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UBC Reports Feb 27, 1974

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 VOLUME      TWENTY,      NUMBER      FOUR
FEB.       27,      1974,      VANCOUVER,      B.C.
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President Promises Discussion
Of Premier Barrett's Challenge
Premier David Barrett's challenge to British
Columbia's public universities will be thoroughly
discussed by the Board of Governors and other
authorities at the University of B.C., President
Walter H. Gage has promised.
Premier Barrett, in his budget speech in the
Legislature Feb. 11, urged the universities to seek
new ways to maximize the use of their facilities, to
develop "bold, imaginative and thoughtful programs", and to make their services more readily
available to the public.
He backed his challenge with an offer of addi-
tiona.l funds to finance such new undertakings.
(See Page 2.) This offer is bound to have a strong
attraction for the universities, in view of the disappointingly small increase in the normal annual
operating grant announced by Premier Barrett.
The province's first $2-billion budget contained
only a 10-per-cent increase over the current fiscal
year's $100-million grant to the three universities.
This was substantially less than the universities had
■^r«&tpated.:
UBC's Alumni Association has pointed out that
the grant total appears to have been set in the absence of up-to-date information about the recent
upsurge in university enrolments, and has asked
the government to reconsider the situation (See
Page 12).
The size of individual operating grants for the
three universities has not yet been determined.
However, UBC expects to receive $62,720,000
(the amount of the 1973-74 grant), plus a share,
estimated at about $6.1 million, of the total $10
million increase provided for the three universities.
This would bring UBC's grant to about $68.8
million.
President Gage pointed out that most of UBC's
increase is already committed to cover salary increases and annual increments, which took effect
last July 1, for the University's 1,653 faculty
members and 2,740 employed staff.
NECESSARY COSTS
There will not be enough left, he said, to provide
increases in the coming year sufficient to offset the
effects of inflation, and comparable to increases in
other areas of the public sector, as well as meet other
necessary costs for programs and services.
He recalled that last year's increase for faculty
members averaged only 7 per cent,-substantially less
than the 9.1-per-cent increase in the cost of living
during 1973. The Faculty Association, he said, is
making a strong case for a larger catch-up increase in
the coming year.
In the short section of his budget speech that
dealt with university financing, and in a subsequent
elaboration in an interview with Vancouver
broadcaster Jack Webster, Premier Barrett seemed
particularly concerned to increase the utilization of
university facilities.
He offered extra funds to the universities "if they
wish to use their professional schools on evenings,
weekends and fully during the summer months . . ."
He told Mr. Webster and his listeners that UBC's
medical school "is used about eight months of the
year and only used briefly during the summer
months."
President Gage said UBC is constantly trying to
improve its utilization of buildings and equipment.
He pointed out that during the current Winter
Session, UBC has 1,257 students enrolled in
extra-sessional courses, taken in the evenings or in
late afternoon, after regular daytime classes have
finished.
TOTAL ENROLMENT
Additional thousands of persons use campus
facilities throughout the academic year. The total
enrolment in 1972-73 in all UBC credit and non-
credit educational programs was 66,508, President
Gage said.
He said the University is making strong efforts
to attract more students to its Summer Session
and seems to have checked the decline in Summer
Session enrolment which had developed, for a
variety of reasons, in recent years.
In addition, he said, the University has developed a growing inter-session program, running
through May and June and into July, to fill the
gap between Winter and Summer Sessions. More
than 1,000 students are expected to enrol for
inter-session courses this year.
President Gage also pointed out that UBC's
graduate students, and most undergraduates in the
health sciences, are involved in research and academic and clinical work on a year-round basis.
"Our 2,623 graduate students continue to make
use of University laboratories, libraries and computer facilities throughout the summer," he said.
Recent curricular changes in the health sciences
have lengthened the academic year to the point
where students can no longer take summer jobs to
help pay the costs of their education, and have
only brief vacation periods.
In the Faculty of Medicine, for example, students who have completed two years of training in
the basic medical sciences then embark on an,al-
most continuous period of 86 weeks of clinical
training, which makes up the third and fourth
years of the medical degree program.
In UBC's School of Nursing, the first two years
of the academic program include a summer term
of at least 12 weeks which is largely devoted to intensive clinical practice in hospitals, clinics and
doctors' offices.
Extensive clinical work is also required during
the summer for students enrolled in UBC's School
of Rehabilitation Medicine — nine weeks after the
first year of the program, 12 weeks after the second, and 16 weeks after the third.
President Gage agreed, however, that the University must continue to look for new ways to
achieve optimum utilization of its facilities. He
said the Board of Governors, the deans and the
Faculties will all be giving serious consideration, in
the weeks ahead, to how the University can best
respond to Premier Barrett's offer to fund innovative programs.
"We must realize, however," he said, "that
special funding for special programs does nothing to
improve or even maintain the basic services that the
University must provide for its regular programs."
One suggestion of Premier Barrett's — that the
B.C. universities convert to a system used by some
American universities, in which courses are given
throughout the year in four three-month quarters —;
should be considered jointly by all three universities. '"■'"''"**' ''"'*"
He noted that members of UBC's Academic Planning staff have been unable to locate a Ford Foundation study which Premier Barrett tpld the Legislature indicated that universities could achieve a
25-per-cent increase in capacity with only an 11-percent increase in staff.
Two other recent studies, however, have shown
little justification for year-round operations.
A Berkeley study indicated that year-round operations could be expected to yield only a 5-per-cent
increase in graduation rates. Enrolment in the summer term would be only about one-third of the level
in the regular academic year, unless an attempt was
made to control student attendance patterns by offering certain courses only during the summer.
EXAMINE STUDIES
Another study, conducted in 1971 for the Commission on Post-Secondary Education in Ontario,
examined all the research on quarter and trimester
systems that had been conducted in Canada and the
United States in the preceding 12 years.
The authors concluded that "The^iotential improvement in utilization that can result from opening summer instruction is vastly over-rated.. ."and
that a summer semester would improve space utilization in Ontario universities by only about 10 per
cent, and that substantial extra costs would be involved.
"Our findings . . . indicate conclusively that the
economies from year-round operations would be
marginal," they said.
"A shift to year-round operations now, and as a
general concept, will result in incremental costs of
20 to 30 per cent with little benefit to justify the
expenditure."
New Heart Disease Theory Proposed
-SEE PAGE FOUR
Ocean Research Spurred by Grant
-SEE PAGE SIX PREMIER'S
BUDGET
STATEMENT
The following remarks, by Premier
David Barrett, were made in the course
of his budget speech to the provincial
Legislature on P"eh. 11.
". . . Grants to the universities are increased $10 million to $121 million.
And, Mr. Speaker, I said at the press conference (on the budget) that the universities, if they wish to pioneer new programs, if they wish to pioneer new services, if they wish to experiment with
the quarter system, if they wish to use
their professional schools on evenings,
weekends and fully during the summer
months, we will fund them for those
new developments.
"Mr. Speaker, if the universities wish
to go out to the community, and take
their professional skills and professional
helps in a new form of education at the
community level, we will help them
through financing.
"If the universities come to us with
programs that allow the industrial worker or, the working women of the province
of British Columbia to take courses on
regularly scheduled hours to meet night-
shift, graveyard-shift or day-shift requirements of full-time employment, we will
finance those programs as well.
"Mr. Speaker, we do not like the fact
that in the United States of America, 27
per cent of all high-school graduates go
on to college education while the figure
is only 12.5 per cent here in the province
of British Columbia. The Ford Foundation did research indicating that if universities went on to a quarter system,
with an 11-per-cent increase in staff they
could have a 25-percent increase in
capacity.
"Mr. Speaker, if the universities come
to us with these programs, the money
will be there to implement them on behalf of those people who desperately
need higher education out there in that
community.
"And, Mr. Speaker, these people want
this education. We have no intention of
telling the universities what to do, but if
the universities come to us with these
bold, imaginative and thoughtful programs, they will not be turned down at
Treasury Board. Our people deserve and
should be obtaining, and should have
every opportunity to obtain, the best
kind of education they want to fulfill
their needs. . ."
CONVERSATIONS
On Feb. 12, the day after his budget speech in the
B.C. Legislature, Premier Barrett appeared as a guest on
broadcaster Jack Webster's open-line show from
Victoria. What follows is a verbatim transcript of the exchange between the Premier and Mr. Webster on the subject of universities.
WEBSTER: Why have you been so tough on universities? I mean, they thought when you came in that you
were really going to be generous in operating grants. You
were tight last year. You were tight this year. Now you
talk about a quota system. You're going to shake that
tenure-ridden establishment of our university, staffed by
our American friends, very severely.
PREMIER BARRETT; Well, it's not a question of not
being generous to the universities. I've made it very clear
that there'll be lots of money available.
WEBSTER: If . . .
PREMIER BARRETT: All they have to do is show us
innovative programs, the maximum use of facilities, and
the reaching out to the community. Now, there are ex-
PREMIER DAVID BARRETT
citing university programs that have been researched all
over North America, new approaches to allow more
people to make themselves available of a higher education. If the university wishes to embark on these areas,
funds will be available.
WEBSTER: I don't understand you. . . . Are you suggesting that the staffs and faculties are not working a full
year and not using the buildings and facilities to the
proper extent?
PREMIER BARRETT: Well, I'm not going to tell the
universities what to do, but, for example, the medical
school. Now, it's used about eight months of the year
and only used briefly during the summer months. Last
year, there were over 300 young students wanted to
become doctors. They only took 80. Now, if the university wants to accommodate these youngsters, we do too.
If the university wants to make their facilities available
evenings, weekends and full-time during the summer,
and they have to increase staff to do this, we will finance
their budgets to increase the staffs to make maximum
use of those facilities.
WEBSTER: You want, quite clearly, . . . the year-round
use of facilities to produce the specialists whom we
need, like doctors, in British Columbia.
PREMIER BARRETT: Well, I'm not opposed to that.
After all, the taxpayers have spent a great deal of money
building those facilities and it hurts me to see them
standing idle. Now, if they come to us and say they want
to hire more training doctors, they want to hire more
faculties, so that they can get maximum use of those
buildings, the government will be very sympathetic to
that approach.
WEBSTER: You're going to do the same, you're going
to put the same carrot or knife, as I call it, in front of
the universities as you put in front of the 3,000 administrative teachers whom you want to get back into the
classroom.
PREMIER BARRETT: No, I don't see why you sim-
plistically evaluate things as a carrot or a knife. I'm talk
ing about progressive initiative in terms of people mak-„
ing decisions.  In terms of the university, they have the
facilities, they have the capacity to expand. I'msuggest^l
ing (that) if they show the initiative and the desire to
expand, money will not be an impediment. -*>H
WEBSTER:   And   if   they   use   the   American   quarter
system.
PREMIER BARRETT: Well, the American quarter sys-"j
tern is a very beneficial one. You know, we're no longer j
an agricultural society. The whole concept of sumrrw--"
off for universities was based on the kids going out and !
shredding wheat or something.
WEBSTER: Would it be correct, Mr. Barrett, and I forget who told me this, that there are actually more totem
poles than there are native Indian students at the University of British Columbia? ^,
PREMIER BARRETT: That's probably correct, and I'm
suggesting that the universities reach out into the corrT*-'
munities and do training in the communities.
WEBSTER:  You want to see more Indians and underprivileged people than totem poles and monuments?
PREMIER BAFiRETT:  Look, it's no longer a necessity
of having a piece of paper to qualify for something. W**
the university wants to show public health programs, or! '
medical education programs, where a team of students   !
go out into Lillooet or into Chetwynd and train people
on   the   spot   -   they're   not   interested   in   the  degree.
They're interested  in some basic knowledge of how to
help other people. If this kind of program is initiated by
the   university,  the  money will  be available.  But  if a"!
building sits idle for four months of the year, and that'* -J
a conscious decision of the Governors and the administrators  of   the   university,   I   can't  see  us giving more
money.
WEBSTER:  You want them to get off their butts and
become  barefoot doctors for the people and do theki-i
training and the r work where it's needed.
PREMIER BARRETT:  Mr. Webster, you have a funny*""
way   of   using   the   vernacular.   I   just  want  expanded
programs. ,
Dr. Robert M. Clark, director of UBC's Office of
Academic Planning, was a guest on Jack Webster's
open-line radio program on Feb. 15. He appeared at Mt£
Webster's request to respond to the remarks about
universities made by Premier Barrett during Mr. Webster's
broadcast of Feb. 12. What follows is an edited transcript
of the discussion between Dr. Clark and Mr. Webster and ,
Dr. Clark's answers to questions from callers. ln1^
WEBSTER: When I was interviewing Premier Barrett ini
Victoria on Tuesday morning I was quite surprised by j
his   attitude   towards   universities.   A  caller   had asked j
about  university  grants.  Mr.  Barrett made it perfectjyj
clear that he's not for giving any more money than pres- J
ently in the estimates for the three universities in British!
