creation of one governing body at each university
which would combine the functions of present
Boards of Governors and Senates. He believed that
such a change would not only save time, but also
would lead to more effective decision making.
The brief submitted last November to the Advisory Committee on Inter-University Relations by the
Senate of Simon Fraser University goes further than
President Bissell. The Senate recommends that there
be established one overall British Columbia Commission on Universities. This body would exercise overall
financial authority over the state universities in the
Province. The public interest would be safeguarded
by including laymen among the Commissioners. The
Board of Governors on each campus would be abolished, and laymen would be removed from the Senate
of each university. The Senate would be the supreme
authority on policy questions on each campus.
WHEN the question of power is being
considered, whether in the family, the
church, a business, a trade union, government, or in the university, it is extraordinarily
difficult for the participants to be sure of their
own motives. It is easy to attribute a degree of
benevolence to one's own intentions that in the name
of realism one does not attribute to others with opposing points of view. It is not only the possession of
power that corrupts: the envy of power is no less
In view of the wide differences in forms of university government in the western world, it is an act of
indefensible dogmatism to assert that only one form
This is the second of a series of articles on topics of
wide concern on the UBC campus by Dr. Robert M.
Clark, who is professor of economics as well as
academic planner at UBC. He emphasizes that his
views are "those of a faculty member who writes only
for himself and are in no sense to be regarded as
representing any official university viewpoint. " ^   ■
of university government is appropriate for mature,
state universities. The differences in historical circumstances account in large measure for the great variations in forms of government that we observe. In thi|^
article I am concerned with what is best for the Url^r
versity of British Columbia in the next several years.
First let us consider the more fundamental ques-      _
tion: why have a separate Board of Governors at all?
Unless there is a basic justification for such a Board,
it is a waste of time considering possible changes in its
composition or functions.
MY   own    conviction    is   that   the   presence
of   two   bodies—Senate  and   Board—at  the
University   of   British   Columbia   has  been
on  balance highly beneficial to the university com-      JA
munity   and   to   society.   I   should   be  opposed  to     ^^
changes   that   were   proposed   with   the   objective
of   abolishing   the   local   Board   on   each   campus.
This   is   not   to   say   that   there   is   no   scope   for
significant reforms, and   I shall make some positi\^^
suggestions  later.   But   I   do  wish  to  emphasize as^
strongly as possible the practical advantages of having
the two separate bodies.
1. It is a great advantage to have a large Senate,
since the essential function of the Senate is to deli-       .
berate on academic policy questions. A large Senate, "
such as our Senate of 82, increases the chances that
on almost any significant policy issue there will beat
least a few Senators with direct experience of the
subject at hand. A large Senate affords ample opportunity for elected faculty members and students to
make their opinions known before decisions affecting
their welfare are taken.
I believe that it would be desirable to have a some-
what larger Senate than now exists on each campus.
Specifically, several more students should be added,
since four clearly is not enough to represent adequately student interests in the work of Senate committees where students can be expected to have constructive ideas. I also believe that whatever the size of
Senate, the principle should be followed that elected
faculty members should constitute a slight majority
of Senate. ,-j>
The Board of Governors devotes most of its time
to making financial decisions to implement academic
policies. For this purpose a small Board is most efficient, though there are good reasons for believing that
a Board of eleven is somewhat too small.
How large should a Senate be if it were to act in
lieu of a local Board, while continuing its existing
functions? I suggest that it would need to be at least /
as large as the existing Senate—82—in order to handle
its academic and financial responsibilities. For the
sake of efficiency the financial decisions would be
worked out largely by a small committee. This arrangement would not give faculty members or students as much influence as some might wish or
expect. The scope for misunderstandings which give
rise to conflicts between the finance committee and j<"
some senators inexperienced in financial matters
would be wide indeed.  I think that this type of ar- CAMPUS TOPICS: II
rangement would be less efficient for financial decision making than a modified form of our existing
^ 2.  This conclusion at once raises the question:
^hat can lay Board members be expected to contribute of value to universities?
This is not an easy question for most students and
faculty members to answer, partly because they never
see the Board of Governors in the act of making a
decision. They know that the Board is supposed to be
responsible for obtaining current revenues and capital
for the university. They observe with the naked eye
that the university chronically is short of money.
Who is to blame for this state of affairs? There are
three prime suspects—the Government of Canada, the
Government of British Columbia, and the Board of
Governors. When either government makes an announcement of policy directly and adversely affecting
the university—and both have done so within recent
months—active disapproval is focused for a few days
■i Victoria or Ottawa. At such a time the political
performer, whether he bestrides the House of Commons stage at Ottawa or casts his shadow behind the
Legislative Assembly footlights in Victoria, is regarded widely on campus as an anti-hero. But Ottawa is
a long way off. And Victoria has a natural moat
which sets a decorous distance between the demanding realities of campus life and the no less exacting
realities of the political arena.
THE Board of Governors holds its meetings
on campus. It is on the spot, the scapegoat
for daily grievances. With many, the Board
members get little credit no matter how assiduously
they labour in privacy to raise money from public and private sources. Since the Board has the
unenviable task of assigning inadequate funds a-
mong competing users, it is often regarded as
grim and unsympathetic. To a professor whose
chief interest is to extend the outposts of knowledge, it may seem intolerable to have his request for new research facilities rejected at the hands
of men who cannot be expected to feel as he does. It
is easy for him to come to feel that, if given the
opportunity, he and like-minded faculty could handle
the financial affairs of the university with the same
sort of competence that he is accustomed to exercise
in his research. To many students the time that the
Board receives the most publicity is when an announcement is made that there is to be an increase in
fees, room rents, meal prices, or parking permit
charges. And in the face of salvos of sharp criticism,
members of the Board rarely react publicly and personally with anything louder than silence.
I believe that lay Board members contribute to the
university primarily in five important ways.
(i) Members of the Board at the University of British Columbia have brought a high level of competence in making financial decisions involving many
millions of dollars annually. This, in my opinion, is a
rare attribute. I believe that this function would not
be   as   effectively   handled   by  a   Senate   composed
largely of faculty and students. The existence of a
separate Board with significant decision-making powers has made it possible to continue to attract outstanding public spirited persons to serve on the
Board. These people do not originate academic proposals. They are in a position to exercise discerning
judgment on recommendations made to the Board by
the President, who has been open to the wide range
of academic viewpoints.
(ii) On some highly controversial issues such as the
establishment of building priorities, it is easier for lay
Board members to be objective than it is for faculty
members with a direct personal interest in the outcome.
(iii) Lay members of Boards of Governors, because
of their diversity of backgrounds, occupations and
interests, may on some issues have a keener awareness
of the needs of society than many faculty members
whose work is done largely within the confines of the
(iv) Both the Government of British Columbia and
any board authorized by the Government to distribute funds among universities are likely to be more
impressed by a well-presented case for funds, or in
defence of academic freedom if it is advanced by lay
members of the Board than the same case presented
by a group of faculty. The latter, however idealistic
their presentation, are seen generally to be advancing
their own interests at the same time they seek to
promote the public interest.
(v) The fact that the Board of Governors at the
University of British Columbia is composed of persons highly regarded in the community helps maintain public confidence in the University.
3. The existence of both a Senate and a Board of
Governors on each campus probably makes it possible
for a substantially larger number of persons to consider offering their services as members of Senate or
Board than would be feasible if there were only one
combined Senate ancl Board. If the Senate on each
campus assumed a large part of the role now assigned
under the Universities Act to the Board, the business
of Senate could be expected to take a substantially
longer time than at present. To serve on a body that
combined Senate and Board functions at the University
of British Columbia would, I expect, take a typical
conscientious member about a day and a half a
week. If he were involved actively in committee work,
it would take much more.
