UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Reports Feb 7, 1975

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UBC Reports Staff Writer
In retrospect, Dr. Shotaro lida agree;, that it probably
was a rather presumptuous act on his part to march up to
the director of the Sanyo Pavilion at Expo '70 in Osaka,
Japan, and ask the company to make a present of the
pavilion to the University of British Columbia.
Particularly when Dr. lida, an assistant professor in
UBC's Department of Religious Studies, had not even
asked the University in advance whether it would be will
ing to accept the gift.
And he was quite aware of the fact that transportation
and reconstruction costs could run into hundreds of thousands of dollars, and he had no idea who would foot the
But when a man has a dream, and he is determined to
see that dream come true, what else is he to do?
Dr. lida'sdream came in broad daylight.
He was cycling to his office on UBC's West Mall one day
when he looked across the row of cars in Parking Lot R to
the Nitobe Memorial Garden beyond, and the thought
struck him that this would be an ideal location for an
Asian studies centre to complement the Garden, a beautifully landscaped Japanese garden dedicated to the memory of Dr. Inazo Nitobe, distinguished educator and international civil servant who did much to interpret Japan to
the West and vice versa.
Not that he has anything against cars, mind you, except
perhaps a cyclist's aversion to noise and fumes and the lack
of exercise and the unsightly parking lots that cars represent.
"Then it occurred to me that most of the buildings at
Expo '70 in Osaka would be demolished at the end of the
fair and that perhaps one of them could be dismantled and
moved to UBC," Dr. lida said.
What happened, of course, is now history. Dr. I ida went
to Expo '70 — "I got a free ticket from my sister, so I
didn't even have to pay to get in," — made his pitch for the
pavilion, and hisdream has literally come true.
The pyramid-shaped pavilion, one of the hits of the
fair, is being reconstructed on part of that parking lot as a
unique academic building and a Canada/East-Asian cultural centre. It is certain to become not only an important
centre of learning but also one of the most interesting
tourist attractions in B.C.
The reconstruction has been made possible through a
fund-raising campaign undertaken in both Japan and
Canada in a true spirit of international co-operation and
That campaign raised more than $1.6.million through
donations from the B.C. and federal governments in
Canada and from sources in Japan to enable the first stage
of construction to proceed. Another campaign is now under way to raise an additional $1.4 million to complete the
interior of the building.
Actually, the original cost of reconstructing the pavil-
Workinan walking roof girder of UBC's Asian Centre is etched against a wintry sky
ion was $1.6 million, which meant that the fund-raisers
reached their target, but inflation and rising construction
costs have al most doubled the final cost.
Dr. lida recalled that it really wasn't that difficult to
persuade Mr. Kazuhiko Nishi, the director of the Sanyo
Pavilion, that UBC could be a future home for the pavilion
because Mr. Nishi, a garden-lover, had already visited the
Nitobe Garden on an earlier trip to Canada and had been
very impressed with what he had seen.
"He told me that tentative arrangements had been
made to remove the pavil ion to one of the Sanyo factories
and rebuild it as a workers' gymnasium, but I told him that
I didn't think that that was a very good idea at all," Dr.
lida said.
Once Dr. lida got a tentative agreement from Mr. Nishi
that relocation of the pavilion was a possibility, he travelled to Tokyo to try to find sources of money to fund the
"I called on people in government, trade unions and
private organizations," Dr. lida said. "I didn't get any firm
commitments but there was a lot of interest in my proposal."
On his return to UBC, Dr. lida discussed the project
with Mr. Donald Matsuba, a Vancouver architect and
then lecturer in UBC's School of Architecture, who was
enthusiastic about the idea.
Next to get involved was Dr. John Howes, an associate
professor in UBC's Department of Asian Studies, who, Dr.
lida said, was the real sparkplug in generating interest in
the proposal both on and off the campus and in initiating
the fund-raising campaign which made the project financially feasible.
Mr. Shinsuke Hori, then Consul-General for Japan in
Vancouver, was another enthusiastic supporter, without
whom fund-raising in Japan would have been virtually impossible. Vancouver lawyer Alan Campney, president of
the Japan-Canada Society in Vancouver, originally headed
up a fund-raising committee which had former UBC president Dr. Norman A.M. MacKenzie as honorary chairman.
The fund-raising committee met its original goal
through donations of $400,000 each from the Canadian
and B.C. governments, $250,000 pledged from the profits
of Expo '70, $550,000 from the federation of Economic
Organizations of Japan, and $50,000 in private donations
in Canada.
After subtraction of the cost of replacing parking areas
displaced by the building, $1.5 million was available for
"I wish the news were all rosy, but it is not," Mr. Joseph
Whitehead, president and publisher of Vancouver's Journal of Commerce and current chairman of the committee
raising funds for the completion of the building, told UBC
"Inflation has hit this project like so many others.
While the building was being planned over the winter of
1972-73, construction costs skyrocketed. When the time
came to sign the contracts it was discovered that the $1.6
million which had been collected would finish the building
from the outside but leave the interior incomplete.
"The alternative was to redesign the building with the
sum collected, with the danger that continuing inflation
Please turn to Page Ten
See AS/AN CENTRE Crises reveal man's lack ol
I n an era when science has unlocked the secrets
of the atom and landed a man on the moon, it
seems ironic that so little is known about two of
the fundamental components of our earth — the
soil and the sea.
Man's awareness of his partial neglect of these
two major components of his environment has
been thrown into bold relief over the past decade
or so by two crises. Humanity is currently beset
by a growing anxiety about the quality of Earth's
environment and the pressing need to feed an expanding population.
At UBC, two academic units vitally concerned
with soil and water problems are the Faculty of
Agricultural Sciences and the Institute of Oceanography. 4
Modern science has applied itself to slices of
nature that are similar, phenomena with common
Prof. George Pickard
UBC Reports Staff Writer
If our attachment to the earth is fundamental, our
relationship with the sea is romantic.
The earth is the inexorable coming of the seasons,
the nurturing female, the family hearth, all that is secure
and everlasting. Compared with the earth, the sea has
appeared to men in many ages as mystical, adventurous
and brutal. Dull boys stayed at home while the restless
went to sea.
The sea has a special significance to British Columbians. Other Canadians sometimes think of us as living
among snow-capped mountains. The truth is that the
most striking part of the environment of most British
Columbians is the sea. Many of us are more familiar with
the gossamer islands and fiords of the coast than the
alpine interior.
"I think we should remember that about 70 per cent
of the population of the province lives on the Lower
Mainland and Vancouver Island," said Prof. George
Pickard, director of UBC's Institute of Oceanography.
"Our lives are tied to the sea."
Prof. Pickard said that about 1.5 million British Columbians live close to the Strait of Georgia. The rate of
increase of this population is more than IVi times the
national average, and the population is expected to
double, he said, within a mere 25 years.
The dependence of British Columbians on the Strait
is in many ways an exaggerated microcosm of humanity's growing reliance on the oceans, he said. Use of the
Strait and of the seas of the earth is increasing, and in
many instances the demands are in conflict with one
"Our use of the Strait is enormous. The Strait and its
adjacent land are linked with the forest, mining, agricultural, tourist and, of course, the fishing industries.
"The logging industry uses the Strait as a booming
area. Both the forest and mining industries move most of
their exports through ports on the Strait. About 70
million tons of material pass into or out of the Strait
every year and the ports on the Strait are among the
most important in the nation.
"The importance of these ports," Prof. Pickard said,
"can only grow with Canada's increasing trade with
Japan, China and other nations on the Pacific rim."
Our fishing industry simply couldn't exist without
the Strait, he said. Many species of fish use the Strait as
a halfway house in their movements between fresh water
and the sea. Literally billions of fish spend their critical
juvenile life in the Strait. The Fraser River, which
empties into the Strait, represents about half the entire
commercial salmon fishery of the province, he said.
Apart from our growing commercial dependence on
the Strait, Prof. Pickard said, the water is being increas
ingly used for recreation. In fact, recreational use of the^
Strait has become an industry in itself. More money is
tied up in sport fishing facilities on the coast than in
commercial salmon fishing, he said, and it has been estimated that about 77,000 small boats use the Strait for
recreation — boats, incidentally, larger than the types
carried on top of cars.
"The Strait is obviously a rich resource to the people's
of B.C. But we are making greater use of it without
really knowing what we are doing. While our use of the
Strait is accelerating," Prof. Pickard said, "our knowledge of it is very limited. There is a real danger that we
might do something that will turn out to be disastrous." ,
There are all kinds of proposals for projects adjacent
to the Strait that might have detrimental effects on thatl
body of water, he said. What will be the effect of supertankers? What effect would a Moran Dam on the Fraser
have on the Strait, let alone the river?
A number of other projects have been mooted: port
developments at Squamish and Nanaimo, expansion of
Vancouver International Airport and the Roberts Bank-*
Super port.
Each of these proposals could have unforeseen effects
on the physical motion and chemical make-up of the
Strait and on the life in it, he said.
It is because of these potential hazards that the federal government recently announced a six-year study of
the Strait, he said. The study will involve scientists from
government departments as well as UBC. The aim of the
study is to produce information which can lead to a
sound plan to manage the Strait intensively so that
damage is minimized and benefits increased. The policy
will have to intervene in the free use of the Strait by
different interests so that each user gets the most benefit.
Prof. Pickard said that increased use of the Strait is
indicative in a concentrated way of what is happening to
the oceans around the world. His Institute's major role
in assuring wise use of the oceans is to train students and
do research into oceanographic problems.
"Just compare the sea to the land for a moment. The
land changes itself very slowly. Its history is locked in its
rocks and soils. But the rate of change in the sea is much
greater, and for that reason an understanding of its history and how it functions is more difficult to obtain,"
Prof. Pickard said.
A greater understanding of the oceans could have an
enormous payoff. "Contemporary weather forecasting
methods," says an oceanographic report done for the
Science Council of Canada, "increasingly recognize the
impact of the ocean and its variability upon the weather.
"Such great international programs as the Global
Atmospheric Research Program and the World Weather
Watch take cognizance that improved weather forecasting calls for increased knowledge of the nature and response of the upper layers of the ocean. -
"Apart from the weather, which may be taken as the
short-term variability of the atmosphere, there are
longer-term events even more dominated by the ocean.
It is almost certain that such persistent phenomena as
abnormally cold winters or extended periods of drought
are associated with oceanic changes."
The 1971 report was co-authored by Dr. Robert
Stewart, then a member of UBC's Institute of Oceanography and now director-general of Ocean and Aquatic
Affairs in Victoria for the federal Department of the
Dr. Stewart, while at UBC, was one of the scientists
who built the Institute's international reputation for
work on the interaction between the atmosphere and the
Prof.  Pickard said that at a recent meeting of thr
Please turn to Page Ten
2/UBC Reports/Feb. 7, 1975 knowledge of soil and sea
characteristics. Laws and principles have been developed for the behavior of gases, atoms, biological molecules and tissues, large pieces of the
earth's mantle, the life and death of stars.
The soil and the sea in some sense are among
the last areas without a systematic body of unifying principles. The land and sea are so complex
Jthat any organized study of them must involve
^scientists trained in different disciplines coming
together  to struggle with a common subject.
Physicists, chemists, geologists, biological scientists and others apply their training in the fundamentals of their subjects to try to find out more
about the land and sea so that we can benefit from
In the articles beginning below UBC Reports
staff writer Peter Thompson outlines some of
the activities in UBC's Faculty of Agricultural
Sciences ajtd Institute of Oceanography.
