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UBC Reports Jan 3, 2008

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 THE  UNIVERSITY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
VOL   54   I   NO   1   I   JANUARY   3,   2008
ko*-2o,
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UBC
SWW5
o
UBC REPORTS
3 Goodbye to HIV
5 Floating Speed Trains
the next BIG thing
6 Light-speed Computing
7 Doing Business 2.0
UBC Reports has conducted its third annual informal
poll of researchers to identify a few advances that
will change your world. Their predictions capture the
power and importance of the ongoing pursuit of new
knowledge.
Tapping into the Heat
Beneath our Feet
Virtually all of Canada's high-temperature geothermal resources are under
B.C. In the next 15 years they can supply 30 per cent of our power needs
with the cleanest form of energy known.
BYJOHNA.MEECH,
Professor and Director of The
Centre for Environmental
Research in Minerals, Metals,
and Materials (UBC-CERM3),
andMORYGHOMSHEl,
Adjunct Professor and Head
of the CERM3-Earth Energy
Laboratory in The Norman
B. Keevil Institute of Mining
Engineering.
With climate change so high
today on the environmental
and political agenda, substitutes
for fossil fuels are under
examination. Three significant
alternative energy types exist:
wind, solar, and geothermal.
Each can create electricity, with
passive solar and geothermal also
able to produce heat for direct
use. Wind and solar sources are
intermittent, while geothermal is
available all the time making it
a key way to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions.
Although high-temperature
geothermal energy is a small
fraction of total world energy
production, it has been growing
annually at approximately 3.5
per cent over the past 20 years.
About 10 gigawatts (GW) of
power capacity exists worldwide
with the U.S. producing about
25 per cent of this total and the
Philippines about 20 per cent.
Iceland is an important supplier
at 10 per cent, with additional
increases expected to support a
European "hydrogen economy"
in transportation.
Virtually all of Canada's
high-temperature resources are
located in B.C. along the Coast
Mountain range. From Harrison
Hot Springs to Pemberton to the
Stikine and into the Wrangell
Mountains, many young volcanic
formations contain water and
steam at temperatures above
200 °C. Within the next 10 to
15 years, about 3 GW of high-
temperature geothermal power
will be established to provide
the cleanest and greenest form
of energy known. This capacity
is about 30 per cent of B.C.'s
current hydroelectric system and
can be used to supply customers
outside B.C. who require
purchasing carbon credits. Each
generating station will typically
continued on page 3
John Meech and Mory Ghomshei: a geothermal heating system for c
large building could reduce long-term costs by 75 per cent.
Jens Haeusser likens a virtual ID card to your physical driver's licence
with features to protect privacy
NBT: Going Beyond Passwords,
to Virtual Identities
BYJENS HAEUSSER
Director, Strategy,
UBC Information Technology
Using the Internet today can
be a frustrating experience. It
seems like every other website
you visit requires you to create
another account, picking yet
another username and password,
and disclosing a wide range of
personal information. What if
there was a better way? What if
you could use a wide range of
online services more securely,
with much greater control
over your privacy? A team of
technologists from around the
world, including IT staff here at
UBC, is hard at work to make
this vision a reality.
UBC IT is part of a wide
range of organizations and
individuals exploring new
user-centric technologies,
including OpenID ( http://
openid.net ) and Information
Cards ( http://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/Information_Card ).
As a member of the BC Identity
Management Forum, chaired
by the Office of the Chief
Information Officer (CIO) of
BC (http://www.cio.gov.bc.ca/
idm/ ), UBC has helped create
a new identity management
architecture for the province that
puts the needs of the citizens of
B.C. first, and does its utmost
to help protect their privacy
and personal information. This
new architecture will enable the
creation of virtual ID cards that
can be used to access a wide
range of online services. Like the
signature on your driver's license,
virtual IDs can contain a digital
signature used to verify who is
using that ID in a more secure
way than a simple username and
password.
Like your physical driver's
license, you will be in full control
of your virtual ID cards. Just
like you choose when to show
your driver's license to prove
your physical identity today,
you will be able choose where
and when to show your virtual
ID. And just as the government
doesn't know when you show
continued on page 6
More
on
th
e web
- Visit our January edit
on on the web to read two more expert essays on new trends:
• Red
uc
ng
Glob
al Child Mortal
ty, by D
\ Robert Armstrong, Assoc.
Prof, and Head,
Department of Pe
-d
atr
cs
• The
New
Field
of Neuroethics,
by Judy
Mies, Professor and Canada
Research Chair i
n Neuroethics 2     |     UBC    REPORTS     |    JANUARY   3,    200!
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Highlights of UBC media coverage in December 2007.  compiled byjulie-ann backhouse
UBC psychology researchers
shine in the New York Times
Two separate studies by UBC
psychology researchers were
included with 70 of the world's
most intriguing discoveries over
the past 12 months for the New
York Times Magazine's "7th
Annual Year in Ideas".
In The God Effect, the
New York Times Magazine
highlighted findings by UBC
Asst. Prof. Ara Norenzayan
and PhD graduate Azim Shariff
that people will act with greater
altruism and generosity when
they're reminded of God or their
civic responsibility. Their study
was published in the September
issue of Psychological Science
journal and is available online
at: www.psychologicalscience.
org/media.
