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UBC Publications

UBC Reports Apr 3, 1986

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Volume 32   Number 7
April 3, 1986
Asia Pacific Business Institute opens
UBC President Dr. David Strangway and
other UBC officials joined Premier Bennett and
federal Energy Minister Pat Carney at the
official opening of the Asia Pacific Business
Institute on March 21.
Located in the new World Trade Centre —
Canada's "gateway to the Pacific" — the
institute brings together the expertise of
universities, government, labor and business to
improve Canada's trade opportunities in Asia.
The non-profit organization is the result of
a joint application by B.C.'s three universities
to the federal government under Ottawa's
Centres of Specialization Program.
The federal government has provided
$625,000 in seed money to help the institute
become a self-supporting educational facility
encouraging the growth of Canadian business
opportunities in the Asia Pacific region.
The institute's mandates is to:
* Forge a partnership between Canadian
business and academic communities that
encourages an exchange of information;
* Provide programs tailored to the specific
needs of businesses with interests in the Asia
Pacific region; and
* Foster research on Asian trade and
Mr. Eugene Nesmith, chairman of the
institute's board of directors, drew the
audience's attention to the team approach
used by the Japanese to increase overseas
Information critical to business growth is
viewed by the Japanese "not as something to
be hoarded but rather analysed and recirculated," said Mr. Nesmith, who is also
president and chief executive officer of the
Hong Kong Bank of Canada.
"In Japan, the flow of information about
world-wide technological and marketing
development is phenomenal and is
encouraged by symposia, publications and
foreign visits.
"This gives Japan's international
competitiveness its cutting edge."
Institute board members are drawn equally
from the academic and business communities.
Representing UBC are Dr. Peter Burns, dean
of the Faculty of Law, and Dr. Terry McGee,
director of the Institute of Asian Research.
Executive director of the institute is Dr.
Joseph Weiler of UBC's Faculty of Law. He
said the institute decided to locate as close to
the business community as possible — "a
short walk away so you can drop in and talk to
us, use our library and reading room and
attend our instructional programs.
"We wanted to be close to the institutions
with which we will work to develop our
services, such as the Vancouver Board of
Trade, Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada^
Commercial Dispute Resolution Centre and the
Japanese External Trade Organization."
He said that if the institute was successful,
the lessons learned could be applied to other
subject areas where the academic,
government and business sectors could be
melded into a unit providing new educational
Six seminars have already been organized
by the institute that will take place in Victoria,
Vancouver and Toronto on subjects such as
business strategies for Southeast Asia and
overseas Chinese investment in Canadian real
Pointing to the importance of joint university, labor, government and business links to
improve trade opportunities with the Pacific Rim, Premier Bill Bennett officially opened the
Asia Pacific Business Institute on March 21. Officials at the opening included, from left to
righL-Mr. Eugene Nesmith, chairman of the institute's board of directors, Vancouver
Alderman George Puil and UBC President David Strangway.
Scientist Honored
Dr. Michael Smith of UBC's biochemistry
department has been elected a fellow of
the prestigious Royal Society of London.
He is the fourth UBC faculty member so
honored. The others are Dr. Harold Copp,
former head of UBC's physiology
department, Dr. J.H. Quastell, former
member of UBC's neurological sciences
division and a resident scientist at the
TRIUMF cyclotron project on the UBC
campus, and Dr. Maurice Pryce, former
member of UBC's physics department. Dr.
Smith has an international reputation for
his basic research in genetics.
He developed a method to modify
specific genes on cell chromosomes, a
technique now used in genetic laboratories
around the world to change specific genes
in a predetermined way.
Draft planning document circulated
President David Strangway told Senate last
week that an "agenda of important issues" is
being developed for widespread discussion
and debate throughout the University.
A draft long-range planning and mission
statement has been circulated to UBC deans
and department heads and has been the
subject of discussions with alumni and student
groups, the president said.
Discussions with other UBC groups will
continue in the next few weeks, he said, with
the aim of finalizing an agenda of important
issues by June 30.
When the agenda is decided on, work will
start on developing a set of answers to the
questions raised in the planning-mission
In some cases, the president said, the
questions may be of such importance that it
will be advisable to form task forces to develop
a clear set of recommendations.
All this will lead to policy statements which
will be debated by appropriate UBC bodies,
e.g., the Senate and Board of Governors.
Some of the questions and answers under
development may be obvious, the president
said, "but I want the University community to
have the opportunity to debate them.
"It's important that we debate whether we
want to reaffirm our commitment about the
current direction of the University or whether
we should look at some newer direction or at
Special Ed enrolment suspended
UBC's Senate has approved a statement
which will have the effect of suspending
enrolment in the first three years of the
program leading to the Bachelor of Education
degree in Special Education.
Senate has actually already suspended
enrolment in the first and second years of the
Faculty of Education program and the effect of
the statement approved on March 19 is to add
the third year to the enrolment ban.