UNDER a combined Board and Senate, which in
honour of our Premier I shall refer to as the
Bennett, most committee meetings would be
held during ordinary office hours, for the obvious
convenience of the great majority of the members. A
result would be, I am convinced, a major reduction in
the quality of contribution to committees by lay
members without commensurate gains.
4. It is argued that whatever advantages have come
from having lay members on present Boards of Governors can be obtained equally well by appropriate appointments of lay members to some government
authorized board or council that has regulatory
powers over the state universities in this province. For
convenience I shall refer to such a body as the Universities Council, and deal with it in my next article. The
argument is unconvincing to me.
At the level of the Universities Council the lay
members may serve on a full-time or part-time basis,
or a combination of these possibilities may be used. If
the members serve full-time, as they do in California,
they must be paid a salary. What level of salaries is
the Provincial Government likely to be willing to
pay? If the Government set salary limits for lay members of the Council on the same basis that it pays
senior civil servants, it is unlikely that it will be possible to attract men now serving without salary on the
Board at the University of British Columbia. Even if
the Government were willing to offer handsome
salaries, as have been set recently for the three members of the British Columbia Mediation Commission, it
may be more than difficult to obtain the services of
persons highly qualified for the position.
If, on the other hand, the lay members oi the
Universities Council are on a part-time basis, a different type of problem arises. Presumably they would
derive most of their livelihood from their chief occupation. This would give them the great advantage of a
measure of independence both in relation to the
Government and to the Universities. But they could
not possibly be as well-informed about the affairs of
each university as the typical member of our present
Board of Governors. The most probable consequence
would be, I believe, that lay members would have less
competence than existing members of our Board to
make financial decisions affecting each institution
under the jurisdiction of the Council. And this would
be true even with academic members on the Council.
I turn now to the charge that continuing the separation  of  Board of Governors and Senate is likely
to lead to irresponsible decision-making in both
bodies. That a strict division at each university between academic and financial affairs each handled exclusively by a separate authority can lead to inefficiency, time wasting, unimaginative and irresponsible
decisions, is clear. But that this is the probable outcome at the universities of British Columbia is not
The argument that university senates in this Province need more power than they now have in the
Universities Act to encourage them to behave more
responsibly reminds me of the concept of power in
the mind of a small boy who was asked to explain to
a friend the meaning of the word "power." "It's like
this," said he. "Suppose you are part of a big family
and there is just one apple pie to be divided among all
of them. You have power if you can choose the biggest piece for yourself."
In the minds of many people, power is like that. If
they get more of it someone has to get less. This is a
simplistic approach which in the university context
does more harm than good.
There is nothing in the Universities Act that prevents or even discourages the Senate from acting responsibly. It is possible for Senate committees to get
the financial information they need in considering
competing proposals. For example, the Senate at the
University of British Columbia has a standing committee to recommend priorities on new academic
buildings. The committee has been given approximate
cost estimates for each of the buildings under consideration. The Senate also has a committee on enrolment policy, dealing with the questions of numbers
of students to be accepted at this university. The
Senate has a committee on long-term objectives of
the university. These are all developments within the
last year, welcomed alike by members of the Board
and of the Senate. The scope for cooperation between Senate and Board continues to grow.
I favour the enlargement of the Board by adding a
few, possibly three, faculty members to the Board.
They should be elected from the Senate by the entire
membership of Senate.
There is, indeed, a risk involved in such a
proposal. At times there may be a conflict for a
person between his capacity as a Board member and
his responsibilities as a member of a faculty. My
own opinion is that in such cases of conflict of interest the faculty members on the Board should participate in the discussions but refrain from voting. Such
conflicts of interest would, I suggest, be rather
The risks of having a few faculty members on the
Board are well worth incurring in view of the advantages to be gained. What are these?
1. The presence of faculty members on the Board
would provide support for the President on many
issues, both within the Board and in general faculty
2. It would help to ensure—though it would not
guarantee—that divergent faculty viewpoints were
considered by Board members before decisions were
3. It would relieve the President of the onerous
responsibility of being the sole Board member to
speak as a faculty member on behalf of faculty and
students. It would tend to strengthen the President's
position with the faculty by making them more aware
of his efforts on their behalf.
4. The addition of a few members to the Board
should make it possible to divide some of the work,
reducing the heavy load now carried by some Board
THUS the addition  of faculty members to the
Board would  be a  significant answer to four
of the criticisms described earlier of the composition of the Board.
I do not favour having students elected to the
Board of Governors in  the foreseeable future, and
Please turn page, sec
UBC Reports/March 27i 1969/3 REFLECTIONS,
continued from page three
Students Not Favoured on Board
believe that the Universities Act should leave no ambiguity on this point. To take this position is to invite
the comment that one is indeed a direct and recent
descendant of a dinosaur. My conclusion does not
rest on the premise that students in general or elected
students in particular are untrustworthy or socially
inferior to us peers of the realm of creative thought,
the faculty. Nor is the conclusion based on the fear
that while a majority of respectable students are
slumbering peacefully at their studies, a small, subversive clique of highly organized radicals will gain access
to the citadel of power.
My reasons are pragmatic. I favour having students
on the Senate—more students than at present—because they have a positive contribution to make arising directly out of their experience as students. As
enrollees in courses, as users of the libraries on
campus, as—in many cases—teaching assistants, their
experience often bears directly on decisions to be
taken in Senate. I also think it is desirable for students to be added as members of some committees to
advise the President. Again the chief criterion is the
relevance of their experience before and during the
time the committee is functioning. For example, it
makes obvious sense to have students serve on a committee advising the President on the construction of
new residences. The same criterion suggests to me
that students do not have sufficient relevant experience to be really effective as members of a Board
which devotes most of its time to making financial
Having said all this, let me add that it is imperative
for students to feel that their elected representatives
on the Students' Council have the opportunity to
have their views considered by the Board before decisions are taken on issues affecting them significantly.
This implies that more often than in the past the Students' Council should have the opportunity to discuss
university topics with the Board.
The 1961 report. University Government in Canada, commissioned by the Canadian Association of
University Teachers and the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, and written by
Sir James Duff and Professor Robert Berdahl, contains the recommendation that university acts in
Canada should be amended to allow the Board of
Governors to co-opt "some" additional members. I
believe this is desirable because it would enable the
Board to add to its membership individuals with a
particular competence in some areas of concern to
the Board. My own preference would be to limit the
number of co-opted members at any one time to two
or at the most three.
I note that in its previous elections of Board members the Senate has invariably selected individuals
similar in occupational background, outlook and
place of residence to those appointed by successive
provincial cabinets. This is not surprising. It is also
significant that the Senate has served and will continue to serve as a valuable forum in which laymen
can gain experience for service on the Board. Many of
the past and present outstanding Board members
were on the Senate before being elected to the Board.
It is no implied criticism of present Board members at the University of British Columbia to suggest
that in selecting future laymen for the Board, the
Provincial Cabinet and the Senate may wish to make
greater efforts than in the past to choose persons
from a wider range of occupational backgrounds and
places of residence. This will not be as easy as some
may think. How many people are willing to serve without pay in a position that demands at least 40 hours a
month? How many have the time and the ability?