Columbia,  and  he  indicated that they would only get
more money from him if they changed their method of
operation. And he talked about bringing universities into
town. He talked about the American quarter system. He
talked about the system under which he was educated 5^1
the United States where you can work three months aQd_
then  go  back   to  university for three months. And he
talked about welfare mothers and barefoot doctors and
all the rest of bringing the university to the people.
But   for the purposes of this morning I'm going to I
interview Dr. Robert Clark from the Office of Academic^
Planning of the University of British Columbia, and ask L
him what's going to happen if Premier Barrett keeps tst*
his  . . . estimates that so far he's  put aside the same
money as last year for the operating grants of each of
the three universities with $10 million unallocated. Now,
can the universities cope with the normal growth in costs
with the money presently in the budget? •'-*!
CLARK: No. ... much of that (the extra $10 million)
has already been allocated because salary increases at the
University start as of last July 1 and those commitments
are our first charge on money which becomes available
as of April 1 ir the provincial government's fiscal year.
In fact there will be not enough money to pay increases
in salary  to compensate for the inflation that has occurred within the last 12 months, quite apart from ifu-
creases for any other purpose. . .
Now, in addition, the three universities together are
expecting more than 2,300 additional full-time-
equivalent students and there'll be additional costs in
trying to accommodate them. So that if we look at tb»^
proposed grant, after allowing for inflation, per student
it is less than we were getting in the academic year
1972-73.
WEBSTER: In terms of real dollars. j
CLARK: Yes.
j- «■  »w *■* ____%_ WITH JACK WEBSTER
WEBSTER: Now, let me put a very elementary question
to you.  Presumably the universities present their proposed operating grants to the Minister of Finance long
before he makes up his budget.
CLARK: Yes.
WEBSTER: My deduction, therefore, Dr. Clark, as an
ordinary high school dropout, must be that Premier
Barrett has deliberately undercut your money to force
you to cut costs. He must have known that $10 million
I wouldn't be enough to meet your salary increases and
'the normal negotiable wages in our free society.
Q.LARK: Yes, I believe he knew that.
WEBSTER: So, he's deliberately cut your throat by not
meeting your normal demands to keep pace with the
cost of living.
I CLARK: Well, I wouldn't call it quite that far, but he's
^certainly made it tougher for people and I think there's
very widespread feeling at all three universities that
"people have not been treated fairly.
WEBSTER: Well, now, what do you do now? He stuck
his feet in the other day, much to my surprise, and said
he wants this and this and this and this and a change of
MR. JACK WEBSTER
this and this and that, and if you do those things, you're
L^jjoing to have more money. But for the moment you're
; stymied.
CLARK: Well, I think what will happen is this. The acting chairman of the Board of Governors, with whom I
discussed this briefly yesterday, thought that the presidents and Boards of Governors would make a further
^representation to the government after they've had an
opportunity to look at some of the cost implications of
"~what has been done and the costs of alternatives that the
Premier has put before us.
Now, one of his proposals is to go to a quarter sys-
, tern. Now, we'll have to explore precisely what the cost
of that is, what the consequences (would be). Certainly,
*fr"om an academic point of view, it's inferior education.
tjt means that the students don't have enough time to
reflect upon what they're learning before their quarter's
over and they're starting new courses, examinations and
so on. So, academically, it's inferior education that he's
advocating for us.
y . Now, there has been a definitive Canadian study on
this point published in Ontario for the Commission on
'Post-Secondary Education and called The Organization
of the Academic Year. They have analysed all the studies
• available, American and Canadian, ancl they are against
the idea of the quarter system, both on academic and
financial grounds.
+-■' It simply is not true, as has been suggested, that we
could get a 25-per-cent increase in the number of students by operating on a quarter system because most
students don't want to go for all 12 months. The experience at Simon Fraser with the trimester system is
that they get about half as many in their third term as
they do in the other two, and they have to get additional
grants, in comparison with the other universities to compensate for the higher costs involved.
WEBSTER: I don't suppose Mr. Barrett has been presented yet with this particular set of information.
CLARK: I wouldn't think so, since his statements have
. . .just been made on your program. . . They'll be
brought to his attention.
WEBSTER: That's very good indeed. I do like to act as a
catalyst in these kind of things, because I'm sure Premier
Barrett doesn't say things off the top of his head and he
obviously has a good socialist dedication in bringing the
university to the people. Have you looked at that aspect,
of bringing the university to the people?
CLARK: Yes.
WEBSTER: Is that feasible, practical and desirable?
CLARK: Let me try to give you some information as to
what we have done there. We're increasingly catering to
part-time students. We're providing more and more
courses in the evening for students. This year, we have
1,257 taking evening programs for credit towards degrees. We have a large number of non-credit courses.
These are offered throughout the year.
I can just give you mention of a few of these as illustrations. We put on in adult education for working
professionals in various fields, 835. For courses for
people in resource industries, we've had nearly 2,000.
These are extra courses. In community planning and
architecture, about 400. Education extension conferences for teachers, about 3,500. Continuing courses for
engineers wanting to update their facilities, about 1,300.
For lawyers, about the same. For social work, human
relations and aging, some 613.
Now, all of those come under the heading of professional courses and then we have a large number of non-
credit, general education courses not toward a degree at
all and . . .
WEBSTER:   Is it possible for me to go to university,
UBC or Simon Fraser or what-have-you on a part-time
basis and finish up with a degree?
CLARK: Yes.
WEBSTER: Night school alone.
CLARK:  Yes, you could. Now, you couldn't in every
program.
WEBSTER: No.
CLARK:  But there'd be a very wide range of programs
where you could.
WEBSTER: Some very outspoken remarks and
comments here this morning from Dr. Robert Clark, the
Office of. Academic Planning, University of British
Columbia, in which he — to give the lie wouldn't be the
right phrase — in which he presents some facts for the
ears of you and Premier Barrett and he was telling me,
much to my surprise, that it is possible for a person with
the proper basic qualifications to get a degree on a
part-time basis from the University of British Columbia.
I'd like you to continue on that theme just for a
moment. You've already told me a couple of things.
That the Premier's advocacy of the quarter system, a la
American universities, is fallacious in your view, bad.
CLARK: I think it's bad academically, unwise
financially.
WEBSTER:' OK. You already told me, too, for those
who just tuned in, that you're going to be very strapped
to meet your present budgets with wage increases if he
only gives the extra $10 million between the three
universities, right? And now you're telling me — as
Barrett was putting it to me, he wants you back into, he
wants you to become involved in the community.
CLARK: All right, let me just give some more information there. We have 13,000 people in this last year taking
part in non-credit general education courses. Courses on
urban affairs, social science, public affairs, courses on
art, science and so on. We had 4,000 people taking part
in a course on Indian education. Now, this is on Indian
culture and it's used in the B.C. schools and it's on a
loan out to the schools. The Faculty of Commerce put
on a very heavy program, diploma program. They looked
after, in the last year, over 9,000 students. Health
Sciences people, various fields including Nursing, looked
after some 3,700 students. So if we look at the whole
thing — Winter Session, Summer Session, credit,
non-credit — there were some 68,000 people involved
last year in things being put on by the university.
WEBSTER: All right. Question. And I'm sure this is one
that Premier Barrett would ask you too. Is it not a fact,
however, that despite your magnificent record — 68,000
people in the University, non-credit, credit, part-time,
night school, community education — that your
buildings are not used 1 2 months a year? '
CLARK: No, that's not correct either. Now, as I recall
from the Premier's statements, he particularly -focussed
here on the Faculty of Medicine, and I'd like to
comment about that in general.
WEBSTER: Well, let's set the stage for that, first of all.
He had said it was not good that only 80 British
Columbians could enter the medical school of British
Columbia after all these millions had been spent for
medical education in B.C. As I recall, I think it was
McGeer told me, there were 300 applicants, 250 of
whom might have made good doctors, but they just
couldn't get in to the University. And I see now that 31
per cent of all doctors in Canada are immigrants. So
therefore, you have to answer that one. Why do you
only take 80 doctors per year for training in Medicine at
our expensive lavish University on the campus at Point
Grey?
CLARK: Well, it costs substantially more to educate
doctors than it does to educate people in most other
programs. Our facilities were built to handle 60 students
coming in a year, and there's four years in the program
so that's 240, roughly. Now, we expanded that to take
80 students, but we weren't able to increase the facilities
correspondingly. Now, under help from the provincial
government we are in the planning stage of expanding
that to  160 and likewise providing an increase in the
PROF. ROBERT CLARK
School of Rehabilitation Medicine and in Nursing. But
we are heavily utilizing our facilities right now in this
area.
The third- and fourth-year students are taking
Medicine 50 weeks out of the year. The place isn't idle
during the summer. And the faculty who are teaching,
less than a third of their teaching is for future doctors.
They're also teaching people in Rehabilitation Medicine,
Dentistry, Pharmacy and so on. Our clinical
departments, which are major departments, are teaching
all year round, including the weekends. This is medicine,
surgery, psychiatry, obstetrics, radiology, pediatrics, and
so on. The graduate work in the Faculty of Medicine
goes on all year round and there's a lot of that being
done especially in the basic departments. Our clinical
facilities are the bottleneck now and when we get these
expanded, then we'll be able to take more doctors.
WEBSTER: By clinical facilities do you mean clinical
facilities on the campus?
CLARK: No. Most of the new facilities are going to be
built at the Shaughnessy Hospital (as part of the new
B.C. Medical Centre).
WEBSTER: And that's where - is that where most of
the teaching of doctors is in fact done? Do the students
attend classes at the University and then take their training in the hospitals downtown?
CLARK: They take a lot of their classes on campus and
a lot of them also at the hospital. . . . Surgery would be
virtually entirely done at the hospital, whereas something like biochemistry or anatomy would be done,
virtually all on the campus.
WEBSTER: Now, you're telling me, and this is new to
me, — you enter 80 each year at the moment. That
means that when you've gone through a four-year peri-
Please turn to Page Ten
See CONVERSATIONS
UBC Reports/February 27,1974/3 UBC pathologist
Dr. Paris Constantinides
has developed a new
theory about the cause
of arteriosclerosis,
a major factor in s.
most heart disease.
NEW HEART
DISEASE
THEORY
By PETER THOMPSON
UBC Reports Staff Writer
More than half of all the Canadians who will die tfuf
year will be killed by heart disease. Associated with mP\i
-    \x
of these deaths will be arteriosclerosis, or hardening ° .
the arteries. ^
Arteriosclerosis is the replacement of the muscular,
elastic walls of the arteries with fat particles which
produce masses of scar tissue. The arterial walls,
normally supple, become brittle and thick, narrowing
the bore of the arteries. •"
A blood clot or thrombosis may form in the
narrowed artery. Thromboses are common causes of
strokes and heart attacks.
Before arteriosclerosis can be treated or, prevented,
we must understand how it comes about in the first
place. This is the first step in the attack against the
disease. Once its mechanism is understood, it should be
easy to interrupt its course so that the arteries remairl
healthy.
A major contribution to that first step may have been
accomplished by a medical researcher at the University
of B.C. Dr. Paris Constantinides, professor in UBC's
Department of Pathology, has discovered major evidence
supporting a new theory he advanced on the mechanism
behind arteriosclerosis. His theory opposes the
established explanation.
According to the established theory, so entrenched
that scientists find it difficult to abandon,
arteriosclerosis is a spin-off of a natural process.
Cholesterol molecules combine with other fat and
protein molecules from food digested in the intestine to
form huge lipoprotein molecules, the largest molecules
_jA
in the blood stream.
Lipoproteins, according to the established theory,
continuously percolate out of the blood stream through
pores in the arterial wall into the tissues surrounding the
arteries. But if the concentration of lipoproteins in the
UBC SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY ANd1
By PETER THOMPSON
UBC Reports Staff Writer
Though 21st birthday celebrations usually apply only
to people, the University of B.C.'s School of Community
and Regional Planning is having one.
Its celebration — a two-day conference on March 1
and 2 — will also be a bit of a coming-out party, in spite
of the fact that the School has long since passed the age
of legal consent.