Senate was told that the resources of the
faculty are still insufficient to warrant a further
intake of students, "despite efforts on the part
of a community group to raise funds for the
support of research and instruction in special
The statement says qualified students will
be accepted into the fourth year of the degree
program. It adds that students with a particular
interest in special education should enrol in the
appropriate year of the B.Ed, elementary
program with a concentration in special
Acting Education dean Dr. Douglas McKie
told Senate the faculty would offer special
education streams in the revised B.Ed.
programs currently under consideration by the
Senate curriculum committee.
Law student Patricia Arthur said that as a
former teacher she was aware of the need for
properly trained special education teachers in
B.C. "I realize we have budget and
retrenchment problems," she said, "but I don't
understand why we're not addressing the
question of Gob) markets in the sense that the
value of special education is being realized in
the school system."
Academic vice-president Daniel Birch told
Senate that the education faculty is "virtually a
leader in Canada" in special education
programs at the graduate level and in post-
baccalaureate diploma programs.
In addition to graduate programs, he said,
the faculty is committed to implementing a
resolution calling for some special education
training for all education students, which it has
not been able to initiate because of budget
He added: "The picture is not as bleak as it
appears. The faculty is choosing to put its
resources where it's felt they will do the most
good, given limited resources."
least the thrusts and roles of the University
within a system of colleges and universities in
British Columbia."
Last week's progress report to Senate by
the president on development of long-range
planning guidelines came less than six months
after he became UBC's chief executive officer.
At his first Senate meeting in November last
year, Dr. Strangway made it clear that long-
range planning about UBC's future was a top-
priority item on his agenda.
The Ayerst Award of the Canadian
Biochemical Society has been won by Dr.
Pieter Cullis of UBC's biochemistry
department. Dr. Cullis won the annual
award for his research into the structure of
cell membranes and the way they fuse. In
his more recent work, he has developed a
method of delivering anti-cancer drugs
to malignant cells. UBC Reports, April 3,1986
""* ***i<bxA D
A focus on UBC centres of excellence
Premier Bennett and Finance Minister Hugh
Curtis announced Feb. 11 that the provincial
government had identified six areas of
excellence for funding at B.C. universities.
The University's strength in four of the
areas selected by the provincial government -
- forestry, international business and trade,
links with cultural industries and Pacific Rim
studies — were outlined in previous issues of
UBC Reports. This issue deals with the
remaining two areas selected and earmarked
for funding by Victoria — biotechnology and
computer systems.
Much of UBC's computer systems research
is carried out through a new Centre for
Integrated Computer Systems Research
(CICSR) bringing together scientists and
engineers in the computer science department,
Faculty of Science, and the electrical and
mechanical engineering departments in the
Faculty of Applied Science.
Faculty members associated with the centre
hold research grants from government
agencies and the private sector worth more
than $2 million. Discussions have recently
taken place for joint research projects with
IBM, Northern Telecom, MacDonald Dettwiler
and Associates and other companies.
A major breakthrough occurred last year
when a unique soft-ware program was
unveiled that established an early lead for
Canada in the international multi-million-dollar
market for electronic messaging, sometimes
referred to as electronic mail.
The new software allows messages to be
created on and transmitted across a variety of
computer systems using private and public
data communications links, including
telephone lines. It is the first commercially
available electronic messaging system based
on the international standard for computer-
based messaging.
The software is being marketed through a
licensing agreement between UBC and
Sydney Development Corp. of Vancouver.
Sales have already been made to such
international communications giants as AT&T
in the U.S., Siemens in West Germany, British
Telecom, the Olivetti Corp. in Italy and to AES
Data in Canada.
The software is the creation of Mr. Gerald
Neufeld of UBC's computer science
department whose research was supported by
strategic NSERC grants administered by Dr.
Paul Gilmore, former head of the department.
Several projects are under way in
biomedical and industrial applications of
robotics. One example is the first use of a
robot in surgery in the world.
The robot is the creation of Dr. James
McEwen, adjunct professor in UBC's electrical
engineering department and director of the
biomedical engineering departments at both
the Vancouver General Hospital and the Health
Sciences Centre Hospital on campus. Dr.
McEwenworked in conjunction with Dr. Brian
Day, an orthopedic surgeon in UBC's Faculty
of Medicine, and Andronic Devices Ltd. of
The robot assists Dr. Day in knee
operations. The first robot-assisted surgery
took place one year ago and since then some
80 operations have been carried out.
Another robotics project involves the
design and operation of a robot arm that can
do such tasks as automated welding,
particularly in areas of limited access.
A group led by Dr. Dale Cherchas in UBC's
mechanical engineering department is working
in assocatjon with the TRIUMF cyclotron
project on UBC's south campus, where
welding and other repairs must be carried out
in areas of high radioactivity. They are
designing computer software so that a PUMA
500 robot arm is automatically programmed to
carry out welding operations.
Dr. Peter Lawrence and colleagues in
UBC's electrical engineering deparment are
applying automated robotic principles to the
operation of logging equipment.