Events of recent months on the campus of Canadian
■■■fe^fc Volume 15, No. 10-March 27,
II^BB| 1969. Authorized as second class
11 HK I mail by the Post Office Depart-
I III H ment, Ottawa, and for payment of
^Aj ^Af ™mf postage in cash. Postage paid at
_ _ _ _ — — q Vancouver B.C. Published by the
R C P U K I a University of British Columbia and
distributed free. J.A. Banham, Editor; Barbara Clag-
horn. Production Supervisor. Letters to the Editor
should be addressed to the Information Office, UBC,
Vancouver 8, B.C.
universities have not added to the allure of being a
Board member.
I conclude that it is possible to meet with constructive proposals the criticisms mentioned earlier.
These proposals will not satisfy those who earnestly believe that we faculty members, or ourselves and
the students—the latter in a suitably modest role-
should make all the significant university decisions. It
is not difficult to create or to allow to develop an
atmosphere on campus in which laymen on the Board
feel that what they have to contribute in terms of
ideas and judgment is really not valued by most members of the university community.
If the influence of the lay members on the
Board—or the Board and Senate—is diminished sharply, will there be a corresponding increase of authority
in the hands of faculty and students? No, indeed. The
state, either directly through the Department of Education, or indirectly through a government-controlled
board or council will increase its degree of control
over university affairs. And this control will be exerted in all probability by individuals less well informed
about the needs of each institution than lay members
of its own Board of Governors. Such control would
be exercised by a group of persons who would be
responsible not to the universities but to an authority
outside them.
But the reasons for wanting to retain a Board of
Governors more broadly based, as I have described,
are not primarily negative. In a state university lay
members no less than faculty members on the Board
have their own distinctive contributions to make.
Governance at its highest level is only one of
several factors in the ongoing creation of a successful
university. But it is highly important. The prospects
for success are greatest when a strong Board of Governors and a strong Senate are working co-operatively.
A Puzzling Question
Editor, UBC Reports
In many ways, this past year has been one of
the most exciting in the history of the University
of British Columbia.
Seldom have so many ideas and points of view
been paraded before faculty, students, alumni and
general public for consideration and decision. In
some cases, the voices of the advocates have been
strident, urging commitment by the University to
the idea of social revolution. Others, more
measured and calm, have argued for free discussion
and debate on a wide range of University policies.
This latter view, in our opinion, has prevailed
on the UBC campus.
At almost every level of University activity,
from the Senate down through the administrative
and academic framework of UBC, students have
been admitted to decision-making bodies and faculty members have taken a renewed interest in
the basic questions which affect the operations of
the University.
Last summer, the editors of UBC Reports discussed, and decided on, a major change in the editorial policy and appearance of the newspaper. In
anticipation that the coming year would be one of
contending ideas, it was decided to turn the newspaper into a forum for comment on University
affairs. We invited everyone—faculty members, students, alumni and the public—to suggest topics for
articles or submit material for publication.
The response to this change in policy, with one
notable exception, has been heartening. Indeed,
our most energetic contributors—the faculty, graduates and the public—have made life difficult by
submitting more material than we could possibly
It seems appropriate here to take the opportunity, on the one hand, to apologize to those
whose articles had to be discarded, and, on the
other, to thank those who met deadlines and
agreed, in certain instances, to manuscript changes
which the editors felt made the material more
The response to our invitation by the student
body has been both disappointing and puzzling.
During the year, each member of the UBC
Reports staff actively solicited articles from students who it was felt could state their viewpoint
with clarity and force. Material was requested
from individuals representing the widest possible
range of political and social opinion.
Almost invariably, the editors' requests were
met with enthusiasm. But, except in a few cases,
this enthusiasm was not translated into manuscripts. The question we keep asking ourselves is:
Students are busy people, of course, but so are
our faculty and alumni contributors. (For an ar
ticle on how busy some faculty members are, turn
to pages ten and eleven). And we cannot really
credit the idea that students are reluctant to write
for UBC Reports because it is published by "the
In dealing with students in recent years and
observing the conduct of their affairs, we've noted
that the printed word seems to hold less attraction
for them than the endless face-to-face dialogue
which they favor. We suspect that the prospect of
appearing in print is something most students seek
to avoid, largely because the printed word has a
permanence which is not a factor in oral dialogue.
Many a public figure, of course, has lived to regret
earlier positions which appeared in print and were
later used by opponents in an attempt to deride or
discredit him.
All we can counter with is the thought that no
one should be ashamed or frightened of changing
his mind, even if the act of changing involves support of the opposite viewpoint. And in the final
analysis we believe students need a neutral platform, like UBC Reports, where their ideas are subject to examination, scrutiny and criticism.
There has been one additional and more recent
disappointment lying in wait for us. This is the
action of the postmaster general, who has changed
the ground rules governing second class mailing
privileges. The upshot is that from now on we shall
have to mail UBC Reports at a substantially increased cost under third class privileges.
This will involve a major curtailment of our
mailing lists to make our press run conform to
next year's operating budget. At the same time, we
are eager to continue sending the publication to all
those who find it interesting and informative.
The only way we can know of your interest is
to hear from you directly. If you wish to continue
receiving UBC Reports in future months, please fill
in the coupon below and return it to us. Thank
TO:    Information Services,
University of B.C.,
Vancouver 8, B.C.
Yes, I want to continue receiving UBC Reports.
4/UBC Reports/March 27, 1969 CRISIS
Up until last summer, a lot of organizations
in Vancouver talked about the need for a Crisis
Intervention Centre, but none of them did very
much about it.
The drive to band interested groups together
to forward the project came from David
Hembling, a Union College theological student,
who last summer workec for the Inner-City
Service Project. (For their story, see page six).
As a result of Hembling's efforts, a board of
directors has been formed, and with a little luck
a 24-hour-a-day Crisis Intervention Centre will
begin operations in Vancouver soon.
The Vancouver centre will be patterned on a
similar, highly-successful operation in Seattle,
according to UBC assistant professor of social
work Ben Chud and student Arthur Temple,
whose involvement in organizing the Centre is
part of his academic program in UBC's school
of social work.
"The immediate purpose of a Crisis
Intervention Centre is usually thought to be
dealing with people contemplating suicide,"
Temple says. "But experience in similar centres
elsewhere has shown that only 15 per cent of
all calls come from potential suicides."
The central idea of the Vancouver Centre
will be dealing with a situation where people
really don't know what to do, and Temple cites
the example of a parent whose child is involved
with drugs and needs information on contacting
an appropriate agency for help.
"A crisis can become a catastrophe if it is
prolonged," Chud says. "People simply reach a
point where they're unable to cope and the
centre is designed to allay anxiety at a specific
point in time. It will be more than just an
information centre, although such requests
won't be ignored."
Present plans call for the Centre to be
staffed overnight by a single student, who may
be paid, and during the day by volunteer
housewives. All will be extensively briefed and
before being allowed to deal with calls will
probably serve an apprenticeship with an
experienced crisis worker.
The Centre will not only provide a service,
says Chud, it could also be an educational
experience for students in many fields, such as
psychology, medicine, education and social
IF YOU WANT TO HELP: Call Mrs. Betty
Tarrant, at the B.C. division of the Canadian
Mental Health Association, 3355 West
Broadway, 736-0381, if you're interested in
being a crisis worker. Funds are not being
solicited by the organization at this time.
