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UBC Reports Jan 28, 1971

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 JANUARY 28,  1971, VANCOUVER 8, B.C
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HEART
AT
Dr. Dennis Vince diagnoses: heart malformations in children in a specially-
equipped laboratory. See Page Five.
Dr. Peter Allen, holding an experimental
heart valve, is also involved in heart
transplant studies. See Page Six.
Dr. P.G. Ashmore is experimenting with a
blood-oxygenating machine for use in
operations. See Page Five. PETER THOMPSON
Unique Issue
Devoted to
Heart Research
This is a unique issue of UBC Reports.
For the first time in the 16-year publishing
history of the paper, its contents are devoted
almost entirely to a single topic — the
research being carried out by UBC scientists
on diseases and defects of the human heart
and circulatory system.
The seven major articles from Page Three
to Page Ten of this issue are the work of
Assistant Information Officer Peter
Thompson, who began interviewing UBC
medical scientists in July, 1970, to gather
material for the series.
The projects described in this issue of UBC
Reports are not an exhaustive catalogue of
the work being carried out at UBC in the field
of heart research. The limitations of space and
time forced Mr. Thompson and the paper's
editors to make a selection of material. It is
our hope that we have not overlooked any
significant projects.
"The article could not have been written
without the patience of the researchers," Mr.
Thompson said, "many of whom took time
out from very busy schedules to talk to me.
Before they could even describe their research
results many of them had to condense an
entire course on some feature of the
cardiovascular system into an hour's interview
to give me some seedbed knowledge."
The editors of UBC Reports are also
grateful to the Department of Medical
Illustration in the Faculty of Medicine, and
particularly Mr. Victor Doray, the head of the
department, for his assistance in supplying the
illustrations of the heart on this page and for
the photographs used to illustrate some of the
articles.
R. PULM. ART.
R. PULM.
VEIN
>   aortaV   ^am|ntum
/ ^ ^i^\ ARTERIOSUS
i fOKA
*~7ui*: ARTERY^ 4j
VEIN
INFERIOR
VENA
CAVA
The illustration above, prepared by the UBC
Department of Medical Illustration for UBC
Reports, is a schematic drawing showing blood
circulation through the normal human heart. The
large dark arrows indicate the pathway of venous,
or deoxygenated blood returning from the body
to the right half of the heart (shown at left in
foWe
diagram) where it is pumped to the lungs foWresh
oxygen. Large white arrows show the pathway of
reoxygenated arterial blood to the left half of the
heart where it is pumped into the aorta for
another trip through the body. Diagram below
shows the exterior of the heart and how it is
supplied with blood by the coronary arteries.   h
Aorta
Right Atrium
Right Coronary Artery
Right Ventricle
Ligamentum Arteriosus
Pulmonary Vein
Pulmonary Artery    r-
Left Atrium
Great Cardiac Vein
t
Left Coronary Artery
Left Ventricle
2/UBC Reports/Jan. 28,1971 THE HUMAN HEART
is an  incredibly tough muscle that will beat some 2.5
billion times during a normal life span of three score years
and ten. Despite a number of built-in safety factors, the
various parts of the heart and the circulatory system are
subject to disease, defects and the ravages of time. At the University of British Columbia, scores of faculty members and technicians are at work on
various heart problems supported by grants from a myriad of agencies, including the B.C. Heart Foundation, which granted more than $160,000 to
"researchers in the current year. In the article below. Assistant Information Officer Peter Thompson describes how the heart works and the chief danger
points where trouble can occur. In subsequent articles he describes how several top UBC medical scientists are grappling with heart defects and disease.
The sight of a heart beating in an open chest is
terrible. It's terrible because it completely ruptures
the image of the heart most of us have formed over
the years.
It isn't the tranquil, pulsing organ we think it is.
Lying there in the middle of the exposed chest, it is
"much bigger than expected, about the size of a fist.
Watching it for the first time is an existential
moment. Its movements seem tortured. It writhes,
almost jumps with each beat. And the question that
passes through one's mind is: My God, if I owe my
lifeto something like that thrashing in my chest, how
N^Hflonger can it continue?
^Wie reason for our false pre-conception of the
heart is simple. So central and dramatic is the heart to
life that almost all societies have given the heart and
the blood it pumps some symbolic meaning.
SEAT OF THE MIND
It is only relatively recently that the brain, a
visually dull sight compared with the heart, has been
looked upon as the seat of the mind. The heart had
occupied this role for some time.
And before the idea of the mind took root in the
western tradition, the heart was considered the site of
the soul. Sir William Harvey, who discovered the
circulatory system in 1628, supported the old idea
tha^he soul is centred in the blood.
j^B heart and blood are part of the rites of many
religions. And poets and song writers still associate
the heart with love and beauty. Our genteel and
tender attitude toward the heart is partly responsible
for the furore over heart transplants following the
first by Dr. Christiaan Barnard in 1967.
Ignoring the question of whether the heart
transplants should have been done or not, all sorts of
other transplants had been going on for years without
a ripple of public excitement. Kidney transplants, for
example, are now almost routine. But then, no one
has written a poem about an unrequited lover dying
of a broken kidney.
So our idea of what a heart should look like is
conditioned. And after a few minutes of watching an
•xposed heart beating out a constant rhythm of life
one begins to realize how incredibly tough the heart
is.
With proper care and a bit of luck, the human
heart will beat some 2.5 billion times during a
life-time of three score years and ten. Its repeated and
almost monotonous \ubb-dup, lubb-<i«p beating
pushes between four and eight quarts of blood
through the body depending on body weight.
Dark venous blood coming back from the upper
part of the body, laden with carbon dioxide, pours
into the right atrium of the heart through a large vein
called the superior vena cava while blood from the
lower part of the body returns through the inferior
vena cava.
From there the blood passes into the right
ventricle where the pumping action of the heart
pushes it out into the pulmonary artery leading to the
lungs.
After exchanging its carbon dioxide for a fresh
supply of oxygen in the lungs, the blood — now
crimson in color — returns to the other half of the
heart and enters the left atrium.
It finally leaves the heart for another trip through
the body with its freight of life-sustaining oxygen
when squeezed out of the left ventricle into the aorta,
the major artery of the body.
So the heart is really two separate pumps each
feeding a separate circuit. The right heart operates the
pulmonary circulation through the lungs. The left
heart receives the re-oxygenated blood from the lungs
and recirculates it throughout the body. This is the
"systemic" or greater circulation.
The aorta branches out into a series of arteries.
Together they make up the arterial system. The walls
of arteries are lined with smooth muscles which help
force the blood through them in a rippling
movement.
After passing through a maze of millions of tiny
capillaries, the blood returns to the heart through
thin-walled veins. Body muscles, themselves moving
against the veins, help move the blood through them.
WRINGS BLOOD OUT
The left ventricle must do more work than any
other part of the heart so its walls are the most
muscled. The three muscle layers making up the heart
are so arranged that with each "lubb" of the
heartbeat, the heart literally wrings blood out of its
ventricles.
Like any pressure pump, the heart has a series of
valves. One between each atrium and ventricle and
one at the beginning of each artery leading from the
heart. The "dup" part of the beat is the sound of the
crucial aortic valve slamming shut after the left
ventricle has squeezed its contents into the aorta.
The heart normally contracts about 70 times a
minute. Each contraction occurs when heart cells
receive a signal to contract through a system of
nerve-like fibres.
The signal originates in a knot of cells called the
sinoatrial node at the top of the right atrium. The S-A
node recharges itself as soon as the impulse to
contract is set off. The signal fires off both atria and
travels through fibres down to another bundle of cells
at the bottom of the right atrium. From here it moves
down through a network of fibres branching out
through both ventricles so that the ventricles are
triggered off in a definite time interval after the atria.
This outline points to the potential disaster areas
where something could go wrong. Something might
happen to the valves, for instance. Or the critical left
ventricle could be weakened or stopped. Or the
suppleness of the arterial walls may wither away.