Complex machines used in the forest,
mining and construction industries have not
benefitted from advances made in robotics
and remote manipulation that have, for
example, become commonplace in the
operation of arms of deepsea submersibles or
of the Canadarm used in the U.S. space
The UBC project would allow operators of
forest harvesting equipment such as
mechanical grapples to control the machine
remotely, using a variety of aids such as voice
commands and stereo video cameras.
The project is being carried out in
association with MacMillan Bloedel Ltd. and is
particularly relevant to logging in the coastal
forests of the province where logging costs are
Dr. Lawrence is also involved in a research
project that would automatically scale logs. At
present, log scalers physically measure each
log to determine wood volume. Using two
video cameras suspended over the log scaling
area, a computer-assisted device would
automatically read out wood volume. Scalers,
however, would still be required to identify the
species of wood and wood quality.
Central to many of the projects in computer
systems is the design of new computer microchips, often using new materials such as
gallium arsenide which is much superior to
silicon now used in commercial chip
Much of this research is carried out by Drs.
David Pulfrey and Lawrence Young in the
electrical engineering department. The chip
designed to guide the operations of the
automated log scaling machine mentioned
above, for example, was created by this group.
It is the largest chip ever produced in Canada.
UBC is a major participant in a national
research project in artificial intelligence
sponsored by the Canadian Institute for
Advanced Research, a privately-funded
organization that finances research in the
national interest.
Much of the research involves designing a
system that can "read" or visually understand
a situation, decide what actions should be
undertaken on the basis of its understanding,
and can then carry out the tasks.
A major focus of the UBC research is to
allow for the automatic reading and
interpretation of images received from orbiting
earth satellites. The project involves a number
of UBC units including the computer science
and psychology departments and the Faculty
of Forestry.
UBC is as strong in biotechnology as any
university in Canada. Its vigor was not
developed overnight. The University built its
reputation over three decades, beginning at a
time when the commercial promises of
biotechnology were nebulous and vague.
There is no clear definition of what
biotechnology means. The term is sometimes
used as a rubric for all techniques to exploit
living animal or plant cells. Older methods
such as fermentation date back to the
beginning of civilization.
Tissue culture ~ the growing and
sustaining of cells in special nutrient fluids
introduced decades ago — was overtaken in
some applications by a variety of new methods
that came out of molecular biology in the
1960s, including immunology, recombinant
DNA and enzyme technology. Today
biotechnology is usually used to refer to these
more recently-developed methods.
New techniques for cell manipulation have
flourished. Scientists now alter the genetic
material within cells with a precision unknown
only a few years ago. Some of the fundamental
breakthroughs in the technique of gene
manipulation occurred at UBC.
Biotechnology is a potential cornucopia
with myriad applications promising to bring
massive social and industrial changes on a
scale equal to the impact of micro-electronics.
It is being applied to the diagnosis and
treatment of disease, and to agricultural,
forestry, waste management, energy and other
A measure of UBC's strength in the area is
the fact that biotechnology research takes
place in dozens of departments in at least half
of the faculties on campus. UBC President
David Strangway has appointed an advisory
committee on biotechnology consisting of the
deans of the Faculties of Agricultural Sciences,
Applied Science, Forestry, Medicine and
Major advances in genetics research
occurred at UBC in the 1950s under the
leadership of Dr. Gobind Khorana who later
won a Nobel Prize for solving the genetic code
controlling the way genes make cell products.
Dr. Khorana is also well known for creating the
first man-made gene, the basic hereditary unit.
The University has about 100 research
projects in biotechnology under way.
UBC has received 30 per cent of all grants
awarded to all Canadian universities under the
National Research Council's program for
industry-laboratory projects (PILP). And the
University has about 25 per cent of all recent
strategic grants in biotechnology frorrvthe
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
Council of Canada (NSERC).
UBC scientists represent the three
provincial universities on the advisory
committees on biotechnology of the Ministry of
State for Science and Technology (MOSST)
and the National Research Council (NRC). The
MOSST committee reports directly to the
In 1982 the University created the Centre
for Molecular Genetics, an umbrella
organization to pull together a certain category
of biotechnology research on campus. Being
recruited as director of the centre is Dr.
Michael Smith of the biochemistry department
in UBC's Faculty of Medicine, regarded by his
peers as one of the best geneticists in North
Please turn to Page 4
April is cherry blossom time at UBC's beautiful Nitobe Japanese Garden. Join the
celebrations at Ohanami, the annual Cherry Blossom Festival which takes place on
Saturday, April 12 in Nitobe Garden and Asian Centre. For ticket information, call
Prof. Charles McDowell, former head of
UBC's Department of Chemistry, has been
elected a member of the European Academy
of Arts, Sciences and Humanities. The
academy brings together the most eminent
scientists, writers and artists in the world. Prof.
McDowell headed the chemistry department
from 1955 until 1981 during which time it
established an international reputation as one
of the leading chemistry departments in North
America. He continues to be an active
researcher in the department. In 1981 he
received the special appointment of University
Professor in recognition of his contributions to
UBC graduate Ann Marantz, a former
financial aid officer and director of alumni
records on the campus, has rejoined the
administrative staff as assistant registrar,
records, in the Registrar's Office.