Also included in the New
York Times Magazine, under
Quitting Can Be Good for You,
was research by UBC Psychology
Assoc. Prof. Greg Miller and
Concordia University's Carsten
Wrosch. Their study, published
in the in the September issue
of the journal Psychological
Science, found that too much
perseverance can be bad for
your health. The research
explored how teenage girls
exhibit increased levels of the
inflammatory molecule C-
reactive protein (C.R.P.) if they
continue striving for a hard-
to-reach goal. In adults, C.R.P.
is linked with diabetes, heart
disease and early aging.
Preschool curriculum helps
performance
United Press International
reported on a UBC study that
says a preschool curriculum
may help school performance
and close the achievement
gap between children of poor
families and wealthier ones.
UBC Psychiatry Professor
Adele Diamond was motivated
by previous research which
showed that children from
lower-income families enter
school with disproportionately
poor executive functions skills
and fall progressively farther
behind in school each year.
Diamond led the first
evaluation of the curriculum
Tools of the Mind that focuses
on improving executive functions
including: inhibition, planning,
time perception, working
memory, self-monitoring, verbal
self-regulation, regulation of
emotion and motivation.
UBC researchers create first
biomechanical model of a
feeding fin whale
UBC researchers have been
tracking whales to determine
exactly how they're able to
consume enough food to build
their giant bodies. Jeremy
Goldbogen, a PhD candidate at
UBC's Department of Zoology,
and Robert Shadwick, zoology
professor and Canada Research
Chair, have created the first
detailed biomechanical model of
a feeding fin whale.
Working with Nick Pyenson,
a biologist at the University
of California, Berkeley, they
applied basic laws of physics to
detailed data and combined it
with information about the size
and shape of fin whale bodies.
The scientists ended up with a
surprisingly complete picture of
what the whales do when they
feed.
Their study was recently
published in the journal Marine
Ecology Progress Series and
reported in The New York Times.
Prof. Adele Diamond earned wide international coverage for a study
connecting preschool curriculum to school performance.
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UBC REPORTS
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Principal Photography  Martin Dee martin.dee@ubc.ca
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Contributors J. Backhouse julie-ann.backhouse@ubc.ca
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Brian Lin brian.lin@ubc.ca
Bud Mortenson bud.mortenson@ubc.ca
Basil Waugh basil.waugh@ubc.ca
Advertising Sarah Walker public.a££airs@ubc.ca
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NBT: Saying Goodbye to HIV in Canada
BY DR. MICHAEL REKART
Clinical Professor, Director,
STI/HIV Prevention and Control,
British Columbia Centre for
Disease Control
At the risk of sounding like
a cockeyed optimist, I can see
a time in the not too distant
future when the human
immunodeficiency virus, HIV,
has been all but eliminated
from Canada. And the weapons
that we need to win this long-
running war against this elusive
adversary are not still "under
development" in the research
laboratory - they're actually
already at hand.
HIV is a lifelong infection
during which the virus levels
in the blood stream and other
bodily fluids ebb and flow,
in much the same way that a
patient's symptoms can vary
from time to time. However, it's
clear that the largest viral loads
occur during the early and late
stages of infection. Since the risk
of transmission to someone else
correlates with the amount of
virus, an infected person poses
the greatest risk of spreading
HIV during the early and late
stages. It would be logical,
therefore, to target these highly
infectious individuals with an
enhanced focus on preventing
such transmission. But that's not
Dr. Micheal Rekart wants to take advantage of new blood tests that detect HIV DNA and that become positive within days.
resistance. Furthermore, many
people who require treatment
have significant problems
in accessing the health care
system in the first place. Many
of them struggle with more
immediate difficulties like drug
of infection, the acute phase, can
be 28 times higher than during
the latent phase which lasts eight
to 10 years. Since the standard
HIV blood test measures
antibodies against HIV and thus
takes four weeks to turn positive,
Imagine how the current HIV infection/transmission
scenario could be turned around if we were able to
identify infections within days rather than weeks.
such an easy thing to do.
During the late stages of
infection, most patients qualify
for free anti-retroviral (ARV)
treatment which lowers their
viral load and risk to others.
But half of these individuals,
currently, are not actually taking
ARVs. Drug cocktails (commonly
called HAART - highly active
retroviral treatment) can be
difficult to take, cause serious
side effects and generate drug
addiction, poverty, poor housing,
discrimination and abuse.
Dr Julio Montaner, Director
of the BC Centre for Excellence
in HIV/AIDS, believes that it's
possible to improve this situation
through directly-observed
therapy and once-a-day HAART
regimens which are less toxic but
currently more expensive.
On the other end of the
continuum, HIV levels in a
person during the first few weeks
you might think that this critical
period is unassailable. But you
would be wrong, because blood
tests that detect HIV DNA and
that become positive within just
a few days of infection have been
approved in Canada for several
years now.