If the heart breaks down, the result can be
disastrous, of course. The heart, though it weighs
about 1/200 of the total weight of the body, must
itself receive 1/20 of the body's blood to sustain it. It
receives its own supply of blood through two
coronary arteries, the first arteries to branch off the
aorta. If something happens to the coronary arteries
so that blood supply to the heart muscle is cut off,
death can occur within minutes.
A number of safety factors have been built into
the heart in case something does go wrong. The atria,
for instance, have the ability to pump blood into the
ventricles. Normally this pumping action isn't needed.
But if the valves between the atriums and ventricles
become defective, the extra capacity can mean the
difference between life and death.
Blood will also continue to circulate even if the
right ventricle is dead. Circulation will continue if the
muscle of the critical left ventricle is more than half
dead.
The other node in the right atrium, the
atrioventricular node, can take over, though only at
about 50 contractions per minute, if the S-A node
packs up. And the conducting network within the
ventricles can operate at between 30 to 50 beats per
minute if both the S-A and A-V nodes give up.
But for many, even these safety factors aren't
enough. More than half of the deaths in Canada this
year — some 80,000 — will be from diseases of the
heart and circulatory system — cardiovascular disease.
About 35 per cent of these deaths occur among
Canadians between the ages of 45 and 64, men and
women in the prime of what would normally be their
life span. And each year the age group of people
affected by cardiovascular disease is younger and
younger. Some 2.5 million Canadians, more than 10
per cent of the population, suffer from some form of
cardiovascular disease.
CAUSE OF DISEASE
Most people have a hard time understanding heart
and circulatory diseases and for good reason. To most
of us a disease is usually caused by a virus or bacteria.
And most of the diseases we are familiar with are
clear-cut. Appendicitis, for example, or tuberculosis,
typhoid fever and diptheria.
Not so with cardiovascular diseases. A few are
caused by bacteria, some aren't, many have unknown
causes. And their effects are diffused, often affecting
more than one part of the body. A good example of a
clear-cut, cause-and-effect bacterial heart disease is
endocarditis, infection of the inner heart lining. Virus
myocarditis is infection of the heart muscle itself. But
Please turn to Page Four
See HEART
UBC Reports/Jan. 28,1971/3 Dr. Dennis Vince prepares to carry out a diagnostic procedure on an infant with a heart malformation. See story on opposite page.
HqART Continued from Page Three
there are less serious or at least less frequent diseases.
In comparison, origin of the most insidious "big
four" cardiovascular diseases is obscure.
Arteriosclerosis or hardening of the arteries leads
to gradual narrowing of the opening of the arteries as
fatty material is laid down along the inside walls.
Blood clots forming in the narrowed arteries can
bring on heart attacks or strokes. The arteriosclerotic
process can begin as early as the late teens. Its cause is
unknown.
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
Mystery still surrounds about 90 percent of the
cases of hypertension or high blood pressure. Recent
research advances have made it possible to determine
the origin of some cases of hypertension, which
affects more than 10 per cent of the population. It
can lead to a stroke or heart or kidney failure.
Rheumatic heart disease has struck nearly 200,000
Canadians living today. It is caused by rheumatic
fever which occurs two to four weeks after a
streptococcus infection, for example, a "strep" throat
or ear infection or scarlet fever. But its exact cause
isn't clear. Rheumatic fever can strike at any age,
though it usually occurs in childhood. It can lead to
rheumatoid arthritis as well as rheumatic heart
disease, permanent damage and scarring of the heart
valves.
About one out of every 250 babies is born with
congenital heart disease, some 300 each year in B.C.
alone. The heart or the major blood vessels connected
to it are misshapen, malformed. Before specialized
diagnostic laboratories came into existence a few
years ago, surgery was seldom attempted and about
75 per cent of these babies died. Today the survival
figure is closer to 80 per cent.
One of the most common congenital defects is
patent ductus arteriosus where a normal pre-natal
connection between the aorta and the pulmonary
4/UBC Reports/Jan. 28,1971
artery fails to close when the baby is born. Blood
nourishing the fetus is from the mother's circulatory
system. The fetus naturally can't breathe, so the loop
to its lungs between the right ventricle and left atrium
is short-circuited through the connection between the
pulmonary artery and the aorta. The ductus closes at
birth. If it doesn't it must be severed by surgery.
Another common but more complicated
congenital defect is tetralogy of Fallot. Tetralogy
refers to the four conditions usually present. The
most important two are a narrowed pulmonary valve
and a hole between the two ventricles. The result is
that amounts of venous blood returning to the right
heart from the body, low in oxygen and high in
carbon dioxide, are recycled through the body
without being re-oxygenated in the lungs. Hampered
from entering the pulmonary artery because of the
defective valve, the venous blood shunts through the
hole in the septum separating the two ventricles and
is pumped into the aorta. The dark venous blood
gives babies with this condition a bluish hue, thus
"blue babies."
Corrective surgery for this condition usually isn't
performed until the baby is at least five years old. But
stop-gap palliative surgery usually must be done while
the infant is in its first few months of life to ensure
that it will survive and develop until corrective
surgery can be done more safely when it is older.
Palliative surgery doesn't change original defects.
The most important of palliative surgery for tetralogy
of Fallot is the creation of a shunt between the
pulmonary artery and aorta.
In effect, a ductus is re-established between the
two blood vessels, reversing the surgical correction for
patent ductus arteriosus.
MORE COMPLICATED
The new ductus allows part of the venous blood,
which poured through the hole between the ventricles
and entered the aorta, to return to the pulmonary
artery for re-oxygenation in the lungs.
Other malformations are much more complicated,
almost bizarre. Some hearts are so misshapen they
seem the work of something mindless and diabolically
evil.
The aorta and vena cava could be switched, for
instance, with the aorta leaving the right ventricle
instead of the left. Death is inevitable when this
happens, unless by some irony another malformation
is present, such as patent ductus arteriosus or a hole
in the wall between the atria. These additional
malformations, through the process of a double
negative, to some extent cancel out the reversed
blood circulation caused by transposition of the aorta
and vena cava.
Researchers at the University of B.C. are trying to
understand and treat or prevent most of the major
forms of cardiovascular afflictions. Investigations are
going on in both the basic medical science
departments on campus such as Anatomy, Pathology
and Pharmacology, and in such clinical departments
as Surgery and Pediatrics associated with Vancouver
hospitals.
Funding for their work comes from a variety of
agencies, though the main source is the B.C. Heart
Foundation.
CARE IMROVED
Clinical investigators occupy a small middle
ground between the laboratory type of medical
research scientist and the practising physician. These
are people who don't have to make the choice
between being a full-time physician or a full-time
scientist. Their research is usually intimately involved
with their practice and is often stimulated by a
problem they have come across as a health
professional.
A patient or many patients may have an affliction
the doctor doesn't know how to treat. He can't find
the answer in any book. So he starts a clinical
investigation to find out for himself.
By solving the problem he advances medical
knowledge, increases the quality of care to his
patients and makes himself a better doctor. HEART
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iUB»3:Fkiport*lB'm.:S3liri!f(TW«i BLO 0 D   Continued from Page Five
in dogs and hooking their circulatory system to the
machine.
If successful, the oxygenator could be used on
babies to give long-term support to their circulatory
system - say three or four days — so that their own
systems have a chance to recover.
As a surgeon. Dr. Ashmore specializes in heart
diseases in children.
Dr. Ashmore 3nd his group have also been
studying another method of getting around the
problem of blood damage because of direct exposure
to oxygen. For about six years they have been adding
substances to the blood to try to eliminate or reduce
the toxic effect of direct oxygen. More recently they
have been experimenting with methods of filtering
the blood to remove damaged ingredients.
HYPERBARIC CHAMBER
Some of Dr. Ashmore's patients, whose congenital
heart malformations have been diagnosed in Dr.
Vince's catheterization lab {See Page Five), are
operated on in UBC's hyperbaric chamber at VGH.
This is done so that the babies, usually in grave
danger and desperately ill, can benefit from the
chamber's supply of pure oxygen under high pressure.