The School is the oldest, continuously-active planning
school in Canada and has had a profound effect on planning in this province and elsewhere. It may now be on
the threshold of greater horizons. A new director is expected to be appointed shortly and an external review of
the School last year recommended that the School
should shift direction to play a central role in the planning of the entire province.
FIRST  STUDENTS
The School graduated its first students in 1953. The
students were on a two-year master's degree program.
Four years ago the School added a doctor's degree program and a total of 65 master's and eight doctor's degree
students are enrolled for the 1973-74 session.
Until fairly recently, UBC graduates represented
about 20 per cent of the university-trained planners in
Canada. With the opening of new schools in Ontario and
Quebec, the percentage has dropped.
Through the activities of its students and faculty
members, the School has had a significant impact on the
community, though the School's major effect, according
to acting director Mr. Brahm Wiesman, has been on educating its students, rather than community involvement.
Students graduating from the School make up half the
professional planners in the province. One-quarter of all
graduates have become the heads of their organizations.
Two graduates are the directors of other planning
schools. The heads of planning for the Nova Scotia and
New Brunswick governments are graduates of the School.
So are the directors of planning for Barbados, Trinidad,
Bermuda and Jamaica.
Two graduates, Bill Patterson and Darshan Johal, have
become senior planners for the United Nations and have
been posted to countries around the world. Dr. Patterson
was the first director of planning for West Vancouver, a
position he took on immediately after graduation.
Most of the students graduated recently because until
1966 the School had only three faculty members. Growth
has been rapid since then, due mostly to a $150,000 grant
from the Richard King Mellon Charitable Trusts, and the
School now receives about 200 applications for the 30or
so students it can take in each year.
The quality of the applicants is first class. "When you
have the sons and daughters of university presidents and
deans around the country enrolled, I assume we have arrived," said Mr. Wiesman.
Students, as part of their course work last year, produced a regional plan for B.C.'s Sunshine Coast. They also
prepared a plan for Bowen Island and suggested that the
Gulf Islands be put into trust. The provincial government
seems interested in the idea. A group of the students were
invited to appear before a committee of the provincial
Legislature chaired by Municipal Affairs Minister James
Lorimer in mid-February.
This year Powell River put up $1,000 for the students
to prepare an over-all plan for the Powell River Regional
District. Students are also preparing a community plan for
West Vancouver.
Many of the ten faculty members of the School are
heavily involved in the community. Former School director Dr. Peter Oberlander was chairman of the Vancouver
School Board and has just returned from Ottawa where he
served as first secretary of the Ministry of State for Urban
Affairs.
Dr. Setty Pendakur was consultant last year to the federal Ministry of Transport and is a Vancouver alderman.
Dr. William Lane still teaches a full course at the School
while working as chairman of the B.C. Land Commission.
"And as for Irving Fox (director of UBC's Westwater
Research Centre and a faculty member in the School), you (
can't go into his office without him being interrupted By"'"
MR. BRAHM WIESMAN
_±____
« r -\ * Vi blood is abnormally high, according to the established
theory, more lipoproteins enter into the arterial wall
than move out and some of the giant molecules
accumulate and become permanently embedded in the
arterial wall.
Dr. Constantinides found this difficult to believe. For
one thing, lipoproteins are valuable to the body. They
contain almost all the material needed to create the
membrane of new cells, and many parts of the body are
continuously manufacturing new cells. The lining of the
intestine, for example, is replaced about every 48 hours.
And bone marrow produces millions of new blood cells
every minute.
"It seemed to me very stupid of the human body to
lose the lipoproteins through the arterial wall," Dr.
Constantinides said. "For the lipoproteins to be used in
the creation of new cells, they have to be delivered to
the site where the cells are being manufactured, by
percolating through the walls of the fine twigs or
capillaries at the end of the arterial tree.
"It seems tremendously inefficient of the body to
lose lipoproteins from the pipeline before they get to
their final destination."
Another reason for his doubt was that no one had
shown how the lipoproteins could pass into the arterial
walls.
Dr. Constantinides put forward a theory a few years
ago that cholesterol-carrying lipoproteins enter the
arterial wall only if the arterial wall has been injured.
To test his theory he fed one group of rabbits a diet
with normal amounts of cholesterol which had been
tagged with radioactive atoms so that they could be
traced through the body.
Tagging a substance with radioactive atoms and
tracing it or measuring it using radioactivity-sensitive
^-» equipment is a common trick in research and also in
diagnosing various human diseases.
TRACES SOUGHT
After the cholesterol had been given time to disperse
—"- through the bodies of the rabbits, sections of their artery
^___ and capillary walls were searched for traces of
cholesterol. The arteries examined were the aorta, the
major artery of the body; the coronary arteries that
branch off from the aorta and feed the heart muscle
itself; and arteries in the liver, where reserves of fat are
stored.
—* >.
The sections were about 1/50,000 of an inch thick.
Strips of especially thin, transparent photographic film
were laid over the capillary and artery sections in a
darkroom and the film was exposed to the radioactivity
of the cholesterol in each lipoprotein molecule
underneath.
So weak was the radioactivity from each lipoprotein
molecule that had invaded the capillary and arterial walls
that exposure time had to be at least six weeks. At the
end of this time each radioactive cholesterol molecule
had blackened a tiny spot directly above it on the film.
By counting the spots using an electron microscope, Dr.
Constantinides could tell how many lipoprotein molecules were present in each section.
In 20 consecutive sections in the aorta of normal
rabbits he found an average of 1.2 lipoprotein molecules
embedded in the arterial wall compared with 40 in the
capillary walls of the heart and 100 in the capillary walls
of the liver.
The same procedure was repeated on a second group
of rabbits whose arteries had been damaged. The number
of lipoprotein molecules in*20 consecutive sections of
the damaged aorta averaged 100, about 85 times higher
than the level in the normal aortas.
Dr. Constantinides is satisfied that he has produced
strong evidence that only damaged arteries are
susceptible to arteriosclerosis.
He damaged the arteries in three ways. He raised the
level of lipoproteins over several months in the blood of
one group of rabbits. The high lipoprotein level, a
condition known as hyperlipemia, was produced by
feeding the rabbits large amounts of cholesterol daily.
He increased the blood pressure of a second group of
rabbits and produced an allergic reaction in the third
group.
"In the rabbits with hyperlipemia the lining of their
arterial walls, the endothelium, became swollen," Dr.
Constantinides said, "with big holes in it like Swiss
cheese and gaps appeared between endothelium cells.
The lipoproteins rushed through the damaged
endothelium into the arterial wall and were trapped
there.
"They couldn't get out because the arterial walls
don't have sufficient enzymes to break down the masses
of invading lipoproteins. And the lipoproteins can't
percolate out of the arterial wall, as the old theory
proposes, because the walls are very dense.
"The wall of the human aorta, for example, is made
up of from 40 to 60 layers of muscle like sheets of
plywood with layers of an elastic material in between.
"A third reason why the lipoproteins remain
embedded is that they may combine with carbohydrate
chemicals that act like a glue between the various
layers."
A healthy endothelium acts as a barrier against the
entry of lipoprotein molecules into the arterial walls.
But if the endothelium is injured, Dr. Constantinides
said, the endothelium can act as a sieve.
He says he doesn't know yet why continuous washing
of the arterial wall with a high concentration of
lipoprotein can damage the lining or endothelium of the
wall and make it more permeable than normal. Nor is he
sure of the precise mechanism through which high blood
pressure or hypertension injures the endothelium. One
possibility that has come out in experiments done by
him and other researchers is that high blood pressure can
open gaps in the endothelium.
The damaging effect of the allergic response in the
blood to foreign bodies is known. A foreign substance in
the blood stimulates the body to manufacture antibodies
against it. The antibodies, trying to destroy the foreign
substance, or antigen, combine with the antigen to form
huge antigen-antibody complexes in the blood stream.
EXPLOSIVE EFFECT
"These complexes, although part of the defence
mechanism of the body, can have very destructive
biological effects," Dr. Constantinides said. "If there are
any cell membranes near when a complex forms, the
result can be as if a hand grenade were thrown at the
cell. When the complex comes into contact with the cell
membrane, the effect is explosive."
The complexes probably blow holes in the
endothelium cells lining the arterial walls, allowing
lipoproteins to flood in.
There are dozens of other ways the endothelium can
be injured, he said, including smoking.
He finished this work while on sabbatical last year.
He also did another experiment to try to find how the
endothelial cells are held together in arteries. If the
endothelial barrier can be strengthened, then perhaps
arteriosclerosis can be controlled.
"The endothelial cells are coated with polysaccharide
molecules which are negatively charged," he said. "The
polysaccharides are a polymerisation product of carbohydrates in our diet. Between one endothelial cell and
another is calcium, which carries a positive charge. Since
opposite charges attract each other, the polysaccharides
and calcium link the endothelium cells together like a
zipper."
Last year he passed large amounts of a special chemical, known to bind and remove calcium, through
sections of arteries and found that the calcium was
washed away in 40 seconds. The joints between the
endothelium cells were unzipped, creating gaps in the
lining.
Dr. Constantinides recently returned from the fourth
European Congress of Pathology in Budapest where he
was chairman of one of the opening day's sessions. At
the Congress he heard further evidence indicating that
his theory is on the right track.
Another scientist reported that in hyperlipemia, the
presence of high levels of lipoproteins in the blood over
a long period of time, washes away the polysaccharide
molecules covering the endothelium of arterial cells.
REGIONAL PLANNING TO CELEBRATE
phone calls from all over the world from people asking him
i      to come and solve their problems for them, which of
"""" course he can't spare the time to do," said Mr. Wiesman.
,.>       With the resignation of Dr. Oberlander as director of
the School  last year.  Dean  Ian McT. Cowan, head of
UBC's Faculty of Graduate Studies asked that a review
committee be formed. Head of the committee was Dr.
Peter Larkin, head of UBC's Department of Zoology and
^^ a member of the Science Council of Canada. The other
committee members were a planner from the University
~of California at Berkeley and a professional planner from
Toronto.
Mr. Wiesman said the committee submitted a general
report that said, in effect, that the academic program was
fine but that the school should become much more ambi-
* * tious in its role in planning the entire province.
r"What they said, I think, is that this province is going
through a change. Without becoming political, the change
in our government is indicative of a transformation from a
purely resource-exploitation approach with little concern
for the kinds of communities we're building, the quality of
^,our social life, or the implications for the future of our
resources," Mr. Wiesman said.
PLAN AREA
V>      "The report said the province is still a resource frontier,
highly urbanized in the Lower Mainland, but with a vast
■*" hinterland of resources yet untouched. The report wants
the School to become involved with the planning of the
I   urbanization of that vast area, and the quality of its
-   environment."
To prepare itself to do this job, he said, the report
—' wants the School to develop more contacts with experts in
the social and applied sciences at UBC, including education,  political science,  business administration, health,
forestry, ecology and engineering.
With these new abilities the School should reach out
and link with federal, provincial and municipal agencies
throughout B.C., Mr. Wiesman said. "The message of the
report was 'integrate'," he said.
Mr. Wiesman has approached Municipal Affairs Minis-
School's Impact
To be Shown
The changing role of architects will be the theme
of an exhibition at the Vancouver Art Gallery March
6-30.
Called "Twenty-Eight Years of Architecture at the
West Coast School," the exhibit will show how West
Coast architecture, UBC's School of Architecture and
architects themselves have evolved since 1946 when
the UBC School was begun.
The show was sparked by the retirement on June 30
of Dr. Henry Elder as director of the School. The
School's impact on the architecture of the province will
be a major theme of the show.
When the School began, architects were considered
designers of buildings and were taught mostly technical
subjects. Today, the subject matter of architecture is
vast and interdisciplinary, and architects can be involved in anything from psychology to regional
planning.
The show, which will feature audience participation, will use drawings, models, graphics and audiovisual material to match the work of the School over
the years with examples of architecture executed by
graduates in the province.
There will also be a discussion program in the evenings involving the public, faculty members and alumni
of UBC's School of Architecture, and people in disciplines now affecting architecture, such as cultural and
urban geography, ecology, financial organizations,
environmental psychology and sociology.
ter Lorimer with the idea of the Minister setting up a type
of internship program for students in the School in the
provincial department. The program would help strengthen the provincial department's planning abilities, Mr.
Wiesman said. The Minister is interested in putting up
money towards some of the planning projects students
undertake for their degree to give them a more realistic
experience.
The report says that top priority should be given to
pushing the school's abilities in landscape management
and planning.
