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UBC Reports Sep 19, 1973

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SEPT.    19,    1973,    VANCOUVER    8,   B.C
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Rare Artifacts
Hear Camp
UBC Reports Staff Writer
UBC archeologist Prof. Charles Borden has made
so many significant discoveries over the years that he
is seldom moved to superlatives when describing his
latest finds.
But there is a quiver of excitement in his voice and
a faint smile of triumph on his face when he describes
the latest archeological discoveries on Vancouver's
Musqueam Indian Reserve, three miles from the UBC
campus, as being "really phenomenal" and "most
For he and his teams of UBC, Vancouver City
College and young Indian diggers headed by
archeologist David Archer have, during the summer
months, come up with finds that rank with some of
the most notable in B.C. archeological history. They
have uncovered the rarest of the rare — perishable
articles that are 2,500 to 3,000 years old.
Encased in slushy mud eight feet beneath the
surface of an ancient Indian burial ground, the diggers
uncovered precious wooden artifacts and matting and
basketry that date back to a thriving Northwest Coast
civilization that far predates the Christian era, the
Roman Empire and the glories of ancient Greece.
"Truly, truly remarkable," says the 68-year-old
professor emeritus of archeology, as he fondles a
rust-colored wooden wedge, fashioned from a yew or
dogwood tree about the same time that the ancient
Egyptian monarchs were planning the later pyramids.
He holds up a piece of cedar bark matting that
3,000 years ago could have formed part of a floor
mat of an Indian house. "Finds such as this rank in
importance, I believe, with finds on lake bottoms in
Switzerland and southwest Germany," he says.
"Certainly, to my knowledge, this is the first time
that perishables of this age have been found in
Each artifact is in a state of almost perfect
preservation because it has been preserved, over the
centuries, in waterlogged sediment which has scaled
off oxygen and thus prevented the bacterial action
that would cause disintegration.
"What happens," says Prof. Borden, "is that the
interior of the cells decays but the cell walls remain.
Exposure to the air would result in evaporation of the
water and complete disintegration of the artifact."
To prevent this from happening after discovery,
the artifacts are shipped to Victoria where Mr. Philip
Ward of the Conservation Laboratory, Provincial
Museum, immerses them in a carbowax solution
which replaces the water and preserves the cell walls.
After about two months the artifacts can be safely
exposed to the air.
In addition to the perishable artifacts, which also
include "buckets and buckets" of wood chips,
indicating that many artisans worked there, the
searchers found cedar cordage and rope of different
sizes, elk antler carvings and slate and stone artifacts.
A special prize is a bayonet-shaped spearhead
which was probably used to kill sea mammals after
they had been harpooned, and which Dr. Borden
describes as one of the most extraordinary, and
certainly the largest, projectile points ever found on
the Northwest Coast.
The 15-inch-long projectile is hexagonal in
cross-section and was precision-ground as finely as
any comparable steel bayonet produced with the
most modern grinding and measuring devices.
The latest discoveries come from what Prof.
Borden describes as the Locarno Beach Phase of
Indian cultural development. This phase,dating from
1000 B.C. to 200 to 300 B.C. is named after
excavation work in Vancouver's Locarno Beach area
in 1948.
The next phase is the Marpole Phase, which runs
from 400 B.C. to 300-400 A.D., followed by the
little-known Whalen Phase, between 400 A.D. and
1250 A.D. The last phase, known as the Stselax
Phase, runs from 1250 A.D. to the arrival of Simon
Fraser in 1808.
It was the search for more  information on the
Whalen Phase that led Prof. Borden and his team of
diggers to the Musqueam site. "Because of the long
history of Indian settlement in the area we thought
that we would uncover some of the information that
we were seeking; instead we were taken further back
into history than ever before," he says.
Actually, the initial request to undertake
archeological explorations at the present Musqueam
site came from the Indians themselves, recalls Dr.
Borden. 'The whole area is about to become a
housing subdivision and we were invited to do some
excavation work before construction began."
The area was of particular interest because it had
been the site of mortuary houses and therefore had
been untouched in any previous archeological work.
Work began in the spring of 1972 with grants from
the National Museum of Canada and the First
Citizens' Fund. The latter grant enabled young
Indians to work on the site, lending, says Dr. Borden,
"an added special charm and significance to the
The first summer of excavation yielded a great
Please turn to Page Four
~ LLS.A.
By Peter Thompson
UBC   Reports   Staff   Writer
A sign on the door says 'This is not Sidney Taxi.
Moved to Sidney Hotel" and another sign spells
"CEPEX" in a mod, hand-lettered monogram shaped
like a fish. A few feet inside the cramped, one-storey
building, up against a wall, is a seat from a truck. The
seat is the only comfortable place to sit even though it's
so low that the knees of anyone sitting in it are higher
than his head.
There's the usual jar of coffee and Coffee-mate and a
kettle but instead of a street map on the wall there's a
marine chart of the waters north of Victoria, including
Saanich Inlet.
A humble office tucked around the corner from the
main street of Sidney on Vancouver Island's Saanich
Peninsula. Strange surroundings for the temporary
headquarters of an international oceanographic research
project that could extend up to 10 years and involve
spending $10 million.
CEPEX, or "Controlled Ecosystem Pollution Experiment," will soon move out of the former taxi depot into
trailers a few miles away at the Victoria International
Airport at Patricia Bay on Saanich Inlet. Preliminary
work is already being done by CEPEX researchers in Pat
Bay in preparation for full-scale activity next spring.
Then a series of experiments will start to find out the
long-term effects of pollutants on life in the oceans.
Major source of funds for the experiments will be the
National Science Foundation of Washington, D.C.
Taking part in CEPEX are the Skidaway Oceanographic Institute, University of Georgia; the Marine
Laboratory, Aberdeen, Scotland; the Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution of Massachusetts; the Scripps
Institution of Oceanography in California; the University
of Miami; and the University of B.C.'s Institute of
Other agencies such as Environment Canada, which is
providing some facilities for the experiments, and the
University of Victoria have been invited to participate in-"*
parts of the program. K..
Prof. T.R. Parsons of UBC's Institute of Oceanography is one of three members of a committee which will
run the experiments. He says CEPEX grew out of the
new emphasis on oceanographic research around the
world which began with the International Decade o*
Ocean Exploration (IDOE) in 1970. A team of oceanographers put CEPEX together as a special IDOE project.
"Little is known about pollution, especially the type
of long-term, low-level pollution which CEPEX wiff
study," Prof. Parsons said.
"Among the easiest and cheapest pollution experiments are those that measure the acute toxicity level of
a pollutant on organisms, the amount of a pollutant,
needed to kill a living thing.
"You can take a test tube of sea water, for example,
and add a heavy metal such as mercury to it until the
microscopic phytoplankton in the sea water dies. That
tells you what concentration of mercury will kill
phytoplankton, the first link in the food chain of the'"'
sea. „,
"But what about the long-term effects of lower,
non-lethal amounts of mercury and other pollutants? An
organism that feeds off phytoplankton will accumulate a
larger amount of mercury and other pollutants in its
body than was present in a single phytoplankton. What *■>
will the result be over a period of 20 years on animals at
the end of the food chain, on the fish we eat, for
CEPEX will use six huge "test tubes" of clear,
flexible plastic in its experiments. Being designed by
Case Existological Laboratories in Victoria, the test
tubes will be suspended from the surface like up-ended
silos.     Officially     called     controlled     experimental
2/UBC Reports/Sept. 19,1973 *
marks the site, on
map on opposite page, in Saanich
Inlet on Vancouver Island, of a
unique international oceanographic project which could extend
over a period of ten years and
involve spending $10 million.
Giant plastic test tubes, shown in
illustration at right, will be used
in experiments to determine the
effect of pollutants on marine
life in the water trapped in the
tubes. UBC oceanographers are
playing a major role in the pro-
|" ject, which also involves scientists from five other major research organizations.
ecosystems, each test tube will measure 30 feet across
and will extend 90 feet beneath the surface. They will be
linked in a honeycomb pattern and moored a few
hundred yards from shore, away from sport fishing
areas. One-quarter-scale models of the test tubes are now
being tested in Pat Bay.
Controlled amounts of pollutants such as heavy
metals and hydrocarbons will be added to the trapped
water in the test tubes and their effect on the life in the
water will be studied.
Prof. Parsons says that the levels of pollutants to be
added will have no effect on the marine life of Saanich
The concentration of substances which will be added
to the test tubes will be too low to be harmful. When the
test tubes are periodically emptied into the inlet, their
contents will be rapidly diluted even further. Prof.
Parsons said that water released from a test tube will be
diluted by a factor of more than 1,000 within the first
500 feet of the project's site.
"We're trying to save the environment, not harm it,"
he said. "But the fact that we're adding pollutants to a
few hundred cubic yards of sea water may seem strange,
because there is a lot of confusion about what is and
what isn't a pollutant.