These diagnostics are called
the nucleic acid amplification
tests (NAATs) and these are
what Canadian Blood Services
uses to screen blood and
tissue donations. The Sexually
Transmitted Infection (STI) and
HIV Prevention and Control
Division at the British Columbia
Centre for Disease Control
(BCCDC) has just been awarded
a $2.5 million grant from the
Canadian Institutes for Health
Research (CIHR) to pilot the
use of NAAT to identify and
intervene for acute infections in
Vancouver.
Imagine how the current HIV
infection/transmission scenario
could be turned around if we
were able to identify infections
within days rather than weeks.
People who do get infected
would be aware of their status
much, much sooner, allowing
them to take precautions against
infecting others at a much earlier
point in time as well - and
ultimately empowering them to
begin taking better care of their
health overall, to live healthier
and longer lives.This push to
ensure early detection also ties
in with overall HIV prevention
advocacy, especially when it
comes to getting people to get
tested.
On a related note, it appears
that the role of herpes simplex
virus type 2 (HSV-2) as a
cofactor in up to 40 per cent
of HIV transmissions can be
mitigated by scaling up HSV-2
education, diagnosis, treatment
and prophylaxis programs
with new lab tests and generic
drugs already available. HIV
doesn't exist in a vacuum —
and by better recognizing and
addressing this, we can make
significant progress in reducing
HIV infection and transmission.
By aggressively targeting the
early and late phases of HIV
infection and by dealing more
proactively with HSV-2 infection,
I believe we can - and will
- make HIV a thing of the past.
H EAT continued from page 1
be able to generate 25 to 100
megawatts (MW) of electrical
power as base load energy.
An equivalent amount of
energy is also delivered by low-
temperature geothermal systems
installed worldwide to provide
heat and cooling for buildings.
These systems are smaller units
(3kW to 10 MW) that are much
more distributed than are high-
temperature sources, since they
can be applied to heat individual
homes. In all parts of Canada,
our homes can be heated using
energy extracted from beneath
our property.
Two types of low-temperature
geothermal systems exist:
closed-loop and open-loop. With
a closed loop system, several
10-15cm diameter holes are
drilled about 15-30m into the
Earth. A 12mm diameter loop
of hosepipe is placed in each
hole to pump-in anti-freeze at
about 3-5°C and return it to
surface at about 10-12°C. The
temperature difference between
inlet and outlet represents the
energy to be extracted by a heat
pump as it boosts the delivery
loop temperature to 45-55°C to
distribute heat throughout the
building. A heat pump is simply
a refrigerator operated in reverse
using a refrigerant (iso-butane)
compression/decompression
cycle to transfer heat from the
anti-freeze solution into the
delivery water loop.
An open-loop system consists
of two deep (30-60m) water
wells - one pumping the energy
source ground water to a
heat pump similar to that of a
closed-loop system. This water
is injected back into the aquifer
to ensure the groundwater
table is not drawn down. With
proper positioning of these wells,
the resource temperature can
be maintained at about 10 to
20°C depending on depth and
latitude. The energy used by
the heat pump in either case is
between 20 to 40 per cent of that
extracted from the ground.
The installation cost of a
low-temperature system is about
50 to 100 per cent higher than
that of a conventional fossil-fuel-
fired furnace for a single-family
dwelling, so this is difficult to
justify without GHG emission
coast to coast and into the far
north. The city of Yellowknife,
for example, is designing a
district heating system using
luke-warm waters extracted
from the nearby Con Mine.
In Springhill, Nova Scotia, a
system has been in place for over
10 years to heat an industrial
park using 20°C water from an
abandoned coal mine.
per cent.
The future for Geothermal
Energy Systems is indeed bright
and UBCis actively researching
the best ways to exploit these
technologies in Canada. We
have partnered with a flower-
growing greenhouse operation
in Chilliwack to build a
demonstration plant to heat the
greenhouse with geothermal
The associated green house gas reductions represent
50 per cent of Canada's Kyoto Accord obligations.
incentives (carbon credits).
Economies of scale are gained
with large buildings or by
creating a district heating system.
The incremental costs can be
paid back in three to four years,
which is advantageous since
long-term (20-25 years) energy
operating and maintenance costs
are reduced by 75 per cent.
These systems are useable
When combined with high-
temperature systems in B.C.,
Yukon, and Nova Scotia, a total
of 42 GW will offset fossil fuel
use over the next 15 years. The
associated GHG reductions
represent 50 per cent of Canada's
Kyoto Accord obligations. This
is certainly not insignificant
particularly when it will also
reduce energy costs by over 50
energy and remove the current
natural-gas boilers. Both high-
and low-temperature resources
are accessible at this site and
so we are also establishing a
satellite research station to
allow studies into all aspects of
geothermal energy systems. For
more info: www.cerm3.mining,
ubc.ca 4     I     UBC    REPORTS     |    JANUARY   3,    200!
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If you paid a parking or towing fine to
the University of British Columbia,
you have legal rights in a class action lawsuit
WHAT'S THIS ABOUT?
The British Columbia Supreme Court
has certified a class action lawsuit
about the parking and towing fines
that have been collected by the University of British Columbia.The Court
authorized this Legal Notice to guide
you on the steps that you may need to
take, if any.