ONE SCHOOL
"It's just ridiculous that in this entire country there is
only, in my judgment, one reasonably good school of
landscape management," he said. "Landscape management goes all the way from designing a public garden to
designating national parks or where urban development
should take place.
"We've decided to preserve the farmland of the province for agriculture but there is hardly anyone in the province who is competent in designing hillside communities.
West Vancouver, I'd say, represents a pretty dumb approach. With its climate and topography, it's only natural
that this province should develop a landscape program."
Taking part in the School's two-day conference will
be Prof. Eric Trist, an international expert on the problems of planning under conditions of uncertainty and
rapid change. Dr. Trist is chairman of the Management
and Behavioral Science Centre and professor of organizational behavior and ecology of Wharton School at the
University of Pennsylvania. He'll speak at 8:00 p.m. on
March 1 in UBC's Student Union Building Ballroom,
where the conference will take place.
Another professor from the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Ian McHarg, will speak at UBC on March 13
and 14 as part of the School's anniversary celebrations
(see story on Page 7). Twenty UBC researchers,
including the four pictured at right,
are about to embark on a massive
research project on the
management of the oceans under the
direction of the
Institute of International Relations
OCEAN
RESEARCH
SPORRED
The current approach to the sea is: "Hey, baby,
we've raped the land. Now let's get busy and rape
the ocean. We have the same approach to the
oceans as the early immigrants had towards North
America; one big expanse to rip the guts out of.
Do as you please with it."
—Farley Mowat
By JOHN ARNETT
UBC Reports Staff Writer
Dr. Mark Zacher, director of UBC's Institute of International Relations, and his 20 UBC colleagues who are
undertaking a massive research project on the international management of the oceans, have probably not
viewed their task as an attempt to fight off the rape that
Canadian author Farley Mowat so eloquently described
in a recent magazine interview, but that is exactly what
they are setting out to do.
For, w+thout international rules and regulations
covering everything from fishing to pollution to commercial and military uses of the seabed, man will almost
certainly wreak the same kind of havoc in the ocean that
he has on land.
The grim portents are already there.
The oceans are being overfished in certain areas and
estimates have it that in 10 years' time we will be expending twice the current amount of effort to reap less
than the 1972 catch.
Every report of an oil spill only increases the odds
that some day, somewhere, one of the gigantic tankers
currently plying the oceans will spill its cargo into the
sea, causing horrendous environmental damage.
Nobody can yet say for sure what effects toxic chemicals that have already found their way into the oceans
via industrial wastes will have on ocean life. Traces of
DDT have been found in Antarctic penguins and there
are fears that toxic residues in the oceans could affect
the genetic makeup of marine organisms, with a resultant serious effect on fish populations.
Seabed mining for the rich manganese nodules which
contain nickel, cobalt and copper is expected to start in
the not-too-distant future in the Pacific Ocean between
the coast of Mexico and the International Dateline. The
mining operations would be carried out entirely at sea,
with wastes being dumped overboard and possibly
carried off on ocean currents, causing more pollution.
LONGEST COASTLINE
Canada, with the world's longest coastline and a vast
continental margin totalling half of its land territory, has
been a world leader in advocating some form of international management of the oceans.
The University of B.C., is, in turn, becoming a major
centre for oceans research in Canada with its Institute of
Oceanography, its Institute of Animal Resource Ecology
(formerly the Institute of Fisheries), and now the Institute of International Relations with its research project
on International Management of the Oceans.
The Institute of International Relations, established
DR. MARK ZACHER
in 1970, is part of the University's Faculty of Graduate
Studies. It is specifically charged with promoting multi-
disciplinary research projects involving faculty and
graduate students.
It has been awarded $170,000 by the Donner
Canadian Foundation to carry out a study entitled
"Canada and the International Management of the
Oceans."
Twenty researchers from Law, Commerce, Political
Science, Economics, Geography, Slavonic Studies, Applied Mathematics, and Resource Ecology will, under the
auspices of the Institute, investigate problems ranging
from the international regulation of ship-generated oil
pollution to the politics of ocean fisheries to the regulation of the commerical and military uses of the seabed.
Dr. Zacher says the project marks the first time in
Canada that a group of researchers from a variety of disciplines has been brought together to study such a broad
range of ocean-policy problems.
Goals of the project are to develop a major body of
social-science research on the international management
of the oceans and also to produce experts who will not
only be in a position to advise governments but also to
act as public critics of government policies.
FUTURE DECISIONS
Those involved in the research work will produce
books, monographs, papers, articles and other publications containing information which could have an important influence on any future decisions with regard to
ocean management.
The studies are organized under five headings — marine pollution, fishing, seabed mining, military uses of
the ocean and a general section. Studies will focus both
on Canadian interests and policies as well as policies of
other nations as they affect Canada.
Prof. Charles Bourne, of UBC's Faculty of Law, will
do a book on international law on pollution of the marine environment.
"The marine environment is threatened increasingly
by the polluting by-products of modern civilization," he
says. "The establishment of international rules to prevent and to abate pollution of the sea has become an important and urgent matter."
Prof. Bourne says Canada has played a leading role in
awakening the international community to the dangers
to the marine environment from pollution, especially in
the Arctic, and is pressing for the development of effective rules of international law to prevent and control pollution.
There is virtually no international law to cover problems of the environment, adds Prof. Bourne, though he
says forthcoming Law of the Sea conferences in Caracas
and Vienna will be looking at rules and enforcement procedures.
Another member of UBC's Law Faculty, Mr. Donald
McRae, will try to separate the responsibilities of different United Nations organizations with respect to maritime law.
The aim is to assist the Canadian government, and
others, in deciding on which organization they should
deal with if they have a particular problem. At the moment, he says, different organizations have overlapping
DR. TREVOR HEAVER
DR. BARRY^
responsibilities, and in some cases new agencies are
created for jobs that are already being partially done by
other agencies.
"No one has really investigated to find out to what—^
extent the different agencies overlap," he says. In fact,   ^
it's quite possible that the survey could show that in *
some areas the government could further its objectives
by switching agencies.
The structure of Canadian representation to different
UN agencies will also be investigated by Mr. McRae and     I
strategies to be adopted in the light of the division of     j
responsibilities will be looked into. >»«■«
Another area of growing concern to all nations is the
control of seabed mining, which will be the subject of a
book by Dr. Barry Buzan, a research fellow in the Institute of International Relations.
Because no country can lay claim to the ocean beck-
beyond coastal territorial limits, decisions must be made
as  to  how   mining  will   be   regulated   in  international
waters, says Dr. Buzan. +_
"The old idea of freedom of the seas is fine as far as
ships are concerned, but it doesn't work when it comes
to seabed mining. A set of principles or rules to govern
these areas must be developed to prevent any country
from doing what it likes. <^
"Nothing much  has been agreed  on so far. All we
have to date is a set of very general principles that there'*''.
should be some international organization of some sort,     '
but there is wide disagreement as to what kind of organization this should be and how it should be constituted."
Seabed mining has important implications for Canada    4
because the manganese nodules found extensively in the''''
ocean  contain  heavy   concentrations of nickel, which^j
could   affect  Canada's  position  as   the  world's   major
producer of nickel.
While pollution from tanker oil spills is a continuing
worry, there is equal concern about the elimination of
tanker wastes — the oil residue that is left behind after;
tanker discharges its cargo and which must be discharged
either at sea or on land.
Dr. Trevor Heaver, of the Faculty of Commerce, and
Dr. William Waters, of the Department of Economics,
will investigate the costs of alternative means of disposing of tanker wastes.
PROVIDE BALLAST
-J
Dr.  Heaver says that the oil  tanks of a tanker are'
usually swilled out with salt water after the oil has been   j
discharged.  The tanks are then filled with seawater to   ,
provide ballast for the return trip to pick up more oil.   -»,..'
B.C. residents need have no fear from this type of
pollution once the tankers start running down the B.C.
coast from Alaska to Cherry Point in Washington, says
Dr. Heaver, because land facilities are being constructed
at Valdez, Alaska, to receive the residue. «^J
Dr. Heaver's study will estimate costs of constructing
such   facilities  at  ports  and  discuss  how  these  costs™]
should be shared.
There is a strong possibility that Canada will soon
control  all  fisheries resources within 200 miles of the   |
coast   either   through   international   agreement   or   by
federal legislation.
Three faculty members — Dr. G.R. Munro, Economics;  Prof.   Colin  Clark,   Mathematics;  and   Prof.   Peter
** ,m  ««^^    »^
.^xn »mm esv„
MR. DONALD McRAE
Pearse, Economics — will look into the economic problems associated with the 200-mile limit.
"One's first reaction might be to see the acquisition
of the new fisheries resource as an opportunity to expand Canadian fishing activity, with more vessels being
employed and more jobs for fishermen," say the three
faculty members in a brief outlining their proposed
research.
"While such an approach might appeal to national
pride, it could prove to be economic nonsense," the
brief adds. It suggests that instead of restricting the area
to Canadian fishermen, agreements might be entered
into with foreign countries to permit fishing within
Canada's limits in return for fishing rights in foreign
waters. On the other hand, foreigners could pay royalties
to fish in Canadian waters. Another alternative might be
to ban fishing entirely to permit stocks to be built up.
PRODUCE BOOK
The three faculty members plan to produce a book
outlining the many alternatives that will face this country if and when a 200-mile fishing limit is established.
Prof. Frank Langdon, of the Department of Political
Science, will undertake a study on prospects for formal
and informal co-operation between Canada and Japan
with regard to trade rights.
Prof. Langdon says Australia is on the verge of concluding a treaty with Japan to ensure Japan's access to
future supplies of raw materials "in what is an enormous
reversal of its traditional foreign policy. I would like to
give attention to some of Australia's policies toward
Japan to see if they suggest anything useful for consideration by Canada in similar matters."
Prof. Langdon says the book that he proposes would
also evaluate the idea of a Pacific Community similar to
the European Common Market. He also envisages continued conflict between Japan and Canada over the matter of fishing rights because each has put forward very
different proposals in Law of the Sea negotiations.
Dr. Zacher, director of the Institute, also plans to
write a book on the international regulation of ship-
generated oil pollution.
"In the past there have been many studies which have
examined the effects of oil pollution, analyzed the nature of existing regulations and proposed various regulations for managing the problem. But there have been
very few studies which have sought to analyze why various countries have supported and opposed regulator
arrangements. This is the area that I intend to explore,"
he says.
Such an examination of the problem should be helpful in developing new measures to prevent future disagreement.
While the Donner grant for the overall research project covers a three-year period, Dr. Zacher said the Institute's work in ocean research will probably cover at least
six to 10 years.
He said any assumption that the problems of international oceans are likely to be solved at the forthcoming Law of the Sea conferences is wrong because any
agreements will be of a general nature and will necessitate a great deal of future bargaining before they are
implemented.
Three Green Lecturers
To Visit UBC in March
Three distinguished scholars will visit the University
of B.C. in March as Cecil H. and Ida Green Visiting
Professors.
ir    ir    ir
Dr. Richard Evans Schultes is a leading worker in
studies of South and Central American ethnobotany,
especially studies of narcotics and poisons used by
primitive peoples.
He took his A.B., M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from
Harvard University, where he is professor of Biology
and director of the Botanical Museum.
Dr. Schultes is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and is a fellow of the American
Academy of Arts and Science.
On March 5 at 12:30 p.m. in Lecture Hall No. 2 of
the Instructional Resources Centre he will speak on
"Hallucinogenic Plants of the New World."
The following day at 12:30 p.m. in the Hebb Lecture Theatre Dr. Schultes will give a talk on "Plant
Exploration for New Drug Plants from the Amazon,"
based on his 14 years of residence as a plant explorer in
South America.
"Cannabis: Friend or Foe of Mankind?" will be the
title of his last lecture on March 7 at 8:15 p.m. in
Council
Panel Here
March 1
A panel of senior Canada Council officials will visit
UBC Friday (March 1) for a public meeting designed to
allow artists and university representatives to air their
views.
Representatives of Notre Dame and Simon Fraser
Universities have also been invited to the open
meeting, which begins at 10:00 a.m. in the ballroom
of UBC Graduate Student Centre. Faculty members
and graduate students are invited to attend.
The Canada Council panel will hold a second
meeting the same afternoon at 2:00 p.m. at the
Vancouver East Cultural Centre, 1895 Venables St.
Dr. Dennis Healy, former dean of the Faculty of
Arts at UBC, has been named chairman of a Canada
Council commission to inquire into the state of
Canadian graduate studies in the humanities and
social sciences.