"Pollution is a misleading word. We tend to think
that all pollutants are bad or are man-made. That isnt
so. The presence of some substances in the environment
is necessary for life. But larger amounts of many of the
same substances can be deadly.
"Water that is without nitrates and phosphates is
sometimes misleadingly said to be pollution-free. But
that water is as dead as water so choked with nitrates
and phosphates that life is impossible.
"In the natural cycle of a river, for example, the level
of nitrates, phosphates and other nutrients increases over
thousands of years until the river becomes naturally
polluted. By introducing nutrients in large amounts to
the water, man can dramatically accelerate this natural
Prof. Parsons said that most of the mercury in the sea
is from natural sources. It has come from gas escaping
from the earth's crust, including volcanic activity.
There's little doubt, he said, that if the earth went
through another period of increased volcanic eruptions,
mercury concentrations in our environment would
Mercury is a heavy metal that is not necessary for life
and at higher concentrations it is lethal. Copper, another
heavy metal, is necessary for life though it is also deadly
at concentrated levels.
Concentrations of heavy metals can be 10 times
higher in sea water near land than in the open ocean.
This is because of the runoff of heavy metals from the
land. Some heavy metals are leached out of the earth
naturally. Others are the result of industry and
"The concentrations of heavy metals and
hydrocarbons we will add are so low that it is hard to
find water clean enough for us to do our experiments,"
Prof. Parsons said.
"The hydrocarbons we will add in one year will be
less than what is lost by a 50-horsepower outboard
motor used for a summer of weekend sport fishing.
"The total amount of dissolved mercury from natural
sources in the inlet is about 300 kilograms. The
Goldstream River, the major source of fresh water into
the inlet, adds about 1.2 kilograms per year. CEPEX will
contribute a maximum of 0.016 kilograms a year."
The project has been cleared by the B.C. Pollution
Control Branch and the federal Department of the
Environment. Similar studies are being done in Loch
Ewe, Scotland, Prof. Parsons said, as part of the
international study.
New UBC Medal
UBC has established a medal in recognition of
"the meritorious and distinguished achievements"
of Prof. Ralph D. James as head of UBC's
Department of Mathematics from 1948 to 1973.
The Dr. Ralph D. James Medal will be awarded
annually to the student in the graduating class
whose record and promise in mathematics is
considered by the department to be the most
Prof. James resigned as head of the UBC
Mathematics department in June of this year. He
continues to carry on full-time teaching duties in
the department.
Prof. James received the degrees of Bachelor
and Master of Arts in mathematics at UBC before
enrolling at the University of Chicago, where he
was awarded his Ph.D. in 1932.
After a teaching career at the University of
California and four years as head of the
Mathematics department at the University of
Saskatchewan, Prof. James joined the UBC faculty
in 1943 as a full professor. He was named head of
the Mathematics department five years later.
He was president of the Canadian Mathematical
Congress from 1961 to 1963 and has served as
editor of both the American Mathematical
Monthly and the Canadian Journal of
Mathematics. He is a fellow of the Royal Society
of Canada and the American Association for the
Advancement of Science.
Prof. James was invited to a number of
universities in the United States and the West
Indies as a visiting professor during his career and
in 1962 was the only Canadian named to an eight-
member committee at the University of Illinois to
study the content and teaching of mathematics
from Grades IX to XII in North America.
Prof. G.H.N. Towers, of UBC's Department of
Botany, has been awarded the 1973 gold medal of
the Canadian Society of Plant Physiologists for his
research in the field of plant biochemistry.
Prof. Towers joined the UBC faculty in 1964 as
head of the Department of Botany. He resigned as
department head in 1971 to return to full-time
research and teaching duties.
This is the second time that the Society's gold
Please turn to Page Four
UBC Reports/Sept. 19, 1973/3 MEDAL
Continued from Page Three
medal has been awarded to a UBC faculty
member. Dean Michael Shaw, head of the UBC
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, was the recipient
of the medal in 1971.
■it     -to     <b
Prof. Vladimir Krajina, of the UBC Botany
department, was the recipient of the honorary
degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) at the annual
Spring Congregation of Notre Dame University in
Nelson, B.C.
A member of the UBC faculty since 1949, Prof.
Krajina has been the driving force in British
Columbia behind the setting up of ecological
reserves, tracts of land unique in their vegetation,
climate and other characteristics. Some 28 reserves
have been set aside by the provincial government
and will remain undisturbed in perpetuity for
scientific study.
In 1972 Prof. Krajina was awarded the Lawson
Medal of the Canadian Botanical Association "for
a lifetime contribution to botany in Canada by a
■6     ft     ft
Dr. David Bates, Dean of the Faculty of
Medicine at UBC, has received a three-year
appointment to the Science Council of Canada,
the advisory body to the federal government on
scientific and related matters. Dr. Bates is the only
medical doctor on the Council.
<r     ft     ir
Dr. Donald C.G. MacKay, associate professor
emeritus of psychology, has been elected to the
Council of Queen's University in Kingston,
Ontario. Dr. MacKay is the first person from B.C.
to be elected to the Council for a six-year term. He
has also been elected chairman of the District 504
selection committee of Rotary International for
the award of scholarships for study abroad.
■ *   * -
ft     ft     ft
Two members of UBC's Faculty of Agricultural
Sciences were named fellows of the Agricultural
Institute of Canada at meetings held in Victoria in
late August.
The new fellows are:
Prof. Beryl E. March, of the Department of
Poultry Science, who is a recognized authority on
poultry nutrition;and
Prof. V.C. "Bert" Brink, professor of agronomy
in the Department of Plant Science and one of five
persons currently serving on the B.C. Land Commission, established earlier this year by the provincial government.
VANCOUVER Symphony Orchestra, under
conductor Kazuyoshj Akiyama, returns to the UBC
campus next week for a Thursday (Sept. 27) concert
in the War Memorial Gymnasium at 12:45 p.m.
Admission is free.
4/UBC Reports/Sept. 19,1973-
UBC archeologist Leonard Ham meticulously
flushes away dirt covering a large piece of
preserved floor matting found eight feet
below ground level during summer excavation
on the Musqueam Indian Reserve three miles
from the UBC campus.
Continued from Page One
deal of information on mortuary houses, their pattern
of construction and so on, and also provided a veneer
of historic and late prehistoric material that related to
the recent Indian culture.
The searchers also found more evidence of the
Marpole Phase, an era in which the Indians developed
an extraordinary culture. The abundance of maritime
food resources was developed so efficiently that it
permitted much leisure time which could be devoted
to arts and crafts.
An exquisite carving from this era was found on
the Musqueam site. It is a small elk antler carving of a
man with a smiling face — the first carving with a
smiling face ever found on the coast. 'This is quite
extraordinary because very few artists in Western
cultures have dared to portray a smiling face and yet
this is executed perfectly," says Prof. Borden. "You
might call our Indian artist the Franz Hals of the
Northwest Coast."
Because the finds of 1972 were so valuable and the
expectation of even greater discoveries was so great.
Prof. Borden sought, and received, permission to
continue excavations this year, even though the
excavators had to work in the midst of a constant
stream of trucks dumping earth fill on land adjacent
to the site.
Additional funds were made available by the
National Museum of Canada and the First Citizens'
Fund, and the B.C. Department of Education also
gave a grant to enable Vancouver City College and
UBC students to take part.
Work had barely got under.way this summer when
the diggers entered layers that could be identified as
the Locarno Beach Phase and started uncovering the
waterlogged, perishable artifacts.
"These artifacts give us a picture of what life was
like here 2,500 to 3,000 years ago," says Dr. Borden.
It was a thriving community with the Indians engaged
in hunting large game animals such as elk, deer and
bear as well as porpoises and other sea mammals. The
Unique discovery during summer excavation
was a small elk antler carving showing a
smiling face — the first such carving ever
found on the Northwest Coast.
quantity of wood chips indicates that they were also
heavily engaged in the manufacture of hunting equipment and perhaps in carving.
Prof. Borden's major concern now is preserving the
site for further exploration work, though he knows
that the construction timetable for the subdivision is
such that further delays may be impossible.
He has bitter memories of the abrupt halt to
excavation work on the original Locarno Beach site
because the owner of the property decided to go
ahead with the construction of a house.
He believes that the Musqueam site has many more
treasures lying preserved in the waterlogged substrata
— perhaps a canoe, or wooden carvings and other
valuable artifacts.
"The Indian band has been very co-operative to
date. They recognize the value of the artifacts that
are being recovered and they know that some day
these artifacts will be returned for display in a
proposed museum on the reserve," Dr. Borden says.
"It is my hope that I can persuade them and the
subdivision developer to give us one more year." AUTUMN 1973
UBC Centre for
Continuing Education
Courses for the Public
jf^r-z^ r.