UBC Reports Staff Writer
Apart from a meal or two or three missed during
some unusual situation, we in Canada have not known
hunger, let alone its ominous cousin, starvation.
To write about hunger is to describe a part of the
world few of us have been to or want to visit. Photographs of balloon-bellied children aren't carried in travel
Death by starvation of millions of human beings is
now, accepted as a virtual certainty by many of our agricultural scientists and economists, unless underdeveloped countries make a greater effort to feed themselves.
Rising populations and incomes, vagaries of weather and
inflation have caused increased pressure on world food
Food used to be associated with the pleasures of eating and was tinged with indulgence. Now, the thought of
food also carries with it a leading edge of anxiety.
We are told that some of the foods we take for granted we may have to do without, and for a long time to
come we will be paying a larger percentage of our income for food than before.
The unfolding food crisis is having some interesting
social effects in industrialized countries. We are now
realizing that as urbanites most of us know nothing
about the largest industry in Canada and the United
States. In fact, it comes as a surprise to sorre of us to
discover that agriculture is the largest industry in North
Kenneth Galbraith, an agricultural economist, says
that the United States owes its industrial might to the
efficiency of its agriculture. North Americans are able to
produce enormous amounts of food using a small portion of their populations, freeing most of us for other
Our new consciousness of agriculture may'have an
effect on the direction of science. Some of the lustre
enjoyed by scientists doing basic research in the hard
sciences such as physics and chemistry, which received
boosts in the West after Russian launched Sputnik, the
first earth satellite, will now likely shift to agricultural
In fact, in a very real sense the future of all of science
may depend on whether the agricultural sciences are able
to save us from destruction through the forces unleashed
by a starving world.
There has long been a stigma attached to agriculture
on university campuses. Harvard Business School President A. Lawrence Lowell did not want to have "hogs at
The dean of UBC's Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
thinks that the agricultural sciences may become the
most important of the sciences.
"Agriculture," said  Dean  Michael Shaw, "is one of
the most diffused and pervasive activities of our society.
It's one of the few industries left that still has family
enterprises at the basic level, at the level of food production. Yet it also includes the largest corporations in
"Agriculture is entirely based on a handful of plant
varieties. Even at this level its complexity is staggering.
The problems of the soil itself are enough to occupy
legions of physicists and chemists.
"If you're going to produce a crop, you should have
the right seed, the right genetic strains that are disease-
resistant and high-yielding. Then you've got to have fertilizer and good weather. Then the crop has to be
harvested, processed, transported, marketed and sold.
"You begin with photosynthesis and end with a very.y
complex industry.
"Up until a few years ago, temperate-climate countries such as Canada, the U.S. and Russia were the major
food producers for the world. We had an excess of grain,
so we fed it to animals and gave some away.
"Population increases in less-industrialized countries
have chewed away part of the surplus. At the same time,
the standard of living of many countries such as Japan
has risen and their populations are no longer content to
eat grain only. They want to feed grain to livestock and
eat meat, just as we do.
"Despite the current North American surplus, eating
animals will become a luxury to some of the peoples of
the world. It takes about 400 pounds of cereal grains to
feed one person adequately for a year. In North America, we each consume 2,200 pounds of cereal annually in
the form of chicken, beef and other animal products,
apart from the 150 pounds we eat in the form of bread
and breakfast cereals."
Dean Shaw is among the experts who predict that
millions of people will die of starvation, unless food production increases in underdeveloped countries, a statement which isn't new but is still surprising, considering
that only a couple of years ago humanity was celebrating
the first landing on the moon.
He says that the major contribution his Faculty can
make to the world's food problems is to train food experts. "Our primary product — if you want to think in
those terms — is the Bachelor of Science graduate in
Agricultural Sciences," he said.
Perhaps anticipating the new awareness of agricultural
problems, student enrolment in agriculture has increased
in the past few years. Enrolment in every school and
faculty of agriculture across Canada increased this year,
Dean Shaw said, and job opportunities for agricultural
science graduates are better than for graduates in general
The other contribution of UBC's Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, after teaching, is research. Dean Shaw
said that research in his Faculty covers a variety of subjects, many of which can be applied all over the world.
But the majority of projects aim at problems of the
agricultural industry of B.C.
At an international and particularly third-world level,
many projects aim at increasing the food supply of
populations which will and are experiencing starvation.
Dr. Shuryo Nakai has developed a substitute for soybean protein in simulated meats and other foods. The
price of soybeans, a lot of them produced in the U.S.,
has skyrocketed to the point where wheat protein is now
much cheaper. But no one has been able to find a way of
using wheat protein in simulated foods.
Dr. Nakai, an associate professor in UBC's Department of Food Science, has discovered a method of using
both wheat protein and whole wheat flour in simulated
meats and dairy products. He has also found a method
of enriching the newly simulated milk by adding rape-
Please turn to Page Eleven
Dean Michael Shaw
UBC Reports/Feb. 7, 1975/3 ■ JEW*
UBC will honor retiring Chancellor
The University of B.C. will confer honorary
degrees on its retiring Chancellor and four other persons closely associated with UBC's academic and administrative life at Spring Congregation ceremonies in
The honorary degrees, approved by UBC's Senate,
will be conferred on May 28, 29 and 30.
The Hon. Nathan T. Nemetz, Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court of B.C. and Chancellor of the University since 1972, will be awarded the honorary degree
of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) on the last day of Congregation.
On the same day, Mr. Nemetz's successor as Chancellor, Mr. Donovan Miller, will be installed in office
for a three-year term.
In addition to Mr. Nemetz, honorary degrees will
be conferred on:
• Prof. William Armstrong, former deputy president of UBC, who is now chairman of the Universities
Council of B.C. created under the new Universities
• Dr. Charles Borden, Professor Emeritus of
Archaeology at UBC and a pioneer in the excavation
of ancient Indian archaeological sites in B.C.;
• Prof. Roy Daniells, University Professor of English Language and Literature at UBC and one of
Canada's foremost English scholars; and
• Dr. John F. McCreary, Coordinator of Health
Sciences and former dean of Medicine at UBC, who is
credited with the development of new concepts in
health education.
Here are brief biographical notes on each honorary
degree recipient:
The association of Chief Justice Nathan Nemetz
with UBC extends back-to the early 1930s, when he
enrolled as a student at UBC. After graduating with
honors in history in 1934 he joined a law firm as a
Vancouver School of Law student and was called to
the bar in 1937.
After a distinguished career as a practising lawyer
and appointment as a King's Counsel in 1950, he was
appointed to the bench in 1963 as a Justice of the
Supreme Court of B.C. He was named Justice of
Appeal in the B.C. Court of Appeal in 1968 and Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court of B.C. in 1973.
He was elected president of the UBC Alumni Association in 1956 and the following year became a
member of UBC's Senate representing the Alumni
Association. He was elected by Senate to the Board
of Governors of UBC in 1957 and served as a Board
member for 11 years until 1968. He was Board chairman from 1965 to 1968.
He was elected Chancellor of UBC in 1972 and in
this capacity again became a member of both the
Board of Governors and Senate. Although eligible for
another term of office as Chancellor he chose not to
be a candidate for the post because of the heavy work
load involved in the post of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Chief Justice Nemetz is also widely known for his
activities as an investigator and arbitrator in the field
of industrial labor disputes. He has conducted a number of labor studies on behalf of the provincial
government and his work as an arbitrator has succeeded in averting strikes in a number of major B.C. industries.
Prof. William Armstrong, the chairman of the new
Universities Council of B.C., had a distinguished career as a scholar, teacher and administrator before
leaving UBC in 1974 to assume his new post.
A graduate of the  University of Toronto,  Prof.,
4/UBC Reports/Feb. 7, 1975
Armstrong joined the UBC faculty in 1946 as an associate professor of metallurgy. He became head of
UBC's Metallurgy department in 1964 and dean of
the Faculty of Applied Science in 1966. In 1968 he
was named deputy president of UBC.
Prof. Armstrong's reputation as an educational
statesman rests on his ability to bring people of varying interests together to form new ventures. He has
been involved in the establishment of major scientific
projects in Canada and abroad.
He played a key role in the formation of TRIUMF,
the consortium of universities that developed the
$35-million cyclotron now in operation on the UBC
campus and served as chairman of the project's board
of management.
He has served as chairman of the board of directors of the Canada-France-University of Hawaii project to build a 144-inch telescope on the island of
Hawaii, which will give Canadian astronomers access
to one of the largest and best-situated telescopes in
the world.
Prof. Armstrong's role in education and science
policy has been at both the provincial and national
levels. He has served on numerous committees of the
National Research Council and is a former member of
the Science Council of Canada.
At the national level he has served on the board of
directors of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada and was a member of the Committee
on University Governance established by the B.C.
government in 1973 to recommend changes in the
Universities Act.
For his work in the field of metallurgy, Prof.
Armstrong last year received the Alcan Award of the
Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of
Mining and Metallurgy and was named a fellow of the
American Society of Metals for "distinguished contributions in the field of metals and materials."
Prof. Charles Borden joined the UBC faculty in
1939, initially as an assistant professor in the Department of German. His previous training in the field of
archaeology and his interest in the prehistory of the
Indians of B.C. led him to initiate a survey of ancient
Indian village sites soon after he arrived in Vancouver.
He discovered a number of sites near the UBC
campus on Point Grey and at the south end of Granville Street in Vancouver. He excavated several of
these sites and in 1948 began lecturing in archaeology
at UBC.
The excavation site most closely linked with Prof.
Borden's name is the so-called Milliken site, near
Yale, B.C. The site, excavated by Prof. Borden and
UBC colleagues over a period of years, has proven to
be one of the most important archaeological sites in
North America, with a record of human habitation
stretching back more than 8,000 years.
More recently, Prof. Borden has been in charge of
the excavation of an ancient site on the Musqueam
Indian Reserve, near the UBC campus, which has
yielded some valuable artifacts.
As a result of these activities. Prof. Borden has
accumulated some 90,000 items from the prehistoric
period of B.C. Indian history. Many of these artifacts
will be on display in UBC's new Museum of Anthropology when it opens later this year.
Prof. Roy Daniells joined the UBC faculty in 1948
as head of the Department of English after holding a
similar post at the University of Manitoba.
In 1965 Prof. Daniells was named University Professor of English Language and Literature at UBC, a
post designed to recognize his contributions to scholarly studies in English literature and his activities as a
poet and writer.
In addition to being the author of two volumes of
poetry, Prof. Daniells has written extensively on
Canadian literature. He is perhaps best known, however, for his studies in 17th century English literature,
particularly the work of the poet John Milton.
He has written a number of books on Milton and
various literary and artistic movements in the I7th
Prof. Daniells is a former president of the Royal
Society of Canada, this country's most prestigious
academic organization, and has also served as chairman of the Humanities Research Council of Canada.
Prof. Daniells has been the recipient of a number
of honorary degrees -from Canadian universities in
recognition of his activities as a scholar and writer.
Dr. John F. McCreary has been associated with
UBC's Faculty of Medicine almost from its inception
in the early 1950s. He joined the UBC faculty in
1951 as head of the medical school's Department of
Pediatrics and pediatrician-in-chief of the Health Centre for Children at the Vancouver General Hospital.
In 1959 he was named dean of the Faculty of
Medicine, a post he held until 1972, when he became
Co-ordinator of Health Sciences at UBC.