The chamber — 24 feet long and eight feet in
diameter — was installed five years ago to explore the
new field of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Today, pure
oxygen under pressure is used as a treatment itself of
patients who can't supply their bodies with enough
oxygen. The conditions include decompression
sickness, carbon monoxide poisoning, pneumonia and
low cardiac output.
The chamber is also used in conjunction with
surgery to repair congenitally malformed or diseased
hearts or to remove pulmonary emboli — small clots
of blood which have circulated through the blood
stream and come to rest in the lungs. Everything that
is available in a normal operating theatre has been
installed in the chamber with the exception of x-ray
equipment, which would present a fire hazard. At the
high oxygen levels used in the chamber any spark
could cover the interior in flames. Because the
chamber isn't as large as the norma! operating theatre,
some of the equipment — such as the anaesthetic and
lighting apparatus — has been condensed.
"Some of the infants operated on in here are so
sick they wouldn't have much chance of surviving
their first few months of life," said Dr. W.G. Trapp,
clinical assistant professor of Surgery and director of
the unit.
"Sometimes the infant's oxygen level goes down
while in the chamber under normal pressure and its
heart stops. We can't get it started again. Electric
shock, cardiac massage, chemotherapy, artificial
respiration - nothing we try revives it.
"Then we close the door and turn up the pressure
and watch as the baby's heart starts to beat all by
itself. The baby's circulation may remain low but the
extra pressure gives its heart the oxygen it needs."
The chamber works by saturating the blood with
oxygen. Normally it is hemoglobin, a component of
the red cells of the blood, which picks up oxygen
from the lungs. At normal pressures about 95 per
cent of the hemoglobin's oxygen-carrying capacity is
used.
The chamber has been effective in treating carbon
monoxide poisoning. At normal pressures, carbon
monoxide is 30 times more successful than oxygen in
competing for the hemoglobin. Increasing the oxygen
pressure reverses this reaction so that hemoglobin
resumes its job of carrying oxygen.
When pure oxygen under pressure is given to
patients the excess oxygen bypasses the hemoglobin
and is forced into the fluid of the blood and
circulated through the body.
A similar blood mechanism lies behind the
chamber's successful treatment of massive cyanide
poisoning, the only recovery ever reported.
In a series of experiments using dogs now
underway. Dr. Trapp and his team are trying to
perfect a method of installing a small, inflatable
balloon in the aorta.
CORONARY SHOCK
The procedure is designed to treat coronary shock.
This sometimes occurs after coronary occlusion and
thrombosis. The shock can be due to pain, abnormal
chemicals released from the section of dead heart
muscle, or other factors. Blood pressure drops, pulse
rate increases; cold perspiration and extreme
weakness comes oh. Victims of severe coronary shock
face 5-to-1 odds against survival.
Dr. Trapp ties off the coronary arteries of the dog
to bring on a thrombosis. He passes a catheter with a
balloon at the tip into the mid-aorta.
Helium gas is pumped in and out of the balloon
through the catheter in sequence with the heart beat
so that the balloon deflates, creating a low-pressure
area just before the left ventricle pumps blood
through the aortic valve.
When the valve closes the ventricle expands during
its resting period and takes in more blood from the
left atrium. During this part of the cardiac cycle the
balloon expands, pushing on the blood just pumped
out of the heart.
The pushing action would normally be done by
the left ventricle. Under optimum conditions as much
as half of the ventricle's work load can be taken over.
This procedure has been used on humans in some
medical centres, though not in Vancouver. Dr. Trapp
said success so far in humans has been estimated at
only 30 per cent. Dr. Trapp doesn't think 30 per cent
is good enough. His results of treating dogs
experimentally with coronary thrombosis, with
hyperbaric oxygen therapy alone, appears to be even
better than the helium counterpulsator.
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Dr. W.G. Trapp operates in UBC's hyperbaric chamber where new techniques of oxygen therapy are explored. See story at left.
REPAIRING THE DAMAGED HEART
Dr. Peter Allen, clinical assistant professor of surgery, has been
involved in heart repair and heart transplant investigations. The first
searched for a better way of replacing heart valves and the second
involved experimental use of immuno-suppressive drugs to stop a body
rejecting a new, transplanted heart.
REPLACE DAMAGED VALVES
For about six years now heart surgeons have been replacing damaged
heart valves, particularly the aortic and mitral valves, with artificial ones
made of metal, fabric and rubber. But these valves frequently produced
a thrombus or blood clot. A blood clot would build on the fabric and
extend onto the metal which it failed to grip. The clot would often
break off in many tiny pieces and circulate through the body, often
lodging in the brain with usually disastrous results.
More than two years ago Dr. Alien began an experiment with sheep,
replacing the pulmonary valve with the aortic valve of another sheep.
Usual problems of rejection don't occur with transplanted, natural
valves because they are made of the same kind of bloodless material
that lines the joints of the skeleton.
"The reason we did an aortic-to-pulmonary transplant was because it
was technically much easier than replacing the aortic valve with another
Ghostly Dr. Peter Allen holds an experimental heart valve
made of metal, fabric and rubber.
aortic," Dr. Allen said, "and we would learn as much anyway."
Twenty sheep were used over the two-year period of the
investigation. When the transplanted valves were re-examined after
being in the sheep foe-some time, many of them had developed leaks
because the area actually regulating the flow of blood had shrivelled.
But after a year or a year and one-half, the same part of the valves had
begun to regrow, though the shrivelled deformity never corrected itself.
Dr. Allen, like Dr. Ashmore and Dr. Trapp, a member of the VGH
cardiac surgery team, said "the experiment was designed to see if the
transplanted valve would remain competent, which it didn't. But we
found out that the valve actuary lived, it didn't remain in the body as
dead tissue, as we expected." The experiment ended about six months
ago.
"In the meantime," he said, "the design of the artificial valves or
prosthesis has improved immeasurably. They no longer have exposed
metal on them and they don't produce emboli to float through the
body in the bloodstream inany^significant volume."
His two current projects involve the problems surrounding cardiac
transplants. About 160 human heart transplants have been done in the
world and only about 15 patients are still living.
"Cardiac transplant is not yet a practical method. The surgical
technique has been solved but the ability to keep the patient alive
afterwards has a long way to go," he said. "Patients often die of
pneumonia because the immuno-suppressive drugs they are given to
reduce their bodies' resistance to the foreign heart also reduces
resistance to other foreign organisms such as bacteria."
To study the effect of various immuno-suppressive drugs, Dr. Allen
transplanted the heart of one dog into the abdomen of another, tying
the new heart into normal blood circulation of the dog so that the new
heart received life-sustaining oxygen. But the new heart didn't do any
pumping of blood. It was attached to the dog's life system but didn't
function as a heart. The dog continued to live on his own heart in his
chest.
The advantage of this method is that the new heart could be studied
even as it died since the animal wasn't dependent on the new organ. Dr.
Allen discovered that a combination of steroids and azathioprine kept
the new heart alive for the longest period "which towards the end of
the experiment was three to four weeks."
KEEP DONOR HEARTS ALIVE
If the transplanted heart had taken over the function of the dog's
own heart and no immuno-suppressive drugs had been given, the dog
would have died within a week.
A project Dr. Allen has just begun is to devise a way of keeping a
donor heart alive outside the body for a long period of time before
being transplanted into a recipient. Success might make it possible for
cardiac banks to be formed.
He is studying the effect of different types of solutions which he
perfuses over the experimental hearts to keep them alive in a special
chamber. Effectiveness of the more promising solutions will be checked
by transplanting the hearts involved into the abdomen of dogs.
Coronary
Care Units
Cut Deaths
6/UBC Reports/Jan. 28,1971
Dr. Dwight I. Peretz's clinical investigations have
improved the chances of heart disease patients
surviving life-threatening arrhythmia or change in the
rhythm of the heart beat following a heart attack.