► >
UBC's Centre for Continuing Education offers ©fie of
the most exciting and varied programs of courses,
workshops and lectures available to adults anywhere in
A total of 161 non-credit evening and daytime
courses cover topics as diverse as Explorations in Love
and A New Look at the General Theory of Relativity.
Courses delve into current explorations and
discoveries on the frontiers of research, such as Life
Before Birth: The Womb as the First Stage to Human
Others provide opportunities for developing
interests and skills available nowhere else, including
Local History: Archival Research for the Amateur
Historian, or The Writer as Performer with David
Watmough, Canada's only full-time monodramatist.
All of the courses have been planned to
reflect the increasing range of interests that people
have as the result of expanding leisure time.
For the apartment dweller, a course on gardens for
the balcony; for the outdoor enthusiast, a survival
experience on Vancouver Island; for the internationalist,
lectures on topics ranging from Watergate to the West
Courses have been timed to suit everybody —
mornings, afternoons, evenings and even Sundays for
those who are too busy at other times of the week.
Distinguished visiting scholars are always a feature
of the Centre's programs and this fall is no exception.
William Irwin Thompson, noted cultural historian and
author of At the Edge of History, is coming Oct.
19 to talk on Man on the Planetary Scale; George
Leonard, author of the controversial Education and
Ecstasy, will talk about changes in humankind on
Oct. 26; and William J. Kaufman, astrophysicist and
director of the Griffith Observatory, Los Angeles,
will be special lecturer at a short course on
Relativity and Cosmology on Oct. 15.
On the following three pages of this issue of UBC
Reports is a listing of many of the programs and
lectures being sponsored by the Centre. You can obtain
a catalogue listing all Autumn, 1973, courses by
completing and mailing the coupon on Page Eight. On
Pages Six and Seven, six individuals describe their
reasons for enrolling in courses offered by the Centre. Continuing Education Courses ' S
Mrs. Virginia Nail
I came to Vancouver in 1970, from
Cambridge, Massachusetts, to be closer
to my daughter and son-in-law, who are
homesteading on a 400-acre ranch 32 miles
west of McBride in north-central B.C.
My son-in-law is logging off part of
the ranch and he is also very concerned
with the ecology of the area. So I thought
that I might be of some assistance to him
if I took a course in forest ecology. I
found that UBC's Centre for Continuing
Education offered exactly the type of
course that I was looking for.
In the fall of 1971 I enrolled in a
course covering the role of ecology in
land-use decision making. One of the
main purposes of the course was to identify
how a knowledge of ecology is necessary
in the attainment of objectives of
multi-purpose, sustained-yield investment.
I must admit that I felt a little out
of my depth in the course, because most
of the others taking it worked in the
forest industry and I was the only woman
in the group. However I learned a lot and
the following year I took a course in the
ecological evaluation of clearcut logging.
Now when I visit the ranch I have a much
better understanding of what they are
trying to do and, I hope, have been able
to offer some helpful advice. At least I
understand what they were talking about.
I believe that courses such as those
offered by the Centre are essential for a
person who wants to remain intellectually
alert. They can also fill in many of the
gaps in one's education.
In addition, I have taken a number of
courses on gardening and this summer I took
the Vancouver on the Rocks course, which
is a study of the rocks and minerals in
the Vancouver area. This fall I am
considering a course on the art and
culture of the Far East.
Bernard Rowe
The credit courses offered through the
Centre for Continuing Education give
businessmen like myself an opportunity to
work towards a university degree even
though, in my case, it will be many years
before I actually complete a degree.
I became interested in the credit
program after I had completed my Chartered
Life Underwriter studies. In order to get
through that program I had to impose upon
myself a self-discipline of study which I
knew that I would lose if I didn't continue
in a credit program of some kind. I had
also developed an interest in economics,
so I decided to set myself the goal of a
B.A. in economics.
My academic credits were sufficient
to permit me to take second-year courses,
so for the past three years I have been
taking a course a year. I have taken courses
in economics. Renaissance art and the
social history of the Middle Ages. This
year I am enrolled in an economics course
I find the courses most challenging and
stimulating and, hopefully, I will one day
be able to accelerate my program in order
to get my degree earlier.
One thing that concerns me, however,
is that I am now reaching the stage where
the part-time courses will not be available
to me and I will have to attend during the
daytime if I am going to be able to take
the courses that I want. I am looking
forward to the day when the University
offers a full degree program for evening
Donna Hossack
I guess you could say that my "*
participation in a variety of courses
offered by UBC's Centre for Continuing
Education has helped give me a complete
new direction to my life.
My involvement with the Centre started
in the fall of 1971 when I returned to
Vancouver after an absence of 10 years.
It was at a time in my life when my       •*»—
children were growing older and I was
looking around for some meaningful
activity in which to become involved.
The Centre provided exactly what I
needed — a daytime program entitled   " —
Options for Women. It consisted of a
series of six hour-long lectures over a
period of six weeks on topics such as
Choosing a Second Career, Volunteer
Work, Developing Personal Potential and
so on.
Many of the women in the course had""
been busy bringing up their families and
had never really thought about what they
might do to occupy their time once thei
families grew up; others were considering
finding jobs but had never worked a day
in their lives.
I followed up this course with a
workshop course on the subject of develop?
personal potential. Because I had had
some experience teaching night school
courses I also took a course in adult
education which culminated in my teaching
a course in Karl Orff Music and Movement
to elementary school teachers this summe*-*]
as part of the Centre's summer program.
I plan to continue my studies in adult'
education with the goal of teaching,
perhaps in a community college.
Partial Listing of Autumn, 1973, C
Life Before Birth: The Womb as the
First Stage to Human Success
8 Tuesdays, Oct. 2
8-9:30 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
$15, $24
Local History:
Archival Research for the Amateur Historian
8 Thursdays, Oct. 11
8-9:30 p.m., Vancouver City Archives
Life, Death and Rebirth:
The Transformations of Man and Mankind
7 sessions over 7 consecutive
weeks; 5 Thursdays and 2 Fridays,
beginning Oct. 11
8-9:30 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
$15, $24
William Irwin Thompson
Man on the Planetary Scale
Friday, Oct. 19
8:30-10 p.m., UBC
$2, students $1
6/UBC Reports/Sept. 19,1973
George Leonard
New Ways of Being: A Guide to the
Inevitable Changes in Humankind
Friday, Oct. 26
8:30-10 p.m., UBC
$2, students $1
Human Sexual Behavior
9 Thursdays, Oct. 11
8-10 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
Explorations in Love
7 Wednesdays, Sept. 26
1:30-3 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
7 Fridays, Sept. 28
8-9:30 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
Seven specialists, ranging from an
anthropologist to a biologist, explore
the concept of love fFom their
individual perspectives.
With Their Backs to the Mountains:
An Introduction to West Coast
Art and Literature
10 Tuesdays, Oct. 9
8-10 p.m., UBC
$25, $40
Original Graphics
10 Thursdays, Oct. 4
8-10 p.m., Mido Gallery
Sunday Sampler
6 Sundays, Oct. 14
2-3:30 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
$12, additional family members $8 each
Six lectures on facets of art
and culture ranging from the public
art of Vancouver to the art and
design of postage stamps.
Ocean Life of British Columbia
6 Wednesdays, Oct. 3
8—9:30 p.m., Vancouver Public Aquariur
$14, $24
Thieves, Graves and Scholars:
The Rape of Our Past
8 Wednesdays, Oct. 17
7:30-9 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
$18, $30
Inner World of Man: A Workshop
On the Psychology of C.G. Jung
Friday-Saturday, Oct. 19, 20
Peoples of the Pacific Rim:
Art, Archeology and Myth
9 Thursdays, Oct. 4
8-9:30 p.m., UBC
$20, $35
Plants in Northwest Coast
Indian Cultures
6 Tuesdays, Oct. 2
7:30-9 p.m., Kitsilano Library
and a Saturday field trip
Lectures only, $15, $25
Lectures and field trip, $30, $50 retched My Mind1
Mrs. Stuart Keate
I really became aware of the Centre's
— ■^ activities in three ways: first, when
my husband was a member of the Board of
Governors of UBC and brought home a
bundle of literature on the Centre;
secondly, by newspaper advertising of the
- schedules of classes; and third, by
brochures received from the University at
I have, over the past five years, taken
mainly English courses taught by Mrs.
Irene Howard, Mrs. Jean Mallinson, Miss
Phyllis Webb and Dr. Katherine Carolan.
Most of these were concerned with women
in literature, the "feminine mystique"
in the contemporary novel, and so on.
* I have also taken courses in landscape
gardening and architecture and horticulture,
which have been very helpful to me in
planning my own garden. One term I took a
course in music, in which we studied the
*" sounds of the different instruments, thus
„ adding greatly to my enjoyment of the
Vancouver Symphony. One summer I took a
drawing course. On the practical side I
have taken two courses in finance and
one on international affairs, conducted
#. by Mrs. Sperrin Chant.