The lawsuit claims that UBC has unlawfully collected parking and towing
fines and must repay all of the parking
and towing fines that it collected during the period of September 1,1990
to September 30, 2007. UBC denies
any wrongdoing and will defend the
lawsuit. The Court has not yet made
any decision on the merits ofthe claim
or the defences.
WHO'S INCLUDED?
You are a Class Member ifyou paid
parking and towing fines to UBC
between September 1,1990 and
September 30,2007.
WHAT TO DO IF YOU LIVE IN BC?
Ifyou are a Class Member who lives in
British Columbia, you do not need to
do anything to continue to be included
as a Class Member at this stage of the
lawsuit.
If you do not want to be a Class
Member who is legally bound by this
lawsuit, you must exclude yourself
by August 31,2008. To learn how to
exclude yourself, contact the lawyers
who represent the Class Members,
Camp Fiorante Matthews, whose address is below.
Ifyou exclude yourself by the deadline
it means that you can bring your own
lawsuit. It also means that you cannot
collect any money that may ultimately
be paid to Class Members as a result
of this lawsuit.
Camp Fiorante Matthews Lawyers
4th Floor Randall Building, 555 West Georgia St., Vancouver, BC V6B 1Z6
1-800-689-2322 or (604) 689-7555
WHAT IF YOU DON'T LIVE IN BC?
Ifyou do not live in British Columbia
and want to participate in the lawsuit,
you must take action to include yourself by August 31,2008. To learn how
to include yourself, contact the lawyers
who represent the Class Members,
Camp Fiorante Matthews, whose address is below.
Ifyou do not include yourself by the
deadline it means that you can bring
your own lawsuit and will not be
bound by the result in this lawsuit. It
also means that you cannot collect any
money that might ultimately be paid
to Class Members as a result of this
lawsuit.
WHO PAYS THE LAWYERS?
If the lawsuit is not successful, you will
not be responsible for any lawyer fees
and costs.
If the lawsuit is successful, the lawyers
who represent all the Class Members
have an agreement with the representative plaintiff that allows them
to be paid a percentage ofthe total
amount that they obtain for the Class
Members. The agreement can only be
enforced if it is approved by the Court
and the Court will approve the amount
that is paid to the lawyers for the Class
Members.
It is strongly recommended that you
review the long form of this Legal
Notice which can be obtained from the
lawyers representing all of the Class
Members, Camp Fiorante Matthews,
and is on their website:
www.cfmlawyers.ca/class_actions/
UBCParkingFineClassAction.html.
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Prof. Kai Chan says that researchers have not been effective at showing impacts of extracting natural resources.
NBT: A New Way to Assess
Local Ecosystems Sustainability
BY KAI M. A. CHAN
Assistant Professor and Canada
Research Chair, Institute for
Resources, Environment, and
Sustainability, College for
Interdisciplinary Studies
Ecosystems are in flux around
the world. Important species
are disappearing due to
mismanagement and climate
change, while invasive new
species are appearing. These
changes are striking fear
into many communities that
depend on ecosystems for their
livelihood.
Imagine you are a local
shellfish harvester on the west
coast of Vancouver Island. Sea
otters, which have been known
to wreak havoc on some shellfish
industries, are beginning to re-
colonize local waters. It doesn't
matter much to the community
that this marks the return of a
once-loved native species: they
are still up in arms. The local
First Nation is considering
hunting the otters. But is a cull
the best thing for the community
or the ecosystem?
To answer this complex but
important question, researchers
at UBC and elsewhere are
employing a new concept,
ecosystem services, to help
community leaders make the
best decisions for the long-term
health of local ecosystems. The
concept of ecosystem services
can be traced to Plato, but the
term was introduced by Paul and
Anne Ehrlich in 1981 and has
enjoyed exploding popularity
since.
Ecosystem services are the
direct and indirect benefits
that people obtain from their
interactions with ecosystems.
There are provisioning services
like the production of natural
resources including food, fibre,
and fuel; regulating services
like the mitigation of floods
and climate change; cultural
services like the provision of
recreational opportunities and
scientific, artistic, and religious
inspiration; and supporting
services like the pollination of
crops and the biological control
of pests. A sustainable ecosystem
would continue to produce these
benefits for future generations.
You might think that
researchers understand how
ecosystems produce all these
services, and that the current
unsustainability of ecosystems
is a result of poor policy and
management. It's true that in
extracting natural resources,
industry often turns a blind
eye on ecosystem impacts. But
researchers have not been able to
show the consequences of these
impacts for ecosystem services,
so the impacts continue apace.
The B.C. Coastal Ecosystem
Services team - a group of UBC
faculty and students plus leaders
from conservation organizations
- is employing the ecosystem
services concept in Clayoquot
Sound. Despite the fear, otters
may help various industries by
regenerating productive kelp
forests, so boosting populations
of rockfish, herrings, and
possibly also grey whales, sea
birds, and more: these species
are associated with commercial
and recreational industries that
benefit coastal communities.
The kelp forest expansion may
even help some shellfish, but the
jury is still out. So should First
Nations hunt otters? We don't
know, but by working with local
decision makers we're hoping
to help them make sustainable
choices.