Dr. McCreary has been a key figure in the development of UBC's Health Sciences Centre, which is designed to centralize and co-ordinate the training of all
students in the health sciences, including doctors,
dentists, nurses, rehabilitation specialists, pharmacists
and students in allied paramedical groups.
A major goal of health sciences centres is to train
health professionals to work more efficiently as a
team in the delivery of health care. Treatment of the
majority of diseases now involves a variety of health
professions and this means that professionals can no
longer operate in isolated disciplines.
Dr. McCreary was a pioneer in the concept of
health sciences centres and his work in this area has
resulted in the development of a number of integrated training centres across North America.
Students reminded to submit cards
The UBC Registrar's Office again reminds students
who expect to graduate this year that they must submit Application for Graduation cards as soon as possible.
Students are responsible for applying for their
degrees so that a list of candidates for graduation may
be compiled for submission to the Faculties in which
students are registered and to the Senate, which
grants all degrees.
Students in Arts, Fine Arts, Commerce, the Licen
tiate in Accounting program, Elementary and Secondary Education, and Science should have received
cards by mail. Any student in these categories who
did not receive a card by mail should confirm with
the Registrar's Office that his or her mailing address is
Students in the graduating year of all other degree
programs, except Graduate Studies, can obtain Application for Graduation cards from Faculty offices.
Graduate students can obtain cards from their advisors. Six of the twelve members of the new Universities Council, which visited UBC on Jan. 27, listen attentively as Prof. Hugh Wynne-Edwards,
head of the Department of Geological Sciences,
explains a complex piece of research apparatus
in the new Geological Sciences Centre. Council
saw a variety of new and old UBC buildings on
the morning of Jan. 27 prior to holding an afternoon public meeting on campus. Council members are. left to right. Ms. Rita Macdonald. Prof.
William Armstrong. Dr. Frances Forrest-
Richards. Ms. Betty McClurg, Ms. Dorothy
Fraser, and. in doorway. Mr. Randolph Harding.
Picture by David Rods.
Questions concerning university involvement with the
larger community dominated the first public meeting of
B.C.'s new Universities Council, held on the UBC
campus Monday, Jan. 27.
The 2'/2-hour meeting was preceded by a morning
tour of the campus and an inspection by the Council
members of some of UBC's newest and oldest buildings.
Council members also met members of UBC's new Board
of Governors, deans and other University officials at a
Only about 60 persons attended the public meeting,
held in the Instructional Resources Centre. However, the
audience included a spectrum of faculty, student, staff
and administrative leadership, and a number of issues of
deep concern to the University community were
A verbatim transcript of the meeting is available from
the Department of Information Services. What appears
below is a heavily edited version of this transcript, in
which the sequence of the discussion has been
rearranged so as to group questions and comments under
a number of themes.
Council's function
Prof. W.M. Armstrong, chairman, Unversities Council:
The Council is a relatively new organization and was
established under the new Universities Act passed in 1974.
Council takes over the functions, in a general way, of the
(financial) Advisory Board and the Academic Board in the
old act, but with considerably wider powers.
The Council was named on Oct. 15. Since that time it
has had seven meetings, mainly concerned with budget
submissions from the universities, and has made
recommendations to the minister (of education) based
on those submissions.
Council is now setting up four committees required
under the act, with fairly extensive powers, and we'll also,
I'm sure, set up ad hoc committees to provide more input
for Council decisions. Certainly there will be a committee
on continuing or extension education, probably a
university/college liaison committee, committees of this
kind which are not mentioned in the act.
Council will also be carrying out independent research
studies. At the moment, for instance, they're carrying out
one on student housing and daycare on the public
campuses. Various committees are going to provide the
routes for academic and community input to the Council,
and the committee membership will certainly have many
people from the academic community involved; at least,
this is my hope.
Today we are interested primarily in your advice and
your opinions regarding areas in which we can assist the
universities and the community in the field of
post-secondary education. This isn't a normal Council
meeting with a controlled agenda. This is a public hearing,
if you wish, in which we would like to receive input from
the audience.
Part-time studies
Dean George Volkoff, Faculty of Science, UBC: I'm
wondering whether the Universities Council is planning to
undertake some sort of a study on the demands
throughout the community for continuing and part-time
education. We have been challenged in the past year by the
premier to move in that direction.
The Faculties of Arts and Science got together to plan a
program. It is very difficult to duplicate all the offerings of
the multi-faceted University on a part-time basis, so four
-degree programs were picked in the Faculty of Arts and
four in the Faculty of Science'. We said that if we're going
to go into part-time B.Sc. and B.A. degrees, you have to
give assurance to a student that it's going to be possible for
him over a period of years to complete a program on a
part-time basis.
I n order to carry out these eight programs, and we tried
to pick the less expensive ones, it turned out that as you
develop this program, eventually you'd run into about $1
million a year to operate enough courses on a rotating
basis to do it. For the first year it would cost about
$250,000. We got $100,000 and no assurance for future
So we are mounting a bit of the program that we
planned. And at the moment we're disappointed that the
response to it hasn't been all that great. Classes that we put
on in the evenings are populated largely by people from
the daytime program who either like to hold a part-time
job or like to get all their courses over on Tuesday to
Thursday and then have the weekend free from Friday to
Monday inclusive.
As for what you might call the genuine part-time
student, where we have been told they're waiting outside
in large numbers, we haven't succeeded in attracting them.
Now, I'm not saying they're not there. I think what is
really needed is what might be called a market survey, to
go out and find out how many of these people there are
waiting for the part-time education. And on the basis of
that, then, somebody has to make a decision as to how
much money you're prepared to spend in introducing new
Prof. Armstrong: You're reinforcing many of the
things that members of the Council are most interested in.
Dorothy Fraser (a Council member) has been asked to
convene a committee on extension or continuing
education. We're finding it isn't only the universities that
are concerned about this, but also the colleges.
It's fairly obvious that a study in depth of this whole
field will be needed, and certainly the Universities Council
is quite prepared to carry it out.
Ms. Betty McClurg, Universities Council: If
government policy - and that's they way I read it — is to
provide continuing education, for the universities to be
going out into the community, then I think it is the
responsibility of the Universities Council to approve and
for the government to make available additional funds for
these programs.
Dr. Donald MacLaurin, Universities Council: There are
some fundamental questions that have yet to be answered.
Why do we talk in terms of part-time study? Why do we
have rules that say to be a student at university you must
carry so many units, and you must do this and you must
do that?
I think that all these questions should be re-thought
through our Senates and through our various academic
components of the university structure. I do think we tend
to compartmentalize our views about study at the
post-secondary level.
I suggest that it should be possible to be just a student
and that you should be able to study at any public
university at a rate that is suitable to you and compatible
with your other avocations. In order to do that therewill
have to be some major changes in the rules and regulations.
Dr. William Webber, Department of Anatomy, and
member, UBC Board of Governors: In respect to the limits
of a purely administrative nature on admission of students
on a part-time basis, this has been a matter of concern to
the Senate of this University for the past several years. I
think we have moved a considerable distance in the
direction of eliminating unnecessary restrictions, with
respect to residence requirements and things of that sort,
for part-time students.
Prof. Robert Clark, Office of Academic Planning, UBC:
We've had a very remarkable increase in the last two years
in the number of part-time students, who come to take
courses up to 4:30 in the afternoon; we use a definition of
extra-sessional students for those who come for evening
We've had an increase from 1972-73 to this year —
that's a two-year period — from just under 1,200 to over
2,500 part-time students. Our forecast is that these
numbers will continue to grow substantially. There has
not been a corresponding growth in the number of evening
Ms. Dorothy Fraser, Universities Council: As convenor
of a (Council) committee on adult education, I'd like to
give you a rough outline of what we hope to take up at our
next meeting:
"The committee should consider the needs of the
people of the whole province for university-level courses;
relation of present courses to these needs; availability of
courses; methods for encouraging people to take such
courses; co-ordination among the universities about the
courses offered and the territories served; defining
responsibilities of universities and colleges; feasibility of
combining part-time university education with part-time
work; survey of some successful schemes elsewhere;
expansion and/or changes; financial implications."
We should be very happy indeed to have additions to
the list.
Prof. Joseph Katz, Faculty of Education, UBC: In
France, where continuing education is referred to as a
recurrent education or permanent education, they have
Please turn to Page Six-
I IDP  Pannrtc/Coh    7     IQTK/K CONTINUING ED
Continued from Page Five
introduced the practice where anybody working in
business or industry is permitted to take two weeks, a
month, or six weeks or more, on full pay, in order to
attend any educational institution that is related to their
I think this is something we might do in order to
broaden the base of the people who attend our
educational institutions. There are too many in ou[
population who are working, who do not have the
opportunity to attend, not necessarily because they don't
want to or that business would not be prepared to
co-operate, but because we need a much greater degree of
flexibility in our educational system.
Mr. Martin Kafer, Department of Physical Plant, UBC:
I'm a member of the University community as well; the
forgotten third group, the employees.
I thought it was great to hear the chairman of the
Council mention educational opportunities for employees
in general. I hope the Council, when the universities come
and ask for funds so they can send the employees to get
that education, will look upon it kindly and open their
pocket. We'd be very happy, because many of us have in
fact contemplated such studies. Some of us have been able
to swing it, and others just have to forget about it.
Ms. Pat Thom, Centre for Continuing Education, UBC:
Continuing education tends to be synonymous with
credit. For many years it's been our desire to develop as
many credit part-time continuing education programs as
possible but this has not been all our work.
We have another very important function, which takes
up a great deal more of our time. And that is non-credit,
non-traditional, informal education programs. The Centre
for Continuing Education at UBC continues to make a
major contribution in this type of education which,
because it doesn't fit into any neat category, tends to get
In your discussions about continuing education, please
give special heed to this very important area which extends
the University to the community. It has been traditionally
self-supporting; 75 per cent of our budget comes from
programs which we mount.
Mr. Gerald Savory, Centre for Continuing Education,
UBC: Many of us in Continuing Ed were encouraged by
the statements of the premier, encouraging the universities
to get out and do some leading. Particularly in the area of
non-credit education, various segments of the community
-are looking to the universities for some leadership.
I do some work that relates to the local level of
government, working with municipalities. They're looking
for assistance incoming to grips with the problems they're
facing as municipal councilmen. And because the
universities are the repository of certain kinds of
expertise, and because they, unlike the colleges, generally
do not have a territorial area which they are expected to
serve, it seems to me important that the universities
acknowledge this special relationship and special
Prof. Gideon Rosenbluth, Department of Economics,
and member, UBC Board of Governors: This whole
business of part-time education, evening education,
continuing education — which is not one problem but a
whole range of problems — has a lot of potential dynamite
in it and must be handled carefully.
Dean Volkoff asked about a survey to determine what
the needs and demands for all these various activities really
were. None of us have any doubt that they're real. But we
also know that they cover a variety of educational efforts,
starting with basket-weaving, that have to be properly
allocated between the night schools run by school boards,
the colleges, and the universities.
And there are some allocations that make sense and
others that don't. Of course, everybody wants the prestige
of university courses for whatever they're doing, no
matter what the intellectual level. But it isn't necessarily
efficient to force on universities a variety of activities
regardless of their intellectual level. So this is a matter into
which we should go slowly and with care.
Ms. Betty McClurg, Universities Council: I would like
to assure the last speaker that the Council has no thoughts,
to my knowledge, of suggesting that basket-weaving
should be a degree program in a university. There may be
something I haven't heard of yet, though.
Prof. Armstrong: One of the things that concerns me
in the field of continuing education is that people who
have been out of the education system for a few years
seem to be intimidated by campuses in the formal sense.