Each of the courses that I have taken
* enlarged my awareness and interest in
the subjects taught. They "stretched my
mind" a bit. I was especially intrigued
by studying with people of all ages — not
only with those of my own age bracket,
*■  where, I'm afraid, we tend to a sameness
w of view. In short, it was refreshing to
come up against young ideas.
Sgt. Stanley Nowicki
I decided to take the Centre's criminology
program after I was transferred to the
University Detachment of the RCMP. I found
the program of particular interest because
it covered many areas that I had not had
an opportunity to study before.
The program covered six areas — three
compulsory and three optional. The
compulsory courses were:  Political
Science, Contemporary Issues in
Law and Society, and Criminal and Deviant
Behavior. As options I took Interpersonal
Relationships, The Criminal Justice
System, and Theory and Methods of
One of the main things that I got out
of the program was an appreciation and
understanding of the points of view of
others not connected with the RCMP.
Those taking the program came from a
variety of occupations, such as probation
officers, corrections officers and social
workers; and we had a number of university
students to present the young person's
point of view.
I would like to see more citizens take
courses such as this in the hope that there
would be a greater understanding of the
police officer's role in today's society.
The days are long gone when the sole
responsibility of the police officer was
to enforce the law; he must have an
understanding of why people behave as they
do and understand more about human emotions
and behavior in his daily dealings with
Rev. J.N. Allen
My wife and I are both very interested
in the organ, not only as an instrument,
but also in its historical development
and the impact that it has had on
composers and the composition of music.
Mrs. Allen is the organist and I am the
listener, so we were delighted when we
discovered, in the spring of 1971, that
UBC's Centre for Continuing Education was
offering a course on the organ. This
particular course was a study of the
Baroque organ, using the tracker organ in
the recital hall in UBC's Music Building.
It was an excellent course, given by Mr.
Hugh McLean, and covered such things as
the mechanics of organ sound production
and the development of the organ as an
instrument in different European countries.
We were so impressed with the first
course that in the spring of 1973 we took
another course on 20th century organ,
visiting five representative organs in
different churches in Vancouver. Mrs.
Allen has also taken a course in tapestry
offered by the Centre.
I have been very impressed not only
with the Centre's course offerings but
also with the calibre of the people who
have given the courses. I would like to
see more courses in the area of music
appreciation, perhaps offered in conjunction
with the Vancouver Opera Association,
because another of my great interests
is opera. My wife would like to see more
courses in weaving and spinning.
Kekchi Indians of British Honduras
6 Mondays, Oct. 1
8-9:30 p.m., UBC
$14, $23
British Columbia's Other Indians
7 Wednesdays, Oct. 10
8-9:30 p.m., UBC
$16, $26
Utopian Literature and
Behavioral Psychology: Utopia
As a Behaviorist Sees It
8 Thursdays, Oct. 4
8-9:30 p.m., UBC
$15, $24
Hermann Hesse: The
Achievement and the Cult
8 Wednesdays, Oct. 3
8-10 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
$20, $32
How to Make Up Your Mind
On Moral Issues
6 Wednesdays, Oct. 10
8-9:30 p.m., UBC
$13, $21
Also offered daytime.
Science and'Mysticism
6 Tuesdays, Oct. 9
8-10 p.m., UBC
$15, $24
A New Look at the General
Theory of Relativity
Monday, Oct. 15
8-10 p.m., H.R. MacMillan Planetarium
Centennial Museum Complex
$3, students $2
Special lecture by Dr. William J. Kaufmann,
astrophysicist and Director, Griffith Observatory, Los Angeles, Calif.
Relativity and Cosmology
4 Mondays, Oct. 15
8-10 p.m., H.R. MacMillan Planetarium
Centennial Museum Complex
Binds of the Lower Mainland
6 Saturdays, September 22
10 a.m.-noon, UBC and outdoor locations
$20, additional family members $12 each
Demystifying the Computer:
On Becoming a Sorcerer's Apprentice
10 Wednesdays, Oct. 3
8-10 p.m., UBC
$30, $48
A course for laymen on how computers work,
what they do and how one may be affected
by them.
What is Mathematics? Principles
of Mathematical Reasoning
8 Wednesdays, Oct. 10
8-10 p.m., UBC
Art and Antiques
8 Wednesdays, Oct. 10
8-10 p.m.. Maritime Museum
Introduction to Interior Design
8 Mondays, Sept. 24
8-10 p.m., UBC
Far Eastern Art and Culture
10 Mondays, Sept. 24
7:30-9 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
An  introductory survey course of particular
interest to persons planning to travel in Asian
Printmaking Workshop
8 Tuesdays, Oct 9
7:30-10 p.m., UBC
Listing of courses continued
on Page Eight
UBC Reports/Sept. 19,1973/7 Continued from Page Seven
Mounting and Framing Workshop
4 Mondays, Oct. 15
8-10 p.m., in the Dunbar area
Studio Workshop: Drawing and
Painting for Expressive Awareness
10 Thursdays, Sept. 27
7-9:30 p.m., Gastown
The Writer As Performer
2 weekend workshops
Oct. 5, 6 and 12, 13
Adult Acting: Introductory
8 Wednesdays, Oct. 3
7:30-9:30 p.m., UBC
The 20th-century Music Series
4 Mondays, Oct. 1
8-9:30 p.m., UBC
$10, additional family members $6 each
Introductory Creative Writing
Workshop in Fiction and
Non-Fiction Prose
10 Tuesdays, Oct. 2
8-10 p.m., UBC
Extrasensory Perception
8 Wednesdays, Oct. 3
8-9:30 p.m., UBC
$19, $32
Current Topics in Psychology
8 Mondays, Oct. 1
8-9:30 p.m., UBC
$19, $32
Biofeedback and Mind-Body
Self-Regulation: Healing and
7 Mondays, Oct. 1
8-9:30 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
A Workshop in Yoga, Biokinetics
and Body Awareness: Toward
More Integral Human Function
8 Sundays, Sept. 30
9:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m., UBC
$30, $50, students $20
Identity Workshop
1 Sat. and 6 Sundays, Sept. 29
9 a.m.-noon, UBC
$40, students $25
The International Scene — UBC
8 Thursdays, Oct. 4
8-9:30 p.m., UBC
$17, $26
Also offered in North
Vancouver and Richmond
The City and Its Architecture —
A Collective Experience
6 Thursdays, Oct. 4
7:30-9:30 p.m., Gastown
$14, $22
Ecology of the Pacific Northwest
— A Survival Experience
Dec. 27-31 at Stratchona Park
Outdoor Education Centre,
Vancouver Island
Food — Fads and Formulation
6 Thursdays, Oct. 4
8-9:30 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
$14, $20
Gardening for Apartment Dwellers
4 Tuesdays, Oct. 2
8-9:30 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
$10, $15
Gardening Through the. Seasons
Series I (Autumn)
5 Thursdays, Oct. 4
7:30-9 p.m. and Sat. Oct. 6
10-11:30 a.m., UBC
$15, $25
Gardening Through the Seasons
Series 11 (Autumn)
5 Wednesdays, Oct. 10
7:30-9 p.m. and Sat. Oct. 13
10-11:30 a.m., UBC
$15, $25
Gardening Through the Seasons
Series III (Autumn)
6 Tuesdays, Oct. 9
7:30-9 p.m., UBC
$15, $25
Beef Cattle Production for the
Hobby Farmer
5 Thursdays, Oct. 4
8-9:30 p.m., UBC
Efficiency of Dairy Cattle Production
Under Different Management Conditions
4 Wednesdays, Oct. 3
8-9:30 p.m., Cloverdale Community School
Chinese — Beginning Mandarin
Mondays and Thursdays, Oct. 1
7-9 p.m.
40 sessions, $140
Workshop in Oral English for
International Students
7 Mondays and 8 Thursdays, Oct. 1
7-9 p.m., UBC
Workshop in Written English for
International Students
5 Wednesdays and 5 Fridays
Oct. 17
6-9 p.m., UBC
Reading Improvement
Classes   in   reading   improvement   begin  the
week of Oct. 1 and meet once or twice a week
for a total of 20 hours.
$60 non-student; $35 student
For    a    schedule    of   classes   and   further
information telephone the Reading and Study
Skills Centre, 228-2181, local 220.
Writing Improvement
Writing Improvement is an 18-hour non-credit
course   designed   to    improve   composition
skills.   It  is open to  university and college
students, to those who plan to resume studies,
and to others who want to improve their
writing for personal or professional reasons.
Classes meet one evening per week, 7-10 p.m.,
for six weeks.
$60 non-student; $35 student
For further information telephone 228-2181,
local 220.