Our project is affiliated with
the Natural Capital Project
(www.naturalcapitalproject.
org), which is working in
China, Tanzania, California,
and elsewhere. The study of
ecosystem services brings
together experts from ecology,
economics, conservation,
hydrology, anthropology, earth
and ocean sciences, ethics, and
more to provide as complete
of a picture of the potential
pros and cons of management
decisions facing ecosystems.
Even enlightened decisions
have downsides, but ecosystem-
service analyses provide ways
of reducing conflict by revealing
the winners and losers and
suggesting possibilities for
compensation. This can reduce
conflict between stakeholders
and promote justice.
Sustainable ecosystems and
ecosystem services are not easily
achieved. Just like with the many
shellfish and finfish industries
and various recreational
industries of Vancouver Island,
numerous ecosystem services
are produced simultaneously
by interacting components of
complex systems. Salmon, for
example, provide food and
fundamental cultural services to
people of BC and elsewhere, and
they also provide nutrients and
energy for forests, bears, wolves,
and eagles. Salmon cannot be
managed alone, because over the
course of their lives they navigate
thousands of kilometers of
freshwater, estuaries, and ocean,
dodging impacts of logging,
dams, pollution, and nets,
including those for other fish.
Ecosystem services are the flip
side of the ecological footprint.
In fact, ecosystem services are
the 'print' part of the footprint;
the so-called 'ecological
footprint' is the shoe size. The
insightful ecological footprint
concept (of Wackernagel and
Rees at UBC) is the amount of
biologically productive land
and sea needed to produce the
resources used by a person or
population. It tells us that we're
already outstripping the planet's
capacity to sustainably provide
for us. But that ecological foot
doesn't fall in any one place: the
negative impacts of a person's
consumption fall in many
places across the globe. Even
if the global population had a
sustainable foot, it might have
many unsustainable ecosystems.
Interdisciplinary "ecosystem
services" research paves a path
to sustainable ecosystems and
human well-being. UBC    REPORTS     |    JANUARY   3,    2008     |    5
The False Hope ofthe Next Big Thing
The values inherent in the field of physical therapy remind us that
there is no substitute to the basic work of maintaining agood lifestyle.
BY ELIZABETH DEAN
Professor, Department of
Physical Therapy
Physical therapy is the
quintessential non-invasive
health care profession. Its values
are consistent with the profound
tenets of Hippocrates that
include 'First do no harm' and
'The function of protecting and
developing health must rank
even above that of restoring it
when it is impaired.' A holistic
health approach is consistent
with contemporary definitions of
physical therapy and its 100-year
tradition of health education and
prescription of physical activity
and exercise.
Lifestyle conditions are
leading causes of chronic illness
and disability in high-income
countries and increasingly
in middle- and low-income
countries. These conditions
include ischemic heart disease,
smoking-related conditions, high
pressure and stroke, and diabetes
and obesity. The next 'big thing'
in the profession of physical
therapy is aligning contemporary
practice more closely with its
underlying values to impact the
social and economic burdens of
these conditions, in addition to
their impact on individuals and
their families.
In addition to being members
of the fifth largest health care
profession, physical therapists
are uniquely suited to impact
these lethal conditions because,
compared with other health
care professionals, they spend
prolonged periods of time with
their clients/patients - this
pattern of care enables effective
NBT: Floating Speed Trains
BYTAE OUM
Professor and UPS Foundation Chair in Transport and Logistics,
Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia.
In our interconnected global world, people have now have not had a clean alternative to pollution-creating
jet travel. There is a much cleaner alternative now on the horizon: floating speed trains that can travel 500
km per hour and will help spur a great shift from air to rail travel.
The floating train has recorded a speed of 581 km per hour.
Rail enthusiasts take note.
Japan is preparing for the build-
out of the fastest train in the
world - connecting the mega-
cities of Tokyo and Osaka and
a dense regional population of
more than 50 million people.
But speed isn't the only factor
that makes this train unique.
While project planning is still
at the early stages (construction
wouldn't begin until at least
2009), the tab for the project is
expected to reach $100 billion,
making it the most expensive
project in world history.
Japanese taxpayers aren't
panicking, however. Central
Japan Railway Company (JR
Central) believes it can finance
The maglev system doesn't
have wheels. When it reaches
a certain speed, it floats. That's
why it can travel so fast - it
doesn't touch the ground.
The technology has been in
development since the 1970s.
Back then, it was a concept. Then
we started to see the building of
test tracks in various places, such
as Europe and Japan.
China is currently home to
the 30km Shanghai Magnetic
Levitation Demonstration
Operation Line, connecting
Shanghai to Pudong
International Airport.
But in terms of long distance,
for which this technology is
designed, the Tokyo-Osaka
into place for this mega-project.
The money is there. The
technology is there. The public
support is there.
There's also the environment
element. Relative to other modes
of transport, maglev technology
is very green. Calculations
show that the technology is 10
times cleaner than airlines in
terms of C02 emissions. This
significantly impacts greenhouse
gas emissions in the region, and
ultimately global warming - for
the better.
You reduce the air travel, you
reduce the travel by roads, you
reduce congestion, and you save
commuters time. In the process,
you reduce emissions - carbon
The maglev system doesn't have wheels.