Dr. Peretz, a clinical assistant professor in the UBC
Department of Medicine, is director of the Medical
Intensive Care and Coronary Care Unit at St. Paul's
Hospital.
The 20-bed unit is for patients who are severely ill.
Rather than have them scattered throughout the
hospital wards, they are concentrated into one unit
under the constant vigilance of doctors and specially
trained nurses. The private beds are arranged around
the perimeter of a large central nursing and
monitoring station.
Six of the beds are designed and equipped for
coronary patients, though between 10 and 12 beds
are usually occupied by coronary victims.
MORTALITY RATE
Dr. Peretz began his investigations under grants
from the Medical Research Council when the unit,
financed by the P.A. Woodward Foundation, opened
in 1965. The mortality rate of heart attack victims is
normally between 30 and 35 per cent. Dr. Peretz said.
But where well run coronary care units are available
— the first were built in North America only about
seven or eight years ago — the rate has been cut down
to 17 percent or less.
About half of heart attack deaths are caused by
damage to centres controlling the
electrically-stimulated pumping action of the heart.
The other half is because muscle tissue has been
damaged to the extent that pumping is impossible.
Dr. Peretz has concentrated on the electrical
disruption of the heart by studying the
electrocardiograms of some of the 3,500 patients who
have passed through the Unit.
The electrocardiogram of each coronary patient is
projected on a monitor in the nursing station and
recorded on magnetic tape. If something goes wrong,
a warning light flashes and a buzzer sounds so the
staff can apply immediate therapy.
When an arrhythmia occurs the heart may
fibrillate, go into a flutter, and heart beats can
increase to a frantic 400 to 500 per minute. Doctors
or nurses immediately appfy an electric current across
the chest to cancel out electrical activity in the heart
so that the normal rhythm of the heart can
re-establish itself.
"A patient can literally be revived from a
condition of technical death to a normal, conscious,
talking state in a few moments using the
defibrillator," Dr. Peretz said. "This emergency
procedure may be applied a dozen times or more
until the heart finally takes over its natural electrical
activity."
ALARM TRIPPED
As soon as the alarm is tripped, warning that
something is wrong, the electrocardiographic record
of the five minutes preceding the alarm is
automatically transferred to a paper print-out
recorder. By studying these records Dr. Peretz has
discovered which events give, an early clue that an
arrhythmia is imminent.
"A tremendous amount of information has been
produced at coronary care units around the world,"
he said. "Now we know what to ignore on the
electrocardiogram, what we should just watch
carefully and what could lead to something serious
and often when we can expect it to occur."
A great deal of attention is being paid at his unit
to serious arrhythmias following myocardial
infarction — injury and death to part of the heart
Please turn to Page Nine
See ARRHYTHMIA
UBC Reports/Jsrt. 28,1971/7 Diagnostic Tool Brings Recognition
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IHITfMUVm, Yi^)|UUl|E.^VbUIII. hJ^, RESEARCH AIDS CLINICAL STUDIES
Complementing the work done in the clinical
departments downtown is research done in the basic
medical science departments on the UBC campus. As
the name implies, basic medical research is more
"scientific," more removed from the day-to-day
health care of people. It often has not even an
indirect connection with patients currently under
treatment. It routinely uses animals in experiments
and typically uses a laboratory setting that appears as
inert as a chemist's.
Most basic medical research aims at understanding
the fundamental workings of the cardiovascular
system. What, for instance, is the connection between
hardening of the arteries and blood clots? Why does
the local anesthetic lidocaine cancel out an
arrhythmia? How does it work?
Prof. Paris Constantinides has won an international
reputation for establishing that tiny cracks in the
inner walls of arteries are always associated with the
fatal blood clots formed in the victims of coron|ry
thrombosis.
Up until Prof. Constantinides' work, breaks were
noticed in the coronary arteries of only about 20 per
cent of thrombosis victims and were not recognized
as the cause of coronary thrombosis in most cases.
Then in 1966, while on a sabbatical at the University
of Washington at St. Louis, Prof. Constantinides
methodically examined the blocked portions of the
arteries of 20 consecutive victims of coronary
thrombosis. He cut the clotted part of the arteries —
about one-half-inch to three inches long — into cross
^sections 10 microns thick until he had tens of
thousands of doughnut-shaped sections each about
1/2,500 of an inch thick. Then he laboriously
examined each one under a microscope. The arterial
wall of every victim showed tiny cracks, some of
them only as wide as two or three cells — which
explains why most of them escaped detection in the
past.
LOSE FLEXIBILITY
Every victim had arteriosclerosis, or hardening of
the arteries. During their lifetime the elastic and
muscle linings of their arteries had been replaced by
scar tissue in which fatty material was often
embedded. This process caused their arteries to lose
Jheir flexibility, their ability to expand and contract,
'hey had become brittle. Eventually cracks
developed.
Prof. Constantinides is working on the theory that
the cracks form blood clots. When the crack appears,
he says, the ruptured cells release a chemical called
adenosine diphosphate into the blood stream. The
chemical attracts platelets in the blood which rush to
the opening of the crack to form a sealing clot. This is
a normal healing mechanism of the body. When a
finger is cut, for instance, platelets are attracted to
the wound to form clots which seal severed blood
vessels and check the bleeding. He believes the same
mechanism is involved in coronary thrombosis. He
thinks_that when the minute cracks occur in the inner
wall of the diseased coronary arteries, local
accumulation of platelets brings on the fatal
thrombosis. In other words, clots are a misadventure
of a normal mechanism. A sealing process which
normally saves life turns against the organism and
kills it.
A year after his investigations at St. Louis, he did
similar microscopic examinations of 10 Vancouver
victims of cerebral thrombosis or strokes and found
that each one showed cracks in the arterial wall under
the clot similar to the coronary thrombosis victims.
Since first publishing his results in 1964, his work
has been confirmed by five independent research
teams around the world. He was one of a group of
scientists recently asked by the U.S. National
Institute of Health for guidelines on where American
funds for cardiovascular research should go during the
next 10 years. And he has been asked to choose his
topics and the speakers for a symposium on the
molecular biology of the arterial wall which will be
central to an international congress on internal
medicine in West Germany next year.
The next step in his work is to find out what
causes the cracks. Prof. Constantinides says he may
have to work for another 10 years before finding out.
PROF. PAR IS CONSTANTINIDES
PROF. JAMES FOULKS
Common to much of the work in the Department
of Anatomy and Pharmacology at UBC is an effort to
understand the chemical and molecular reactions in
heart muscle and the smooth muscle making up part
of the wall of the arterial network.
The cells of the skeletal muscles, the heart, the
smooth muscles of the arteries and veins are all
contractile — they can be made to contract and
shorten by either a chemical or an electrical stimulus
setting off a series of reactions leading to the final
triggering of contractile proteins inside the fluid of
the cell.
The triggering mechanism involves the transfer or
release of ions — atoms with either too few or too
many electrons. The four main positively charged
ions involved are potassium, sodium, magnesium and
calcium.
Before a cell can be excited, there must be a high
concentration of potassium ions and a low level of
sodium   ions   inside   the   cell   and   a   low   level   of
potassium ions and a high concentration of sodium
ions outside the cell membrane.
Electrical imbalance or ionic gradients involving
these two ions across the cell membrane must exist
before any activity — whether voluntary, such as
running, or involuntary, such as a heart beat — can
occur.
When fast-moving muscles such as the heart and
skeletal muscles are excited, the ionic imbalance is
suddenly reversed. First sodium ions rush into the
cell. Then potassium ions pour out. A similar process
occurs when impulses travel along nerve fibres.
In this way body cells use ionic gradients to store
energy, much as an ordinary lead battery does. The
major difference is that when a cell is triggered off
and the gradients discharged, the cells can rebuild
their gradients again so that another excitation can
occur. The cells actively pump the sodium ions from
inside the cell out across the cell membrane.
A biological definition of life might be the ability
to maintain these gradients. At death, the ionic
imbalance of the cells runs down and the amount of
sodium and potassium inside and outside each cell
becomes equal.