Ms. Marantz was director of records for
UBC's Alumni Association from 1979 to 1985
and a financial aid officer at UBC in 1974 and
1975. Prior to returning to the campus to take
up her present position she was a training
coordinator at Pacific Press.
Ms. Marantz replaces assistant registrar
Trish Angus, who left UBC to take up duties as
registrar at Douglas College.
Dr. Axel Meisen, dean of the Faculty of
Applied Science, was the 1985 recipient of a
Professional Sen/ice Award from the
Association of Professional Engineers of British
Columbia. Dr. Meisen, whose areas of
expertise focus on environmental problems
related to the chemical, petroleum and natural
gas industries, was recognized for his
contributions to Canadian engineering, his
international consulting activities and for his
role in developing engineering programs at
universities in Cuba, Peru and the Philippines.
Dr. Vlnod Modi, an internationally
recognized expert in the field of satellite
communications, received the 1985 Meritorious
Achievement Award frorirffhe associatJohl "Or
Modi's research interests include satellite
control systems, aircraft design and
biomechanics . In addition to his reputation as
a scientist, Dr. Modi is an award-winning
photographer. Recently at a ohe-mari exhibit,
his photographs raised $32,000 for the
National Association for the Blind.
Prof. Norman Young of UBC's theatre
department has been re-elected as chairman
of the Vancouver Civic Theatres Board, which
oversees the operations of the Orpheum and
the Queen Elizabeth Theatre and Playhouse.
Friends and colleagues will mark the 60th
birthday of Dr. Gerald Porter, an honorary
professor in the Department of Chemistry, by
staging a Physical/lnorganic/Photo- chemistry
Symposium in the Faculty Club on April 11 and
Fourteen former students and colleagues
will give seven papers on each day of the
symposium. Some of the speakers are coming
from such widely scattered places as Koln in
West Germany and the Universities of Georgia,
Pennsylvania and Southern California. A
reception and dinner is also planned on
Friday, April 12. Detailed information is
available by calling 228-3266.
Prof. Porter, a faculty member since 1956,
took early retirement several years ago but has
continued to do research and carry out
administrative duties in the chemistry
Dr. Tim Oke of the Department of
Geography has been awarded the Canadian
Association of Geographers Award for
Scholarly Distinction for 1986. Dr. Oke is an
expert in the field of climatology.
Dr. Peter Doollng of UBC's Faculty of
Forestry recently received the National Parks
Centennial Service Award from Parks Canada
in recognition of his contributions to the
protection of natural landscapes in British
Columbia. He also received an Award of    •
Outstanding Recognition from the federal
government for his conservation efforts. UBC Reports, April 3,1986
Big Block Winners
UBC's athletic communities gathered
over the last couple of weeks to recognize
the top men's and women's athletes in
1985-86 and to induct new members into
Big Block clubs. On March 20, the Bobby
Gaul Award as UBC's most outstanding
graduating male athlete was presented
to Simon Hoogewerf, left, a fourth-year
Science student and a member of
Canada's 1984 Olympic team who is
regarded as this country's premier
middle-distance runner. He's led the
Thunderbird men's team to four straight
Canada West track and field championships.
On March 25, Dr. Thelma Cook, right
above, who chairs the Women's Athletic
Committee, announced that the trophy
honoring UBC's top women athletes would
not only be shared in 1986 but had
undergone a change of name to honor
Marilyn Pomfret, left, who retires this year
after 23 years as a faculty member in
Physical Education and Recreation and
13 years as director of women's athletics.
Sharing the Pomfret (formerly the
Sparling) Trophy are Barbara McBain,
second from left, a member of the
women's swimming team, which was
named the women's Team of the Year,
and Jodie Blaxland, a top UBC field
hockey player who is currently a member
of Canada's national team.
Universities express concern
over 'matching grant scheme
Canada's university community has
expressed concern about an announcement
by federal finance minister Michael Wilson
that future Increases In spending for
university research and development will
depend on matching grants from the private
sector. UBC Reports asked research vice-
president Dr. Peter Larkin to comment on
Mr. Wilson's proposal.
'The wording of the news release about the
scheme implies that UBC would have to
approach local industry and encourage them
to make contributions to the Natural Sciences
and Engineering Research Council. These
contributions would be matched by the
government and NSERC would place the
funds in a pool to be dispensed for industry-
related research in general. Industry donors
would thus have no guarantee that the funds
contributed would support research in their
fields of interest.
"I don't believe this system will work very
well. There is no real incentive, except perhaps
for tax purposes, for local companies to
contribute when there is no assurance that the
funds will be spent in their areas of interest.