They're reluctant to return to a campus environment to
continue their education.
We need to have decentralized learning centres,
probably in the downtown area of the city, away from
the campuses, to introduce these people into a learning
situation again. A certain conditioning program seems to
be required for at least a year or so before they come
back into the system.
Mr. Bernard Gillie, Universities Council: I'm a
graduate of JJBC, back in the mists of antiquity, and I
certainly understand why anybody would find this place
intimidating. I'm sure there must be people who
disappeared into this campus years ago and have
probably never been seen since.
I suggest the size of institutions of this kind is
something that needs examination. I have nothing
against UBC and its reputation is unsurpassed. But I do
think that size is a factor. And I think that one of the
things that mitigates against the effective acceptance of
university education by the public at large is being
confronted with a complex and expanded type of
operation such as we have here.
Ms. Dorothy Fraser, Universities Council: One of the
most successful extension courses ever given by UBC was
Living-Room Learning, which went throughout the
province, with local instructors. It was a casual,
living-room-type thing, the informal type of thing that
adults like. They didn't have the intimidation of
canpuses. *
This was cut off in the flower of its youth by a
previous administration. I was very sorry about this
because even in a little tiny place where I lived we had
three groups going.
Ms. Betty McClurg, Universities Council: I think that
probably we all agree that one of the problems of our
university system is that we are not decentralized; that
people don't feel that they can just drop into a
university; that if they have something they particularly
want to learn, universities aren't the place for them; that
they are for academics, they are for a certain elite.
Maybe the problem is that the universities haven't
gone out to the people. I think that was one of the
reasons why the Universities Council was set up. I hope
one of the things we'll be able to do is encourage
everyone who feels they have a need to benefit from a
university's education, and for universities to go out
there, in the world, as it were.
/ Dr. Webber: While there are obvious drawbacks to
too large an institution, on the other hand it does make
possible a greater diversity of programs. At the simplest
level it means there are more options open to the
student at such an institution than it woujd be possible
to mount at a smaller institution.
I would hope to see a fairly wide diversity of type of
institution to allow the individual to seek one which best
meets their particular needs. But I think there's no
doubt that there is a need for the major, broadly-based,
type of institution such as this one.
Prof. Joseph Katz, Faculty of Education, UBC: There
are questions I would like to raise. The first is the
question of duplication among the post-secondary
institutions in the province. Mention has already been
made of this in connection with continuing education
but I believe it's a matter which could also be examined
with respect to undergraduate and graduate programs.
The second question is that of articulation among the
institutions. The educational system is made up of
various levels. There's a tendency to look on these as
fragmented and separate entities and to forget that
together they really form the warp and woof of one
The third question is that of universal credit.
Students registering with a university or community
college generally have to stay within the single
institution to be given credit or to achieve a degree or a
diploma. I think we could introduce a considerable
measure of flexibility if there could be some kind of
agreement — this would be a matter for the Universities
Council to examine and recommend — to have students
take whatever courses they saw fit and to have all this
become part and parcel of whatever degree they wish to
Mr. Hamish Earle, former student ombudsman, UBC:
Professional courses at universities have external criteria
of excellence; Arts courses may not. Would the Council
guide universities to an external .assessment in all final
examinations? I feel that the system used in other
countries might be expedient, whereby Oxford teaches,
Cambridge evaluates.
Mr. Franklin E. Walden, Universities Council: One
thing that strikes me is the altruistic comments that have
been made by faculty members here. I wonder if it
means that the people in this university would be
satisfied to give up their autonomy to a more senior
body, to some validating organization?
Do you really mean that there could be a shopping
basket, or that some body such as the Council could
pick courses around the community at large and indicate
Members of UBC's academic and administrative staff
who addressed the Universities Council during a public
meeting on campus on Jan. 27 included Dr. William
Webber, seated at extreme left, associate dean of
Medicine and a member of the UBC Board of Governors
elected by the faculty; Ms. Pat Thom, standing at
microphone, director of the Daytime Program in the
UBC Centre for Continuing Education; and Dean George
Volkoff, seated at right, head of the Faculty of Science.
Picture bv David Roels.
to UBC that they might grant a degree on the basis of
courses over which they didn't have control?
Prof. Katz: I believe there is a place for a
degree-granting institution to which each of the
universities would give up a measure of autonomy. The
Open University concept would have a better chance of
achieving success and of presenting a province-wide
image that would be acceptable and provide
comparability with the regular university student, and
for this reason I think it would be viable.
This would be a challenge to the present universities,
to see what extent they are prepared to give up that
measure of autonomy in the interests of a much wider
population than presently participates.
This body would take perhaps a stronger stand in
reaching out to the public, to all levels, all age groups, all
interests, without in any way jeopardizing the present
interests and constituencies of universities and colleges.
Prof. Robert Clark, Office of Academic Planning,
UBC: Are we willing to give up our autonomy Xo a
validating body? That is a difficult question. It's not a
case of conflict between those who regard this as an
intellectual fortress which is threatened with attack from
without, and those who would tear down the fortress
walls and say to all, 'come in, because if you don't we're
coming out to you.'
I think there is a conflict between the priority that
most faculty members put on research as compared with
teaching, including non-credit courses.
I wouldn't personally favor one central
degree-granting body for the province. We have to be
continually re-thinking what it is that a degree stands
for, but we are proud of what they have come to stand
for in this province. I cannot believe that if there were
one central body granting degrees they would enjoy as
high a reputation as what we now have at this
I am not, by implication, denigrating the quality of
degrees of other universities, but I feel that they should
have the same right to determine what they mean by
degree as we do.
I am dissatisfied with the degree of co-operation
among universities in working out their academic
priorities and what a degree will represent. One of the
great public benefits of havihg a Council with you
people on it will be the stimulus, the prod from behind,
to promote a greater degree of co-operation among the
Mr. Svend Robinson, student member, UBC Board of
Governors: Too often, I think, the word autonomy has
been used by people as an excuse for complacency and
self-interest. Autonomy of an educational institution is
fine, as long as it is a private institution. But UBC, the
University of Victoria, and Simon Fraser University are
public institutions and must be prepared to meet the
needs and demands of the public.
Autonomy implies that in some way it should be just
the people at the universities who decide what those are.
And the people at the universities are primarily faculty.
Now, faculty so far, and administrators, have been
making most of the decisions. That is not good enough. That is what autonomy has meant so far and that is why
I welcome the Universities Council.
I think it's about time that the wider public interest is
"focussed on the universities and that the people of the
province,   through   the   Universities  Council,  can  say,
'these are some of the things that we want to see done.'
An   example   of   something   which   many   people
consider to be interfering with university autonomy was
-Premier Barrett holding the line on the budgets of the
^universities last year and saying 'look, you people, come
up with innovative programs and we will give you extra
money.' Now, for the first time, people over 65 were
able to attend university free Of charge, and this was a
very successful program.
These   kinds  of   innovations   can  only come about
because of external pressure and it's the kind of external
^pressure that you on Council should be putting on the
universities if you feel they aren't meeting public needs,
that tne universities should welcome.
Prof. Gideon Rosenbluth, Department of Economics,
and member, UBC Board of Governors: There is
certainly a widespread view among faculty members that
the existence of this Council, with the. powers that have
been given to it, represents potentially a serious possible
threat to the quality of British Columbia universities,
and the only thing that stands between us and the
realization of this threat is the good sense of the Council
and its chairman, which I am sure will continue to
■r Universities are distinguished from other institutions
of post-secondary education, such as dancing schools, by
the combination and mutual integration of the teaching
and research functions; by the intellectual level at which
teaching and research is supposed to take place: by the
„fact that both teaching and research perform a critical
function, that the criticism of existing institutions is part
of the duties of universities; and by the fact that
research carried out at universities is curiosity-oriented
and -motivated research, which is not carried on
anywhere else.
It's an old question as to how you integrate the need
for this internally-motivated intellectual activity with
^he fact that the money comes from public sources and
that there has to be public accountability. The standard
solution is a system of a largely external board and a
largely academic Senate. And there really is no evidence
that the system has worked badly.
Yes, many faculty members are worried about a
possible loss of autonomy. I think they are right in being
worried. I think they are right in being worried about
**the possible loss of autonomy to students. It is perhaps
our fault that we have not educated students to a level
where they understand what universities are about, and
perhaps that is something that we ought to work on.
So my plea is that the Universities Council use its
* powers with wisdom and moderation and attempt not to
destroy the intellectual qualities of universities.
Student housing
Stefan Mochnaki, chairman, Student Housing
Committee, Alma Mater Society, UBC: Various studies
being undertaken by the Universities Council and the
(UBC) President's Ad Hoc Committee on Student
Housing will statistically prove the need for, more
student housing. Because of the acute and worsening
shortage, new housing must be provided as soon as
possible. It should be multi-purpose, allowing for
alternative uses in the event of high vacancy rates in the
future, or during summers.
A number of solutions have been discussed. The most
obvious one is new residences on campus: However, it
would be two or three years before a new residence
could be ready for occupation. The capital outlay for
1,000 or more students would be in the vicinity of $10
Another project we're involved with is self-help
housing. But this is obviously not a mass solution.
Buying existing buildings could provide an instant
^solution; one possibility is buying and converting hotels.
Subsidy of landlords could be done. It's done a lot in
England. A subsidy to tenants without rent control is
not desirable.
It appears now that the provincial government must
get into the picture much more than previously and that
we do need something done fast. The situation next
'September is going to be worse than it is now, because
the vacancy rate in Vancouver is dropping and the
enrolment is predicted to increase.
Prof. Armstrong: As you know, a study of student
housing needs is the first major study that Council
undertook, because the need is obviously a very serious
one. The report of Council on the housing problem is
approaching draft form.  It will then be submitted to
Please turn to Page Eight
/ 9f$
Giving their undivided attention to Mr. Neville Smith, head of UBC's Department of Physical
Plant, during recent visit by members of the Legislative Assembly to the UBC campus are, left to
right, Ms. Pat Chubb, a member of UBC's new Board of Governors appointed by the provincial
Cabinet; Hon. Eileen Dailly, Minister of Education for B.C.; Ms. Heather Freeze, executive
assistant to Mrs. Dailly. Mr. Smith is shown pointing out highlights of campus master plan on
campus model located in the Planning Division of Physical Plant. Picture by Jim Banham.
plans to '
The next president of UBC plans to "run fast."
Those are the words of Dr. Douglas T. Kenny. The
president-designate told 18 MLAs visiting the University
that he intends to accomplish his aims as president within
a certain period of time.
The tour and Dr. Kenny's luncheon talk to the MLAs,
faculty members and students in the Student Union
Building touched upon what have become classic themes
in the role of the university in society.
Relations between the university and the community,
access by citizens to the benefits of the university and the
balance between teaching and research were among the
points explored by the MLAs and Dr. Kenny.
The MLAs represented each of the four provincial
parties and included the Hon. Eileen Dailly, Minister of
Education; Social Credit party leader Mr. William Bennett;
and Dr. Scott Wallace, leader of the Progressive Conservatives.
During the visit, sponsored by UBC's Alumni Association, the MLAs were given conducted tours of TRIUMF,
the $35-million cyclotron or atom smasher which recently
went into operation, and UBC's Dairy Cattle Teaching and
Research Unit, on the South Campus.
They also toured the Instructional Resources Centre
and its electronic teaching facilities, and the Sedgewick
Library, and saw the large-scale model of the University in
the Department of Physical Plant.