Facts of Life: Women and
Their Bodies
8 Tuesdays, Oct. 9
1:30-3 p.m., Kitsilano Library
6 Tuesdays, Sept. 25
10 a.m.-noon, Vancouver Public Library
Images of Eve
7 Tuesdays, Sept. 25
1:30-3 p.m., Hycroft
Painting: Basic Techniques
6 Tuesdays, Sept. 25
9:30-11:30    a.m.,    University    Hill    United
Food and Culture: Asia
8 Wednesdays, consisting of 3 introductory
lectures, Oct. 3,
10-11:30 a.m., Vancouver Public Library,
and  5   lecture/luncheons at selected restaurants, 11 a.m.-l p.m.
$15, cost of lunch additional
The   first   of  a   series  of   lecture/luncheon
I ntroduction to the Courts
8 Wednesdays, Sept. 26
10 a.m., Vancouver Public Library
and visits to various law courts
Silkscreen Printing Workshop:
Instruction in Silkscreen Printing
On Paper and Fabric
8 Wednesdays, Sept. 26
10 a.m.-2 p.m., Rockwoods, West Vancouver
Journey to China
6 Thursdays, Oct. 4
Noon-1 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
History for Travellers:
Cities of the Mediterranean
8 Thursdays, Sept. 27
1:30-3 p.m., Vancouver Public Library
Individual Differences and
Children's Thinking
6 Thursdays, Oct. 4
10-11:30 a.m., Kitsilano Library
Basic services and programs for women who
want to continue their self-development.
Coordinator: 228-2181, local 246.
Developing Personal Potential I
6 Tuesdays, Sept. 25
9:30-11:30 a.m., UBC
Speak Up: A Speech Workshop
10 Wednesdays, Oct. 3
9:30-11:30 a.m., UBC
Educational Television
"UBC Public Affairs"
A regular series of interviews and
discussions with faculty and others on
topics of local, national, or
international interest. Every second
Tuesday evening beginning
Sept. 18, 9:30-10 p.m., on
Cablevision's Channel 10.
Program topics will be announced in
the local newspapers, in T. V. Guide
and This Week at UBC.
The series is presented by the Centre
with the co-operation of the UBC
Alumni Association.
Humanities UBC
Lecturers of the UBC Faculty of Arts
talk about aspects of their special
interests in classical and medieval art,
architecture and archeology.
Weekly, Thursdays, 9:30-10 p.m.,
beginning Sept. 20, on Cablevision's Channel 10.
Professional and
Technical Programs
The Centre offers continuing education
programs in engineering, law, education,
social work, forestry, criminology,
architecture, community and regional
planning, aging, and agriculture.
For professional and technical
course calendars and announcements,
call 228-2181.
Programs for Teachers
A partial listing of courses this autumn.
English Teachers Workshop on
1 Saturday, Oct. 13
9 a.m.-4 p.m., UBC
Attitude Learning in the Schools
1 Saturday, Nov. 3
9 a.m.-4:30 p.m., UBC
Starting Points in the Primary
Classrooms: The Practical
Application of New Methods
6 Wednesdays, Oct. 17
7-9 p.m., UBC
Cameras in the Classroom
3 Saturdays, Oct. 13
9 a.m.-3 p.m., UBC
Individualizing Instruction
7 Wednesdays, Oct. 24
7-9 p.m., UBC
Free Bulletin of courses
■«    For the public
Centre for Continuing Education,
The University of B.C.,
Vancouver 8, B.C.
Extension Credit Courses
Sixty-three evening credit courses for persons who want to work toward
a University degree but cannot attend the University on a full-time basis
are being offered through the Centre for Continuing Education this year.
Correspondence courses and lectures at off-campus locations around the
province are also available.
On-campus evening courses are being offered in Arts, Science, Nursing
and Education, while off-campus Education courses are being given in 22
locations in the province. The correspondence courses are in Arts and
Last year more than 3,000 part-time students enrolled in credit courses
administered by the Centre — an increase of 8.2 per cent over the previous
year. Enrolment figures for this year's program have not yet been completed,
but advance registrations and attendance at two orientation evenings for
part-time students suggest that enrolment will increase once again this
The coming year promises to be one of increasing opportunities for
part-time students in degree programs. Several Faculties have already
indicated support for the principle of expanding opportunities for
part-time study towards degrees. '**
A new President's Committee on Extra-sessional Courses is now studying
means of expanding course offerings for part-time students. Among the terms
of reference of this Committee is a proposal to schedule course offerings
over a three-to-five-year period.
An enlarged program of sequential course offerings should enable students
to obtain a degree on a part-time basis in programs amenable to part-time
./P„.+    IQ    1Q-7*3 %
New UBC Animal Facility Planned
The University of B.C. will soon have new
housing for experimental animals. Ronald Howard
has been appointed architect for the $800;000
development by UBC's Board of Governors and
has been asked to prepare preliminary drawings.
The facility will cover some 20,800 square feet
on* tfie south campus, beside the Department of  .
Animal Science area where the new dairy cattle
research   and   teaching   unit   is   now   nearing
The project is the first stage of a new complex
providing improved accommodation for animals.
The first stage will have four separate areas: a unit
for holding ^nd studying large wild animals, a unit
for holding and breeding dogs, a unit for holding
and breeding cats, and a smalt administrative unit
which may be expanded in the future when
additional animal units are built.
The administrative area will house the office of
Dr. John Gregg, appointed coordinator of animal
care at UBC in 1972. Dr. Gregg will have overall
responsibility for the welfare and general
management of animals in the new units.
He says there are four main groups on campus
using animals for research:
The agricultural sciences use a variety of
animals - sheep, dairy and beef cattle,, poultry,
pigs and others — in nutrition, husbandry,
breeding and other research projects.
Wild animals used in research on campus come
under the biological sciences. They include birds,
reptiles, and large mammals such as deer and elk,
used mostly in experiments to get basic biological
Rats, mice, dogs, cats, guinea pigs and other
species usually thought of as experimental animals
are used by the health sciences. The vast majority
of this work is done by the Faculty of Medicine.
The last group is the Department of
Psychology, in the Faculty of Arts» which uses rats
and mice in behavioral experiments.
Dr. Gregg is responsible for carrying out the
University's policy on animal care. He inspects alt
UBC animal facilities to make sure that they are
up to standard, advises on all subjects involving
animal care, must approve the design of all new
animal facilities and the renovation of others, and
provides basic training for animal attendants.
He supervises the general welfare of all
laboratory animals at UBC and carries out
University policy in all matters concerning animal
use as laid down by the UBC President's
Committee on University Policy on Animal Care.
Committee members include Or. Gregg and
representatives of the four groups using animals at
The standards and principles adopted by the
committee are those of the Canadian Council on
Animal Care as set out in the Council's publication
Care of ExpierimentaP Animals - A Guide for
Canada. The Council is supported by the federal
government and acts as a watchdog over the use of
experimental animals in university, government,
pharmaceutical and other commercial labs.
Dr. Gregg's signature is needed on all
application grants for research projects involving
the use of animals. Where facilities or standards of
care are unsatisfactory, he can recommend that
the facilities be closed. Appeals to his
recommendations can be made to the policy
He maintains that people at UBC caring for and
using experimental animals should regard it as a
privilege. If this attitude prevails, public fears that
research animals may be abused will decrease, he
"Construction of the new facilities and the
University's policy on animal care will
demonstrate that these fears are unfounded. It is
part of my job to see that they continue to be
unfounded," he said.
"An unhealthy or ill-treated animal, or one
under unnecessary stress, is of little value for
research purposes. Such an animal would be
unacceptable, not only from the humane point of
view, but from the experimental one too.
"There are pressures apart from compassion
influencing the number of animals used.
Maintaining animals is expensive, demanding and
time-consuming. If he had a choice, a researcher
would prefer to use biochemical methods rather
than ahirnals. If artimals nHist be used, he would
want to use the smallest number to get a
statistically valid result.
"Good animal facilities and proper care are
essential for uniform and reliable results.
Limitations of money, space, and time are
sufficiently pressing to put a brake on the number
of animals used."
He has considerable respect for people who
believe that animals shouldn't be used for any
experimental work, as long as their belief is
consistent and sincere.
Virtually all the benefits of medical science
have directly or indirectly resulted from research
involving experimental animals. A person totally
opposed to the use of experimental animals might
be considered hypocritical if he availed himself of
the benefits of medical treatment.
Dr. Gregg has little time for people who
discriminate in favor of one species, usually dogs,
but who couldn't care less about the treatment of
others. When Russia put a dog into space in the
early 1960s, a minority of people around the
world were outraged. Many of them would have
been indifferent if the experimental animal had
been a guinea pig, rabbit or rat.
"A rat is as susceptible to pain as a dog," Dr.
Gregg said. "All species are worthy of humane
The vast majority of people accept the need for
animal experimentation, provided it is carried out
in a responsible and humane manner, he said.
During UBC's Open House, when the University is
thrown open to the public, a number of animal
quarters are included among exhibits. Cats and
other animals which have received surgery as part
of an experiment have been seen by the public and
occasionally a visitor has debated with faculty
members whether the animals should have been
used, and most have been satisifed with the
answers they received.