And there is no real incentive for the
universities to encourage industry contributions
Our apologies ... In our last issue we ran a
photograph of Haida artist Robert Davidson's
sculpture Raven Bringing Light to the World
with a caption describing the work as a bronze
sculpture. The 200-kilogram sculpture, which
measures 1.2 metres in diameter, is gilded
when the funds may be put into research at
some other institution. If a particular company
should give funds to NSERC, then the
universities will be told when they ask for
funds, 'Sorry, but we gave to NSERC
"What I've said above may be based on a
misunderstanding of how the granting
agencies intend to proceed in acquiring and
disposing of funds from industry. If so, the
university reasearch community will be
considerably relieved.
"I suggest NSERC follow along the lines
that presently apply in university-industry
grants, matching the external contributions for
particular projects that are presented by
universities that have approached industry for
support or vice versa."
Music department
UBCs Department of Music will become
the School of Music next month if UBC's Board
of Governors confirms a recommendation
approved by Senate at its March 19 meeting.
A recommendation to change the
departmental designation to that of a school
was made by the Faculty of Arts, whose dean,
Dr. Robert Will, told Senate that music met the
five criteria approved by Senate in 1949 for
designation of academic units as schools.
These include courses which are "mainly
professional or vocational in character"; "a
specialized curriculum leading to a distinctive
degree"; and "a relationship with outside
professional bodies...because of professional
requirements which must be considered in
designing the curriculum."
UBC, Dean Will told Senate, "has one of
the major campus-based music programs in
Do universities give
women a fair deal?
"We're still behind in attracting really top
females to academic professions. Obtaining
an advanced scholarship degree means many
years of study for a university salary which is
often less than that available through other
professional career paths. A lot of females
don't want this life." These comments by Dr.
Larry Moore, director of the Faculty of
Commerce and Business Administration's
Ph.D. and M.Sc. programs, reflect a growing
concern about equal opportunities for women
at universities and colleges in North America.
The commerce faculty's graduate program,
the largest in Canada, attracts the top five
percent of Canadian academics in its area.
Last year, a special Outreach Fellowship was
established to attract female candidates to the
Ph.D. programs at UBC and the University of
Alberta. Valued at $12,000 a year, the
fellowship is renewable for an additional two
years. But even though many of the faculty's
top students are women, the doctoral program
is having difficulty finding qualified women who
are interested in applying for the scholarship.
It's not only Prof. Moore who is pondering
the question of why qualified women are not
considering an academic career. Prof. Carolyn
Attridge, chairperson of the Canadian
Association of University Teachers' Status of
Women Committee recently addressed the
UBC Academic Women's Association on the
future of women academics. She cited the
shortage of women at a graduate level as a
major reason universities are failing to attract
more women to faculty positions.
Like Dr. Moore, she concluded that many
qualified females are not interested in pursuing
an academic career, but she came up with
different reasons. She assigned part of the
problem to "systemic-discrimination", a term
coined by Toronto Judge Rosie Abella. The
term refers to discrimination that is built into
the system. "For example, standards for
promotion and tenure cause women to be
penalized for taking time out for child-rearing
or for the gaps in their career path when they
folfow their husband when he is transferred,"
she said. She also pointed out that across
Canada, women academics are paid less than
Drop out points
Women usually drop out of the academic
system at two points. The first point appears to
be after their Master's degree. In the 1985-86
session at UBC 47 per cent of all students in
Master's programs are women.  But only 28
per cent of all doctoral students are women.
Dr. Nadine Wilson, president of the Academic
Women's Association at UBC suggests the
next drop off point is right after the Ph.D.
"Between the completion of their Ph.D. and
their first academic job, there is a vanishing
point. Competition is so severe for jobs now,
some of them just give up. Lynn Smith, one of
three women professors in the Faculty of Law
suggests that this vanishing point could
indicate that women are taking time off to have
families, but it also could indicate
In Canadian universities, women hold only
16 per cent of the faculty positions. At UBC,
the situation is slightly brighter with women
holding 19 per cent of faculty positions. In the
past decade, the proportion of female faculty
has increased only four per cent, during a
period which has seen unprecedented
numbers of women entering professional fields
like law, dentistry and medicine, which were
previously dominated by men. Forty-six per
cent of this year's first year law class, for
example, are women.
Action taken
What are Canadian universities doing to
improve the status of women academics? A
few of them have begun to take action. "The
University of Western Ontario has developed a
special policy in order to redress their
percentage of women faculty, which is lower
than the national average," said Prof. Attridge,
who is director of the University of Victoria's
School of Nursing.
The Canadian Association of University
Teachers has adopted a positive action policy
to increase the number of women on the
faculties of Canadian universities. The
association's efforts are directed at the
appointment level. Model policies are being
written to address such issues as parental
The association is also currently revamping
a model appointment, promotion and tenure
document. 'The aim is to produce a
document to create a reference point which
reflects the career pattern typical of most
women," said Prof. Attridge.