When it reaches a certain speed, it floats.
this project entirely with private
funds.
The technology is known
as superconducting magnetic
levitation transport, or maglev
for short. Using electromagnetic
force, it's a form of
transportation that suspends and
guides vehicles. The 18 km-long
Japanese test track in Yamanashi
Prefecture has recorded a speed
of 581km per hour, the current
world record.
train is going to the first and the
fastest.
Japanese commuters should
like it. With speeds topping
500km per hour, it will shorten
travel time from Tokyo to Osaka
to just over an hour. The current
high-speed trains traveling in
that corridor - which can reach
speeds of up to 300 km per hour
can still only make the trip in
two and a half hours.
So the key factors are falling
dioxide and other pollutants.
The airlines are naturally
concerned about the future
competition. There will be a
massive shift from air passengers
to rail passengers.
But aircraft technology is
not environmentally friendly
- even compared to other modes
of transport, and especially
compared to rail. Maglev, on
the other hand, is greener, faster,
but not surprisingly, much more
expensive.
teaching and follow-up to be
implemented. The translation
of existing evidence-based
knowledge into practice is
paramount in the 21st century.
Effective lifestyle behavior
change is a multi-dimensional
challenge that may explain
its relative failure compared
with adherence to invasive
care recommendations
related to drugs and surgery.
Effective teaching and effecting
lifestyle behavior change must
be the priority in physical
therapy. Consistent with
the recommendations of the
Romanow Report and the Kirby
Report on health care in Canada,
physical therapy needs to be as
important a response to 21st
century health care priorities as
it was to the needs of survivors
of the world wars and the polio
epidemic. Putting into practice
the 2,500 year-old ethical
and cost-effective tenets of
Hippocrates will be a giant step
forward in addressing the health
priorities of our time.
Faculty of Medicine
- Through knowledge, creating health
Postdoctoral Coordinator
Applications and nominations are invited for the position of
Postdoctoral Coordinator.
This individual will be responsible for improving the training
environment of research postdoctoral fellows in the Faculty
of Medicine. Responsibilities will include chairing a
postdoctoral advisory committee, assisting with the
provision of professional development programs, developing
a career resource centre, monitoring postdoctoral training,
responding to postdoctoral fellow questions, and organizing
orientation and other postdoctoral activities. The position is
expected to require an approximate one day per week time
commitment, and the individual will report to the Assistant
Dean, Graduate Education.
The successful candidate should be a faculty member in
Medicine with research experience, an understanding and
commitment to postdoctoral research training, and
demonstrated administrative abilities.
Dean's Office | Research
Applications, accompanied by a
detailed curriculum vitae and
names of three references,
should be directed to:
Dr. Susan Porter
Assistant Dean,
Graduate & Postdoctoral
Education
Faculty of Medicine
#317-2194 Health Sciences Mall
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3
sporter ©pathology.ubc.ca
Closing date:    February 4, 2008
or until a suitable candidate has
been identified.
www.med.ubc.ca/research
The Faculty of Medicine is home to
approximately 200 postdoctoral fellows
and is working to enhance the training and
to provide support and professional
development opportunities for these
researchers.
The Faculty of Medicine at UBC, together
with its partners including B.C.'s Health
Authorities, provides innovative programs
in the areas of health and life sciences
through a province-wide delivery model.
The Faculty teaches students at the
undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate
levels and generates more than $200
million in research funding each year. It is
home to Canada's first distributed MD
undergraduate program.
UBC
^£
THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
UBC hires on the basis of merit and is committed to employment
equity. We encourage all qualified applicants to apply; however,
Canadians and permanent residents of Canada will be given priority.
www.ubc.ca & www.med.ubc.ca
Register now! Courses start early January.
Writing Centre
Academic Development
• preparation for university writing and the LP
• grammar and writing with style
• writing for graduate students
Professional Development
• report and business writing
• the role of a literary agent
Personal and Creative Writing
• short fiction, poetry and novel workshops
• journal writing and autobiography
Customized business and technical writing
workshops also available.
BOOK SALE - Jan 10 and 11 at
Ponderosa Annex C, 2021 West Mall.
www.writingcentre.ubc.ca/ur
604-822-9564
"bc Continuing Studies
W  Writing Centre 6     |     UBC    REPORTS     |    JANUARY    3,    200!
UBC
CAMPUS & COMMUNITY PLANNING
www.planning.ubc.ca
Want to learn more about
new buildings at UBC?
UBC Planning Open House 2008
UBC Planning Staff will be on hand with
drawings and information highlighting recent
projects at the University of British Columbia.
Please join us!
Monday, January 21, 2008
1:30 pm-7:30 pm
Tuesday, January 22, 2008
10:00 am -4:00 pm
Student Union Building Concourse
6138 Student Union Boulevard
For directions to the Student Union Building, go to
www.maps.ubc.ca
We hope to see you there! For further information,
contact Linda Moore (Associate Director,
Community Relations) at 604.822.8831 or
linda.mooreoa) ubc.ca.
www.planning.ubc.ca   www.universitytown.ubc.ca
PASSWORD continued from page 1
your driver's license during a
physical transaction, they won't
know where or why you choose
to show your virtual ID card
either. This end-user control,
combined with the secure digital
signature on the virtual ID, will
greatly enhance the security and
privacy of online transactions.