IONS INCREASED
Somehow the sudden discharge of the potassium
and sodium gradients during excitation increases the
number of calcium ions inside the cell's fluid. It is the
calcium ions which finally spark the contractile
proteins in the cell's fluid.
It isn't known definitely whether the calcium
travels through the cell membrane into the cell to do
this or whether the calcium forms part of the
membrane itself and is released to act on contractile
proteins inside the cell.
Local anesthetics such as lidocaine simply interfere
with the movement of the potassium or sodium ions
so that in turn the calcium ions don't trigger off
contractile proteins. So lidocaine stops wild
contractions of the heart cells which could lead to
fatal fibrillation. And lidocaine can paralyse a nerve
cell so that the brain doesn't receive a pain signal.
Prof. James G. Foulks, head of the Department of
Pharmacology, has worked for more than a decade on
the regulation of contractile mechanisms. He wants to
find out how muscles work normally and what
happens when something goes wrong.
As a pharmacologist, he is experimenting with
various drugs to see what effect they have on
activation of contractile processes. In this way he is
using drugs as an investigative tool, much in the same
way as classical anatomists used a scapel.
Responses to different drugs used may help to
reveal   the  true workings of the process regulating
Please turn to Page Ten
See BA SIC R ESEA R CH
ARRHYTHMIA
Continued from Page Seven
tissue because its supply of life-sustaining oxygen has
been cut off.
When certain electrocardiographic abnormalities
appear, the staff at the Unit know that a
life-threatening arrhythmia, such as fibrillation of the
ventricles, may be on its way. Among the drugs
administered at the unit to prevent or treat the
' arrhythmia is lidocaine, a local anesthetic carried by
all doctors, given intravenously.
Since the forewarning arrhythmia can also be
detected by a stethoscope. Dr. Peretz wondered if an
intramuscular injection of lidocaine could be given by
general practitioners and other doctors who are
usually the first to see heart attack victims before
they reach hospital. An injection into the muscle
rather than into the vein would take longer to act but
the effects would last longer and span the time
usually needed to rush the victim into a coronary care
unit.
There had been speculation that lidocaine injected
intramuscularly caused bad local side-effects and no
one was sure just how long the effect would last. Dr.
Peretz and his group have shown that there are no
harmful effects at the site of the injection and that
the effect of the lidocaine lasts about one hour, long
enough to get the victim to hospital.
UBC Reports/Jan. 28,1971/9 BASIC RESEARCH
Continued from Page Nine
contraction and may lead to better drugs for treating
abnormalities when something goes wrong.
Prof. Foulks is primarily concerned with what
happens between the discharge of the sodium and
potassium gradients and the rush of calcium into the
interior of the cell. He is trying to find out how the
two events are linked.
Prof. Foulks and other members of his department
have been investigating the response of both skeletal
muscle and heart muscle cells when the chloride ions
normally outside the cells are replaced by other
negative ions.
Different ions, they discovered, have different
effects. Even when they used large negative ions
whose size made it impossible for them to pass
through the cell membrane, there were still large
differences in the strength of contraction and
sequence of electrical events. And large negative ions
with different chemical structures had very different
effects.
This means that the negative ions must be acting
on the surface membrane in some way which effects
the link between the discharge of the sodium and
potassium gradients and the final action of calcium
on contractile proteins.
Everyone has blood pressure; otherwise blood
wouldn't circulate through the body. Everyone also
has high blood pressure from time to time. Running
up a flight of stairs will increase the pumping action
of the heart and increase the force of the blood
against the arterial walls.
Hypertension is continuous, abnormally high
blood pressure and is caused by internal narrowing of
the opening of the arteries.
PRESSURE BUILDS
If sufficient pressure is built up the cardiovascular
system will tend to break down at its weakest point.
When hypertension develops, the heart must do
more work to pump blood through narrowed arterial
channels. Over the years heart hypertrophy occurs —
the heart muscle grows larger in an effort to handle
the extra work. But while it grows bigger it receives
the same volume of blood through the coronary
arteries as before, so it becomes undernourished. And
if heart hypertrophy is associated with
arteriosclerosis, even less blood gets through the
coronary    arteries    to    the    heart    and    coronary
thrombosis becomes more of a possibility.
The walls of some parts of the arterial network are
weaker than others and if subject to hypertension
develop hypertrophy and increase in size. One of the
areas where this happens the quickest is in the arteries
of the brain. So people with hypertension may have
arterial blow-outs in their brains — strokes, which if
large enough can be fatal.
The question is, what narrows the arterial
channels? The mechanism involves the triggering of
the contractile protein in the smooth muscle cells in
the arterial wall. When the cells surrounding the vessel
contract, they decrease the size of the opening by
drawing inwards like a noose.
A major difference between the triggering of
smooth muscle surrounding vessels and skeletal and
heart muscle is that smooth muscle cells can be
contracted in stages. The vessel opening can be made
PROF. SYDNEY FRIEDMAN
to narrow to a certain point and remain there for
some time.
But in skeletal muscle, contraction is all or
nothing. What determines the force of a flexed
bicep, for instance, is the number of muscle fibres
triggered off.
Fundamental regulation of the contraction of the
smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels begins with
the sodium and potassium gradients. It's been known
for decades that salt-free diets reduce hypertension.
Regulating the amount of sodium salt in the body are
two groups of hormones, one produced in the
pituitary and the other in the adrenal glands. These
hormones retain sodium and do their work in the
kidneys where excess sodium is taken out of the body
and passed into the urine. So hypertension also means
the kidneys could break down through overwork.
HORMONES FOUND
Hypertension can come about either because there
is too much of the hormone present controlling
retention of sodium — say because of a tumor on one
of the two adrenal glands — or because the kidneys
are too sensitive to normal levels of the hormones.
But recently researchers have found another set of
hormones in the kidneys and adrenals that cause a
loss of sodium and a drop of blood pressure.
Investigators are now wondering if it is a drop in the
amount of these hormones that brings on
hypertension.
The laboratory of Prof. Sydney Friedman, head of
the Anatomy Department, was the first to show that
the ionic gradients regulate vascular smooth muscle in
much the same way as they were known to operate in
skeletal muscle. He was also responsible for
demonstrating that constriction can occur in steps in
smooth muscles lining the arterial walls and did much
of the early work on the role of the adrenal and
pituitary glands in regulating sodium levels in the
body. His lab is now also studying the unknown role
of magnesium ions in cell contraction.
These are only some of the research projects at
UBC concerning cardiovascular disease. Other
scientists are active in the basic medical science
departments of the medical school as well as in the
clinical departments off campus.
And cardiovascular research doesn't end with the
Faculty of Medicine. Researchers are also active in
other faculties and departments on campus, with
many of their projects funded by medical and heart
research agencies.
NON-CREDIT PROGRAMS LISTED
"PARTICIPATE NOW," recommends the UBC
Center for Continuing Education, in 148 evening
and daytime non-credit courses for adults being
offered this spring in Vancouver.
Most classes begin the first week in February.
Thirty-seven courses are being offered at
locations throughout the Greater Vancouver area
including: the Vancouver Public Library, Kitsilano
Library, University Women's Club, Vancouver
Centennial Museum, Maritime Museum, Vancouver
Public Aquarium, on the North Shore and in
Richmond. Other courses are held on the UBC
campus.
Following is a partial listing of humanities, arts,
science and public affairs programs.
Continuing professional and technical
education programs being offered by the Center
this spring include courses in education,
engineering, law, forestry, social work, agriculture,
fisheries and criminology.
Copies of the Center's 1971 spring brochure are
available from the Center, 228-2187, or at Public
Libraries in Vancouver, North Vancouver and West
Vancouver.