These four university graduates gathered in International House recently to exchange experiences gained while
serving with Canadian University Service Overseas. Left to right are UBC graduate Barbara Geddes, who spent two
years in Sarawak as a teacher; Phil Bartle, who has returned to UBC after two years in Ghana as a high school
teacher; Bruce Geddes (no relation to Barbara), a Manitoba graduate and now a student in librarianship at UBC,
who went to Jamaica for two years, and Kathy Hembling, a UBC graduate who taught in Nigeria.
CUSO Was First in Field
If any single off-campus student project can be
characterized as a success story it is Canadian
University Service Overseas—CUSO—which began as a
"do-it-yourself" organization at UBC in the early
The groundswell of student interest in sending
teachers and technical personnel overseas was
stimulated at UBC by the presence on the campus of
the United Nations Regional Training Centre, at that
time headed by Prof. Cyril Belshaw, now head of
UBC's department of anthropology and sociology.
Almost simultaneously, students at the University
of Toronto and Laval University in Quebec also began
to recruit students for overseas service and there was
a good deal of letter-writing and cooperation between
the three universities.
Prof. Belshaw, former Alumni director Art Sager
and graduate Hugh Christie, then warden of Oakalla
Prison Farm, stumped the Vancouver area raising
funds for the UBC project, and in 1961 seven UBC
students joined a contingent of 17 Canadian
university graduates who began the CUSO adventure
Right from the beginning, CUSO organizers were
determined that the venture would be free of political
connotations. As a result, the organization struggled
along for years without government support, raising
its funds by public appeal.
Today, CUSO receives a subvention from the
external aid branch of the federal government but
still stages an annual fund drive. It remains
independent of government and is linked to the
Association of  Universities and Colleges of Canada,
whose executive director, Dr. Geoffrey C. Andrew,
was a CUSO booster when deputy president at UBC.
Last year, the UBC committee recruited 61
persons for overseas service. In 1969 the aim is to
recruit at least 50 persons as part of a national
program which will send 700 persons to 46 countries
Initially, CUSO restricted its overseas personnel to
university graduates, but today it will accept
applications from non-graduates who have a special
skill or talent. Already this year the UBC committee
has sent a B.C. fisherman to Madras, India, to assist
local officials on a project.
The most pressing need in 1969 is for
agriculturalists, medical and paramedical personnel,
technicians and mathematics and science teachers.
Generalists can still be placed, although the applicant
supply this year slightly exceeds the demand.
Any organization which has grown as fast as CUSO
inevitably develops critics, in this case its own
volunteers who have returned from duty abroad. They
complain that CUSO is becoming too bureaucratic
and far removed from the on-the-spot problems in
developing countries.
In the final analysis, however, CUSO can lay claim
to being not only international in scope but first in
the field of reaching out beyond the confines of the
university to aid the less fortunate of the world.
office in UBC's International House for information
on volunteering for overseas service. CUSO also needs
funds to send recruits abroad, and cheques made
payable to Canadian University Service Overseas
should be sent to International House.
UBC Reports/March 27, 1969/5 Takes Aim
at Dirty
Air, Water
Geoff Paynter is a second year agricultural
economics student at UBC and a charter
member of SPEC—the Society for Pollution and
Environmental Control—which was born early
this year at Simon Fraser University.
Paynter, a native of Westbank in the
Okanagan, where pollution of lakes and sources
of drinking water has raised a public outcry in
recent years, attended a meeting held at SFU in
January to form an anti-pollution group.
Fired up by the organizational meeting,
Paynter advertised a similar gathering on the
UBC campus less than three weeks later and 40
UBC students turned out. SPEC now has more
than 200 members, about 50 of them on the
Point Grey campus.
SPEC's main objective is simple and
straightforward: "To prevent and eliminate
pollution of our water, soil and air."
Other Society objectives: to preserve and
develop a quality environment for all forms of
life; scientifically to investigate, study and
correlate facts in respect of ecological problems
and to make available such studies to the
general public; to cooperate with and assist
other persons, organizations and industries
devoted to or affected by pollution and
environmental control in Canada.
Paynter is a member of SPEC's action
committee, which aims at direct community
action to explain the dangers of pollution.
"SPEC," he adds, "also hopes to organize
branches in B.C. and elsewhere in Canada."
Paynter plans to get a branch organized in
Westbank this summer.
SPEC's research committee has already
begun work on two research studies under the
direction of Prof. A.L. Turnbull, of SFU's
department of biological sciences.
The committee is investigating water
pollution in Burrard Inlet and noise pollution in
the Vancouver area. "The committee is
gathering facts to determine how widespread
pollution is in these areas," Paynter says.
If the committee's reports show that
pollution is reaching dangerous levels, SPEC
will present its evidence to governments and
pressure them to eliminate the problem.
The only research equipment SPEC now
possesses is designed to register noise levels.
SFU is donating some additional research
equipment, but the Society eventually hopes
that it will be equipped to do the research job
IF YOU WANT TO HELP: phone 926-1962
for details on how you can join SPEC. Financial
contributions for the work of the Society
should be sent to Vancouver lawyer William
Ellis, the group's treasurer, at 640 West
Broadway. Make your cheque payable to the
Society for Pollution and Environmental
<e      _. .  * *
UBC lecturer
student Dave
in social work, Max Beck (seated), operates the Inner-City Service project out of this old churc
Robertson, left, and law professor Jerome Atrens, who have organized a legal aid service wh
If you want to join Max Beck's Inner-City Service
Project this summer, you'll have to be prepared to
take "The Plunge."
Taking The Plunge means pocketing $2 and
spending two days and two nights in downtown
Vancouver, making do all by yourself.
You'll be expected to stand in bread lines, eat in
cheap cafes and sleep in missions and flop houses.
You'll also be expected to test local social
services—the venereal disease clinic and hospital
out-patient departments, for instance—to see what it's
like to receive services.
You may even wind up in jail for the night, as one
Plunger did last year.
The Plunge, according to an Inner-City Service
Project pamphlet, is the most popular and effective
part of a two-week orientation program which
precedes the start of the Project's summer activities.
The 30 Canadian university students—most of
them from UBC—who will be chosen to take part in
this year's program, will probably come from
comfortable middle-class homes and will have had
little experience with poverty, according to Beck, who
has been director of the Project for the past year.
"In the future," he says, "these students will be
delivering services to people and The Plunge is
designed to show them what it's like to ask for and
receive help and to see the attitudes of the givers."
The purpose of the Plunge is simple and direct:
"We ask them to get down to the nitty-gritty of life,"
says Beck, an arts and social work graduate of UBC,
who spends his winters lecturing part-time in UBC's
school of social work.
Students taken on by the Inner-City Service
Project will get free room and board, a living
allowance of $35 per month and a $500 bursary
when the Project closes down on Sept. 1.
During the five months beginning May 1, Project
workers will either be assigned to an ongoing activity
of the organization or encouraged to start their own
program if they have some special talent or come uoa
with a good idea. ^
"We try to cut students loose and give them a
tremendous amount of freedom and independence,"
Beck says. "We're trying to encourage the feeling that
they can do things on their own without having to
wait for guidance and direction from higher-ups."
The basic purposes of the Project, Beck says, are
two-fold: "First, we involve students from Canadian
university campuses in social action activities that
provide a service to the community, and secondly, we
provide learning experiences for tomorrow's service
professionals so they will learn to cope with and
perhaps control the complex problems of urban
Last summer, 25 project workers established,
among other things, La Scuola Italiana, a school
teaching English language and Canadian culture to
immigrants and established residents; helped Mount
Pleasant residents establish a community action
group, worked with Skid Road alcoholics, operated a
medical clinic for hippies through the Cool-Aid
organization, helped church groups develop
Meals-on-Wheels programs for elderly citizens,
operated a summer camp program and started two
coffee houses.