After lunch the MLAs split into groups and met with
faculty members who specialized in areas, such as ecology,
forestry, agriculture and applied science, which the MLAs
wanted to know more about.
At the luncheon Dr. Kenny outlined his educational
goals. He said he will delend the right of freedom of
inquiry and speech of students and faculty members.
Without this freedom, the University would not be what it
is today, he said.
He will do his utmost to maintain a high quality of
teaching, Dr. Kenny said. The educational opportunities
of future generations depend on the quality of education
that is maintained now. Central to the question of education standards, he said, is the quality of teaching and research done by faculty members.
UBC faculty members are naturally influenced by work
done at other universities, he said, so there is always the
possibility of other institutions raiding UBC.
run fast'
"We must recognize that we must be competitive,"
the president-designate said, "and that faculty members
are very expensive people.
"But this doesn't mean that faculty members may be
allowed to become complacent. My job will be to shake up
the deans so that we can maintain the quality or standard
we think is important to keep."
Dr. Kenny said he would try to reconcile the University's contributions to the needs of society with the responsibilities of faculty members to do their own work.
"Besides the need for a university to protect its own
autonomy, a university has a responsibility to society at
large," he said. Universities would be remiss if they didn't
concern themselves with the injustices of the world.
Though it must respond to the community's needs, the
University must decide what its long-term academic priorities are. Universities should not be involved in "toaster-
repairing," he said, activities which can be better carried
out by other organizations and which don't take advantage of the intellectual and research capabilities of the
Dear Sir:
I enjoyed meeting with members of your staff at the
M LAs' tour of the UBC campus.
As you no doubt are aware, in past years the members
of the UBC community have travelled to Victoria to meet
with MLAs and, at the suggestion of our caucus, the format was changed to bring the MLAs to the campus. I am
certain that all the members of our caucus found this format to be far more useful, and I have written Dr. Kenny to
suggest that he continue inviting us to the campus for
future sessions. You may wish to know that Hugh Curtis
had hoped to attend the tour but represented the caucus at
the funeral of Ned DeBeck and was.unable to attend.
Yours sincerely,
W.R. Bennett,
Leader of the Opposition,
Legislative Assembly. STUDENT HOUSING
Continued from Page Seven
Council for discussion and then sent to the minister of
education who will probably produce it as a public
The study is essentially finished. It's been a very
difficult problem for us. We have had tremendous
trouble getting any hard data on student housing needs
in this area. We still feel we're short of certain types of
data. I think, however, the evidence is piling up to
support many of the points that you have made and this
study is being pushed just as fast as were are able to push
anything. The report should be available within the next
few weeks.
Prof. Clark: A brief footnote in support of what has
been said about the urgency of the housing situation:
Our preliminary forecasts of enrolment show a very
substantial increase for this coming year. It is my
considered opinion that there will be more than 1,500
additional students coming to the campus during the
daytime next fall.
Degree shortcuts
Dr. Edward Sallin, research director,
Inter-Institutional Policy Simulator, located at UBC:
There's a class of student that I really haven't heard any
concern for, and that's the potential student who's faced
with the lack of that carte blanche known as the
baccalaureate degree.
Perhaps because I've spent maybe half my time out in
the grey, grim world of commerce and half in the
University, I've become very sensitive to the recruiting
methods and requirements that are established in
industry. Often, for lack of any better judgment, it's
blind adherence to the philosophy that the baccalaureate
degree presupposes something.
What about those adults who, at some point in their
lives found themselves out working and now find
themselves at "the end of the line" professionally, unless
they have that piece of paper? How do they go about
seeking that baccalaureate degree if they don't fall irrto
the mainstream of students?
I'm not proposing that the University become a mill
for the production of pieces of paper. On the other
hand, for those people who must remain gainfully
employed, the idea of earning a baccalaureate degree
over an eight-year period is really not a very practical
One minor suggestion that I have is that we severely
re-examine what we mean by earning a baccalaureate
degree, and see if there are shortcuts. I could think of
many adults who could easily skip the first two years in
any university with no ill effects and who would still be,
I think, a worthwhile product of that institution.
how large a number, but I would say it is significant.
Mr. Gillie: Would you believe that the removal of fees
entirely would be in the interests of higher education?
Prof. Rosenbluth: That gets us into a more complex
issue. I think that the removal of fees would be a
thoroughly bad thing and probably fees should be
higher. But what we should have is a student loan
program that does not involve a student in a risk in case
of failure, and a much more thorough and far-reaching
program of student grants.
The main cost in going to university is not the fees at
all, but the income which you don't earn while going to
university. And the main reason why people who might
otherwise go, don't go, is not because of the fees but
because they can't sacrifice the earned income.
Studies suggested
Mr. Robinson: Have you considered a study of the
length of the academic year? UBC right now, I feel, is
being under-utilized in the Summer Session. It would
seem to me that the Universities Council could conduct
a study to determine whether it would be more
appropriate, from a public point of view, that the
universities are all on a trimester system, such as SFU is,
or perhaps some other kind of system to better utilize
the available facilities.
Prof. Armstrong: We haven't set up such a study. One
was made in Ontario on the full use of the academic
year, Which really brought out both advantages and
disadvantages to the year-round operation. It is
something that will have to be considered by Council.
Mr. Robinson: Has the Council set up a committee to
look into ways in which women are discriminated
against, possibly, or certainly under-represented, at the
Ms. Dorothy Fraser (Universities Council): It has
been on my list since the beginning but we have been so
busy on the budgets that we have not really got to more
general questions yet.
Ms. Bonnie Long, former student representative on
the University Governance Committee: I would like to
know the Council's priorities with regard to student aid.
Will the present aid programs be continued, will aid be
made available to part-time students?
Prof. Armstrong: I simply don't know at the present
time. We have no investigation of student aid at present.
Institute funds study
Dr. Webber: The term 'elite' was used (by Ms.
McClurg earlier in the meeting). I am not sure whether
this is intended to have any kind of pejorative sense or
not. I would agree that elitism is undesirable if it implies
that irrelevant criteria are used in consideration of
admission or advancement in programs.
But if what one means is that there is a level of
quality or a level of attainment that has to be expected
of university programs, then I don't think that we
should make any apologies for striving to mount the
highest possible quality programs and for expecting of
our "students that, for admission to particular programs,
they meet a certain set of academic standards.
Prof. Clark: Dr. Webber raised the question of how
high a standard we have: Is this place to be regarded in
some sense as an elitist institution?
Now that term can be defined in a variety of ways.
We did undertake a study in 1971 about the background
of all of the students who came for the first time to
enroll here, and we found that we accepted 90 per cent
of the students who applied to come out of Grade XII in
this province.
Mr. Svend Robinson: I was a member of Senate when
that study was presented and there was some question of
elitism, but I don't think anybody is saying really that
the University is denying access to people who are poor.
But maybe people are dropping out at a stage before
they even start thinking about university.
Mr. Bernard Gillie, Universities Council: Is it correct
that there are a large number of students in British
Columbia who do not attend university somewhere
because of lack of funds?
Prof. Rosenbluth: I don't have any figures on that
matter, but my casual impression is yes. I don't know
p/iipp p„»~-«../c,.u   -i imc
A team of researchers from the University of B.C.'s
Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration has
received a $41,000 research grant from the Real Estate
Institute of British Columbia to conduct a study of
housing needs in British Columbia.
The study, which will be co-ordinated by Prof. F.G.
Pennance, of the Department of Land Economy, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, who was formerly a
visiting professor in the UBC Faculty of Commerce and
Business Administration, will cover a variety of areas
ranging from the general relationship between income
and the demand for housing to the effects of land use
controls and rent controls in the supply of housing.
UBC faculty members involved in the project are:
Dr. S.W. Hamilton, associate professor and chairman of
the Urban Land Economics division of the Faculty of
Commerce and Business Administration; and four
other members of the division, Dr. Michael Goldberg,
Mr. David E. Baxter, Mr. Ab Eger and Mr. David Dale-
Dr. Hamilton said the researchers are expected to
come up with preliminary findings in May and that a
final report is expected by September. The final report
will appear in two sections — the first taking the form
of a general report based on the research team's findings and the second a technical study fully documenting the material covered in the general statement.
Mr. E.F. Henderson, chairman of the Public Affairs
Committee of the Real Estate Institute, said the study
"represents an effort by the real estate industry in B.C.
to promote some genuine teamwork among all those
concerned with the housing situation. We hope that the
University's report will act as a catalyst and enable
everyone involved in this very complex area to try and
solve the problem where it exists."
Mr.   Henderson said that last May, at the annual
meeting of the Institute, members approved a voluntary assessment of $10 for every agent and salesman
who belonged to a local real estate board and the realtor division of the Institute.
"That fund was made available to develop a public
information program which could acquaint the public,
the industry, and government with the facts of the
current troubles which are affecting the housing market in B.C. and, in many cases, causing hardship for
different segments of the public," he said.
IWY workshop
"Femininity/Masculinity: How Do We Call Off the
Game?" is the intriguing title of an International
Women's Year event sponsored by the Women's Resources Centre at the University of British Columbia
in late February.
The workshop, which will explore the rules of the
sex-role "game" and what they do to men and
women, will take place on Friday evening, Feb. 28
(8:00 to 10:00 p.m.) and on Saturday, March 1 (9:30
a.m. to 4:30 p.m.) in Lecture Hall No. 1 of the Woodward Instructional Resources Centre. a
The experiential exercises and dialogue will be led
by Betty Roszak, co-author of Masculine I Feminine,
Readings in Sexual Mythology and the Liberation of
Women; Carol Gordon, free-lance writer; and two
members of the Faculty of Education, Dr. John Allan
and Dr. Marvin Lazerson.
An explanatory brochure may be had from the
sponsor of the event, UBC's Centre for Continuing
Education, by calling 228-2181. CONTINUING
Director of Communications and Promotion,
Centre for Continuing Education.
Jindra Kulich
Graham Drew
Sheila Maxwell
Bridge to community
Last year 23,985 persons joined non-credit programs sponsored by the UBC Centre for Continuing
Education. This year, with a record 256 spring programs offered, enrolment is expected to go even
"The excitement of discovery — learning facts,
knowledge, abilities — seems to have permeated the
modern world," observes Jindra Kulich, assistant director of the Centre.
"Our programs," he continues, "act as a bridge to
bring the research and expertise of the University to
practical application in the community."
The Centre already has one of the largest daytime
program enrolments of any Canadian university, but
this year they are offering an even wider choice of
times so that more and more people can make learning part of their lifestyle. If night school is not your
cup of tea, you can attend a daytime program, a residential   weekend   retreat,   take   an   intensive   crash
course (a Friday-night and all-day-Saturday program
to immerse yourself in a particular field of study), or
go on a field trip.
Highlights of the Centre's spring programs are
many and varied.
Local history and development are covered in two
three-week mini-courses entitled Insights on Early
British Columbia.
Songs of our People; The Rise of Nationalism:
Quebec and English Canada; The International Scene,
and a weekend film seminar on Cultures of the World
are some of the opportunities available to understand
and appreciate the world we live in.
You can learn to speak modern languages like
Arabic and Italian, study Chinook (the trade jargon
developed through early Indian—European contacts
on the west coast), or take a program in personal
development. Personal identity, awareness, skills, and
body/mind integration are topics for numerous programs led by members of the Faculty of Education,
the Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology, Religious
Studies and School of Physical Education. Many special   programs   of   this   nature   are  offered   by   the
Women's   Resources   Centre   to   help  women   assess
their roles in a changing role.