MONDAYS
* figure in brackets is number of sessions
** second fee is special husband and wife rate
The Rise of French Canadian Nationalism — 8-10 p.m.,
UBC, Feb. (8*) $15, $22.50**
The   Crucial   Beginning:   Pre-School   Centers   in   Child
Development — 8-10 p.m., Downtown Library, Feb. 15
(3) $4, $8
West Coast Poets Speak — Informal discussions with seven
West Coast poets. 8-10 p.m.. Arts Club, Feb. 1  (6) $20,
$32
"By the Author of Lolita" Novels of Vladimir Nabokov -
8-9 p.m., UBC, Feb. 1 (8) $15, $24
Living and Working with the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -
7:30-9:30 p.m., Institute for the Deaf, Feb. 1  (6) $12,
$18
Man and the Primates - 8-9:30 p.m., UBC, Feb.  1  (8)
$17, $28
Lost People and  Mysterious Languages — 8-9:30 p.m..
Centennial Museum, Feb. 8 (8) $17, $28
TUESDAYS
The Chinese Reality — A look at present-day China; an
event in the series The China Program. 8-10 p.m., UBC,
Mar. 16 (12) $25, $35
Perspectives in the Study of Man:  Human Biology and
Human Ecology — An event in the new Humanities and
Life Sciences series. 8-9:30 p.m., UBC, Feb. 2 (8) $15,
$24
The  Screen  as  an   Expression  of  Change  —  Film and
discussion.  1-3 p.m.. Downtown Library, Feb. 2 (5) $20
Ivan   lllich  on   Education   —   Five  seminars  on   I Mich's
controversial views. 8-9:30 p.m., UBC, Feb. 2 (5) $12,
$20, students $8
Propaganda   Canada:    1971    —   7:30-9   p.m.,   Kitsilano
Library, Feb. 2 (8) $17, $28
WEDNESDAYS
Racism and Sexism Considered — 8-9:30 p.m., UBC, Feb.
3 (8) $17, $28
The Americanization of Canada — 8-9:30 p.m., Feb. 10
(8) $17, $28
Marriage,     the     Family    and     Creative    Living    -    A
study-discussion course based on the book The Family in
Search of a Future. 9:30-11:30 a.m., UBC, Feb. 17 (5)
$15
Laboratory     in     Interpersonal    Communications    —
7:30-10:30 p.m., UBC, Feb. 3 (8) $55
Leadership and Communication — 10 a.m.-noon, Hycroft,
Feb. 3(6) $15
The World of Surrealism - 8-9:30 p.m., UBC, Feb. 10 (8)
$15, $24
The Age of Constantine — 1:30-3 p.m., Hycroft, Feb. 3
(8) $15
Race  and   Racial  Consciousness  in  Modern  Literature:
Cowboys and  Indians — 8-9:30 p.m., UBC, Feb. 3 (8)
$15, $24
THURSDAYS
On  the  Study  of Whales —  Illustrated  lectures at the
Aquarium.   8-9:30   p.m.,   Vancouver   Public   Aquarium.
Feb. 11 (6) $12, $19
Dr. Julian Silverman — Mores, Mysticism and Madness —
An Explorations in the Human Potential event. 8:30-10
p.m., UBC, March 18 (1) $3, students $2
The  Haida  and  Their  Art  —  8-9:30  p.m.,  Centennial
Museum,   Feb.   4  (8)   $15, $24; students and  museum
members $10
Communicating with Children — 1:30-3 p.m., Kitsilano
Library, Feb. 18 (6) $10
Later Maturity: Fulfilment or Frustration — 12-1:15
p.m.. Downtown Library, Feb. 4 (5) $7, $10; senior
citizens $2
Centemporary   Thought   —   Offered   day   and   evening.
2-3:30 p.m.. Downtown Library, Feb.  11  (6) $10, $16.
8-9:30 p.m.. Downtown Library, Feb. 4 (6) $10, $16
The Human Sexual Revolution: Fact and Fancy — 8-9:30
p.m., Downtown Library, April 1 (6) $13, $21
WEEKENDS
Conference on The Report of the Royal Commission on
the Status of Women — Guest speaker: Mrs. John Bird,
Chairman of the Commission. 9 a.m.-4 p.m., Hycroft, Sat.
Jan. 30 (1) $10, incl. lunch
Man  in   His  City  —An  intensive exploration  of  issues
relating to the contemporary city. 10 a.m.-2 p.m., UBC,
Sat., Feb. 20 (4) $30, $48; students $20
Dr. Stanley Krippner on Dreams, ESP and Altered States
of   Consciousness   —   An   Explorations   in   the   Human
Potential event. 8:30-10 p.m., UBC, Fri., Jan. 29 (1) $3;
students $2
A   Short   Weekend   with   Alex   Comfort   on  The  New
Sensibility: "What Rough Beast. . .?" — An event in the
new  Humanities and   Life Science series. Fri., Apr. 2,
8:30-10 p.m., UBC. Sat., Apr. 3, 9:30 a.m.-noon, UBC.
$5; students $3; single admission $3, students $2
An   Introductory   Look   at   Different   Applications   of
Experiential  Learning — 9 a.m.-noon, Sat., Apr.  17 (3)
$10
Studio Workshop in Color Printmaking - 10 a.m.-3 p.m..
Horseshoe Bay, Sat., Jan. 30 (8) $85
Effective Study — 10 a.m.-noon. Downtown Library, Feb.
13 (4) $10
OTHER PROGRAMS OF INTEREST
Educational Travel Programs 1971 - Planned programs
include: The People's Republic of China; Japan; Central
America; Shakespeare in England; Fisheries in Japan;
Geographical Field Studies in England; Classical Greece;
seminars at C.I.D.O.C, Cuernavaca, Mexico; Archaeology
of the Ancient Near East; Art of the Renaissance in
Florence, Italy.
Reading and Study Skills Center — Reading improvement
courses for adults and students begin the week of Jan. 25
and again May 3 at UBC. Classes meet one or two times a
week for six weeks. Adults $60, students $30. For details
call: 228-2181, local 223.
10/UBC"Repons/JarKia^grf ' UBC NEWS
BRIEF
A COLUMN FOR UBC GRADUATES
ROUNDING UP THE TOP NEWS ITEMS OF
RECENT WEEKS. THE MATERIAL BELOW
APPEARED IN MORE EXTENDED FORM IN
CAMPUS EDITIONS OF 'UBC REPORTS.'
READERS WHO WISH COPIES OF CAMPUS
EDITIONS CAN OBTAIN THEM BY WRITING TO
THE INFORMATION OFFICE, UBC, VANCOUVER
8, B.C.
"AGE OF GAGE'
President Walter H. Gage has begun his fiftieth
year of association with the University of British
Columbia.
President Gage, who was a student at UBC from
1921 to 1926, was a mathematics teacher and
registrar at the University of Victoria, then an
affiliate of UBC, from 1927 to 1933 before returning
to the Point Grey campus as an assistant professor of
mathematics.
He has personified UBC to succeeding generations
of students for decades and as Dean of Administrative
and Inter-Faculty Affairs since 1948 has supervised
the distribution of fellowships, scholarships, bursaries
and prizes to thousands of students.
President Gage served as acting president of the
University on numerous occasions before his
appointment as president in 1969. He was named
fBC's first Master Teacher in 1969.
Among the first to congratulate President Gage on
his fiftieth year of association with UBC was the
Alma Mater Society. AMS President Tony Hodge
wrote to President Gage offering congratulations "on
behalf of all the students at UBC."
He added: "The respect that you have earned from
students as an extraordinary teacher, able
administrator, but most important, warm friend, is
indeed without equal. It has appropriately been
suggested that here at UBC we live and learn in the
'Age of Gage'."
TEACHING AWARDS
reci
■ ^ftui
UBC's Master Teacher Award Committee has
received 31 nominations for the 1971 awards — one
re than last year — despite the refusal of two
Student groups to name representatives to the
committee.
This year 26 of the nominations were submitted
by students and five by alumni and faculty members.
#The controversy over the Master Teacher Awards
began in October, 1970, when the Graduate Student
Association wrote to President Gage to decline an
invitation to name two representatives to the awards
committee, which screens nominations for the awards
established in 1968 by Dr. Walter Koerner, a member
of UBC's Board of Governors.