An attempt will be made to remove some of
the procedures that discriminate against
women in university policy documents. As
well, a regular column in CAUT Bulletin will
keep women's issues before the academic
Although concerned about salary inequities
between male and female faculty members,
two high-ranking UBC women academics
questioned by UBC Reports expressed
reservations about the development of a
model policy which could cause a woman's file
to be looking at in a different manner than a
man's. Prof. Anne B. Piternick, Associate Dean
of Arts said, "It's difficult to see exactly what
kind of policy you could make up in these
circumstances. Whatever the situation is,
you're going to have some kind of academic or
service qualification."
Dr. Martha Salcudean, professor and head
of the Department of Mechanical Engineeering,
was wary of special programs for hiring
women and felt such a method could really
backfire. "Somehow you want to feel that
you've been hired on your own strengths and
Reports issued
Three reports have explored issues related
to the status of women academics on the
campus in the last 12 years.  In 1972, the UBC
Women's Action group sponsored "A Report
on the Status of Women at the University of
British Columbia." Two years later, a joint
administration and Faculty Association
committee, chaired by Dr. George M. Volkoff,
was created to advise the President on
procedures for a review of salary inequities
between male and female faculty.
A third committee established in 1975 used
the "matched peer" technique to identify salary
discrepancies between male and female
faculty. The result of their exploration was that
an average salary increase of $1,900 was
awarded to 29 female faculty members of 109
surveyed.  In its recommendations, the
committee called for a review of salaries of
faculty members in the Schools of Nursing and
Rehabilitation Medicine, and of all part-time
faculty and senior instructors. These groups
were not included in the "matched peer"
review. "Nineteen hundred dollars a year may
not seem like much money," observed one
woman faculty member regarding the situation,
"but it's a question of the regard in which your
work is held."
Another report, "Academic Women at the
University of British Columbia 1972-1982" was
submitted to the executive of the Faculty
Association by an ad hoc committee
composed of three men and three women,
chaired by Maureen Murphy of the School of
The committee discovered that the status of
women has improved over the last 10 years,
but that in several areas, progress has lagged.
The findings included:
* Approximately 50 per cent of women do
not have tenure;
* The majority of women (73 per cent) are
in ranks below associate professor whereas a
minority of male faculty (26 per cent) are in
these ranks;
* On the average, women who are
promoted take approximately one year (15 per
cent) longer to be promoted than men;
* In the last ten years, the salary differential
has generally decreased but when salaries of
female faculty are compared with those of
male faculty, considering education, age,
faculty, department and rank, a male faculty
member earns on the average 4.5 per cent or
approximately $2,000 more than a female
faculty member;
* Few women are in senior administrative
positions; ,
* Data collected indicates that, in the
university overall, women were promoted less
frequently than men. UBC Reports, April 3, 1986
continued from Page 2
America. He was recently elected a Fellow of
the Royal Society of London in recognition of
his outstanding research contributions.
Dr. Smith and his research team developed
a method to modify specific genes on cell
Prior to Dr. Smith's work, scientists
analysed genes by random mutations and
searched thousands of random samples until a
desired change finally turned up.
UBC's ability in biotechnology has already
attracted a $35-million Biomedical Research
Centre for the production and clinical
assessment of therapeutic cell products which
regulate the body's ability to fight disease. Also
involved in the centre is the Wellcome
Foundation of the U.K. and the Terry Fox
Medical Research Foundation.
Space does not allow the listing of all the
biotechnology research projects being carried
out at UBC. To give some idea of the diversity
of activity, here is an outline of a few projects.
Biotechnologists use term fermentation not
only to describe the method used to produce
beer, wine and cheese but to cover all modern
biotechnological techniques of growing cell
products. A problem common to most such
techniques is that it is difficult to know what is
going on at any time. The cell growing
methods are hard to control because of
present primitive methods used to measure the
rate of production.
UBC's microbiology and chemical
engineering departments are combining their
research resources to develop quicker and
more exact methods of measuring and
controlling biotechnical production rates. This
new area of bio-reactor design is essential if
the fruits of biotechnology are to be realized.
Dr. Brian Holl of UBC's plant science
department in the Faculty of Agricultural
Sciences is carrying out research to decrease
the agricultural industry's dependence on
chemical fertilizers. Nitrogen is a basic
ingredient of chemical fertilizers and he is
trying to exploit the ability of plants and soil
bacteria to convert nitrogen in the atmosphere
to nitrogen that would be available to plants for
It is well known that the legume species of
plants — peas, clover, alfalfa and others —
have the ability to "fix" or convert atmospheric
nitrogen in nodules in their roots. The nitrogen
can then be used by the plants for growth. Or
once the plants are harvested, the nitrogen
enriches the soil for future crops.
A legume hemoglobin similar to the familiar
blood hemoglobin, along with bacterial and
plant enzymes, is involved in the chemical
process that converts nitrogen into a usable
form. Another important function of the
leghemoglobin is to provide the root nodules
with oxygen for respiration and for producing
Part of Dr. Holl's research is to determine
the balance between the leghemoglobin's
nitrogen fixing and respiration functions so that
nitrogen fixation can be maximized.
He is also working on another group of little
understood soil bacteria that have the ability to
fix nitrogen in the soil without being associated
with plants such as the legumes.