To these and other 1969 Project activities will be
added the services of the Legal Aid Committee of the
UBC law school. About 200 UBC law students have
already indicated that they are prepared to give legal
advice to anyone who asks for it through the
Inner-City Service Project.
Second-year law student Dave Robertson, who
chairs the Legal Aid Committee, says their project
resulted from the conviction that the existing legal
aid system in B.C. is totally inadequate.
An approach by the students to the professional
legal association proved fruitless—"They're always
looking   into   it   and   never  do anything about  it,"
6/UBC Reports/March 27, 1969 If,.
/za// o« Columbia street in Vancouver. With him are
•h will operate as part of the project this summer.
^^aertson says—and the student group decided to
^^ the initiative themselves.
Throughout the 1968-69 UBC winter session, law
students have been offering free legal advice to
anyone—students, faculty members and the general
public—who can't afford the services of a lawyer.
^Already student lawyers have appeared in magistrates'
and small debts courts and at an immigration hearing.
"The Inner-City Project is a perfect vehicle for
us," Robertson says, "because we're interested in
extending legal aid to the community-at-large. We'll
have a downtown centre where the public can go and
it will mean legal aid can be made an integral part of
the community."
The Inner-City Service Project, like many similar
\programs,   was   the    brainchild    of    a    dissatisfied
individual,  in this case a Union Theological College
student named Gordon How, who now lives in Tahsis,
Disgruntled with the prospect of spending the
summer on the prairies in pastoral training, How
conceived the idea of setting up a summer training
program for theological students in 1967.
Students  in  other  disciplines  became interested
""and   financial   support   from   various   foundations,
church    groups,    UBC   departments,   the   City   of
Vancouver   and   the   federal   government   last  year
resulted in a budget of nearly $36,000.
UBC's 1969 graduating class has allocated $6,000
to the Project and UBC law students will contribute
$1,000 to this summer's program.
Like   most  beginning  community   programs, the
n Inner-City Service Project is only as big as its budget
will  allow. Says  Beck:   "We can  put only as many
students into the field this summer as we have funds
for their support."
IF YOU WANT TO HELP: contact Max Beck at
Project    headquarters,    2196    Columbia    St.,    for
information on working for the Project this summer.
Financial  contributions (make your cheque payable
* ,, ,,
to    the      Vancouver    Inner-City    Service   Project  )
should be sent to the above address.
ATTAC Attacks Apathy in
Vancouver's East End
"I guess you'd have to say we're pretty
conservative," says 19-year-old Joe Ferrara, a founder
and first president of an organization whose name
suggests aggressiveness.
Ferrara, a first year education student at UBC,
heads ATTAC—Association to Tackle Adverse
Conditions—which is attempting to overcome decades
of apathy and neglect in Vancouver's East End.
"We're definitely not a pressure group," says
Ferrara, vigorously shaking his head at the suggestion
of picketing, sit-ins and demonstrations. "We're solely
interested in the social, recreational and cultural
development of our community and rectifying the
neglect of the past."
Ferrara and his teen-age associates have a big job
ahead of them. Vancouver's East End, characterized
by blocs of ethnic minorities that seldom interact
with one another because of language barriers, is
lacking many of the basic amenities—parks, playing
fields, community centres, libraries and health
centres—that the western half of the city takes for
ATTAC's first objective is to have implemented a
report of the City of Vancouver's social development
committee which proposes a $5.1 million Community
Services Centre adjacent to Britannia secondary
school to serve 25,000—30,000 East End citizens.
The Centre, which would include a library, playing
fields, ice rink, swimming pool and gymnasium,
would go far towards meeting the needs of the
community by providing a range of services for all age
To stir up interest in community improvement,
ATTAC has turned to young people. "We're trying to
cut through the apathy which is largely the result of a
lack of communication among the various ethnic
groups in the area," says Ferrara.
To bridge the ethnic gap, ATTAC has formed an
interpreting   committee   which    translates   all    its
literature into the languages of the minority groups
living in the area, including Chinese, Japanese and
The goal of ATTAC is to generate a spirit of
community among the diverse nationalities by getting
at parents through their teen-age sons and daughters,
who can make the needs known to adults by using
their mother tongue.
Another ATTAC committee is studying existing
B.C. laws on expropriation and comparing them to
recent Ontario legislation. ATTAC's interest in this
area stems from the possiblity of expropriation to
provide land for low-rental housing projects and the
proposed Community Services Centre.
Problems which arise in existing housing projects
are also being studied—but by the residents living in
the units. "We felt a study by the people who lived in
these projects would have more impact than one
prepared by an outside group," Ferrara says.
Another ATTAC committee is involved in
arranging fuller use of existing community
recreational facilities, including community use of
schools, and the planning of social activities.
"We're hoping to stage an international carnival
this June," Ferrara says, "with each ethnic group in
the area participating."
Finally, ATTAC is maintaining continuous contact
with civic and provincial government officials in an
effort to press home the needs of the East End.
ATTAC also seems to hold some sort of record for
fast action. It was formed less than three months ago
on a snowy night in the middle of Vancouver's winter
cold snap.
Ferrara—253-9395—to get information on joining
ATTAC and assisting in its work. If you want to
make a financial contribution, make your cheque
payable to the Association to Tackle Adverse
Conditions and send it to 1636 Adanac St.,
A TTA C President Joe Ferrara, left, and friends aim at improving recreation and community service
facilities in Vancouver's East End. Picture by UBC Extension Photo Services.
UBC Reports/March 27, 1969/7 f& plan to provide 'people access' to Vancouver's
-pijaterfront has been developed by these four UBC stuttent architects,
lift to right, John Marchant, Donald Stenson, Kari Mahlberg and
Darryl Foreman. Critical of existing plans for harbour developjnejrtT-**
they believe the waterfront is . . . —     ___-—*'—
A Theatre That Has No Audience
"The waterfront is a theatre without an audience.'
This is the theory of four UBC student architects
who have prepared a report which challenges existing plans for development of more than two miles
of Vancouver's waterfront from Stanley Park to the
vicinity of Centennial Pier at the foot of Dunlevy
The idea for an integrated development of this
huge strip of waterfront began germinating in the
mind of Darryl Foreman when he was employed by
the Grosvenor-Laing Development Co., which is
involved in plans for Project 200, a $300 million
commercial-residential-office complex proposed for
the space between Howe and Abbot streets over the
Canadian Pacific Railway tracks.
At UBC Foreman discussed the project with
fellow students Kari Mahlberg, John Marchant and
Donald Stenson. The students initiated their study
of the area in September of last year and issued a
report in mid-December.
A huge model (see picture above) to graphically
depict the appearance of the integrated development
was built in a period of two to three weeks.
The project has now become the graduating thesis of
both Foreman and Stenson, who will get their
architecture degrees this year.
Central to the student study is the idea of
providing "people access" to the Vancouver Harbour
so that it becomes a vast recreational facility
where people can observe activities which differ in
nature from those of everyday life.
8/UBC Reports/March 27, 1969
"The city," Foreman enthuses, "offers an
opportunity for a great variety of activity. The
waterfront, in particular, makes it possible for
people to become involved in the urban experience
and interact with the works of man."
It should be possible, he adds, for citizens
young and old to have access to a unique resource
where it is possible to see ships coming and going
and being loaded and unloaded, or where the watcher
can simply observe other human beings at work.