Dr. Healy is currently the president and
vice-chancellor of Bishop's University, in Lennoxville,
Quebec.
Terms of reference for the commission will be
defined in consultation with the Canada Council and
announced later.- The commission will hold hearings
across Canada and its findings will be published.
Canada Council Director Andre Fortier said one of
the main factors prompting the inquiry is the
increasing uncertainty as to the purposes,
effectiveness and general orientation of graduate
studies in the light of present-day needs and
conditions.
He also pointed to the changing attitudes of
students towards advanced university education, as
exemplified in Canada by fluctuations in enrolment
at the doctoral level over the past three years.
The Council has a direct interest in the
commission's work, Mr. Fortier said, since a large part
of the Council's budget is allocated for assistance to
graduate students in the humanities and social
sciences.
Five Overseas
Courses Offered
UBC's Centre for Continuing Education, in
co-operation with the Departments of Fine Arts and
English and the School of Physical Education, is
offering five courses in Europe this summer.
Those participating may study Shakespeare at
Stratford-upon-Avon; Western Art Since 1800 in
London; Historical Techniques in Mosaics, Stained
Glass and Enamelling in Paris; Art of the Renaissance in
Florence; and Physical Education in England.
More details of these courses, which may be taken
for credit or non-credit, are available from the Centre
for Continuing Education, UBC, 2075 Wesbrook Place,
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5.
Lecture Hall No. 2 of the Instructional Resources
Centre. This lecture will be based on botanical history,
present botanico-chemical studies and Dr. Schultes'
own field work on marijuana in Afghanistan.
ir    ir    ir
Dr. Michael Riffaterre, chairman of the Department
of French and Romance Philology at Columbia University, New York, is one of the few specialists in sty listics
and textual analysis.
His publications are important to linguistics, the
philosophy of language and English and Romance
literatures.
Dr. Riffaterre has been general editor of the
Romanic Review of Columbia University since 1971.
Previous to taking over as chairman of Columbia's Department of French and Romance Philology, he was
chairman of that University's Department of Spanish
and Portuguese.
He was president in 1965 and 1966 of the American
Association for the Study of Dada and Surrealism. He
reassumed the presidency of the Association last year.
On Monday, March 11, at 12:30 p.m. in Room 106
of the Buchanan Building Dr. Riffaterre will speak in
French on "Du Genre au Texte: Methodes de la
Critique Actuelle."
The following day in the same room at 12:30 p.m.
he will speak on "Structural Analysis in Literature: The
Referential Fallacy."
"The Structuralist Approach to Literature" will be
the topic of his talk on Wednesday, March 13, at 3:30
p.m. in Salons A, B and C of UBC's Faculty Club.
ir    i(   ir
Mr. Ian McHarg is a leader of a group of landscape
architects and regional planners who claim that land
use should be determined by ecology rather than prof-
MR. IAN McHARG
it. He has proposed that planners make an ecological
inventory of the land areas they plan so that development is ecologically logical and non-destructive.
Mr. McHarg has now added social values to his
theory of ecological determinism. He calls his new concept of planning "human ecological planning."
Instead of taking into account only ecological factors such as water drainage, wind direction, slope erosion, soil permeability, scenic beauty and plant and
animal life in planning land use, Mr. McHarg says that
cultural anthropology, ethnology, public health and
other social factors should be included.
He will speak at 8:00 p.m. on Wednesday, March
13, in the Old Auditorium on "A Theory of Man-
Environment."
The next day at 12:30 p.m. he'll talk on "A Case
Study in Ecological Planning" in Lecture Hall No. 2
in the Instructional Resources Centre.
He is chairman of the Department of Landscape
Architecture and Regional Planning at the Graduate
School of Fine Arts at the University of Pennsylvania
and is a partner in a firm of landscape architects and
city and regional planners in Philadelphia.
UBC Reoorts/Februarv 27   1974/7 Leading UBC
Geologist Dies
Prof. Merton Yarwood Williams, a member of the
UBC faculty for 29 years and recognized as one of
Canada's pioneering oil geologists, died suddenly on
Feb. 3 at the age of 90.
The tall, spare figure of Prof. Williams, or "M.Y."
as he was known to UBC colleagues, continued to be
a familiar sight on the campus for two decades after
he retired as head of the Department of Geology and
Geography in 1950. A sign that M.Y. was on the campus was his Nash automobile, vintage circa 1935,
parked in the vicinity of the old Geology and Geography Building.
Born in Bloomfield, Ont., in 1883, Prof. Williams
graduated from Queen's University in 1909 with the
degree of Bachelor of Science in Mining Engineering.
In 1912 he received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Yale University.
Immediately after graduating from Yale, Prof.
Williams joined the federal Geological Survey of
Canada, evenutally becoming geologist in charge of
petroleum investigations. Between 1912 and 1921,
when he joined the UBC faculty, most of his exploration activities were confined to Ontario.
Almost every summer between 1921 and 1944
found M.Y. in the field carrying out geological work
connected with petroleum and mineral resources.
He explored the Mackenzie River Valley in
1921-22 and southern Alberta and Saskatchewan in
the years 1923 through 1926. During the 1930s and
1940s he carried out additional explorations in Ontario, the Peace River area and along the Alaska
Highway.
In 1924-25 Prof. Williams was a member of a
Canadian team of scientists who carried out the first
geological survey of Hong Kong.
In the summers of 1929 and 1930 he was in charge
of geological explorations for a survey of resources by
the Pacific Great Eastern Railway in the Peace River,
Cariboo and Lillooet areas.
Prof. Williams became head of the Department of
Geology and Geography at UBC in 1936, a post he
held until his retirement in 1950.
He held executive positions with most of the important geological societies in North America and in
1960 was elected president of the Royal Society of
Canada, this country's most prestigious academic
organization.
UBC conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of
Science on Prof. Williams at its Spring Congregation
in 1972.
Lecture Honors
Health Educator
An annual lecture on education in the health
sciences has been created at the University of B.C. in
honor of Dr. John F. McCreary.
Dr. McCreary, chairman of the education committee for the B.C. Medical Centre to be built at the
Shaughnessy Hospital site and former dean of UBC's
Faculty of Medicine, has been acknowledged as the
originator and driving force behind health sciences
centres, the most sweeping concept in health science
education since the Second World War.
Nurses, dentists, nutritionists, physicians and other
health professionals have traditionally been trained
separately.- Health sciences centres aim at centralizing
and co-ordinating the training of all these students in
the health sciences.
A major goal of health centres is to train health
professionals to work more efficiently as teams when
they graduate. Treatment of the majority of diseases
now involves a variety of health professions and this
means that professionals can no longer operate in isolated disciplines.
The recently-released report of the provincial health
security project headed by Dr. Richard Foulkes credits
Dr. McCreary with pioneering the concept of health
sciences centres.
Dr. McCreary's work has resulted in construction of
health sciences centres across North America. UBC's
Health Sciences Centre combines the Faculties of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dentistry and Medicine and the
Schools of Nursing and Rehabilitation Medicine.
The first of the new series of lectures will be given
next year when UBC's Faculty of Medicine celebrates
its 25th anniversary and when Dr. McCreary retires as
Co-ordinator of Health Sciences at UBC.
A fund to receive contributions has been set up to
finance the annual lecture. Donations should be made
payable to the University of B.C. — John F. McCreary
Lectureship Fund and mailed to the Department of
Finance, University of B.C., Vancouver V6T 1W5.
8/UBC Reports/Fehruarv 7lL 1974
EDUCATION FACULTY AIMS
i
In a recent address to the Vancouver Institute, the
Dean of UBC's Faculty of Education, Dr. John Andrews,
outlined some of the innovative programs now being
worked out in his Faculty to improve the quality of
teacher education. What follows is the latter part of his
talk, which describes the new programs.
At present, British Columbia has four universities
engaged in teacher education, all with different kinds of
programs and all recognized by the Department of Education for certification purposes. This diversity, in my
view, provides important advantages as long as healthy
rivalries between institutions do not preclude adequate
co-ordination among them.
Our Faculty (of Education) sees no reason to restrict
alternative programs to different universities. We see no
reason why, with a Faculty as large as ours, we should
not have a number of alternative programs within the
one Faculty. The fact is that within a certain range there
is no one best way to educate teachers. People call a
program "good" if it reflects their own particular views
on teacher education and if it is compatible with their
learning style (if a student), their teaching style (if a
professor or associated teacher), or if it produces the
particular kind of teacher they favor (if an employer).
Since we live in a pluralistic society there is every
reason for us to be pluralistic in our provision of teacher
education. Not only does this seem to be a highly desirable principle to follow where the Faculty is large
enough, but it has many practical advantages as well.
The resulting smaller-scale programs can be more highly
personal than is otherwise the case in a large Faculty. If
students and professors can choose a program which
they strongly favor it is highly likely that for them it will
be a successful program.
BROKEN FRONT
Finally, alternative programs provide a means by
which a large Faculty can undertake fundamental
changes in its program on a broken front. It is not only
difficult but extremely hazardous for a large Faculty to
change all at once to a fundamentally new, untried program. With a variety of approved alternative programs
we can try out different kinds of content, different
kinds of learning situations and different ways of involving practicing teachers.
The present program of the Faculty will continue as
the regular program. Different alternatives will replace
all or particular parts of this regular program. While
much of the innovative effort of the Faculty will focus
on developing alternative programs, we will also continue to improve the regular program. Indeed, features of
some of the alternative programs may well prove to be
of such general merit that they should be incorporated
into the regular program.
Let me describe some of the alternative programs
presently being worked out or considered to make this
concept more concrete.
EXTENDED PRACTICUM. The extended practicum
would deviate from the regular program in that it would
provide an opportunity for a student to spend a solid
block of 3>2 or 4 months in a school in addition to other
student teaching of shorter duration as is presently involved in the regular program. The extra time in the
schools would either replace optional courses which the
student would otherwise take or would integrate methodology courses with the practicum so that methodology would be learned in a school setting rather than on
campus.
SCHOOL-BASED PROGRAMS. The school-based program has a restricted group of students working all year
with a small team of professors in a single school or a
small group of schools. In the school setting the students
have an integrated program, including what would otherwise be individual courses in Education Foundations,
Educational Psychology and Teaching Methodology, and
also do their student teaching. Not only is there, thus,
integration of material across different course areas but
also movement back and forth from seminar situations
in the school to the classroom itself for demonstration
and individual practice. Members of the school staff constitute a most important part of the total program both
as instructors of student teachers and as participants in
in-service education seminars.
COMPETENCY-BASED PROGRAMS. The competency
based program is an alternative which emphasizes individual study for the student. It may be applied to both
course work and practicum or may be restricted to
either. This approach identifies the specific competencies which a good teacher should have and then provides specific learning experiences to enable the student
ie    .,
>d,+
to develop them. The whole focus of the program is
upon objectives rather than upon different subjects. The
intent is, thus, to make clear to the student the relevano
of the material he is learning, eliminate the overlapping
material which tends to accumulate in course-based
teacher education programs, and to throw a great deal of
the responsibility for learning upon the individual student rather than the student being a somewhat passive
participant in the whole process. In such a program professors and associated teachers perform a consultative1-^
role to the student as he proceeds through the individualized materials rather than emphasizing presentation
and direction.
OPEN-AREA TEACHER PROGRAM. The role of the
teacher in an open-area school is sufficiently different
from that of the orthodox teacher that preparation programs require more differentiation from the regular program than just the location of the student teaching. This -v
is particularly true since open-area programs in schools
are still relatively new and are not fully developed. They
are innovations, presently in the process of growth. Thus
there appears to be a need for student teachers and selected professors to work particularly closely with the*-^.
teachers of existing open-area programs so that all are involved together in the double process of teacher education and the further development of open-area programs
themselves. Not only is there a need for the preparation
of new teachers in the open-area role but also, at a different level, for experienced teachers who wish to move
to open-area schools.
PREPARATION OF NATIVE INDIAN TEACHERS.
Those who are concerned about Indian education are in
substantial agreement that one of the main factors in improvement is the need for more certificated teachers
who are native Indians. This is so because of the need for
teachers who thoroughly understand the culture of the
Indian children and also to provide for Indian children
some models of success in the educational system. At
the present time there are only approximately 25 certificated Indian teachers working in the schools. If their
numbers were proportionate to their population there
would be approximately 600.
Since the regular program is clearly not overcoming
the deficiency it seems necessary to design a special program which will be appropriate to their circumstances
and culture. Such a program would be a natural outgrowth of substantial work already done by the Indian
Education Resources Centre at UBC and by the teacher-
preparation program for Indian education which to this
point has largely attracted non-Indian students.