The end goal of this project would be to
coat the seed of plants such as wheat with the
bacteria, so that nitrogen would be fixed in the
soil where such crops are grown.
"If we succeed in inoculating wheat seed
with the bacteria, the increased nitrogen in the
soil of Canadian wheat fields would be the
equivalent of $3 million of chemical fertilizer,"
Dr. Holl said.
Waste Management
An increasing amount of biotechnical
research is taking place in UBC's Faculty of
Applied Science. Research on the
microbiological conversion of sewage has
been under way for some years in the civil
engineering and bio-resource engineering
departments as well as the agricultural
mechanics department of UBC's Faculty of
Agicultural Sciences.
In the chemical engineering department, a
major thrust has been to apply biotechnology
to the removal by leaching of heavy metals
from ore concentrates. The process would '
replace current smelting methods, many of
which are environmentally damaging.
The use of micro-organisms to remove
metals from ore concentrates is the subject of
millions of dollars of research around the world
and could revolutionize some aspects of the
mining industry.
A research team in the department, working
with B.C. Research, the private research
organization on campus, has developed a
laboratory method for the microbiological
leaching of copper and zinc. The next step in
their research is to scale up the process so
that it can efficiently operate continuously with
commercial volumes of concentrate.
A variety of biotechnology research is
taking place at UBC's Terry Fox Laboratory,
part of the B.C. Cancer Research Centre.
Teams of researchers are applying genetic
engineering and other biotechnology
techniques to study the cancers of the lymph
system and of blood, such as leukemia.
They have developed monoclonal
antibodies for both leukemia and lymphoma, a
type of cancer of the lymph system.
Monoclonal antibodies preferentially, attach
themselves to cancer cells and provide
definitive evidence of the presence of the
diseases. In addition to confirming the disease
— early diagnosis of cancer is essential for
successful treatment — monoclonal antibodies
are promising tools for treatment. Researchers
can bind the monoclonal antibodies with a
compound that will kill the cancer cells. The
combined monoclonal antibody and killer
compound — known as a "magic bullet"
among cancer researchers — searches the
body for the cancer cells and attaches itself to
them, allowing the anti-cancer drug to destroy
the malignant cells.
The lab is also heavily involved in B.C.'s
bone marrow transplant program, the only one
in Western Canada. Cancer patients receive
large doses of radiation and anti-cancer drugs
to destroy all bone marrow cells. Then bone
marrow cells from a close relative — to reduce
the chances of rejection — are transplanted
into the patient so that production of normal
blood cells can resume. Approximately 100
such transplants have been carried out in
A variation is to "transplant" back into a
patient some of their own bone marrow cells
that have been treated to remove, all cancer
cells. The transplanted cells are removed
before the bone marrow system is destroyed
through radiation and chemotherapy. This new
method of bone marrow transplantation has
significant advantages because it reduces the
possibility of rejection by the body of foreign
cells and because some patients do not have
close relatives who could act as donors.
Calendar Deadlines
For events in the period April 20 to May 3, notices must
be submitted on proper Calendar forms no later than 4
-p.m. on Thursday, April 10 to the Community Relations
Office, 6328 Memorial Road, Room 207, Old
Administration Building. For more information, call
Botany Seminar.
Variation and Species Discrimination in a Toxic Red Tide
Dinoflagellate. Allan Cembella, Botany, UBC. Room
3219, Biological Science Building. 12:30 p.m.
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Economics Seminar.
The Imminent Failure Hypothesis in Canadian Banking.
John Chant, Simon Fraser University. Room 351, Brock
Hall. 4 p.m.
Biomembrahes Discussion
Group/Biochemistry Seminar.
Factors Affecting Phosphoinositide Breakdown During
Signal Transduction in the Platelet. Richard J. Haslam,
Pathology, McMaster University. IRC 4. 4 p.m.
Zoology "Physiology Group"
New Insights into Lactate Metabolism in Mammals. Dr.
R. Cornett, Physiology, Universityof Rochester. Room
2449, Biological Science Building. 4:30 p.m.
Computer Science Colloquium.
Permutation Graph Decomposition. Lorna K. Stewart,
Computer Science, Universityof Toronto. Room 301,
Computer Sciences Building. 10:30 a.m.
Botany Seminar.
Ultrastructural Contributions to Red Algal Systematics.
Dr. Joe Scott, Biology, College of William and Mary.
Room 3219, Biological Science Building. 12:30 p.m.
Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Nutritional Effects on Brain Biochemistry, Learning and
Behavior.  Dr. Shlomo Yehuda, Psychopharmacology,
Bar-llan University, Israel.  Room 317, Basic Medical
Sciences Building, Block C.  12 noon.
Anthropology and Sociology
Changing Responses to Death in Contemporary
Brittany. Dr. Ellen Badone, Visiting Scholar, University
of California, Berkeley. Room 207-209, Anthropology
and Sociology Building. 12:30 p.m.
Environmetrics Seminar.