Philosophy and history always figure prominently
on Continuing Education programs. New programs
this year are The Sacred and the Profane — Two
Philosophies of Life, Genealogical Research and
Archival Research for the Amateur Historian.
You can learn about the environment — about
weather, forests, birds and ocean life, and there are
many "how-to" courses — how to breed cattle, paint,
photograph, appreciate great art and literature. The
tremendous scope of program offerings is made possible through the enthusiastic participation of faculty
members from many UBC departments, often working with off-campus experts in a variety of disciplines.
"Our experience shows that the community is
eager to share University experience, but we just
create the opportunity. People make it happen," concludes Mr. Kulich.
To obtain a complete listing of Spring programs
offered by the Centre for Continuing Education,
Agriculture  expands
In 1955, ex-poultry farmer Graham Drew
(BSA'55, MEd'69) was appointed supervisor of agricultural programs for the Department of University
Extension. "In those days," he recalls, "if I put on 18
to 22 programs in a full year I thought I'd done
pretty well. To give you an idea of contrast, I've already run 52 programs since September this year, and
there will be more before the year is out."
The growth of Mr. Drew's programs parallels the
growth of continuing education and particularly of
the University's Centre for Continuing Education —
created in 1970 re replace the former Extension department.
In 1955, Mr. Drew's agricultural programs were
directed mainly at the needs of special producer
groups and drew an average 300 enrolments a year.
Although these programs have remained important, in
the intervening years interdisciplinary programs have
been initiated and current registrations are close to
2,000 persons a year.
The title of Agricultural Supervisor has been
changed to Director, Resource Industries, to reflect
more accurately the Centre for Continuing Education's policy of recognizing and responding to con
temporary needs. "I guess we were dealing with the
environment long before such issues penetrated
public awareness," says Mr. Drew. "Management in
agriculture, forestry, fisheries, wildlife and mining
realized long ago that their problems were interrelated because there is a limited land resource for all
the different land uses. It must be 15 years since we
put on our first water-quality conference and the
Pollution Control Board wondered what we were
Not only has Mr. Drew's work grown in the area of
interdisciplinary programs, a new clientele has emerged. There is a growing urban audience for programs
in the agricultural sciences. Many city dwellers are
acquiring property on which to raise a few head of
cattle, sheep or swine; but they know nothing about
animal husbandry. The Centre for Continuing Education, in co-operation with the Faculty of Agricultural
Sciences, gives short courses such as small-scale beef
and swine production, and programs in soil, food,
poultry, and plant science for this clientele.
A major boost to Mr. Drew's activities came this
year with the provincial government's $80,000 grant
to the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences for innovative
programs. For the first time, credit programs in this
Faculty are being offered off campus. Many of these
programs are open to non-credit students at reduced
rates.   The success of this kind of programming  is
evidenced by Nutrition, Health and Use of the Horse
(Animal Science 430), which has enrolled 96 non
-credit and 55 credit students in a 12-week (V/i-unit)
"The grant has given faculty members the time
and finances to deal with some of the problems we've
always known about. It's a big step forward," says
Mr. Drew. "In the fall we offered programs on
energy, food and the environment so that the general
public could become better informed on these critical
As well as his work with the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences as director of Resource Industries,
Mr. Drew co-operates and collaborates with many
other organizations and government departments at
all levels. Among the fascinating programs that
emerge from this activity is the illustrated lecture
series Ocean Life of British Columbia — part of the
spring program. Repeated from the fall of 1973, this
program introduces the layman to the common forms
of ocean life found in the Strait of Georgia and on
the open coast.
To occupy his spare time, Mr. Drew is on the
national council of the Agricultural Institute of
Canada and is chairman of that organization's national committee on public relations and publicity. "I
guess if I were three people I'd still be busy," he says.
Creative arts
One of the Centre for Continuing Education's largest and most active program areas is creative arts,
directed by Sheila Maxwell. Fabrics, photography and
native art rank high among the 40 exciting programs
under Ms. Maxwell's direction this spring, but music,
theatre, painting, drawing and nature study also form
a part of this talented lady's bag of tricks, and fun is a
basic component of every program she administers.
"I'd be quite happy to do nothing but to go to my
programs — all day long," says Ms. Maxwell. "There's
so much creative energy generated on campus, and I
find that artists and naturalists are so extremely generous with their time and energy. I like informal
people and when it makes them happy to share their
talents and knowledge, I just think it's a beautiful
world we live in."
Perception of the world we live in is probably
Sheila Maxwell's strongest point. She doesn't believe
that most people taking creative art courses will come
out of the programs as practising artists, but she does
believe they will see new things, and in different ways
(and she speaks with authority since many former
students are among her personal friends).
In her opinion, art is always going to "happen". As
long as there are people, some will create, some will
perceive. This leads her naturally to develop programs
on birds and wild flowers for creative, perceptive
people, and to Bowen Island weekends that bring to
gether the creative arts, talented instructors and natural surroundings. In the Spring program, Bowen
Island weekend events include Paint for the Joy of It,
with Prof. Sam Black of the Faculty of Education;
The Great Composers Visit Bowen Island, a weekend
of listening and learning about Bach, Beethoven,
Berlioz, Dvorak, Gershwin, Mozart, and
Tschaikovsky, with Douglas Talney of the Department of Music; Waves 75, a drama workshop with
Doris Chillcott and Jane Heyman of the Department
of Theatre; The Art and Mystery of Wildflower
Watching, with Ros and Jim Pojar, plant ecologists;
and Birds of Bowen Island, with Neil Dawe, former
chief naturalist of the George C. Reifel Migratory
Bird Sanctuary.
A highlight among the non-residential programs
this spring is Spend Sunday Afternoon with the
Lightbown Family, a sharing of art, heritage, food
and tradition with a unique and talented family of
native West Coast artists.
Ever-popular photography courses will this year
include two sections of Photographer's Eye with instructor Denes Devenyi; Basic Photographic Techniques with Duncan McDougall; Introductory Photography with Keith Dunbar; choice of a Thursday
night series or a Bowen Island weekend with Fred
Herzog, head of the photo-cine division of UBC's Biomedical Communications department; and can culminate — for those interested — in a May-June photography tour to Northern Italy and Yugoslavia with
Fred Herzog.
For the first evening of a Tapestry Workshop you
are given a bag with "everything in it but the sheep"
— wool, seeds, lanolin — and in the following nine
weeks you learn to card, spin, dye, weave and study
basic elements of design through illustrated lectures
and discussion. This course, offered by members of
the School of Home Economics, has had a waiting list
since it was first offered five years ago.
Studio courses offered this spring include Chinese
Painting, Figure Drawing, Perceptions in Painting,
Printmaking, and a special Glass Workshop to cover
basic off-hand glass blowing, furnace and annealer
construction for hot glass work. Experience in Glass
will be a lecture-demonstration following the Glass
A Creative Arts Open House on April 12 will be a
free exhibition of work done by students in creative
arts studio courses. Students in the Photographer's
Eye classes will show and share their work in a free
public exhibition April 24. Both shows will take place
in the Conference Room, Centre for Continuing Education, UBC.
Many programs are given in co-operation with arts
and community organizations outside the University.
For example, Opera Overtures, given in conjunction
with the Vancouver Opera Association's presentations, introduces the prospective audience to the historical background of the opera, its composer and
time. Die Walkure will be the topic of French
Tickner's March 10 Opera Overture prior to the VOA
performances on March 13, 15, 19 and 22.
UBC Reports/Feb. 7, 1975/9 Major course changes
UBC's Faculty of Medicine is introducing major
revisions to its curriculum.
The University's Senate has approved in principle
changes which would encourage introduction of new
teaching methods and schedules while retaining the
existing general structure of the curriculum.
_ Among other changes, the result of three years of
work by the Faculty's curriculum committee:
• A 45-hour course on social issues in medicine
will be introduced in the first year;
• Basic laboratory science and the study of
disease in hospitals and other clinical areas will be
more evenly distributed throughout each phase of the
four-year program;
• Training in the third year will be expanded to
include student experience in specialized services in
Vancouver such as those concerned with cancer, rehabilitation, venereal disease and arthritis. Other
changes in the third year will better prepare students
for the fourth year of clerkship or clinical training.
Both Dr. David Bates, dean of UBC's Faculty of
Medicine, and Dr. David Hardwick, chairman of Senate's curriculum committee, describe the changes as
major. Both said the changes are designed to overcome a problem that has faced most medical faculties
in recent years.
Until about 20 years ago, Dr. Hardwick said, most
medical faculties taught students in much the same
way. In the first years of the curriculum, students
were taught basic medical sciences such as anatomy,
the study of the structure of the body; physiology,
the study of the body's functions; and biochemistry,
the chemistry of the body.
Then the students moved out of classrooms and
laboratories to hospital wards and clinics where they
learned clinical subjects such as pediatrics, obstetrics
and surgery.
Both the basic sciences and the clinical subjects
were taught along departmental lines, Dr. Hardwick
said. For example, students learned of the structure
of the lungs in an anatomy class, the function of the
lungs in a physiology class, and diseases of the lungs
in a pathology class.
"About 20 years ago the first attempt was made at
Northwestern University to introduce a systems
approach to the medical curriculum," Dr. Hardwick
said. "Instead of students being taught a discipline,
they were taught a system, such as the respiratory
"An attempt was made to teach the students the
anatomy, physiology, pathology, medicine and surgery of the respiratory system all at the same time,
because all the information was interrelated and interdependent."
Dr. Hardwick, head of UBC's Division of Pediatric
Pathology, said that since then medical schools have
been trying to accommodate the benefits of the systems approach to teaching. But a common problem
many of them have faced is that the faculty members
doing the teaching were trained as specialists in various disciplines, rather than in body systems.
He said some schools that have experimented with
a total systems program have reverted to programs
similar to their original curricula.
The UBC formula will retain the departmental
structure of the Faculty of Medicine. Systems teaching, which forms an important part of clinical training, Dr. Hardwick said, will be done by faculty members from various departments.
"I think ours is a pragmatic and balanced solution
and I congratulate the faculty members who put it
together," Dr. Hardwick said.
Dean Bates described the changes as cautious.
"Some medical schools changed their curricula too
fast with too little consideration of the probable impact on quality," he said. "Many of them are now in
the process of returning to some extent to a more
traditional approach."
Dean Bates said the changes would also give the
|in|| Vol. 21, No. 3-Feb. 7, 1975.
IIBCI Published by the University of
IJ^JJ^ja British Columbia and
REPORTS d'str'DUted free. UBC Reports
appears on Wednesdays during
the University's Winter Session. J.A. Banham,
Editor. Louise Hoskin and Anne Shorter,
Production Supervisors. Letters to the Editor
should be sent to Information Services, Main
Mall North Administration Building, UBC, 2075
Wesbrook Place, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5.
students more elbow room to pursue topics of interest to them throughout the four-year program.
"Pressure is always increasing to include more
areas of knowledge in the medical curriculum," he
said. "It is important that students be protected from
this pressure as much as possible. They should have
the opportunity to organize their schedule so they
can learn in depth subjects that interest and concern
The curriculum changes also aim at reducing the
sharp distinction between the basic medical sciences
given in the first years and the clinical subjects given
in the final years. Dean Bates said.
"Students will be introduced to clinical work earlier than under the present curriculum," he said, "and
a basic science course will be introduced during the
third year.