The student report calls for an evaluation of
activities on the basis of contribution to the
waterfront, the city and the waterfront-city link.
For instance, they favour small-scale, public-oriented
activity in the Coal Harbour area (a public fish
market, a houseboat and pleasure boat marina and a
small-scale residential development), public
walkways skirting the water and public roof-top
viewing space where people can see waterfront
"The grain elevators," the report says, "are
classic sculpture which could form a delightful
part of the skyline if the dust and grime were
cleaned away."
In the final analysis, the students see the
waterfront as only one part of a larger picture.
This leads them to recommend that Vancouver
implement a comprehensive program of core
revitalization for the waterfront, the old Vancouver
Townsite, Chinatown, the commercial and financial
districts, the West End and other associated areas.
The student planners are critical of the
existing plans for the area because they fail to take
account of the waterfront as a recreational and
educational resource.
As Foreman puts it: "The present plans place
formidable barriers between people and the harbour.
Those who object to our proposals say it's
impossible to allow people to have immediate access
to the waterfront because of the dangers of large-
scale machinery and the possibility of pilfering.
We say these problems can be overcome with the use
of a little imagination."
The student proposals have already had some
impact on the many organizations planning developments in the area. In February, with the assistance
of the UBC Resources Office located in Cecil Green
Park, the students unveiled their model and staged
a film and slide show for more than 60 interested
persons, including representatives of the major
waterfront development companies and civic and
professional personnel.
When Foreman and his associates had completed
their presentation they were roundly applauded by
the gathering. They are following up the event by
sending out a questionnaire to those who were
present to get reactions to the plan.
IF YOU WANT TO HELP: Foreman and his
associates don't represent any formal organization
and therefore have no need for funds to support the
project. They suggest that interested persons should
write to the various parties involved in waterfront
projects—the CPR, Grosvenor-Laing and the National
Harbours Board—to urge cooperation in preparing an
integrated development. BUSY   UBC   SUMMER   EXPECTED
HELP! I've Got A Bug In My Ear
He was only one of several thousand delegates who
attend the scores of seminars and conventions held
each summer in the student residence facilities at the
University of B.C.
But he had a problem—and one which demanded
immediate attention.
He literally had a bug in his ear, a small insect
which was driving him to distraction with its constant
buzzing and fluttering in attempting to escape.
The solution was provided by a call to the UBC
extension department's conference office, which
delivered the distraught delegate post haste to the
University hospital for extractive therapy.
It was hardly a typical demand on the services of
the conference office, but then neither are the frantic
requests for immediate duplication of 50 copies of a
paper, to provide an electric shaver or press a man's
They are the kind of minor problems which conference office supervisor Jindra Kulich and his staff
take in their stride in the process of providing a wide
range of conference management functions.
The ability to handle such spur-of-the-moment
requests is a minor part of the conference office
function, but as Mr. Kulich points out, service above
and beyond the call of duty is gratefully remembered
by delegates and helps build the reputation of UBC as
a good conference center.
The conference office and the office of UBC
convention manager Dal Richards work in close cooperation to meet the needs of a growing number of
organizations which use student residences and other
University facilities in the summer months.
The smooth functioning of both the conference
and convention offices to the benefit of visiting delegates is ensured by the services offered by such University departments as physical plant, food services
and traffic and security.
Organizations which will use UBC residence facilities this summer range from the National Committee
for Astronomy of Canada to Boy Scout groups from
San Francisco and Los Angeles and the International
Union of Biological Sciences.
The function of the convention manager's office is
to operate student residences in the summer months,
in effect, as hotels. This includes the functions of
promotion, booking of accommodation and providing
such in-residence facilities as food services, bar service
and residence parking arrangements.
The primary function of the extension conference
office is provision of professional educational counselling and management services to conference and
seminar groups.
Conference office staff make available their expertise in this field and work with conference officials to
ensure that the conference is professionally organized
and delegates receive the maximum educational benefit from their sessions.
One of the major attractions which brings conferences to UBC is the fact that the University is located
within minutes of a major metropolitan area which
offers many cultural and entertainment "fringe benefits" to delegates.
The conference office works with conference
officials to ensure that these attractions are available
to delegates in a way which will fit in smoothly with
their conference program.
Luncheon at a downtown hotel, a trip to Grouse
Mountain, a bus tour of the campus or an evening in
Chinatown can all be arranged with a minimum of
trouble by the University conference office.
Conference and seminars utilizing UBC facilities
are a growing part of the summer scene on the University campus—but only one part of an increasing
activity in various fields which keeps the campus
bustling through the summer after conclusion of the
UBC academic term.
The Summer Session academic program and extension department programs offering credit and non-
credit courses in a wide range of subjects attracted an
enrolment of more than 8,000 students in 1968. Firm
•. J
• *
Where there's a will...
The major portion of university financing in an
era of rising costs and increased public demand for
higher education must come from government
Despite this trend, many opportunities remain
for the interested private citizen to contribute in a
significant and personally satisfying way to the life
and development of the university in his
One such area is in the field of wills and bequests, a medium which has been used extensively
in the past by interested individuals to offer generous support to the University of British Columbia.
Gifts of this type bequeathed to UBC have been
invaluable in providing financial support both to
individuals and to research programs in areas
where public funds are not applicable.
The university has received several large bequests in excess of $1 million and numerous gifts
for lesser amounts. Bequests as low as $50 and
many sums in the amount of a few hundred dollars
have played an important role in providing grants
or scholarships to individual students.
For example, a capital sum of $2,000 will normally provide an annual bursary of $100 in perpetuity or, if the terms of the bequest permit, for a
larger annual award for a definite period of time.
Although $100 nowadays does not seem to be a
large sum, it is generally adequate to recognize
outstanding merit, will pay transportation costs
for an out-of-town student, or help to buy books
or equipment.
Gifts in the form of bequests, both small and
large, have over the years made a major contribution toward the development of UBC and its
Funds received from this area between 1928
and 1968 totalled $12,781,344. Gifts in the form
of property and further revenues anticipated from
bequests to UBC increase this total to
In addition, the University has received many
valuable contributions in the form of books, paintings and artifacts as a result of wills.
The University Wills and Bequests Committee, a
group of distinguished citizens under the chairmanship of the Hon. Howard Green, Q.C., has
been established to advise and assist individuals
who may wish to consider this form of contribution to the University.
Individuals or their legal advisors who wish to
obtain further information may do so by contacting Mr. A.T. Adams, Executive Secretary, University Resources Council, 6251 N.W. Marine Drive,
Vancouver 8.
enrolment figures are not yet available for 1969, but
University officials feel an increased summer registration is a distinct likelihood on the basis of steep
increases in winter session enrolment.
Other major academic activities during the summer
months involve professors in a wide variety of research projects in locations across Canada and overseas and in the teaching of more than 2,000 graduate
students who study for advanced degrees on a year-
round basis.
A 1968 survey by the University revealed that
more than 1,000 faculty members were actively engaged during the summer in teaching and research
projects on campus, across Canada and in foreign
UBC's year-round operation is reflected in the
non-stop activity of such varied facilities as the library, the University computing centre, and in a continuous program of education for medical internes
and hospital residents.
In addition to a broad variety of academic activities in the summer months, service departments of
the University such as physical plant, food services,
traffic and housing administration are in full
Considers Two
Proposals for an increase in campus parking fees
and construction of a new parking structure are under
consideration by the University of B.C.'s Student-
Faculty Advisory Committee on Traffic and Parking.