Indeed, the Ontario privacy
commissioner has recently
come out in favour of using
information cards, since they
have several key security and
privacy advantages over today's
password based systems.
One of the important aspects
of these virtual ID cards is
what they are not. This is not
an attempt by the provincial
government to collect a whole
bunch of information into one
giant central database. Today,
your wallet holds a wide range
of cards, from your driver's
license to your credit card to
your video store membership.
Tomorrow, your digital wallet
will be able to hold a wide range
of virtual IDs, from a card from
the province of B.C. that you
can use to prove your name or
your age, to one from UBC that
proves that you are a registered
student.
In the end, what does all
of this complicated identity
management technology mean
for the average online user?
Coming soon to a computer near
you, user-centric technologies
such as virtual ID Cards will
move us beyond passwords, to a
more secure online world where
end-users are in direct control
of where, when, and why they
choose to release their personal
information.
The UBC Okanagan Micro-Optical Engineering Research Program is developing integrated optical processors.
www.mediagroup.ubc.ca
NBT: Computing at Light-speed
GRAPHIC
DESIGN
VIDEO & MEDIA
PRODUCTION
ILLUSTRATION
PHOTOGRAPHY
LARGE FORMAT
COLOUR
PRINTING
DIGITAL
PRINTING
LAMINATION
AV EQUIPMENT
& MEDIA SALES
AV SERVICES &
MAINTENANCE
your ut&c media sales resowrct
AV Equipment
& Media Sales
Providing full consultation and sales services
for all makes of audio and video equipment
We supply:     audio, video & digital tapes
PROJECTION LAMPS
MICROSCOPIC LAMPS & BATTERIES
PHOTOGRAPHIC & DIGITAL FILMS
COMPUTER & PRINTER SUPPLIES
DELIVERY & SET-UP OF EQUIPMENT
AV EQUIPMENT RENTAL
VIDEO FORMAT TRANSFERS
AUDIO & VIDEO RECORDING
AND DUPLICATION
EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE & REPAIRS
AV SYSTEM DESIGN & INSTALLATION
We offer:       • quality products
• experienced staff
• very competitive pricing
Situated on campus at:
The Media Group
Woodward IRC Building, Rm B32
2194 Health Sciences Mall
Vancouver, BC V6T1Z3
Lower level of
Woodward IRC
Building
Wesbrook Mall
I®
Health Science
Email: mediagrp@interchange.ubc.ca
T: (604) 822-5561
F: (604) 822-2004
www.mediagroup.ubc.ca
-Media
rroup	
Look out transistors and wire. New light-based devices will make
computers much faster, while optical communications move data
faster than ever before.
BYJONATHAN HOLZMAN,
Assistant Professor, School of
Engineering, UBC Okanagan
It is an incredible time to be
an electrical engineer at the
University of British Columbia.
Communication technologies
have grown by leaps and
bounds over the past decade,
and innovative devices and
communication systems are
continually evolving to meet
growing network demands.
of Engineering at the University
of British Columbia Okanagan,
is working to meet the growing
demands of communication
technologies through a variety
of optical technology-based
communication processing
systems.
The optical benefits that
revolutionized information
transmission over the past
decade through fibre-optic cable
distribution are now being
shown to have great potential
currently being investigated for
use as highly complex logical
architectures for information
processing and as bi-directional
communication nodes within
wireless optical (near-infrared)
communication networks. The
transmission and processing
rates that characterize light-
based devices are thousands of
times faster than their electronic
counterparts and show great
potential.
The current research being
carried out by the Micro-Optical
Engineering Research Program
is part of a larger network
of researchers and facilities
The transmission and processing rates that
characterize light-based devices are thousands of
times faster than their electronic counterparts . . .
Internet traffic usage alone
has jumped from Gigabit levels
(109 bits/sec) in the late 1990's
to Petabit levels (1015 bits/sec)
at the present, and technologies
are struggling to keep up. At the
forefront of this communication
explosion have been numerous
fibre-optic and device-related
technologies within modern
communication systems (of which
many had their start in Canadian
research programs from
universities, national institutes
and the private sector).
The Micro-Optical Engineering
Research Program, which I head
with Julian Cheng in the School
in ultrahigh-speed optical
information processing.
With this in mind, the Micro-
Optical Engineering Research
Program is developing three-
dimensional integrated optical
"processors" to carry out
complex logical computations
and processing that have been
realized historically by electronic
systems.
Our work will overcome
the inherently slow bottlenecks
of electronic transistor-based
devices by implementing purely
photonic logic structures and all-
optical processing structures.
The integrated devices are
both within and outside of the
University of British Columbia.