Precipitation Chemistry and its influence on
Streamwater Chemistry Near Vancouver, B.C.  Dr. M.
Feller, Forestry, UBC. Room 225, Mathematics
Building. 3:30 p.m.
Economics Seminar.
The Profitability of Interruptable Supply. Terry Lewis,
UBC.  Room 351, Brock Hall. 4 p.m.
Biochemical Discussion Group.
Conformational Transitions in Glyogen Phoshorylase.
Dr. Steve Strang, Biochemistry and Biophysics,
University of California, San Francisco. IRC   3. 4 p.m.
Medical Genetics Seminar.
Hemifacial and Bilateral Facial Defects Caused by the
Mouse Mutation, First Arch or What Happens When
Recessives are Dominant. Dr. Muriel Harris, Medical
Genetics, UBC. Parentcraft Room, Grace Hospital.  1
Chemistry Symposium.
Physical/lnorganic/Photochemistry Symposium to mark
the 60th birthday of Dr. Gerald Porter, Department of
Chemistry. A total of 14 papers will be given by
colleagues and former students at two sessions: Today
from 2:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. in Room 225 of the Chemistry
Building and tomorrow (Saturday) from 10 a.m. to 12:30
p.m. in the Music Room of the Faculty Club, Reception
and dinner Friday from 5:30 p.m. to 10p.m. in the
Faculty Club.  For details, call 228-3266.
Cancer Research Seminar.
Clinical Applications of DNA Analysis.  Dr. Jean C.
LeRiche, Laboratory Medicine, CCABC, and UBC.
Lecture Theatre, B.C. Cancer Research Centre, 601 W.
10th Ave.  12 noon.
Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Pharmacological Interventions in Myocardial Ischaemic
Injury. Dr. D.V. Godin, Pharmacology and Therapeutics,
Medicine, UBC. Room 317, Basic Medical Sciences
Building, Block C. 12 noon.
Pharmaceutical Sciences Seminar.
Kinetics and Fetal Effects of Metoclopramide. Wayne
Riggs, Pharmaceutical Sciences, UBC. Room 202, The
Research Centre, 950 W. 28th Ave.  12 noon.
Psychiatry Lecture.
A Review of Tardive Dyskinesia. Dr. Daniel E. Casey,
Psychiatry, Oregon Health Sciences University. Lecture
Theatre, Health Sciences Centre Psychiatric Unit. 9
Chemistry Seminar.
An Approach to the Synthesis of Yeast Alanine Transfer
RNA. Prof. Colin B. Reese, Kings College, London,
England.  Room 250, Chemistry Building. 1p.m.
Medical Genetics Seminar.
The Structure of Chromosome Ends. Dr. Linda Button,
Medical Genetics, UBC. Parentcraft Room, Grace
Hospital. 1 p.m.
Golf Tournament.
The 30th Annual Faculty and Staff Golf Tournament will
be held on Thursday, April 24th. Golf competition to be
played at the University Golf Course (fees $15) and
dinner in the Faculty Club (full buffet $19). Application
with Tournament details available at the Faculty Club
Reception Desk. Open to all active and retired members
of faculty and staff — both men and women.
UBC Advisor and Admission Night.
Students who want to attend UBC on a part-time basis
will receive counselling about admission requirements,
registration procedures, and career planning, as well as
information on all UBC general services useful to
evening part-time students at the Advisors'and
Admission Night to be held April 3, 6-8 p.m., in the
lounge area of International House. Use Gate 4, off
Northwest Marine Drive, to the parkade.
Students newto UBC must bring all secondary and
post-secondary school transcripts if they want to apply
to the University at this time. Returning students will be
able to register then and there. Students who wish to
transfer to UBC and/or Summer Sessions will benefit
from this gathering of faculty advisors.
50th Anniversary.
The Centre for Continuing Education will celebrate the
50th anniversary of the centre's establishment at UBC
on Sunday, April 27 at 3 p.m. in the Recital Hall of the
Music Building. Program includes readings and a
musical recital. Refreshments.
ARC Undergraduate Magazine.
The new Spring/Summer '86 issue of ARC is now
available for only $1.50 in the UBC Bookstore (poetry
section), Creative Writing Department, and English
Department, Buto 397.  Become a part of the campus
literary scene and submit your short stories, essays,
poetry, plays and artwork (even cover design) in your
ARC letterbox, Buto 397, for the Fall/winter issue.
Garden Hours.
Nitobe Memorial Garden and the Botanical Garden are
open daily from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. for the month of March
and 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. for the month of April. Please call
228-4208 for any further information.
Woodward Exhibits.
Students in the History of Medicine have recently
mounted new displays in the Woodward Biomedical
Library foyer. Topics include Patient Medicine,
Amputation, the Light Microscope, Childbirth, and
Ayurvedic Medicine. For more information, call 228-
Language Programs.
Non-credit conversational programs in Japanese,
Chinese, French and Spanish begin the week of April .
21. For more information, contact Language Programs
and Services, Centre for Continuing Education, at 222-


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