LEARNING DISABILITIES. For a number of years
there have been substantial opportunities for specialization in this area in the initial teacher-preparation program, at the diploma level and at the graduate level. In
the face of increasing numbers of programs being developed by the schools for children with learning disabilities there is a sharp increase in demand for specialized
teachers in this area. Accordingly, we are in the process
of working out alternative programs designed to meet
particular additional needs.
In addition to alternative programs like those described, we want to make some changes in the present
regular program. Again, to give the flavor of proposed
changes, let me describe some.
PROFESSIONAL YEAR. At the present time the regular program for elementary teachers does not have any
single year which is exclusively under the jurisdiction of
the Faculty of Education. In all years, at present, there
are some courses taken in other Faculties, such as Arts
or Science. This fact greatly limits the degrees of freedom in the variety of alternative programs which can be
developed. We are now involved in reshuffling the placement of courses in years so that elementary student
teachers as well as others have one year which may be
termed "a professional year." Additional degrees of freedom may be obtained in the programs for all students by
semestering the courses within their professional year.
The plan which seems to have the most advantages is a
semester which is simply half of the present university
year.
ROLE OF SPONSOR TEACHER. Many of the alterna
tive programs being developed feature a much more
central role than in the past for the practicing teacher
who supervises the work of the student teacher in the
schools. Although the regular program will probably not
go as far in this direction as the school-based program,
there is need to make the role of the sponsor teacher
more meaningful than it now is.
NEW SPECIALIZATION EMPHASES. As society
changes, both the schools and the teacher-education institutions continually are identifying new areas of emphasis in curriculum and corresponding areas of
emphasis in the training of teachers. Some of these new
areas, in addition to those mentioned under alternative
-1
-J FOR DEEPER INVOLVEMENT
programs, are mentioned briefly here. Several new programs, designed to meet the critical shortage of home
economics teachers, have already been designed and implemented within the last few months. Some other burgeoning areas are family life education, environmental
education, kindergarten teaching, outdoor education and
the teaching of reading in secondary schools. These and
other specializations are presently being extended or
developed within the regular program.
STANDARDS OF TEACHING. One of the perennial
problems of a teacher-education program has been to ensure that all its graduates will be good teachers as opposed simply to having obtained satisfactory marks in
courses. For many years the demand for teachers has
been so strong that a certain measure of leniency has
possibly been justifiable on the grounds of public interest. Now that a general shortage no longer exists we
are face to face with the problem of selection in more
acute form than at any time in recent history.
Obviously, an excellent program of teacher education
is a good start. It cannot be the full answer, however,
unless one makes the rash assumption that anyone who
DEAN JOHN ANDREWS
is a good student can be made into a good teacher. A
good program, therefore, must be accompanied by effective measures for initial and continuous selection. That
much is clear and is generally agreed upon. The problem,
of course, is the absence of objective measures which can
be used. As a result, heavy reliance must be placed upon
the subjective judgments of experienced teachers and
professors with the consequent difficulty of "disagreement among experts" in a certain number of the cases.
If we are serious about improving the general
standard of teaching in our graduates there is a clear
need for a great deal of practical research on selection
techniques. In the meantime there are some measures
which should be given serious consideration. One
possibility is a practicum experience in May or June of
the year before a student enrols in the program. There
would need to be a heavy concentration of supervisors
whose pooled assessments would be more valid than the
usual two or three. A tangible basis for self-selection
would also be provided. An obvious shortcoming of this
practice is that it is sampling raw ability without benefit
of any preparation or training. Certainly the nature of
the assessments would have to take this into account.
Another possibility is simply setting a higher standard
for passing in practice teaching at all points in the
program where it occurs. There is a group of marginal
students, in terms of present standards, whose fate is
vigorously debated. Considerable improvement might be
obtained by passing only those about whom there is
little doubt of effective performance. In fairness to the
student, however, such a change in standard should take
effect at an early point in the program so that his or her
losses may be cut to a minimum.
As I foreshadowed in my earlier remarks, a major new
direction of the Faculty must be more extensive
involvement in schools. Teacher education cannot be
conducted effectively in an ivory tower. It is essentially
a co-operative process between a Faculty of Education
and the schools, requiring close working relationships in
both directions. Such relationships cannot usefully be
restricted narrowly to initial teacher education. They
should also include heavy involvement in school
programs for in-service education and curriculum
development. Involvement of this kind has been
increasing rapidly in recent years but it still proceeds
largely on an uncoordinated basis through the
spare-time efforts of those in the schools and universities
who have special enthusiasm and stamina. There is an
urgent need for all of the agencies involved to work out
a general provincial plan for in-service education and
curriculum development. Specific financial support is a
basic requirement. Such a plan could well prove to be
the very basis of future efforts to improve education in
British Columbia.
USEFUL SERVICES
For our own part in the UBC Faculty of Education
we are increasing as much as possible our involvement in
schools. Such activities not only provide useful services
to schools but also, by keeping our professors, in the
mainstream of school developments, contribute an essential vitality and currency to our teacher education program. In addition, we are now working out the details of
a professor-teacher program as a direct in-service education opportunity for professors. This program envisages
a straight exchange, with the professor taking on a teaching position for a period of time and the teacher working
in the Faculty of Education
Another important new emphasis must be deeper involvement in the University. It is easy to forget that a
major part of the education of a new teacher is carried
out by Faculties at the University other than the Faculty
of Education. For this reason it is important that the
Faculty of Education build strong relationships with
those others in the University who provide for prospective teachers their general liberal education and their
subject specialization. Special attention must continue
to be given to reconciling this University involvement
with our commitment to the schools. We have already
taken important steps to strengthen our working relationships with related departments outside the Faculty
and hope to keep strengthening them as occasions arise.
The last major new emphasis I will describe is further
development of the graduate program.
As school programs become increasingly complex and
sophisticated there is need for larger numbers of highly
specialized people in such areas as counselling, administration, special education and curriculum development.
The Faculty can be proud of the accomplishments of its
graduate program over the many years of its experience
but present-day requirements of schools make it clear
that a substantial increase in trained specialists is required if standards of practice in the schools are to be
improved.
A particular cause of concern is the large number of
British Columbia teachers who have felt it necessary to
leave the province to obtain graduate degrees. It would
be comforting to feel that such an exodus was caused by
people deliberately leaving British Columbia to broaden
their background or to seek a lower-standard program to
which they could be admitted. Unfortunately the
evidence indicates this is not by any means entirely the
case.
Accordingly we are continuing to work on improving
the quality of our graduate programs but also are paying
special attention to their accessibility. It would be no
service to the schools of this province to lower standards
substantially in the interests of producing more trained
specialists. On the other hand, we must carefully
examine requirements for admission and residence and
the adequacy of assistantships to insure that all possible
obstacles are removed. We must also consider seriously
the offering of off-campus graduate courses as one very
important way of increasing accessibility.
MEET CHALLENGE
In conclusion, the new directions and new emphases
described here are merely a snapshot view of Phase Two
at the present stage of planning. Many shifts in direction
and additional emphases will no doubt emerge as we
proceed.
In the background of all this present thinking is the
nagging realization that all the new school programs
presently emerging will be of no benefit to the children
and youth of this province unless they are handled with
the skill and understanding of excellent teachers. We feel
heavily our responsibility for continuing and increasing
efforts to meet this challenge.
Grant for
UBC Book
Collection
The Andrew Mellon Foundation, of New York,
has made a grant of $75,000 to the University of B.C.
for the purchase of books in the field of East Asian
studies.
And UBC's Librarian, Mr. Basil Stuart-Stubbs,
frankly admits that the news of the grant was "a bolt
out of the blue."
No application was made by UBC for such a grant,
he said. "I can only assume that the foundation has
made a survey of libraries that already have
substantial holdings of Asian materials and has
decided to approve grants to supplement existing
holdings."
The grants, according to the foundation, have been
made to a "select number of universities in the
United States and Canada to enable these institutions
to increase their library resources in support of East
Asian studies."
UBC has the largest collection of Asian material in
Canada, made up of more than 170,000 volumes,
most of them in Chinese and Japanese. The collection
will eventually be housed in the new Asian Centre,
now under construction at the north end of the
campus Fraser River parking lot.
The grant, which must be spent within a period of
three years, is to be used to supplement, and not
replace, funds which UBC would normally
appropriate for the purchase of material for its Asian
studies collection.
Another condition of the grant is that it should be
used to purchase material designed to assist a broad
range of interests within the Asian studies area.
Mr. Stuart-Stubbs said the Library is currently
circulating a list made up of a backlog of needed
books and has asked faculty members in the Asian
studies area to indicate priorities.
"We've also been in touch with dealers to
determine whether some material, particularly large
and expensive sets of books, is available and the
prices," he said.
Book Fund
A memorial book fund honoring the late Prof.
Lionel Stevenson, who died on Dec. 21, 1973, has
been established by friends and colleagues at UBC.
Prof. Stevenson, a member of the Arts '22
graduating class who went on to become a
distinguished teacher and writer in the field of
Victorian literature, was a visiting professor in UBC's
Department of English for the current Winter Session.
He was a prolific author who wrote ten books, ten
critical introductions and 56 articles and served as
editor or advisor to ten learned journals.
The memorial to Prof. Stevenson will take the
form of a collection of books bearing his name.
Cheques for the fund, made out to the "Lionel
Stevenson Memorial Book Fund," should be sent to
the Department of Finance, University of B.C., 2075
Wesbrook Place, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1W5. Receipts
for income tax purposes will be supplied by the
Finance department.
Author Speaks
Malcolm Muggeridge, journalist, author and former
editor of Punch, the famed British humor magazine,
will speak on the UBC campus on Tuesday, March 12.
He will speak on "Social Perspectives" at 12:30
p.m. in the ballroom of the Student Union Building.
He is currently a resident on Saltspring Island, where
he is working on a book.
Mr. Muggeridge, who is noted for his controversial
opinions and his vigorous debating style, is a recent
convert to Christianity. His visit to UBC is sponsored
by the UBC Pro-Life Society, a student organization.
HHH Vol. 20, No. 4 - Feb. 27,
■ Iii |* 1974. Published by the Univer-
llllll  sity   of   British   Columbia and
^a* ^aw ^W  distributed  free.  UBC Reports
REPORTS
appears on Wednesdays during
the University's Winter Session. J.A. Banham,
Editor. Louise Hoskin and Jean Rands, Production Supervisors. Letters to the Editor should
be sent to Information Services, Main Mall
North Administration Building, UBC, 2075
Wesbrook Place, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5.
UBC Reports/February 27, 1974/9 CONVERSATIONS
Continued from Page Three
od, you'll have 320 in the mill at any given time, less
dropouts.
CLARK: Yes.
WEBSTER: When will you have the first entry of 160
... student doctors into the campus facilities?
CLARK: Well, we're going ahead at high speed planning
those facilities, and I haven't heard precisely . . . Let me
guess, and it's only a guess. Jack, that it would be two
years.
WEBSTER: Two years. You have the money for that?
CLARK: No. The government has said they would put
up the money to construct those facilities and we expect
that the money will be provided (and) operating grants,
too.
WEBSTER: . . . Although the total for capital grants to
universities of $11 million is the same this year as last
year, UBC is allocated $8 million. Is that going to be
enough for your clinical facilities and other expansion at
UBC?
CLARK: No. That $11  million has nothing to do with
the medical expansion at Shaughnessy site.
WEBSTER:    Are    these    capital    grants   already   for
approved expenditures?
CLARK: Yes. That money will not really be enough to
enable us to keep up with our needs. Looking at it in
terms of the three universities, back in 1969-70, we were
getting $15 million a year. All right? Now, this coming
year and last year, the three universities are getting $11
million. You know how building costs have gone up in
that space of time. We aren't, in my judgment, able to
keep up with the depreciation of old buildings on our
campus,   and   we   have   many   needs   that   we're   not
adequately being able to meet on this basis.
WEBSTER: You've told me . . . that Premier Barrett is
wrong on the quarter system. Is it your opinion or the
opinion of the University at large that the quarter
system would result in the deterioration in educational
standards?
CLARK: It's not been debated as a matter of general
University policy, but the view that I have, I think,
would be shared by a large majority of faculty, by the
administration of the University and, I would think, by a
majority of students.
WEBSTER: I want to ask you a redneck question which
I don't even think Premier Barrett would put to you. He
said he'd like to have 25 per cent more people out at the
University. Do we need an increase in an output from
our universities in this small province of an additional 25
per cent or are we going to finish up with another
10,000 BAs looking for jobs as laborers?