"The course will allow students to receive more
in-depth knowledge of basic sciences after they have
come into contact with important clinical problems,
particularly problems concerned with failure of a vital
The new basic sciences course will not be offered
until 1978, he said. Some other medical schools in
Canada have planned this type of course, but there is
little information now available on which to judge the
probable success or failure of this type of program.
Dean Bates said the course on social issues in medicine would include subjects such as death and dying,
study of health care systems, community attitudes
towards physicians, human sexuality, occupational
hazards of being a physician, protection of patient
confidentiality, and moral issues such as abortion,
euthanasia and human experimentation.
Dr. F.R.C. Johnstone, professor in UBC's Department of Surgery and chairman of the Faculty of
Medicine's curriculum committee, which prepared the
proposals, pointed out that the present scheduled
time in the four-year UBC program is several weeks
shorter than the Canadian average.
"The Faculty has now recommended, and Senate
has approved, a lengthening of the first year by three
weeks, but even with this we will still be running a
program shorter in scheduled time than the Canadian
average," Dr. Johnstone said.
He said that phased introduction of the new curriculum will give individual departments an opportunity to adjust to it. Even so, the transition from one
timetable to another will throw a considerable strain
on some departments, particularly Pathology, he said.
"Adjusting the curriculum is an important and
continuing responsibility of faculty," Dean Bates
said, "but further major improvements will only be
possible when new and expanded clinical resources ,
have been provided, and when a way is found to expand the budget available for all clinical teaching."
Names of candidates for the post of dean of the     ^
Faculty   of   Arts   at   UBC   are   being  sought   by  a
ten-member committee chaired by Prof. Peter Suedfeld, head of the Department of Psychology.
The selection committee, which has begun collecting the names of possible candidates, hopes to complete its deliberations in time for an appointment to
be made by July 1.
The committee has asked interested individuals to
submit for consideration the names of possible candidates, on or off the UBC campus, preferably with a
statement of reasons for submitting the names.
Individuals are also asked to submit in writing any
general considerations concerning the qualifications
to be sought in the person to be appointed, and any
matters of general advice to the committee.
Letters of nomination and advice should be sent to
Prof. Suedfeld, Department of Psychology, Henry
Angus Building.
The committee to appoint a dean of Arts is made
up of members appointed by President Walter H.
Gage, and members elected by the Faculty of Arts
and the student Arts Undergraduate Society.
Presidential appointees are: Prof. Suedfeld; Prof.
Cyril Finnegan, associate dean of the Faculty of
Science; Prof. Margaret Prang, head of the Department of History; and Prof. Samuel Rothstein, of the
School of Librarianship.
The four members elected by the Arts Faculty are
Prof. Malcolm McGregor, head of the Classics Department; Prof. Elli Maranda, of the Department of Anthropology and Sociology; Prof. Peter Remnant, head
of the Philosophy department; and Prof. A.D. Scott,
of the Department of Economics.
The   two   students  elected   by   the   Arts   Undergraduate   Society   are   Linda   Bartram   and   Robert .
Continued from Page Two
international Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research
in Ecuador, he heard evidence that the weather off
South and North America is affected by changes that
occur in the Pacific months before.
"There seem to be indications that what goes on out
in the Pacific has an effect on the climate of South and
North America sometlring in the order of six months
later on — quite small changes, changes in the order of a
degree or two in temperature over large surface areas of
the Pacific.
"Whether the climate of the continents is a consequence of the changes in the Pacific or whether they're
both consequences of something else isn't important as
long as we can work out the relationship between them.
"We would, in effect, have advance warning of which
crops to sow and which not to plant and when to plant
them. The weather is still the most important ingredient
in the production of food," Prof. Pickard said.
Oceanography, he said, is an applied subject. Oceanographers don't expect their work to uncover new and
basic laws. Oceanography applies basic laws already
known to the oceans. The understanding that results can
be used for practical benefits and predictions.
Shortly after the UBC Institute was established in
1949, studies .began on the interaction between the
upper layer of the sea and the air above it. This pioneering work led to much of what we know today of the
Continued from Page One
during the design process would further reduce what could
be done.
"Our committee decided that the facility must go a-
head. I assured University officials that the people of
Canada would want the building completed as planned
and that funds would be furnished to this end.
"Two Canadian governments have given handsomely;
Japanese private agencies have matched their gifts; our
committee is negotiating with other Asian governments
for additional funds. I'm positive that we can count on the
generosity of Canadians to raise enough money to complete the project. The last thing we want to see is the
building standing as an empty shell until the money is
Mr. Whitehead said that unless the $1.6 million can
be raised quickly, construction will have to halt at the
end of March. He made a special trip to Ottawa early in
February to try to persuade federal officials to make
another grant for the project. If he is successful he will
ask the provincial government to match this amount.
The significance of the building as a cultural link between Canada and Japan was underlined last September
when the then Prime Minister of Japan, Mr. Kakuei
Tanaka, paid a special visit to the site to unveil a plaque.
"It is most gratifying to see that the Asian Centre is to
be established at this University, which has such an active
Dr. William Epstein, a Canadian expert on
disarmament, will give five lectures on the campus in
February and March as a Cecil H. and Ida Green
Visiting Professor.
Dr. Epstein joined the United Nations when it was
formed and became a specialist adviser to
disarmament commissions. On his retirement from
the UN in 1973 he spent a year with the UN Training
Institute in New York before becoming a visiting
professor at the University of Victoria.
Dr. Epstein's February lectures are as follows:
Tuesday, Feb. 11, 12:30 p.m., Room 106,
Buchanan Building. Topic: "Is the Arms Race out of
Wednesday, Feb. 12, 8:00 p.m., International
House: "Last Chance to Prevent a Nuclear Disaster."
The Cecil H. and Ida Green Professorships is also
sponsoring a visit of the famed No Theatre of Japan
to the campus in February. The troupe of 11
performers, headed by No Master Mr. Sadayo Kita,
will give a public performance of "Hagoromo: The
Heavenly Maiden" on Saturday, Feb. 15, at 8:15 p.m.
in UBC's Old Auditorium. This performance is
co-sponsored by the Vancouver Institute.
Federal and provincial consumer legislation will be
discussed on the UBC campus on Feb. 22 during a
one-day workshop sponsored by the B.C. Home
Economics Association. The meeting will be held in the
Student Union Building beginning at 9:00 a.m. Tickets
for all sessions and lunch are available from Jan Peskett,
Nabob Foods Ltd., Box 2170, Vancouver V6B 3V6
10/UBC Reoorts/Feb. 7. 1975 turbulence of the air over water. Vancouverites are familiar with the research platform at Spanish Banks
where much of this research was carried out.
"There's evidence that a lot of the interaction between the air and water takes place not during light or
moderate winds, but during short-duration, strong-wind
conditions," Prof. Pickard said. "We're now trying to get
data under more severe conditions. Understanding the
relationship is very important to weather forecasting,
because much of the energy used to push around the
atmosphere from one place to another on the globe
comes from the sea in the form of latent heat carried by
water evaporated into the atmosphere."
Another area of the Institute's research is pollution.
Prof. Pickard himself is an authority on the fiords of the
western coast of South and North'America. Studies on
the water circulation in the fiords are important in determining what quantity of pollutants can be safely disposed of in the inlet waters. The deep waters of most
fiords mix very slowly, he said, and pollutants added to
the fiords would be carried out to sea by the surface
waters only.
Prof. T.R. Parsons of the Institute is one of the directors of the Controlled Ecosystem Pollution Experiment
(CEPEX), an international project to determine the
long-term effects of small amounts of pollutants on life
in the sea. The five-year, $10-million study is taking
place in huge test tubes suspended in the water from the
surface of Saanich Inlet on Vancouver Island.
Other pollution studies involve mine tailings dumped
into Rupert Inlet from the operation of Utah Construc
tion and Mining Co.'s copper mine at the north end of
Vancouver Island, as well as the amount and effect of
pollutants brought into the Strait by the Fraser.
Prof. Pickard said there is evidence that the Roberts
Bank causeway on the southern part of the Fraser delta
might be causing erosion of the delta by the sea.
"The delta has been built up by sediment brought
down and deposited by the Fraser," Prof. Pickard said.
"Measurements taken in 1973 indicate that whereas the
delta has continued to advance in its northern part, there
are signs of some retreat, at least during 1973, in the
southern part, possibly because of changes of water circulation due to causeways built there."
Work on the behavior of the delta was done by Prof.
James Murray, of UBC's Department of Geology, who is
a member of the Institute.
Prof. Murray is one of a group of scientists who are
doing geological and geophysical studies on sediments
and the crustal structure of the ocean floor along the
West Coast. This work is important in understanding
earthquake activity and in assessing mineral and petroleum resources in the region.
Prof. Murray headed up a group which discovered and
analysed nodules of manganese oxide found in Jervis
Inlet, about 60 miles north of Vancouver. It was the first
time manganese, a valuable mineral used in industry, had
been found in western coastal waters of North America.
Prof. Murray, incidentally, says that the decision to
ban exploration for oil off the west coast of B.C. is
completely irrational. The decision was made because of
the dangers of oil spills, he said. But there is a danger of
far greater oil spills from the supertankers which will
pass down the coast from Alaska.
A lot of work is done in the Institute on underwater
waves. Some of these waves are enormous. The parallel
bands of smooth and ruffled waves extending over long
stretches of the surface of the Strait, for example, are
associated with underwater waves. There is some evidence, Prof. Pickard said, that these waves can mix large
volumes of water and generate turbulence, important in
dispersing pollutants.
Although they are concerned about threats to the
ecosystems of the oceans, most members of UBC's Institute of Oceanography don't predict, as some others do,
the imminent death of the sea. They look upon the sea
as a relatively untapped resource but are quick to add
that much more should be known about the ocean
before its resources are exploited.
Prof. Parsons, for example, says that existing technology can provide a much greater amount of food from
the sea. The oceans, he says, now provide about 65
million tons of food protein annually, about 20 per cent
of the high-quality protein man now produces. He estimates that man can harvest about 300 million tons of
protein from the sea a year, much of it in forms not
exploited now, without harming the seas' ecosystems.
"We are told that we will have to produce in the next
decade twice the amount of food we are producing
now," Prof. Parsons said. "The oceans could provide a
large amount of the extra food."
interest   in,   and   deep   understanding   of,   Japan,"   Mr.
"I sincerely hope that this centre will become a springboard for better understanding of Japan by the Canadian
people and that it will provide an impetus to the development of Canadian studies in Japan as well."
The building has also been described by Dr. Barrie
Morrison, head of UBC's Institute of Asian and Slavonic
Research, as "Canada's contact-point for cultural, intellectual and academic activity with East Asia."
1 Mr. Matsuba's design of the building is such that,
while from the outside it will appear to be sitting tranquilly in a picturesque tree-and-garden setting, it will be
a busy cultural and academic facility, housing the University's 170,000-book Asian Studies library, offices for
faculty and graduate students in the Department of
Asian Studies, and the Institute of Asian and Slavonic
Research. There will also be a public area for cultural
displays and performances.
All of the academic facilities, with the exception of the
main library and the reading room, will be located on
floors at or below ground level, some of which will look
out onto a sunken garden and reflecting pools.
The bottom floor will contain a music practice room,
especially equipped for concerts of Asian music. The floor
will also contain academic offices. The next floor will contain a lounge, offices, book stacks, and seminar rooms,
including a room which will memorialize the contributions made to Canada by immigrants from all parts of Asia.