Mr. J.F. McLean, chairman of the committee and
UBC's director of ancillary services, said the proposals
were made at the committee's Feb. 27 meeting and
will be given further study at the March meeting.
The first proposal calls for an increase in the preferred student rate from $10 a year to $15 and in
faculty and staff rates from the current $15 to
$22.50 per annum. There would be no increase in the
student rate of $5 a year for regular lots or in the
annual rate of $100 for covered parking under the
Music Building.
Mr. McLean said parking fees are used to cover
operating expenses of parking and to provide funds
for the improvement and extension of existing
He said that in the past year there had been a
$74,000 deficit for these two purposes and the fee
increases were designed to erase the deficit.
UBC is currently providing between 8,000 and
9,000 parking spaces on campus and is planning to
add an additional 1,000 spaces in time for the
1969-70 winter session which begins in September.
Mr. McLean stressed that the committee had
reached no decision on parking fee increases and any
recommendations would have to be referred to the
Board of Governors for final approval.
The second proposal before the committee is for
construction of a multiple-level parking facility in the
northeast corner of the campus behind Brock Hall
and close to the new Student Union Building. Mr.
McLean said the construction costs would be repaid
out of parking fees charged to users.
The proposal for a new facility of this kind is in
line with the campus master plan and was requested
by students when the SUB was in the planning stage.
University bursar William White emphasized that
before plans for such a structure were approved it
would be necessary to examine financing proposals in
UBC Reports/March 27, 1969/9 HOW HARD
"If all I had to do at UBC was teach my students,
life would be a whole lot easier than it is now. But
I'm damn sure that that sort of situation would result
in two things—poorer teachers and weaker students."
The speaker is an extraordinarily busy humanities
professor at UBC who somehow manages to combine
teaching, research and administrative duties in a
career that keeps him on the go between 60 and 70
hours a week.
The remark, which came at the end of a lunch-
hour discussion of work-weeks by UBC faculty members, seemed to sum up a number of points made by
the professor and several colleagues.
In summary these were:
—classroom teaching, for most professors, makes
up a relatively small part of the time in a UBC professor's week;
—effective   teaching  requires  preparation   (sor
times as much as two hours for every classroom houT
and constant research and reading to keep abreast of
new knowledge, particularly in the sciences and.
—the teacher who fails to read and carry out research apart from his classroom duties is almost certain to be ineffective, with the result that his studen_
will be inadequately instructed.
The impression given by the lunch-hour conversation was that the life of many university professors
was rather like an iceberg—about 20 per cent of it
showed above the surface while the remainder was
hidden and unnoticed below the water line.
One result of this situation has been that the professorial staff of universities has been vulnerable to
critics who are understandably puzzled when a professor reports that his teaching load is ten hours a
The tendency of the critic is to divide by five (the
number of days in the university week) and then
write off the university teacher as a lazy slacker
whose periodic pleas for more money are to be regarded with cynical skepticism.
Universities, UBC included, have left themselves
open to criticism by failing until recently to develop
internal research groups who can gather and analyse
statistics on this and other questions.
As a result, hard-pressed university presidents have
had to defend their colleagues by conducting hit-and-
10/UBC Reports/March 27, 1969 *•'
miss surveys and running the risk that the replies may
not be typical of the work weeks of most professors.
This situation is likely to improve in the next year.
UBC is now gathering statistics on faculty work loads
for a Canada-wide study being conducted jointly by
the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada and the Canadian Association of University Teachers.
Still, the smattering of information that has been
gathered in the past often expresses subjective
opinions about life at a university which can never be
embodied in columns of statistics.
Again and again, professors point out that life at a
university involves a "total personal commitment," in
an atmosphere "where ideas of all kinds can be openly discussed without fear of oppression or derision."
One scientist, who is probably not typical, esti-
^Bites that for every formal lecture hour, ten hours of
—hard background effort" is required in preparation.
On top of this he spends many hours per week in
' , intense personal contact with seven graduate students, conducts his own personal research, attends
numerous weekly committee meetings and gives innumerable public addresses in the belief that "informing the general public on recent scientific advances
and university affairs is a moral obligation that each
person who becomes a part of the university must
As a result, this scientist, after a 9 a.m. to 5:30
<   p.m. day, works until after midnight each weekday
and generally spends Saturday afternoon and all day
Sunday in his campus laboratory. He comments: "To
speak of dedication, sacrifice or overwork is irrele-
#it—this is my choice and my commitment."
The above schedule could never be used to describe the norm as far as professorial work weeks are
concerned. Many professors work a basic 8:30 a.m. to
5 p.m. day with an occasional evening spent in academic reading or study.
> 4 But what does emerge from conversations and
other material on faculty work loads is simply this: it
is not possible to describe the work of a professor in
terms of hours of teaching per week. And it would be
safe to say that not a single UBC professor is involved
exclusively in teaching.
Most university professors, if asked, would insist
that their basic duties at UBC were teaching and research. In fact, however, many of them spend as
* much or more time in administration. The reason
behind this, of course, is that much administrative
work is inextricably linked with academic decisionmaking.
Departmental committees on curriculum, for
instance, are vital because almost every discipline is
constantly advancing and courses cannot remain static from year to year. As one scientist puts it: "Con
trary to popular opinion, most courses, and particularly senior ones, are modified little by little each
year to reflect current research findings with the result that the course being given today is scarcely
recognizable as its counterpart of five years ago."
Some university departments, notably the large
scientific ones, have hired administrative assistants in
recent years to process applications for research grants
and control research funds. But there are some administrative tasks—curriculum, selection of scholarship candidates and appointment of new staff members are examples—which are jealously guarded by
academics anxious to ensure high standards of scholarship.
For the conscientious faculty member, administrative duties are usually sandwiched in between
teaching, contact with fellow faculty members and
research. One faculty member describes how he sat
down at 8:45 a.m one day to complete a 12-page
grant questionnaire and was interrupted by a graduate
student who wanted to discuss his program, a colleague who wanted to discuss an exchange program
with an Asian university, the morning mail, a publisher's representative, a student seeking references
for an essay, lunch (sausage-in-a-bun and a donut in
the Auditorium cafeteria), and preparation for a graduate seminar which lasted from 2:30 to 5:30 p.m.
The result was that after going home for supper,
the faculty member returned to his UBC office at 7
p.m. to complete the questionnaire which had to be
mailed to Ottawa the next day. He was home by 10
Some professors, in an effort to organize their
days, set fixed office hours which they post on their
doors, but the majority seem to adhere to the idea
that "my office door is never closed to students." As
one professor in the student teaching office in the
faculty of education puts it: "All day, every day, a
steady stream of professors, students, principals,
teachers and superintendents seek us out in person,
by letter, note and telephone to get information and
present problems for which we must find solutions."
Another clear trend for UBC's professorial staff is
that experience and seniority in university affairs almost inevitably lead to heavier duties. The professor
who becomes a department head or a dean knows
that he will have to sacrifice some of the things that
give him the most satisfaction. Instinctively, however,
he clings to some academic duties which allow him to
maintain contact with his discipline and with students.
One dean, whose first responsibility is to 2,400
students and the hundreds of faculty members who
teach them, begins his day at 6.30 a.m. by dictating
answers to the previous day's mail and initiating new
correspondence. At his office, consultation with students, whose problems run the gamut from personal
despair to the need for academic counselling, is virtually continuous.
The university, he points out, is an extremely complex democracy that operates by consensus achieved
in countless meetings of committees, large and small.