CLARK: A most reasonable question to put. Let me try
to answer it. First of all, (you can) think of education as,
in part, an investment to help a person earn more than
they otherwise would. But it's a lot more than that,
because it opens to them a broader range of
opportunities than they'd otherwise have. Also,
presumably, it helps people learn things which they're
going to enjoy just for the sake of enjoying them, even
though it doesn't affect their income in the least.
Now, in that sense, looking at all of those together, I
think it is desirable to have an increasing number of
people having university education in the province if
they want it. And so, over a period of time, yes, I'd like
to see an increase and I think most people at the
University would, but that we're concerned also to
preserve the quality of what we're doing . . .
WEBSTER: Universal higher-grade post-secondary
education and training, I suppose, is desirable from
anybody's standpoint. But you forgot one thing: If we
can afford it. And apparently we can't afford it at the
moment, because Mr. Barrett has said, unless you do
certain things, no more money.
CLARK: Well, he's not saying, if I understand him correctly, that we can't afford it. He's not saying that at all.
He said, we choose not to give it a priority.
WEBSTER: Well, now, where do we go from here?
CLARK: I would like to make one other comment here
I think. This question of the University being available.
Increasingly we have members of the public using our
facilities. Our computing centre is widely used. It's open
24 hours a day. I think, six days a week. The Library is
open from 8:00 in the morning until 11:45 at night on
Friday. It's open on Saturdays from 9:00 to 5:00. Sundays from noon till 11:00 p.m. and we're getting a huge
number of inter-library loans, people coming not connected with the University at all, wanting help on various things in which they are interested. We have over
23,000 loans last year, people coming asking for things,
who aren't students at all. Crane Library for the Blind,
with braille books, cassettes and so on, had over 20,000
people using their facilities last year. So that, I would
say we are reaching out to the community now.
We have faculty members who go out from the University and put on short courses in various parts of the
10/UBC Reports/February 27, 1974
MORE HEARINGS SET
The Committee on University Governance will return to UBC on March 8 to hear briefs on proposed
changes in the Universities Act from the Senates of
UBC and Simon Fraser University, the Canadian
Association of University Teachers, and the Student
Coalition, a group representing UBC and Simon
Fraser University students.
The UBC and SFU Senate briefs will be heard at a
morning session beginning at 9:00 a.m. in the Board
and Senate Room of the Main Mall North Administration Building. The CAUT and Student Coalition
briefs will be presented at the afternoon session. The
committee meetings are public and interested members of the University community and the public may
attend.
The Committee on University Governance, chaired
by Prof. Walter Young, head of the Political Science
Department at the University of Victoria, was established in September, 1973, by the provincial government.
CHANGE ACT
The committee was charged with studying the relationship between B.C. universities and the provincial
government and with making recommendations on
changes in the Universities Act, the provincial legislation which outlines the basic structure and government of public universities in B.C.
The committee previously held public hearings at
UBC on Jan. 22 and 23.
UBC's Senate has approved 19 recommendations
for changes in the Universities Act, which were discussed at a series of four special Senate meetings, the
last of which was held on Feb. 16.
Dean A.J. McClean, head of UBC's Faculty of
Law, chaired the ad hoc committee of Senate which
prepared the report on proposed changes in the
Universities Act.
The major recommendations approved by Senate
include the following.
1. Establishment of a 10—15 member Provincial
Universities Commission, made up of university representatives and provincial-government appointees, who
would have the power to advise the government on all
matters pertaining to university education.
2. Continuance of the bicameral system of internal
university government with two main governing
bodies, a Board of Governors and a Senate, as at
present.
3. A restructured Board of Governors totalling 17
members, made up of six persons appointed by the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council; three members of
the faculty who are members of Senate; three
members of the student body who are members of
Senate; three members elected from Senate who are
neither members of the faculty nor of the student
body; the Chancellor; and the President.
(Currently, the Board of Governors consists of 11
members — six appointed by the Lieutenant^
Governor in Council, three elected by Senate, the
President and the Chancellor.)
4. A Senate which, in UBC's case, would oe slightly larger than its current membership of 98. The basis
for determining much of the proposed Senate membership rests on the number of ex officio members, a
group made up of the Chancellor, the President, the
Deans, the director of the Centre for Continuing
Education and the Librarian.
Applying this formula to UBC's current structure
would lead to the automatic appointment of 17 persons. In addition, there would be community representatives not greater in number than the ex officio
members, s.tudents equal in number to the ex officio
members, faculty in a number equal to three times
the number of ex officio members, one representative
of each affiliated college, and such other senior
university officers as may be determined by Senate.
One result of this formula would be to increase
student representation on Senate to 17 from the
current 12 members.
Only one of the 20 original recommendations
made by Dean McClean's committee was totally rejected by Senate. This called for the president to
nominate, after consultation with a Senate committee, a member of Senate to act as chairman for one
year. Under the existing Universities Act the President is designated as Senate's chairman.
SENATE CHAIRMAN
Dean McClean told UBC Reports that Senate's
rejection of the committee's recommendation clearly
implied that it was intended that the President should
remain chairman of Senate.
With only one exception the committee did not
recommend any changes in the present powers of the
Board of Governors or Senate. The one change approved related to the powers of Senate and would allow it to delegate to a committee or committees
established by it such of its powers and duties as it
may determine by resolution receiving a majority of
two-thirds of those members present at a meeting.
province. And I think that's a good thing. But that's
been going on for over 40 years.
WEBSTER: Are you prepared to admit any major failures, though, in your academic planning or in your outreach to the community, or do you feel that you're
doing all you possibly can on your present money?
CLARK: Well, you know, it's awfully hard to assess the
effectiveness of what we're doing, and if I suggested that
we had no failures, no, I couldn't say that to myself, and
therefore I couldn't say it to you.
WEBSTER: All right, but let me go back to another
point, though, on academic planning. How do you decide? Do you decide merely by public demand, or the
demand of potential students, how many people of what
grade of degree you're going to process and put through
the mill? Or do you decide yourselves arbitrarily how
many? Obviously, it's limited by money in the expensive
sciences like medicine, but in the other ones, can you
channel people or must you just give them the degrees
they seek?
CLARK: For the most part, we respond to the demand
for students. If there's an increased interest in Forestry,
we try to provide more facilities in Forestry. For instance, we put through a new Nursing program this year,
with somewhat less emphasis on chemistry and science
and more on the social sciences and so on and that
caused a big increase in the number in Nursing and we
will endeavor to accommodate to them. . . . Most of the
initiative for new courses comes from faculty members
who have an interest. They see a need to be served, and
they put it forward. . . . And those Faculties which
grow, they get a larger share of the budget as compared
with those where there isn't a growing demand.
WEBSTER:   One   thing  which   we   lay   people do not
understand is the tenure system. Why should a university
professor have a lifetime job forever and a day merely
because   he   made that a condition of coming to the
university?
CLARK: Oh, he can't make that a condition of coming
to the university.
WEBSTER: Oh, there have been cases where tenure has
been granted on new staff coming, have there not?
CLARK: In general, virtually anybody comes to the
university on probation, say, as a young person. . . .
Most of the recruitment is done at the lower ages, the
lower ranks, and the decision on tenure is typically made
after four years, and maybe after five.
WEBSTER: But tenure itself must surely in itself be a
bad thing. There's no danger now that a professor's
freedom of speech is going to be impinged by any
government in Canada today, and that's the old commie
excuse for tenure, is it not? So that he can't be fired
because he's an outspoken revolutionary of some kind, a
free thinker?
CLARK: I think (many faculty members) regard it as a
personal protection of their liberty ... to hold views
that are unpopular, let us say, with the public, or for
that matter with their colleagues, or with their students.
It is a protection to them against arbitrary dismissal on
grounds unrelated to their contribution to the
university. That's how most of them look at it.
WEBSTER: How do you look at it? Is that the way you
look at it?
CLARK: I'm critical of the tenure system personally,
but I don't think my views are typical of most people.
What troubles me about it, Jack, is that it is essentially a
once-and-for-all decision, and I think it's unfortunate to
make the choice on that particular basis, even though it's
done with the greatest of care and trying to ensure that
only competent people get appointed. I want to add that
it does not follow that because a person has tenure, that
he can't be dismissed. That is not the case.
CALLER: . . . I've been through both systems myself. I
attended the American quarter system and UBC, and I
don't think . . . the excellence of the education has really anything to do with the type of system you work
under. I think it's more appropriate to what type of
professors you have and the students' incentive to learn.
Actually, in my own experience I found I lost interest in
courses going over such a long period up here and would much prefer to go a shorter time, learn what I could, and
then get into something new. . . .
Now this was four or five years ago when I went (to
UBC) but it was true that there were only a very few
students out there in the summer and by-and large, the
facilities are unused. And I found, in the quarter system,
that ... we had maybe 75 to 80 per cent of the fall enrolment going in the summer. . .
And finally I would like to say that the reason that
they have these problems at UBC, and you can have a
similar criticism about Simon Fraser, it's because they're
so separated from what really goes on in the real world,
that students have to make a special effort to get out
there. In other words, students have to go to the school
instead of the opposite way around. And where I went
__, to school they had the school right downtown and there
were just as many businessmen . . . going to school there
as there were regular students. And it helped everybody
concerned because we finally got some realistic opinions
into classes, rather than having these "egg-heads," you
know, who really didn't know what is happening. It really helped on two-way discourse. I really mean that. . . .
rCLARK: ... It simply is not true that most of the facilities at UBC are unused during the summer. Graduate
work is going on all year round and so is research. It is
true, that we have some 3,500 to 3,600 in Summer Session as compared with 21,000 in the fall, so we don't
have as many in the classrooms, but the rest of the space
¥ is being extensively used. . .
I think he's right, that if the University were located
downtown we would be attracting more students in the
summer. But overall it's an immense advantage to have
the University located where it is because it then has
enough land to expand. Every university that's been
built in the downtown area's valuable property in other
* cities finds that they're very constrained for expansion.
They're all hemmed in.
WEBSTER: The other point, of course, is that UBC is
where it is and there's no way you can move it now.
CLARK: That's right. Now, he commented also about
the "egg-heads" being out of touch with reality. I am
not in favor of "egg-heads" being out of touch with reality, so I don't defend them. But ... I don't expect he
intended it as a generalized description of the people
who are teaching at our University, or at Simon Fraser.
• *     •
WEBSTER: When will you be going to see the Premier,
_ the Minister of Finance it is, to tell him — or does he
already know — that the monies are not enough to meet
a normal operational growth on all three campuses?
CLARK: ... I expect the Boards of Governors of the
three universities will be sending a delegation over there
just as soon as they get enough information on various
points to go. I don't know just when that will be.
• *     •
* CALLER: I would just like to verify that any person in
B.C. who really wants to work at it can get a degree in
part-time attendance at the University. I got my master's
degree that way, through night school, summer school
and correspondence, and I found that it was very
satisfactory and I really enjoyed it, and anyone can if
they put their mind to it.
CALLER: ... My daughter is 16 now and she's finishing
high school . . . And she's very interested in medicine.
She has been for quite a number of years and I can see
now that, you know, it's not just a child's fantasy. And
what is going to be her chances of getting in to UBC?
CLARK: Well, the first thing that presumably she would
do would be to take a Bachelor of Science degree, which
is a four-year program. She could conceivably go in to
Medicine at the end of three years. I think most do get
their Bachelor of Science first. Then, if she had a sufficiently good average, there'd be opportunity for her to
go in. Now, by the time she gets through high school,
doubtless we'll be having 160 students a year. I don't
think that she would need to feel concerned that there
would be less opportunity for her as a womari. It may
interest you to know that in 1973, 24 per cent of those
who were in the Faculty of Medicine getting degrees to
be doctors were women. And that proportion is rising. . .
• •     •
WEBSTER: I know there's a government committee at
the moment, is there not, on revisions to the Universities
Act? . . . What do you want to see them revise yourself?
What needs revision in the Universities Act?
CLARK: I think the basic change that is necessary is to
have an independent commission between the
universities and the government which will receive
requests from the universities, will make the case to the
government, will allocate money from the government
to the universities. I think that's the biggest change that
is likely to come about and the one that is most needed.
WEBSTER: And as a matter of fact, this year's crisis is a
classic example of the need for such a commission.
CLARK: Yes, I think so. Now, the universities naturally
have a concern in the setting up of this that they will be
able to preserve their independence. Academic freedom
is sometimes used Uz> defend a very wide range of things.