On the main floor there will be a 200-seat theatre and
meeting room which will be used for all types of musical
and theatrical performances. This floor will also house
departmental offices, spaces for exhibitions, and part of
the library.
The main library and reading room on the mezzanine
floor will be an impressive sight to the visitor, with the
ceiling rising up to 40 feet. This floor will contain book
stacks with collections in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and
Fund raisers seek gifts to complete Asian Centre
Your help is urgently needed if the campaign to rise
$1.6 million to complete UBC's Asian Centre is to be
Mr. Joseph Whitehead, chairman of the fund-raising
committee, says that donations, large and small, are
being sought from the general public and business and
commercial interests in addition to government support.
"Construction will have to halt if this $1.6 million is
not raised this spring," says Mr. Whitehead.
Donations may be sent to: Asian Centre Fund, c/o
Mr. Joseph Whitehead, Journal of Commerce, 2000 West
Twelfth Ave., Vancouver.
If you wish to make further enquiries about the
campaign, please phone Asian Centre Fund headquarters
at 228-6657.
Continued from Page Three
seed protein, part of the residue remaining after oil has
been extracted from the rapeseed. Rapeseed protein is
now fed to livestock.
Since rapeseed has a component that might be toxic
to humans, he has invented a method of removing 95 per
cent of the toxic substance.
Dr. Philip Townsley, another associate professor in
the Department of Food Science, is working on the production of coffee and other foods using "meristem" culture. Plant cells from the meristem, or growing tip, of
plants are put into a test tube containing ingredients
necessary for growth and the cells multiply rapidly.
Using meristem culture, he has grown cells of carrots,
potatoes, bush beans, red kidney beans, wax beans, soybeans, cauliflower, artichokes, lettuce, wheat, barley and
grapes. He even tried medicinal products such as digitalis, used in treating certain forms of heart disease, as well
as food essences and herbs such as licorice, sweet basil,
dill, sweet marjoram, thyme, spearmint, and summer savory.
The majority of research in the Faculty, though, is
-directed at problems of agriculture in developed countries. Dean Shaw, for example, is an authority on the
biochemical relationship between Wheat rust and the
fungi causing the disease. Plant breeders develop plants
with genes that carry resistance to certain strains of a
disease, but the plants may not be resistant to other
strains of the same disease. Since the disease-causing
organisms evolve, it's usually only a matter of time before plant breeders have to engineer a new plant variety.
Dean Shaw says there is one area of research concerning Canada's grain industry that hasn't been touched and
should be — development of a natural substitute for nitrogen fertilizer.
"Fertilizer production depends heavily on petroleum
and the oil crisis has driven fertilizer prices up. Plants
such as peas, alfalfa and clover restore the nitrogen content of the soil naturally, after their roots become infected by certain soil-borne bacteria.
"Cultivating these types of plants used to be an essential component of crop rotation," Dean Shaw said, "so
that soil fertility was maintained.^
"What I would like to see is work designed to produce a strain of wheat or barley or other cereals that has
this nitrogen-fixing ability. If this were accomplished it
would have as much impact on agriculture as Louis
Pasteur's discovery of the role of bacteria and yeasts in
the production of beer had on the science of bacteriology"
As the largest concentration of agricultural researchers in B.C., the UBC faculty's main research concern is
the province. Agriculture varies more in B.C. than in any
other province. Conditions range from the harsh prairies
of the Peace River district through the fruit orchards of
the Okanagan to the rich delta of the Lower Fraser
Valley, where half of the agricultural production of the
province is located.
Though agriculture is the third-largest industry in the
province, its importance shouldn't be discounted. Prof.
George Winter, head of UBC's Department of Agricultural Economics, estimated four years ago that if the food
industries of the province were eliminated, the gross provincial product would be reduced by $1 billion and more
than 130,000 jobs would disappear. The figures would,
of course, be much higher today.
Research is being done to control plant and livestock
diseases on a number of fronts. One method, for example, is to breed a plant resistant to a certain strain of
Indian languages, as well as study areas and a small lounge.
Dr. lida spends a lot of time at the Asian Centre construction site these days, a diminutive figure standing
quietly in the trees watching the work in progress.
If he's concerned about the fact that more than a
million dollars is still needed to complete the project he
doesn't mention it.
Considering the progress that has been made since the
day he took it upon himself to pay a call on the director of
the Sanyo Pavilion at Expo '70, cyclist lida figures that
from now on the ride is downhill all the way.
Dr. Shotaro lida
Other projects aim at improving animal productivity
and reducing production costs. Prof. Warren Kitts, head
of UBC's Department of Animal Science, has been feeding wood sawdust to cattle and sheep as part of their
diet. The sawdust provides livestock with cellulose, the
major component of hay. Tests indicate that sawdust-fed
beef is tastier than hay-fed beef.
A few years ago poultry and some other livestock
producers noticed a drop in the health and productivity
of their animals. The problem occurred in different areas
across North America and was diagnosed as vitamin E
deficiency. But when vitamin E was added to animal
feeds there was no improvement and the cause of the
problem remained unknown.
Prof. D.B. Bragg, of UBC's Department of Poultry
Science, was among the first to show that the problem
was caused by low levels of selenium in animal feeds.
Selenium interacts with vitamin E in the body. Prof.
Bragg confirmed that there was a low level of selenium
in wheat and barley from the Peace River district of
B.C., where most poultry feed grains in B.C. are grown.
By comparison, selenium levels in grains from the Prairies are normal.
The UBC discovery and work done in other centres
resulted in selenium being added to animal feeds with
naturally low levels of the essential mineral.
Dr. Cedric Hornby, of UBC's Department of Plant
Science, is halfway home in developing a new strain of
tomatoes that ripens early so that tomato production in
B.C. can be increased. He has successfully produced a
variety that matures less than 60 days after being planted. But in selecting for early ripening, he inadvertently
also selected genes that cause some malformation. The
next step for him is to engineer the genetics of the variety so that the fruit has a uniform shape acceptable to
I ic>r> o____i-/r,_i-   T   in-ir:li « ^m___^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
Call goes out
for nominations
It's election time again for the UBC Alumni
Association's board of management and the call has
gone out for nominations for positions on the
1975-76 board.
Advertisements notifying alumni that nominations
were open were placed in the Vancouver Sun and
Province, as well as many local papers early in
February. Nominations were closed at noon 'on
Monday, Feb. 17, 1975. Full details regarding any
aspect of the election may be obtained from the
"Returning Officer, c/o UBC Alumni Association,
6251 N.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver V6R 3C4
The board of management, which governs the
affairs of the Association, is composecl of elected
members and appointed representatives of groups
such as the Alma Mater Society, the Faculty Association and men's and women's athletic organizations.
With the exception of the Association president, no
elected member may serve more than seven consecutive years or hold the same elected position for more
than four years.
Positions open include the one-year terms of president, first vice-president, second vice-president, third
vice-president and treasurer. There will be ten members-at-large elected for two-year terms.
The nominations committee of the Alumni Association has nominated the following alumni for the
1975-76 board of management:
President - Kenneth Brawner, BA'57, LLB'58;
first vice-president — James Denholme, BASc'56;
second vice-president - Charlotte Warren, BCom'58;
third vice-president — Robert Johnson, BA'63,
LLB'67; treasurer - Paul Hazell, BCom'60; members
-at-large, 1975-77 - Frank Archer, BSP'66; Aunna
Leyland Currie, BEd '60; Helen McCrae, MSW'49; Dr.
Thomas McCusker, BA'47; Dr. M.T. (Mickey)
McDowell, BPE'68, MPE'69; Donald MacKay, BA'55;
Mark Rose, BSA '47; Robert Smith, BCom'68,
MBA'71; Doreen Ryan Walker, BA'42, MA'69;
Elizabeth Travers Wilmot, BSR'66.
In the event of an election, alumni will vote by
mail ballot in the latter part of March, with the results being published by May 1, 1975.
Ten other alumni are currently completing a two-
year term as members-at-large on the board of management:
Judy Shark Atkinson, BA'65, BLS'69; Joy Ward
Fera, BRE'72; Fraser Hodge, BASc'69; John Hunt,
MD'58; Robert Johnson, BA'63, LLB'67; Barbara
Brown Milroy, BHE'51; Patrick Parker, BCom'68,
MBA'69; John Parks, BCom'70, LLB'71; Oscar
Sziklai, MF'61, PhD'64; Robert Tait, BSA'48.
For further information on the election, contact
the alumni office, 6251 N.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver V6T 1A6, (228-3313).
Follow the bouncing hall...is what Young Alumni Club members do on Tlnirsda
gymnasium, before repairing to Cecil Green Park for repairs. Volleyball is part of
if you 'd like to join the full, call the alumni office, 228-3313, for details.
v evenings at Queen
the expanding YAC
Mary school
program and
President-designate hits the road
February is a busy month in the alumni activities
of UBC's president-designate, Dr. Douglas Kenny.
Early in the month Dr. Kenny was a featured
speaker on the "Major Problems Facing Higher Education" at a Portland, Oregon, conference of the
Council for Advancement and Support of Education.
This was the first Pacific Northwest District conference of the new organization, the result of the recent
amalgamation of the American Alumni Council and
the American College Public Relations Association.
One of the conference organizers was UBC Alumni
Fund director Mr. I.C. (Scotty) Malcolm, a member
of the district's executive council. Other UBC participants in the programs were Mr. Harry J. Franklin,
alumni executive director; Perry Goldsmith, program
director; and Leona P. Doduk, field secretary.
With hardly time to repack his suitcase. Dr. Kenny
was back on the road again — this time to visit California alumni. He was accompanied by the University's Chancellor, the Hon. Nathan Nemetz, and Harry
Franklin.  They  attended alumni  receptions in San
UBC, 60 years of serving
you and the community....
On the first day of lectures, Sept. 30, 1915, the University
of   British   Columbia   officially   came   into   being,   leaving
behind its McGill affiliation. Soon after, Frank Wesbrook,
the first president of the University wrote, "To us has come
the opportunity of making our Province ... a better place in
which to live ... To meet in full our obligation, may ours be a
Provincial university without provincialism. May our sympathies
be so broadened and our services so extended to all the people of the
Province that we may indeed be the people's university whose motto is
tuum est." In'1975 we're celebrating UBC's first 60 years with special
alumni events and activities. So watch for the UBC 60 symbol and join us...
Francisco on Feb. 18 and in Los Angeles the following day.
Los Angeles alumni should mark their calendars
now for the second annual reception of the Canadian
Universities Associated Alumni, Monday, March 3, at
the Town and Gown, University of Southern California. That noted Queens' University alumnus, former
CBC announcer and long-time proprietor of the
Ponderosa, Lome Green, is the special guest of the
evening. It should be fun. For further information
and reservations call Mr. Wiley Millyard, pro-tem
president of the association at the Canadian Consulate in Los Angeles.
Alumni in the New York, New Jersey and
Connecticut area are having a wine and cheese party
on Thursday, Feb. 20, at the Canadian Consulate,
1251 Avenue of the Americas. Ms. Rosemary Brough
is looking after UBC's participation in the event,
which is sponsored by the Canadian Universities
Graduate Society in New York.
... or maybe a new name?
Let us know and UBC will still come to
you through the Chronicle and UBC
Reports. (Follow you to the ends of the
earth we will!)
Alumni Records
6251 N.W. Marine Drive
Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1A6
Keep that UBC INFO coming!
Married women, please give graduation name and
preferred title	
(Enclosure of old mailing label is helpful)
12/UBC Reports/Fob. 7, 1975


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