'The University isn't a closed community.
Scientists aren't the only people here," he said.
"There are faculty members who are as unfamiliar
with science as most of the public is and they
wouldn't countenance animal abuse any more than
scientists, myself, or the President's Committee on
University Policy on Animal Care.
"Laboratory animals are used for teaching
undergraduate students and for both teaching and
research by post-graduate students. Students are
traditionally quick to champion a cause and would
rally behind any evidence of animal abus . They've
never done so."
NRC Grants Aid UBC Ecology Studies
Large grants announced recently by Canada's
National Research Council will enable UBC ecologists to
mount an extensive research program and provide for
expansion of a marine biology station on Vancouver
The grants have been made to:
UBC's Institute of Animal Resource Ecology, which
will receive a maximum of $364,000 over the next three
years to support six related projects on the behavior of
disturbed ecological systems; and
The Western Canadian Universities Marine Biological
Society, which will receive $255,500 over a five-year
period to upgrade facilities at its marine biology station
at Bamfield on the west coast of Vancouver Island and
pay for the services of support personnel such as
technicians and graduate students.
WCUMBS is a co-operative venture involving scientists
and students from UBC, the Universities of Alberta,
Calgary and Victoria and Simon Fraser University^
The grant to WCUMBS, n addition to providing
funds to support personnel, wijl be used to expand a
seawater system at the station and to purchase
transformers, emergency generators and other
This is the second grant made by the NRC to
WCUMBS. Two years ago WCUMBS received $500,000
to install a freshwater and seawater system and other
scientific equipment in its Vancouver Island station.
Construction has begun on housing for about 80
undergraduate and graduate students at the station with
a $500,000 mortgage from Central Mortgage and
Housing Corp. The new facilities are expected to be
completed by the end of this year.
The grant to UBC's Institute of Animal Resource
Ecology will support six projects, five of which will
involve extensive field studies in the areas of aquatic
ecology and animal and insect populations.
The sixth project included in the program is a
synthesis of the data obtained in the five field projects.
The synthesis project will attempt to discover patterns
common to all of the field projects and enable the
investigators to make a series of statements about
disturbed ecological systems.
Dr. Charles Krebs, of the UBC Institute of Animal
Resource Ecology and administrator of the N.RC grant,
said the science of ecology is only just beginning to
develop a data base related to ecological systems and
how they respond to disturbance.
The NRC-supported program, he said, is designed to
evaluate the behavior of five disturbed systems, to make
accurate, scientific measurements of the response of the
systems to disturbance and determine the general
principles that apply to the behavior of the disturbed
Two of the five studies will involve lakes in the
University of B.C.'s Research Forest in the Fraser Valley
near Haney, B.C.
Dr. J.D. McPhail, professor of zoology at UBC, will
be the principal investigator in a study to be carried out
at Marion Lake in the Forest. Dr. McPhail's project
involves disturbance of the ecological system in the lake
by introducing into it populations of stickleback fish,
which are not now present in the lake system.
Careful measurements will be made of the way in
which the lake system responds and adapts to the
introduction of the stickleback populations.
Dr. T.G. Northcote, associate professor of Forestry,
and Dr. Carl Walters, of the Zoology department, will
study the behavior of plankton, the microscopic plant
and animal organisms that fish feed on, in Marion Lake
and two other lakes in the UBC Forest.
The researchers will introduce trout into two lakes
that now contain no fish in order to study the response
of the plankton populations which inhabit the lakes.
Dr. Krebs will carry out research on rodent
populations at sites on the Lower Mainland of B.C. and
in the Yukon. He will study populations of voles, small
rodents of the same scientific family as rats and mice, at
an abandoned air base at Ladner, B.C., and at an
environmental study area operated by Douglas College
on the Serpentine River in Surrey.
He will contrast the resilience and stability of vole
populations at these sites with similar populations near
Kluane National Park in the Yukon.
Two projects on insect populations will complete the
field studies to be carried out under the NRC grant.
Mr. B.D. Frazer, of the Canada Department of
Agriculture Station on the UBC campus, and Mr. Neil
Gilbert, a research associate in the Institute of Animal
Resource Ecology, will study aphid populations, while
Prof. W.G. Wellington and Dr. J.H Myers, of the
Department of Plant Science in the Faculty of
Agricultural Sciences, will study populations of moths,
earwigs and craneflies.
Prof. C.S. Holling, director of UBC's Institute of
Animal Resource Ecology, will be the principal
investigator in the synthesis project, which will make a
detailed analysis with computer modelling of the five
field projects.
UBC Reports/Sept. 19,1973/9 CANADA'S NEW
By Peter Thompson
UBC Reports Staff Writer
Canada is about to rejoin the major league of optical
Once the proud owner of the world's largest optical
telescope, Canada has fallen behind as other nations have
built more powerful and more modern instruments for
their astronomers.
Now, with two partners, Canada will soon share the
ownership and use of a big new telescope. The telescope
will be available to UBC astronomers and astrophysicists,
and UBC's Deputy President William Armstrong is
playing a major role in bringing it into being.
The telescope is the result of a tripartite agreement
signed earlier this year between France, Canada and the
University of Hawaii. It will be built atop Mount Mauna
Kea, 14,000 feet above the Pacific on the island of
Hawaii, and should be in operation in late 1977 or early
Its designers say that because of its instrumentation
and the atmospheric conditions on Mauna Kea, it will be
the world's best telescope for observing astronomical
sources of infrared radiation — electromagnetic radiation
with a slightly longer wavelength than visible light.
Canadian astronomers haven't had access to a major
telescope owned by Canada for many years. The 72-inch
telescope at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in
Victoria was the biggest in the world when it was built in
1918 but advancing telescope technology has long since
made it obsolete compared with others in the world.
Now not only the U.S. and Russia but Britain, South
Africa, Australia, France, Czechoslovakia, Argentina,
West and East Germany, and Japan have larger optical
telescopes than Canada. The Victoria instrument now
ranks 35th in size.
The Hawaii telescope will mean that astronomers at
the University of B.C. and in the rest of Canada will be
able to expand their research. The National Research
Council   in   1970  awarded  a   negotiated- development
grant of $538,600 spread over three years to UBC to
stimulate rapid development of research in astronomy
and astrophysics. This type of NRC grant is usually
aimed at expanding a nucleus of scientific talent working
in a number of related scientific areas.
UBC's astronomers and astrophysicists are
concentrated in the University's Institute of Astronomy
and Space Science. Dr. Gordon Walker, director of the
Institute, is also secretary of the NRC's associate
committee on astronomy.
Prof. Armstrong is chairman of the interim board of
directors for the Hawaii project.
A technical team of French and Canadian scientists
examined both a 144-inch-diameter mirror bought by
France last year and the 157-inch mirror Canada bought
for a telescope to be built on Mount Kobau in the
Okanagan. Ottawa abandoned the Mount Kobau project
in 1968 in an anti-inflation move and two years later
turned over the assets of the project to WESTAR, a
consortium of Canada universities which now numbers
eight members.
The technical team chose the French mirror. Prof.
Armstrong says, partly because the French had
completed most of their telescope design. Redesigning
the telescope to accommodate the WESTAR mirror
would have delayed the project by at least one year. The
telescope and its drive components will be pre-assembled
in France.
The French mirror, of low-expansion glass called
Cer-Vit, arrived in Vancouver Aug. 22 on route to the
NRC's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria
where it will be ground. The meticulous grinding will
take from two to two-and-one-half years to complete
and will have to be within a precision of one-millionth of
an inch so the curved mirror, mounted at the base of thS"J
telescope, can accurately gather and concentrate ligljj^
from faint galaxies and stars in the universe and direct it
to powerful, light-analysing instruments.
The NRC expanded the optical shop at the
observatory last year and WESTAR lent the machin^
built to polish the 157-inch Canadian mirror. The new
grinding facilities, says Prof. Armstrong, are the best m
North America. After grinding the 144-inch mirror the
Victoria grinding shop will be capable of taking on
contracts to grind any other mirror now in the planning
stage. Italy is planning a large telescope and France is^
thinking of putting another atop Mauna Kea.
When the mirror is ground, it will continue its voyage
to its destination nearly three miles above the sea. The
last part of the journey may be the most difficult. The
route to the top of Mauna Kea is now up a gravel road.
Only four-wheel-drive vehicles can make it unassisted t<u
the top. Fuel trucks now making the ascent must travel
in their lowest gear, pushed by a bulldozer and pulled by
a road grader with chains on its wheels. The University
of Hawaii will flatten out the steepness of the road to
the top and pave it up to the 9,000-foot level.