The Association claimed that the awards mask a
system that rewards those who have neglected
teaching for research. Students' Council, at a meeting
late in October, voted to endorse the GSA letter to
President Gage and similarly declined to name two
representatives to the Master Teacher Awards
Committee.
Prof. Robert M. Clark, UBC's Academic Planner
and chairman of the awards committee, appeared
before Council at the invitation of that body in early
December and made a spirited defence of the awards.
He told Council that the donor, in establishing the
awards, wished to recognize and honor outstanding
teachers of undergraduates and to encourage good
teaching. He added that he would not recommend
that the Master Teacher Awards be cancelled in 1971
and that he felt the committee could discharge its
responsibilities without student representation on it.
The awards committee, at a meeting late in
December, decided that it would judge candidates in
1971 as in previous years and expressed regret at the
decision of the two student groups not to name
representatives to the committee.
The two Master Teachers chosen by the committee
in 1971 will divide a $5,000 prize which goes with
the award. (Editions of Dec. 10, 1970, and Jan. 14,
1971).
REPORT ON LANDS
An advisory committee on the University
Endowment Lands established by President Gage was
expected to submit an interim report before the end
of January.
The committee, chaired by Dean Philip White,
head of the Faculty of Commerce, was asked to
review the present status of the Lands and make
recommendations regarding possible development,
keeping in mind the interest of the University in the
Endowment Lands.
The 2,470-acre Endowment Lands between the
City of Vancouver and the UBC campus, are owned
by the provincial government and not, as is so often
mistakenly assumed, by the University.
Dean White said the committee was considering
the preferred form of local government for the Lands
if they were incorporated municipally, the question
of which agency could best carry out the
development of the Lands and the priority of land
use in the area that would best serve the interests of
the University.
The study is purely an internal one to develop for
the president's consideration a University viewpoint
AIESEC PROGRAM
BYNEILH.MaclVOR
Second-year Arts, UBC
Why would any student go out to find someone
else a summer job? Why would any company hire a
foreign student for a short training period? Why
would a group of professors and businessmen attend a
student-run conference in Italy? Why? Because
they're all part of the AIESEC program.
AIESEC is the French acronym for the
International Association of Commerce and
Economics Students. (C'est vraiment I'Association
Internationale des Etudiants en Sciences
Economiques et Commerciales). The Association,
which exists in 51 countries on six continents,
operates for the benefit of students, academics and
business. The students gain foreign business experience
through a reciprocal traineeship exchange. Local
students solicit short term positions for "foreign
students and then have the opportunity to apply for
similar training in any of the 51 countries. These
traineeships, which usually last from eight to 12
weeks, may require the students to do a special
project or be part of the regular training program or
perhaps receive a rotational overview of the company.
The "AIESEC experience," however, is not all
work. Each local committee provides a summer
reception program which exposes and guides foreign
trainees in local culture. This involvement includes
social events with local students and businessmen,
economic seminars, weekend trips, and so on.
If these are some of the benefits to the student,
how does the businessman gain from the program?
Simply, AIESEC is training future managers to be
adaptable in any environment. Canadian business is
extending internationally. Management, even within a
company, is required to have more international
mobility. By sending students around the world to
gain experience, AIESEC is showing the future
executive that working productively in a different
socio-economic and cultural environment is quite
possible. The bridge between the pure theory of the
university and the sometimes cold facts and figures of
business is being erected by the AIESEC experience.
An important concept AIESEC has developed in
recent years is the Summer Seminars Traineeships
Program. An SSTP gives students the opportunity to
learn about an industry or economic field through
experience and theory simultaneously. This is done
by coordinating, with the help of the participating
firms, the traineeship with a series of seminars at the
university level. SSTP's which involve six to 12
students from different countries were given in 25
cities last summer on subjects as diverse as "Finance
in the British Economy" in London, "The World
Shipping Industry" in Oslo, and "Marketing" in Paris.
Every company that has participated in
AIESEC-British Columbia has been pleased with the
trainees. The companies are: MacMillan-Bloedel, B.C.
Telephone Company, Kelly-Douglas, Eurocan, Pacific
Great Eastern Railway and Dunwoody and Company.
If you are interested in AIESEC, international
business, working overseas, SSTP, or have questions,
write to AIESEC-British Columbia, Box 4, Student
Union Building, UBC, Vancouver 8, B.C.
about possible future development. (Edition of Jan.
14, 1971).
POLLUTION OFFICER
UBC now has a pollution control officer. He is Mr.
William Rachuk, who has been the campus radiation
protection officer since 1966.
In his new position Mr. Rachuk will be responsible
for seeing that UBC disposes of chemically or
biologically dangerous materials safely and lawfully in
accordance with laws and regulations passed by
various levels of government.
Mr. Rachuk's appointment resulted from
recommendations made by a committee on the
disposal of dangerous chemicals established by
President Gage.
The committee, chaired by Prof. Basil Dunnell of
the Department of Chemistry, made an inventory of
dangerous substances at UBC and recommended that
a pollution control officer be appointed. (Edition of
Jan. 14, 1971).
SENATE DEBATES
In recent debates UBC's Senate has voted to
establish a committee to study the role of marks,
examinations and alternatives to exams, and defeated
a motion to create a summer term of 13 weeks and
phase out the present seven-week Summer Session
within five years.
The investigation of the role of examinations and
marks and their alternatives was suggested by Prof.
Robert M. Clark, who also agreed to chair the
committee which will investigate these questions.
Senate turned down the suggestion for a 13-week
summer term after hearing arguments that operating
the University on a year-round basis would result in
only minimal savings and that every university which
has tried to operate on a three-semester system has
suffered financially.
MUSSOC CELEBRATES
UBC's Musical Society — Mussoc to generations of
students — will celebrate its 55th anniversary in 1971
with an ambitious production of the famed Broadway
musical "West Side Story."
The production, which includes a cast of more
than 100 students, opens in Victoria at the
MacPherson Playhouse on Jan. 28 for a three-day run.
Campus performances will be held in the Old
Auditorium Feb. 4-6 and 11-13. Tickets are available
at   the   Vancouver   Ticket   Centre   in   the   Queen
Elizabeth Theatre and at all Eaton stores.
*     *     *
PROF. C.W.J. ELIOT, of UBC's classics
department, has resigned to accept a post as professor
of archaeology in residence at the American School
of Classical Studies in Athens. He will take up his new
post on July 1. The post is one of the most important
appointments for the teaching of graduate students in
the fields of archaeology, topography and existing
monuments of ancient Greece. (Edition of Dec. 10,
1970) . . .PROF. FRANK BUCK, professor of
horticulture at UBC from 1920 to 1949 and the man
responsible for landscaping much of the UBC campus,
died Dec. 12, 1970, at the age of 95. Dr. Buck was
one of the founders of the Agricultural Institute of
Canada and was honored by the AIC for his
contributions to that organization at its 50th annual
meeting in July last year . . .MR. KENJI OGAWA,
associate professor of Asian studies at UBC, died Dec.
15, 1970, at the age of 53. Mr. Ogawa joined the UBC
faculty in 1963 and was a highly regarded teacher. He
was awarded a certificate of merit in the Master
Teacher Award competition in 1969. . . .DEAN IAN
McTAGGART COWAN, head of the Faculty of
Graduate Studies, has been awarded the Medal of
Service of the Order of Canada by the federal
government for his contributions to science in
Canada.
HHH Volume 17, No. 2 - Jan. 28,
IIHI 1971- Published by the
^l^l^l University of British Columbia
^BrBBr^ar ancj distributed free. UBC
REPORTS
Reports appears on Thursdays
during the University's winter session. J.A.
Banham, Editor. Ruby Eastwood, Production
Supervisor. Letters to the Editor should be sent
to Information Services, Main Mall North
Administration Building, UBC, Vancouver 8,
B.C.