This particular dean either sits on or chairs some 30
committees, which take up some four hours a day
throughout the year.
Despite this schedule, which involves frequent
travel to participate in the work of provincial and
national organizations, the dean manages to teach
300 students in the first year, 30 in the fourth year
and 10 in a graduate course. He has eight graduate
students working with him on doctorates and he is
constantly on the lookout for funds to support work
in his special field of research.
A similar schedule is followed by a department
head who sits on a number of national committees
responsible for distributing millions of dollars in research funds to Canadian universities. He still teaches
four to six hours per week and supervises the work of
six graduate students as well as spending time on the
inevitable department and university committees.
He adds, a little wistfully, "My personal research
has lapsed completely . . ., although I have maintained some stimulating scholarly activity through undergraduate textbook writing and editorial work on
several scientific journals. These activities, however,
are of necessity almost entirely confined to evenings
and weekends."
Almost inevitably, the demands on university professors during the winter session from September
through May often mean that a favoured piece of
research must wait for the end of term. As a result,
the period May through August finds faculty members, if they are not teaching at summer session or
involved with graduate students ( who are 12-month
inhabitants of the campus), undertaking new projects
on the campus or in the field and preparing themselves for the next wave of undergraduates.
Despite a work week which seldom falls below 60
hours per week and often runs as high as 70 hours a
..week, many university professors wouldn't have it
any other way and the academic profession probably
has one of the highest retention rates of any group
in our society. As one professor puts it: "Teaching
and research are a way of life rather than a job, and it
can involve an almost unhealthy degree of total
UBC Reports/March 27, 1969/11 Afp^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
Alumni Fund
Helps Library
The University of B.C. Library has received record
grants totalling almost $20,000 from the UBC Alumni Fund.
Assistance to the Library was raised to this total
by a recent special allocation of $10,500 from the
Fund. The aid comes at a time of great need for the
library. A recent study sponsored by the Association
of Universities and Colleges of Canada revealed that
the UBC library is desperately short of books and
space to adequately serve the university. The grants
to the library will be used to buy extra copies of
much-used books, paperbacks for the Sedgewick Library, orientation display materials and book-drops to
be located around the campus.
The library was one of many beneficiaries of the
success of the UBC Alumni Fund in its 1968-69 campaign. Graduates and Friends of the University donated a record $250,289-which is $25,000 above the
target. Donations to the fund in 1967-68 totalled
$210,000. The money is used mainly to provide extras for students, the major disbursements being for
scholarships, athletics, library. President's Fund, student social, cultural and intellectual activities.
Officers Elected
The Young Alumni Club is still packing them in—
upwards of 200 each Friday afternoon in Cecil Green
Park. This suds and socializing program is fast becoming a campus tradition. The Young Alumni Club
recently elected a new executive to carry on this tradition. They are: President, Robert Johnson, BA'63,
LLB'67; Vice-President, Dennis Stewart, BSP'64; Secretary, Carol Ann Baker, BA'65; Program Chairman,
Bill Landstrom, BED'65; Membership Chairman,
Derry Nelson, BCom'68; and Members-at-large,
Robert Johnston, BA'65, LLB'68; and Peter Uiten-
bosch, BCom'68.
New Interest
In UBC Seen
British Columbia education institutions are crisis-
ridden today because of a lack of provincial planning
in education, says Byron Hender, Director of Branches for the UBC Alumni Association.
"One of the main roots of our educational problems lies in the fact that there has been a lack of
overall planning of education in the province," Hender told a meeting of 150 alumni in Ottawa on March
5. "No goals have been defined and no program established for meeting the educational needs of B.C."
Another major factor in B.C.'s eduational problems,
he said, has been the tremendous growth of the student population at all levels. Hender said there is a
vital need for a co-ordinating agency to guide the
development of all post-secondary education in B.C.,
and he noted that the UBC Alumni Association had
recommended such an agency to the Perry Committee. Hender later showed the Ottawa grads the Alumni Association color slide presentation, Whatever's
Happening at U.B.C. Two Great Trekkers, Lyle
Atkinson, BSA'25, MSA'35, and Minister of Public
Works Arthur Laing, BSA'25, were among those
The Ottawa meeting was one of several successful
recent meetings which revealed a growing interest in
UBC affairs on the part of far-flung grads. In London
on March 6 about 40 alumni congregated at the home
of Mrs. Alice Hemming, BA'28, for an informal dinner at which Dr. W.C. Gibson, BA'33, Professor of
the History of Medicine and Science, spoke. The same
day, 80 alumni in Montreal turned out to hear Byron
Hender review the state of the university. The following day, 90 grads attended a wine and cheese party in
Edmonton at which out-going UBC Student President
Dave Zirnhelt spoke on student involvement.
12/UBC Reports/March 27, 1969
\ ^^FS_«-. ..___ • W.
John Green measures a plaster cast of a footprint, believed to be from a Sasquatch. Hal Rhodes photo.
Book Says Sasquatch No Myth
On July 3, 1882, the Victoria Daily Colonist
carried a fascinating dispatch from the mainland under the headline, A Strange Creature Captured Above
Yale. The story told of how crew members on the
train from Lytton encountered "a creature which
may truly be called half man and half beast" lying
beside the tracks and, stopping the train, clambered
after it up a cliff face and captured it. " 'Jacko', as
the creature has been called by his capturers," the
Colonist said, "is something of the gorilla type standing about four feet seven inches in height and weighing 127 pounds. He has long, black, strong hair and
resembles a human being with one exception, his entire body, excepting his hands (or paws) and feet are
covered with glossy hair about one inch long."
This is the first known written description (and
capture) of a Sasquatch in B.C. according to John
Green, BA'46, MSc'48 (Columbia School of Journalism). Green, who is publisher-editor of the
Agassiz-Harrison Advance, recounts the tale of Jacko
in his new book, On the Track of the Sasquatch,
(Cheam Publishing, Agassiz, $1.90). Unfortunately,
the fate of this young Sasquatch (adults are apparently larger) is unknown and Green assumes it escaped. But he is confident it was not a hoax as there
is a man still living in Yale who remembers the incident well.
John Green is convinced that the Sasquatch exists
and that it is a bipedal primate closely related to man.
While he has not personally seen a Sasquatch, over
the past 14 years he has spoken to about 200 persons
in B.C., Washington, Oregon and California who claim
to have seen one. The book is a discussion of some of
the key evidence.
One striking thing about these sightings is that the
descriptions tend to coincide. Sasquatches are generally described as hairy creatures about eight feet
tall, with flat noses and almost no neck, thick arms
and legs, with feet about 14 to 17 inches long and
who walk upright on two feet taking gigantic strides.
Green argues that it is absurd to dismiss the phenomenon as mere Indian legend. Numerous huge footprints have been discovered (and preserved in casts) in
Oregon and California, often after a sighting. And
Green rejects any suggestion they might be made by
bears: they are too deep, too large and more clearly
resemble those of a man. He also suggests that the
fact that Yakima rancher Roger Patterson captured a
Sasquatch on movie film in 1967 is something to conjure with—particularly as a local film company has
stated the film has not been doctored.
There is little in Green's book that stretches
credulity, with perhaps the exception of one man's
tale of having been kidnapped by Sasquatches near
Toba Inlet in 1924. Green says he wrote the book not
to prove that Sasquatches exist, but to encourage
scientific investigation. Interestingly, the only scientists to enter the field so far are two University of
Washington anthropologists.
» "N


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