Before construction can begin, the tri-national grout-
must file a formal environmental impact statement. Ttar?-^
group wanted to build a low power line to the site so
that the line wouldn't be visible above the tree-line. But
pressure has been put on the group to bury the line
underground. Burying the line would be enormously
expensive. Prof. Armstrong says, because the mountaiff*
is an extinct volcano of solid lava. *^
Though he's willing to go as far as possible to meet
environmental objectives, one criticism of the project
simply can't be satisfied.
"Some people in the area don't want the telescope
building painted white because it would be visible from5
10/UBC Reports/Sept. 19,1973 |—" below — about the size of a pinhead on a pumpkin as
seen from the beach. I'll have to explain," he said, "that
the building must be either white or aluminum to reflect
the sun's rays, otherwise thermal patterns would develop
inside the building and the mirror's image would be
He said that the Hawaii project has effectively killed
any hope WESTAR may have had of building the
157-inch telescope at Mount Kobau. Prof. Armstrong, a
member of WESTAR's board of directors, hopes
WESTAR will be able to sell the Canadian mirror next
year, raise money in a fund drive, get the federal
►» government to match public contributions, and build a
smaller telescope on Kobau.
"We'll need something on Kobau once the Hawaii
telescope is in operation," he said. "It'll be too
expensive to train our graduate students at the Hawaii
site and it would be better to work out the
instrumentation problems of new research projects on a
smaller and less expensive facility at Kobau before
taking them to Hawaii."
Total cost of the Hawaii project is estimated at $18
million. In addition, the University of Hawaii is
providing the land and access road as well as dormitories,
for about 30 scientists.
France and Canada are sharing the cost of
construction of the telescope and the telescope building.
The telescope and its facilities will bring major
opportunities to Canada in sophisticated engineering and
Prof. Armstrong, a member of the Science Council of
Canada, said that Canadian industry will be slow if it
doesn't manage to pick up a healthy share of the cost of
erecting the telescope and its building in Hawaii. Since
the building will be pre-fabricated in Canada, Canadian
firms should have a natural edge in the bidding.
"It will be a sophisticated building and Canadian
industry will have to come up with some very fine
tolerances. The building will have to be designed to cut
down vibrations and the flutter effect of the wind. There
are winds at the top of 100 miles per hour. And there
must be less than one degree temperature difference
across the main mirror of the telescope, otherwise star
images will blur.
"The opening of the dome must move in complete
precision with the telescope, which will rest on a pier
that is independent of the building because of the
possibility of earthquakes in the area. Hawaii had its
worst earthquake in 10 years in April this year.
Construction can only be done in summer and early fall
so everything will have to fit easily and perfectly. At
14,000 feet you can't fool around."
Meetings of the interim board of directors "for the
Hawaii project have been held in Paris and Ottawa. The
board, made up of four Frenchmen, four Canadians and.
two Hawaiians, will function for at least two years. Prof.
Armstrong's deputy chairman is French. The first
project officer for the project is French and his
associate. Dr. Graham Odgers of the Victoria
observatory, Canadian. The positions will alternate
between France and Canada.
Once grinding begins, a board meeting will be held in
'*' Victoria.   A  project  office  has   been  set  up   in  Paris
because details of the telescope must be worked out
there. As activity shifts away from Paris, a project office
will be established in western Canada, probably Victoria.
Prof. Armstrong said a scientific advisory council has
been set up to advise on design and consttuction of the
-'*■ telescope and will work out details for sharing of viewing
time. The University of Hawaii will get 15 per cent Sf
the available time and France and Canada will share the
rest equally.
Apart from bearing the major responsibility for
building the tri-national telescope, Prof. Armstrong has
taken on something which to many English-Canadians
' seems at least as difficult — learning French.
> "I want to start a crash program this winter. I don't
expect to be able to use it well but I'll be happy if I can
understand it," he said. "So far we've used simultaneous
translation. The only consolation I have is that the
French are as unilingual as I am."
UBC Officials Welcome
Shaughnessy Decision
By Peter Thompson
UBC Reports Staff Writer
Perhaps the most important single decision
affecting the training of health professionals in B.C.
was the announcement this summer of a new
teaching, research and tertiary referral hospital
complex to be built in Vancouver.
In announcing what he referred to as "a
tremendous undertaking," provincialHealth Minister
Dennis Cocke gave the University of B.C. the means
to train health science students during their "clinical"
or practical period of direct contact with patients.
UBC is the major centre for training health
professionals in B.C. At present, the students receive
their clinical training in hospitals such as St. Paul's or
the Vancouver General, structures built to provide
hospital service to the public and not designed as
teaching facilities.
The only exception to this is the 60-bed
psychiatric hospital on the UBC campus, opened in
1969 and designed as a teaching and research
hospital, as well as a service facility.
The Minister said construction of teaching and
referral hospital facilities could cost a total of $130
million over the next five to eight years. He said as
many as 1,400 beds might be required, at
Shaughnessy Hospital and elsewhere, to meet health
education needs.
The provincial government is acquiring the
Shaughnessy Veterans' Affairs hospital and its 43-acre
site at the corner of Oak and 30th in Vancouver.
Hospital facilities were first opened at Shaughnessy in
1940 and now total 950 beds.
Mr. Cocke's announcement has been welcomed
unanimously by leaders in the health field. Both the
Co-ordinator of Health Sciences at UBC, Dr. John F.
McCreary, and the dean of UBC's Faculty of
Medicine, Dr. David Bates, view the Shaughnessy
decision as a major opportunity for the University.
UBC long had wanted to build a teaching and
research hospital on campus as the last major
structure in its Health Sciences Centre. The Centre
has evolved as a place where health science students
are trained together so that they can function more
easily and more efficiently as a team in professional
practice. Students in pharmacy, medicine, nursing,
rehabilitation medicine and dentistry receive an
integrated training in the basic medical sciences at the
Centre before entering into the clinical phase of their
Dr. McCreary, who has struggled to have clinical
teaching facilities built for UBC for more than a
decade, said that though he was disappointed that the
new hospital complex won't be built on campus, he
welcomed with complete sincerity the Minister's
"Everyone   in  the health area  in B.C. has been
Former Dean Honored
Mrs. Helen McCrae, who retired as Dean of Women
at UBC in June, has been named honorary president
of the Canadian Association of Women Deans and
Advisors, an organization she helped to found.
Dean McCrae was a member of the UBC faculty
from 1950 until her retirement. She was named Dean
of Women at UBC in 1959 and taught in UBC's
School of Social Work prior to that appointment.
IIHH Vol. 19, No. 12 - Sept. 19,
■ III I" 1973. Published by the
BBBBBB University of British Columbia
MarmW^W and distributed free. UBC
R E P O R T S Reports appears on Thursdays
during the University's winter session. J.A.
Banham, Editor. Louise Hoskin and Jean
Rands, Production Supervisors. Letters to the
Editor should be sent to Information Services,
Main Mall North Administration Building, UBC,
Vancouver 8, B.C.
waiting a long time for this day," Dr. McCreary said.
Dr. Bates, who succeeded Dr. McCreary as dean of
Medicine last year, said the Shaughnessy facilities will
be a tremendous challenge and opportunity to health
"Some people may still be unaware of the
magnitude of the opportunity we now have," Dean
Bates said. "We can now move forward as we never
could before. The new facilities should be the best in
Canada and we will have to be equal to them."
Also delighted with the Minister's decision is Dr.
Sydney Israels, head of the Department of Pediatrics
in UBC's Faculty of Medicine.
A first priority in construction at Shaughnessy will
be a children's, obstetrics and gynecological hospital.
Dr. Israels and other pediatricians have been
campaigning for new facilities to supplement the
crowded Health Centre for Children and the
Children's Hospital in Vancouver.
The Minister wants increased enrolment in the
Faculties of Dentistry and Medicine and the Schools
of Nursing and Rehabilitation Medicine. Both Nursing
and Rehabilitation Medicine now use Second World
War army huts as classrooms.
An increase in the number of health professionals
to be trained by UBC will necessitate a major
expansion of basic medical science facilities on
Mr. Cocke said a number of factors went into his
decision to create a major teaching and tertiary
referral complex at Shaughnessy. Apart from the
need for a teaching hospital, emergency departments
in Vancouver hospitals are overloaded, especially for
providing acute psychiatric care. The tertiary or
highly-specialized facilities at VGH are inadequate, he
said, and children's hospital facilities in the
Vancouver area are unsatisfactory.
The Minister has created a provincial teaching and
referral hospital board to plan and supervise
construction of the new complex. Under the
chairmanship of Mr. J.V. Christensen, who resigned as
chairman of VGH's board of trustees to take on his
new job, the board will be instructed to provide
first-class student facilities, Mr. Cocke said.
UBC representatives to the new board are Dean
Bates and Mr. R.M. Bibbs, a member of UBC's Board
of Governors. The hospital board's first meeting was
held on Sept. 10.
Dr. McCreary has been appointed chairman of the
education   committee for  the   project  and has been
asked to suggest the committee's terms of reference
and its membership.