UEjC Repqrts/Jan. 28,1971/1,1, A0a^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
Contact
Forest Recreation Studied
By PETER LADNER
Getting a UBC degree in a professional faculty
used to mean simply setting your sights on graduation
day and burning the midnight oil to learn all you
could about, say, law, engineering or forestry by that
day.
Today it's not quite the same. What makes it
different is the current trend toward "social
consciousness," a trend which is changing both the
outlook of students and the orientation of academic
programs.
Socially conscious law students, for example, have,
under the guidance of qualified lawyers, set up a
neighborhood legal aid program. Applied science
students for the first time held noon-hour seminars
last year on the social responsibility of engineers.
The desperate alienation of many UBC students
stimulated social work students to help out by
providing a quiet office and a sympathetic ear for
troubled students in the Student Union Building. It's
called "Speak Easy." A grant from a major
foundation enabled UBC to bring together some
ecologically-minded biologists and zoologists to set
up the Institute of Animal Resource Ecology.
The Faculty of Forestry, too, has become more
aware of its social obligations in the last five years.
They are no longer looking at forests simply as timber
supply centres for the forest industry. Now the
Faculty is emphasizing the "multiple use" of forest
resources, which leads them into studies of wildlife,
fisheries, water production, parks and recreation. As
the foresters like to say, their Faculty is becoming a
"land-use training institution."
One area of land use receiving particular attention
is forestry recreation. UBC's forestry faculty is the
only one in Canada with a full-time professor
teaching and researching forestry recreation.
The professor, Peter Dooling, came to UBC 2V4
years ago and now has eight graduate students
working on outdoor recreation. Some of them are
watching the effects of human intrusions on the
delicate ecology of alpine areas, while others pore
over aerial survey photographs to discover how they
might be used to find potential new forest recreation
areas.
CUT CITY NOISE
They've analyzed the management of Stanley Park
and Canadian National Park policy, and are presently
studying the recreational potential of municipal
water-supply areas (such as the Capilano watershed).
One study is even looking at how trees can be used
in cities to cut down noise. Using information gained
from the study, planners may be able to build
residential areas beside a highway and keep them
virtually free of traffic noises. The studies are too
new to reveal any dramatic findings, but Prof.
Dooling says several engineering firms already are
very eager to see information about the sound
attenuation properties of different trees.
Many of the forest recreation studies are done in
collaboration with the B.C. Parks Branch which,
interestingly, lacks its own research facilities. Prof.
Dooling also anticipates some liaison with the B.C.
Forest Service, which controls 95 per cent of forest
land in B.C. To date the BCFS hasn't undertaken or
supported forest recreation research, but Prof.
Dooling says public pressure is forcing them to start
looking at forest uses other than for timber.
The Canadian National Parks Service is
co-operating with the Faculty in a study of the
rehabilitation of over-used camp grounds and trails in
Glacier and Jasper National Parks.
Foresters increasingly feel that our forests are for
use by the public as well as the forest companies.
They are very aware of the potential tourist dollars
that could be attracted to B.C. by developing more
12/UBC Reports/Jan. 28,1971
forests for recreational uses.
One 1968 study found that at least 21 per cent of
holiday travellers were likely to use and be influenced
by forest-based activities in B.C. A year earlier, a
report by Prof. J.H.G. Smith of UBC's forestry
faculty had already pointed out the implications:
"The recreational features of B.C. are largely
undeveloped, yet tourism already brings more than
$200 million annually to the province. Formal UBC
interest in this topic is well justified economically
now and is likely to become increasingly necessary in
the future."
LARGE INDUSTRY
As Prof. Dooling points out, tourism is already the
largest industry in the world and the third largest in
B.C. Conceivably, in a short time, B.C.'s forests could
provide the province with its two main sources of
income — tourism and timber.
Obviously there is a need for proper planning to
develop this potential. A very recent report of a
committee of the Science Council of Canada came to
the same conclusion. (The committee included UBC
forestry dean Dr. J.A.F. Gardner and relied heavily
on the studies of Dr. Smith). "Scientists must provide
the analytical tools to permit evaluation so that
potential future values of all forest amenities,
including recreation, may be taken fully into account
in planning future use of Canada's forest resources,"
the report said.
The report found that "continuing increases in
discretionary income and leisure time, combined with
man's greater mobility, are leading to rapid expansion
in the demands made on both public and private
forest recreation facilities." The subjects it found in
need of most urgent attention were forest land
recreation, environmental quality and urban forestry.
Although UBC's forestry faculty has made a strong
start, it will "inevitably" — in Prof. Dooling's words
— expand its recreation studies. Prof. Dooling also
thinks the B.C. Forest Service and private companies
should start doing more work in recreation studies.
"I think every forest company should in the future
be required to hire a recreational planner and plan
forests for recreational use as well as wood
production," Prof. Dooling says.
Looking to the future at UBC, Dr. Smith says the
next step could be to study the sociology of natural
resources, the role that a natural resource plays in
social change.
For example, a professor could look at how much
the social structure of a province like B.C., its life
styles, social mobility, eagerness for social change, is
determined by its heavy reliance on the forest
industry.
"We are likely to head into urban forestry first,"
he noted. "But what both these fields have in
common is that they are people-oriented rather than
production-oriented."
Deans Tour
B.C. Interior
The University of B.C. today is not the one most
alumni   remember.   It  has changed;  and   it  is still        1
changing.
Over the past few months the UBC Alumni
Association has been helping to inform people about
how the University is changing to meet new
conditions. This has been done through an
information program involving the Chronicle
magazine, special articles (like the one adjacent) on
this page and a series of FYI bulletins sent to MLAs,
municipal councillors, school trustees and other key
decision-makers in the province.
Next month the program, which has been
focussing particularly on the Health Sciences and
Forestry, swings into a new phase. An attempt to
take the University to the people will be made
through Alumni Association-sponsored speaking
tours. In the first one, Dr. J.F. McCreary, dean of
Medicine, and Dr. J.A. Gardner, dean of Forestry,
will address public meetings and service club
luncheons and participate in radio and television
discussions in several interior communities. They wi!J^^-
describe the quiet evolution that is underway if^^P
professional education in their respective fields.
Meetings will be held Feb. 23 in Penticton, Feb. 24 in
Kelowna, Feb. 25 in Vernon and Feb. 26 in
Kamloops.
Earlier in the month, as part of the regular alumni
branches program. President Walter Gage will travel
to eastern Canada to speak to graduates about new
developments at UBC. The president will meet alumni
in Toronto on Feb. 18, in Ottawa on Feb. 19 and m
Montreal on Feb. 20.
Alumni in these regions are invited to attend the
meeting in their nearest community.
Mussoc Celebrates
55th Anniversary
Mussoc — UBC's Musical Theatre Society — is
celebrating its 55th anniversary this year with the
presentation of the Broadway musical, West Side
Story. Current Mussoc members have cordially
invited UBC alumni to attend an anniversary
reception after the performance on opening night at
UBC on Thursday, Feb. 4.
Performances of West Side Story in the UBC
Auditorium have been set for Feb. 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13,
at 8:30 p.m. Tickets for the public are $2.50 and
$3.00 and may be obtained through the Vancouver
Ticket Centre.
Alumni are urged to attend a performance. Former
Mussoc members are particularly urged to attend the
anniversary reception. Former members or anyone
knowing the whereabouts of former Mussoc members-
are asked to write Len Lifchus, Box 57, Student
Union Building, University of B.C., Vancouver 8, B.C.
Give us his Norn de Hume
But give us
Nominations are now being received for the
Alumni Association's highest honors, the Alumni
Award of Merit and the Honorary Life Membership.
So send us the nom (or name, if you prefer) of
the person you feel deserves the —
Alumni Award of Merit: conferred on a UBC
graduate who has distinguished himself/herself in
his/her field of endeavour.
, or his Nom de Guerre,
his Nom!
Honorary Life Membership: awarded to a
person who has made an outstanding service to
education.
Deadline is February 21, so rush your
nominations to Alumni Awards Committee,
UBC Alumni Association, 6251 N.W. Marine
Drive, Vancouver 8, B.C.

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