Let me be more specific. I think the universities want to
be free to choose whom they will fire and hire for
faculty members. They want to be able to choose their
programs, which ones they'll put in. They don't want to
have to go to the premier and say, "Look, we want this.
Will you give us money for this as compared with that?"
Because on that sort of basis, what is politically popular
at the moment is likely to get support, and what isn't is
apt to get turned down. And that's no basis for ...
maintaining a strong university.
WEBSTER: Is that the way you operate at the moment,
you've got to go and say, we want money for this?
CLARK: No. This is what, in part, he's saying to us. "If
you want more money, come to me and propose spme
new programs and we'll look at them on an individual
basis and let you know."
WEBSTER: And you're saying that's not the way to run
a university.
CLARK: That's emphatically what I say, and I think
that there'd be general support for that. So, universities
are concerned to maintain their independence, then, in
terms of what programs they're going to offer and in
terms of what students they will admit.
WEBSTER: You in fact are saying that if Premier
Barrett does this carrot business, "give me the programs
and the type of thing I want and I'll give you the
money" — that that is in fact political interference.
CLARK: Yes.
WEBSTER: But surely there must be some measure of
political interference?
CLARK: Well, I think the government is entitled to say
— they're responsible to the people, they're entitled to
say, "this is the amount of money that we're prepared to
put up for the universities, and the onus is on the
university to make their case to show the things that
they want to do, what programs they want and how the
money will be divided if they get it." . . .
WEBSTER: But you will concede that there must be a
measure of direction from the government in the way it
wants the universities to go in the broad scheme of
things.
CLARK: Yes
WEBSTER: Well, there's a very fine line between that
and political interference
CLARK:   Well,  the  interference  that  is a  violation  of
freedom and that which isn't. Yes, you're right.
•     •     •
CALLER: . . . The freezing of the operating budgets . . .
really means that the faculty and for a number of other
of the staff out there, it'll (mean) more years of falling
behind the actual increase in cost of living. Some people
might think that professors are very well-paid from the
word go, after years of intensive work and very little
income. It might be of interest for people to know that
many professors are paid much less than elementary
school and high school teachers for essentially the first
half of their careers. Is that right, Dr. Clark?
CLARK: Yes.
WEBSTER: Well, I'd like you both to be more specific
on that. In fact, there's another point of Premier
Barrett's that we haven't touched on this morning. On
Tuesday he made it quite clear that he has a thing about
the six to nine hours teaching per week by the university
staff. These are the figures he used. Is he wrong? Is he
Documentary
Films Shown
The first of a series of six award-winning documentary films made by Frederick Wiseman will be shown
on the UBC campus tomorrow (Thursday, Feb. 28).
A group of UBC Faculties, Schools and departments
are sponsoring the films, which will be shown in several
campus locations between Feb. 28 and April 4. All
films begin at 1 2:30 p.m.
Tickets for the films, at $1.10 each or $4.80 for the
series, are available at ths offices of the following
Faculties, Schools and departments: Architecture,
Commerce, Education, Health Care and Epidemiology,
Nursing, Psychiatry, Psychology, Social Work, Anthropology and Sociology, and Theatre.
Here is a list of the dates and titles of the films to be
shown at UBC. Each film runs an average of 90 minutes.
Feb. 28 — "Law and Order." How a police force
copes with crime. Old Auditorium.
March 7 — "Hospital." Made in the emergency ward
of a New York hospital. Instructional Resources Centre
Lecture Hall No. 2.
March 14 — "High School." Life in a lower-middle-
class secondary school. Room 100, Education Building.
March 21 — "Basic Training." Life in a basic military
training camp. Old Auditorium.
March 28 — "Essene." Life in a monastery. Recital
Hall, Music Building.
April 4 — "Juvenile Court." The daily routine of a
juvenile court. Old Auditorium.
misinformed Jn that? Do teachers at universities, one,
have an adequate load right now? I get all kinds of hairy
stories from callers who are upset by individual cases,
but what is the score on the teaching load? Do you
people work for a living?
CALLER: . . . I've never seen people work harder than
many of the professors.
WEBSTER: Well, I agree, I agree with it. But let's put it
bluntly to Dr. Clark.
CLARK: All right. I can't give you a fully satisfactory
answer to that, Jack, because we don't have a statistical
study as to how long people work. Let me say that my
impression is that the average faculty member works between 45 and 50 hours a week.
WEBSTER: But he teaches ... six to nine hours a
week. . . Is that a proper load if a university professor is
doing his proper research?
CLARK: I think an average — it varies a bit from one
faculty to another — but an average of around eight,
nine hours I think is appropriate for the University as a
whole. But when you consider, compare that with an
overall working week of 45 to 50 hours, it's quite clear
that the actual time in the classroom is a small fraction
of the total.
WEBSTER: Another layman's question, and this is
thrown at me. I've never been to university, except as a
visitor on odd occasions. What does "publish or perish"
mean, and why do people say to me, "oh, they use postgraduate students for this and that and they're so busy
writing papers they haven't got time to teach."-Is there
any validity in that criticism? Must a good teacher "publish or perish" even though his forte may be teaching,
not publishing?
CLARK: I would have to say that in my judgment the
prime emphasis at our University, in the eyes of most
faculty members, is on their research, not on their teaching. There are, however, a substantial minority who
would put their teaching first.
• •     •
WEBSTER: What about salaries themselves? Are salaries
standard across the country for universities with various
qualifications and various Faculties?
CLARK: They vary from one university to another, and
they vary, of course, by rank. Our salaries have, of
course, in the last two years tended to fall behind and of
course with this particular treatment proposed, we'll fall
behind further what is paid at other leading universities.
WEBSTER: Would you care to give me an example of
salaries at all, just to take a couple at random.
CLARK: Well, yes, I'll give you the actual figures for
this year as an indication. The average assistant professor
this year was paid, as a salary, $1 5,296, and the largest
number of faculty members are in that category. The
associate professors, the average was $18,677. That's the
second-largest category. And the full professors was an
average of $26,000.
WEBSTER: Gosh. They'd be far better to get jobs with
their buddies in Victoria as associate deputy ministers at
$33,000 to $39,000, wouldn't it? You'll be losing a lot
more people to the new high provincial government
salaries. Dr. Clark, won't you?
CLARK: Oh, I expect we'll tend to lose an increasing
number of people if this sort of circumstance continues,
sure.
WEBSTER: A good plumber can make more than an
associate professor. Mind you, that's perhaps only as it
should be in the scheme of things in today's society.
• •     •
CALLER: Yes, my husband is a professor of metallurgy
in the engineering faculty, and some of the hours that he
works I think might be worth commenting on. It takes
four hours to prepare for every hour lecture that he gives
and he gives often ten hours lectures a week, sometimes
up to 20, and then there are other hours in the labs as
well which are something else again.
WEBSTER: So your husband's working a 50- to 60-hour
week.
CALLER: He certainly is.
WEBSTER: Thank you, ma'am. That's a favorable call
to finish on. Just for me to wrap up though, you said
this morning that Premier Barrett's attitude, if it
continues, is going to leave you in a particular bind,
difficult to meet your commitments, and you reject,
too, his proposition that the quarter system would be
better for education, higher education in general, and
. . . you say the facilities are used pretty much to the full
although it is a lighter load in the summertime. Correct?
CLARK: Virtually correct, yes. I'm not saying we're
operating at 100-per-cent capacity all the time. No
university is.
WEBSTER: Now, would you like to wrap up?
CLARK: Yes. What I'd really most like would be to have
the Premier and the Minister of Education take the time
to visit each of the universities after the session is over
for a sufficiently extended visit to really find out at firsthand what is going on. I believe their policy has been
formulated without that knowledge, because they've had
so many things to do in a short space of time. But I
think the university community and the public would
benefit. ^m^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
Contact
UBC ON TV
9:30 p.m., Thursdays,
Cable 10, in Vancouver
PREPARED FOR UBC REPORTS BY THE UBC ALUMNI ASSOCIATION
GERRY COCHRANE, BHE'65, undergoes fitness test
administered by physiology graduate student James
Lee, left foreground, at Home Economics nutrition
conference held at Cecil Green Park on Saturday, Feb.
16. See story on conference in Column 2 below. Picture
by John Mahler.
URGE HIGHER GRANTS
The executive of the UBC Alumni Association has
questioned whether the provincial government was
aware of projected enrolment increases for next year
when it made its decision on grants to the universities.
The executive raised this question after Premier
David Barrett announced the 1974-75 grant to
universities in his budget speech of Feb. 11. The
government has granted the universities $110 million
in operating grants and $11 million in capital grants
($8 million to UBC, $2 million to SFU and $1 million
to UVic).
The alumni officers suggest that, with rising
enrolments, the allocations to universities are not
high enough, and they urge the government to
reconsider the level of grants.
This position was set out in a statement from
Alumni Association President George Morfitt submitted to Premier Barrett, which read:
"We are pleased to note that the Premier has given
the assurance that he does not wish to interfere with
the autonomy of the universities. We are further
pleased to. hear the Premier's assurances that money
will be made available for new programs.
"We are grateful for the funds provided in the
budget for capital expenditures.
"Upon reading the budget speech, it would appear
that it was the government's intention to increase the
operating budget of the three universities by an
amount sufficient to offset basically the inflationary
cost spiral.
"But it would appear to us that the projected
enrolment figures for the next year for the three
universities were not available to the government at
the time the budget was prepared. We now understand that estimated enrolment at the three universities for 1974-75 is expected to increase by 12.4 per
cent, or approximately 4,000 students, over the
estimated enrolment 1973-74, on which the division
of the operating grants for 1973-74 was made.
"If additional funds are not forthcoming for
operating purposes, it seems to us that basic programs
may have to be curtailed and, in addition, the quality
of education at the university level shall suffer.
"We are certain that it is not the intention of the
government to see tuition fees rise in order to
maintain basic programs and academic excellence. We
____________________________
respectfully urge the government to reconsider the
matter with a view to possibly increasing the operating grants to the three universities."
The Alumni Association executive is currently
considering other courses of action in support of
university needs.
Canada Needs
Diet Revolution
What this country needs is not a "drinking man's
diet" but a "thinking man's diet."
That is the essence of the "Diet Revolution" which
St. Paul's Hospital Dietitian Sue Ross proposed to a
Home Economics alumni nutrition conference held
Feb. 16 at Cecil Green Park. Ms. Ross was one of
several nutrition and physical fitness experts who
spoke to the conference, which focussed on the
relationship of diet to fitness. The day-long
conference was attended by 110 home ec. graduates.
Ms. Ross said widespread misinformation about
dietary matters is enabling some so-called nutritional
experts to get rich. She argued that if people were
better educated from childhood about diets and fitness they would be able not only to see through the
extreme claims of quacks, but also to take care of
themselves better. The key to the "thinking man's
diet," she said, is a wide variety of foods in moderation, coupled with lots of exercise.
Another speaker. Bob MacKay, physical education
teacher at Templeton secondary school, described
physical fitness as "what some people have until they
are asked to show it." He said women should not confuse physical shape with physical fitness.
Nursing Meetings
Nursing alumni are urged to circle their calendars
and attend two upcoming events organized by the
Nursing alumni division.
Prof. Robert Heywood, of the Commerce Faculty,
will speak on "Personal Finances" at a meeting of
Nursing alumni at 8:00 p.m. on Wednesday, March
20, in UBC's Instructional Resources Centre.
Anthropology teacher Dr. Helga Jacobson will
speak on "New Women's Studies Programs at UBC"
at 8:00 p.m. on Wednesday, April 17, in the Walter
H. Gage Residence.
FEDERAL government finance minister and UBC
graduate John Turner will be guest speaker at the
Commerce annual dinner on Thursday, March 7, in
the UBC Faculty Club. Mr. Turner will speak on
"Current Economic Conditions: Oil and Energy
Problems." The function gets underway with a
reception at 6:00 p.m., followed by dinner at 7:00
p.m. Tickets, at $8 per person, may be obtained by
phoning 228-3313.
HERB CAPOZZI, colorful former MLA and general
manager of the B.C. Lions, will be guest speaker at
the annual awards night and reunion banquet of the
Big Block Club on Thursday, March 14, in the UBC
Faculty Club. The master of ceremonies will be
associate professor of Education Dr. Norman Watt.
The function begins with an alumni reception at 6:00
p.m., followed by dinner at 7:30 p.m. Tickets, $10
for alumni, $6 for students, may be obtained by
calling 228-2531.

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