UBC would like to extend to its clinical training at
Shaughnessy the integrated approach which takes
place in basic medical science teaching at its Health
Sciences Centre on campus.
To ensure this, representatives of the UBC
Faculties and Schools training students at
Shaughnessy will have to have a major role in the
design of the teaching and research facilities of the
new complex. UBC also wants each health
professional appointed to Shaughnessy to be a
member of a health professional Faculty or School.
UBC's Health Sciences Centre will also suggest a
new form of hospital administration to the provincial
teaching and referral hospital board, once the board is
In most hospitals physicians and dentists work as
independent professionals and have access to the
hospital's board of trustees — the hospital's senior
governing body — through a medical advisory board.
But other health professionals are usually considered
employees of the hospital. Their route to the board
of trustees is through the hospital administrator.
In the interest of co-operation and smooth
functioning of health professionals working as a team,
UBC suggests that all health professionals have the
same access to the board of trustees.
One method of ensuring this might be to create a
professional rather than medical advisory board. This
type of administrative organization is already in
operation in UBC's psychiatric hospital on campus. ^^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
9:30 p.m., Thursdays,
Cable 10, in Vancouver
Editor, UBC Reports
Every graduating class believes, in its heart of
hearts, that it is somehow unique.
In fact, jokes are made on the subject at class
The most famous is the one that goes, 'The place
has been on the slippery slope to hell ever since we
One class which can claim the opposite — that
things actually got better after they graduated - and
which can also claim to have played a major role in
ensuring that things got better is the Class of 1923,
which held its golden anniversary reunion on Sept. 6,
7 and 8.
The reason, of course, is that it was the class of
1923 that was largely responsible for the planning
and execution of the now-legendary Great Trek, the
student campaign of 1922-23 which resulted in the
provincial government of the day appropriating funds
to complete the UBC campus on its present site on
the tip of Point Grey.
No one person, apparently, can be said to have
thought up the idea of the Great Trek, but the man
who seems to have been the driving force behind the
Student Publicity Campaign - as the event was
prosaically called in 1922 - was Dr. A.E. "Ab"
Richards, president of the Alma Mater Society in
1922-23 and who also chaired the ten-member
student committee that oversaw the organization of
the Trek.
The campaign, largely carried out in the fall of
1922, was a model of organization. A news service
and house-to-house canvass to obtain signatures for a
petition which the students planned to present to the
Legislature was organized. One student obtained his
quota of signatures by setting up a soap box in a
downtown pool hall and yet another rode the old
Fairview loop streetcar all day to get his.
The affair came to a climax late in October, 1922,
with a Saturday-morning parade through downtown
Vancouver that dramatized the overcrowded
conditions which existed at that time in the
University's temporary quarters, a group of buildings
in the shadow of the Vancouver General Hospital
which have become known to history as the
"Fairview Shacks."
When the parade ended the students rode
streetcars to Tenth Ave. and Sasamat St. and then
walked over a horse trail to the almost-bare campus.
The only major landmark on the campus was the
skeleton of the Science — now the Chemistry —
Building, which had weathered in the wind and rain
of Point Grey since 1914, when construction was
halted as a result of the outbreak of the First World
In protest against government "inaction," each of
the students who took part in the march to the
campus picked up a stone and hurled it into a pile in
front of the Science Building. Later the stones were
fashioned into the Cairn which stands in front of the
Chemistry Building to this day, although it is largely
invisible as the result of a heavy covering of Virginia
creeper and a surrounding bed of spreading
(Some members of the Class of '23, incidentally,
are unhappy about the present state of the Cairn.
They feel it should be stripped of its covering of vines
and surrounded by a plaza of flagstones to make it
more obvious. They good-naturedly extracted a
promise from a University official during a reunion
tour of the campus on Sept. 8 that the matter would
be taken up with the "appropriate University
Within two weeks of the end of the student
campaign the government had taken action to
complete the University at Point Grey. Six page boys
were required to present the 56,000-signature
petition to the Legislature and it adjourned it's
business to hear "a stirring and convincing speech" by
Ab Richards. On Nov. 9, 1922, the then Premier,
John Oliver, announced a grant of $1,500,000, which
was enough in those days to complete the Science
Building and to construct the central, stone-faced
section of the Main Library as well as five
"temporary" buildings, which are still very much a
part of today's campus under the names of the Main
Mall North Administration Building, the Old
Auditorium, the Mathematics Building, the
Mathematics Annex and the Geography Building.
The University moved to its present site in 1925 -
two years after the Great Trek — and it comes as
something of a shock to realize that the Class of '23
never enjoyed the fruits of its labor. By the time the
University was ready for students at Point Grey most
of the Class of '23 were well launched on their
respective careers.
Still, the memory of that event and other incidents
lingers on with the graduates of 1923 and a goodly
Alumni Concerts
A new series of quality music performances
is planned by students and faculty of the
UBC Department of Music.
The programs are varied, with vocal
and instrumental performances by selected
students. One evening is devoted to a
special faculty recital.
The recitals will be held on Thursdays at
8 p.m. in the recital hall of the Music
Building at UBC.
Oct. 8, 25
Nov. 1,8
(Faculty performance date to be announced)
Subscription series tickets at $8* for all
five concerts assure you a reserved seat.
Call or write the Alumni Office, 6251 N.W.
Marine Drive, Vancouver 8, B.C. (228-3313)
for your tickets.
•Revenue from subscription series tickets
will be used to benefit the UBC Alumni
music student honorarium program.
Hawaii Beckons
Are you troubled in winter by the sniffles, aching
joints, chilblains or depression brought on by
over-exposure to rain? Here is your chance to escape
these irritating ailments this winter by joining the
UBC travel program to Hawaii and Maui. The
program features frequent departures of 747 jets by
regular airlines, good hotels and reductions for
children. For information contact: UBC Alumni
Association, 6251 N.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver 8,
B.C. (228-3313).
number of them showed up on campus for three days
of reunion events earlier this month. They had
responded well to the organizational abilities of the
Hon. J.V. "Jack" Clyne, class reunion chairman and
one of the original members of the Trek
organizational committee, and Mrs. Annie M.
(Anderson) Angus, wife of Dean Emeritus Henry
Angus, after whom the campus building occupied by
the Faculty of Commerce and Business
Administration is named.
Mr. and Mrs. Clyne kicked off the, reunion on
Sept. 6 with a reception at their Angus Drive home.
The following day more than 120 members of the
Class of '23 and their spouses attended a dinner in the
UBC Faculty Club, which was preceded by a
reception hosted by Professor Emeritus of English
F.G.C. "Freddy" Wood, a UBC professor at the time
of the Great Trek, and his wife, Beatrice, who was a
member of the Class of '23.
The Sept. 7 dinner was highlighted by toasts to
UBC, the Arts, Science and Agriculture classes of '23
and, finally, to the Memory of the Great Trek, the
latter proposed by Dean Emeritus Angus and replied
to by Dr. Richards.
Finally, on Saturday, Sept. 8, the Class of '23
returned to the University they never experienced as
students for a Saturday morning coffee party in the
Faculty Club hosted by Dean Emeritus and Mrs.
Angus. For those who were curious about the present
state of the campus there was a guided bus tour.
The spirit that animated the Class of '23 when it
embarked on the Great Trek seemed very much alive
during the reunion celebrations. It is perhaps best
summed up in the cockiness, the "by-God-we-did-it"
attitude embodied in the last verse of a poem read at
the Sept. 7 dinner by Mrs. John (Sally Murphy)
Creighton (Arts'23), a former UBC teacher and
member of the UBC Senate and Board of Governors,
and the wife of a retired UBC professor emeritus of
"But with a real tranquillity
Let's hail our own ability.
We kept our versatility!
God bless us — everyone."
Writing Contest
The UBC Alumni Chronicle has established a
creative writing competition for UBC students. The
three winning entries will be awarded cash prizes and
will be published in the Chronicle.
Students may submit any piece of previously
unpublished creative writing to a maximum of 3,500
words in length. More than one item (poetry, for
example) may be combined in a single entry. A
committee of local writers and critics will judge the
Cash prizes will be: first - $175; second -$ 125;
and third — $75. The prize money has been donated
by the UBC Alumni Fund.
Deadline for entries, which must be typewritten, is
Jan. 31, 1974. They should be sent to Chronicle
Creative Writing Competition, 6251 N.W. Marine
Drive, Vancouver 8, B.C. For information, phone
Dental Hygiene
Dental hygiene alumni and friends will hold a
social evening and dance on Tuesday, Oct. 30, in
Cecil Green Park. This is the first program of this
newly-formed alumni division and dental hygiene
graduates are invited to come out and join in the fun.
Tickets at $6 each, which include the cost of light
refreshments, are available by contacting the Alumni
Association, 228-3313.
■~ *■ —
—~      —*"*—


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