The program has brought
together nanotechnological
material researchers from the
National Research Council
Canada (NRC) National
Institute for Nanotechnology
(NINT) and device fabrication
experts from UBC Vancouver's
Advanced Materials and
Process Engineering Laboratory
(AMPEL).The ultimate photonic
device realizations are carried
out at the UBC Okanagan Laser
Laboratory, where the future
of optical technology looks
especially bright. UBC REPORTS  | JANUARY 3, 2008 | 7
NBT: Doing Business 2.0
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St. John's College
UBC Guest
c I /      Accommodation
UBC
^|r
St. John's College extends an
invitation to visitors to UBC to stay
in our quiet, comfortable, and
well-appointed guest rooms.
Available year-round, guest rooms
are furnished with a double or
queen bed, private washroom,
telephone, television, coffee
maker, bar fridge and internet
connection.
Dining with College residents in our
spacious Dining Hall is an integral part
of the life of the College, and meals
are included in the guest room fees.
For further information or to make a reservation, contact us by
phone at 604-822-6522, or by e-mail: sjc.reception@ubc.ca
www.stjohns.ubc.ca
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MuskSearch
filangy
Meet With Approval .
business is being revolutionized by a new form of mass collaboration facilitated by social networking tools.
BYPAULCUBBON,
Instructor, Marketing Division,
Sauder School of Business,
Facebook, Secondlife, Linkedin,
Flickr - these websites are more
than just digital entertainment,
but rather the experimental
frontline of a new way of
communicating and doing
business.
But because of the rapid pace
of change along with new and
sometimes confusing jargon
secretive industry, famously
made all of its geological
information public online, and
ran a competition to help it
identify where to look for gold.
Thousands of submissions came
from unconventional sources;
many of these were productive,
leading to 8 million ounces of
new gold production.
Meanwhile, Procter and
Gamble now has thousands of
non-employee scientists signed
up to its open collaboration
So, "wikinomics" and "web
2.0" are not just jargon terms,
or for "Internet geeks." Mass
collaboration, enabled by the
Internet provides the opportunity
for all types of organizations to
transform the way they operate.
Some, for example, are
facilitating "expert, evangelical"
customers to help other
customers in online expert
forums and knowledge bases,
improving satisfaction, increasing
the sense of brand community
FRENCH SPANISH ITALIAN
JAPANESE GREEK MANDARIN
ARABIC DANISH PUNJABI
GERMAN KOREAN DUTCH
HINDI LATIN
THAI RUSSIAN
ANGUAGES
ULTURES & TRAVEL
Non-credit day, evening or
Saturday morning language classes
Start January 14
• Daytime cultural classes include:
Understanding Tea, Hispanic Cinema,
Italian for Opera Lovers,
Le Frangais au salon
• Courses on Understanding Wine
and Culinary Arts
• Language immersion programs to
France, Italy, Mexico and Spain
604-822-0800    www.languages.ubc.ca
Iffisl Continuing Studies
y    Languages, Cultures & Travel
Procter and Gamble now has thousands of non-
employee scientists signed up ... . The aim is to
generate at least half of future new business ideas
and technology from outside ofthe company.
and names, there is a danger
that people are missing the
bigger business story at play.
Collaborative, web-based tools
represent a fundamental change
in the way that business is, and
increasingly will be, conducted.
Although many exciting
new web-based ventures are
being created and championed
in the media, as with the first
generation of web activity, the
lower profile but more profound
changes are happening in the
traditional business world. In his
2006 book, Wikinomics: How
Mass Collaboration changes
everything, Don Tapscott notes
two prime examples of "old
economy" companies benefiting
from web-enabled mass
collaboration.
Goldcorp, a Canadian mining
company in a traditionally
network, focused on innovation
and problem-solving. The aim
is to generate at least half of
future new business ideas and
technology from outside of the
company.
This trend represents a
serious threat to the survival
of those companies that ignore
it, and a massive opportunity
for creativity, productivity
and competitiveness in those
companies that embrace this
change.
The premise is that the second
stage (Web2.0) of the web
revolution is just beginning.
The future is predicated on
collaboration and what we
currently see as primarily
entertainment sites for the young
are the experimental ground for
future business collaboration and
operation.
and loyalty, and reducing
customer service and call
centre costs. Many companies
(think computer hardware
and software companies like
Apple, Dell, Microsoft) are
pro-actively engaging a select
group of customers to help other
customers problem-solve.
There is no set play-book
(although Tapscott's blog
on www.wikinomics.com
is currently facilitating a
collaborative effort to write a
"playbook" on this topic.)
It is a time of exciting
experimentation where the bold
innovators are already crafting
a competitive advantage by
learning from their successes
and from their mistakes. The
takeaway: find a way to increase
your collaborative network -
then empower experimentation.
WE'RE OPEN
Accommodations to match our spectacular setting!
Warm, welcoming suites. Kitchens, flat panel TV and wireless
internet. Natural wood and stone, king beds with luxury linens,
conveniently located on campus.
All new. Right here.
West Coast Suites
at The University of British Columbia
www.ubcconferences.com
Reservations 604.822.1000 Toll Free 1.888.822.1030 I     UBC    REPORTS     |    JANUARY   3,    200!
Retiring on us takes the guesswork out of retirement. With over 300 retired faculty
members as clients, no one knows UBC pensions better.
We are experts at helping you plan your individual strategy—integrating pensions and
investments to ensure a safe and secure retirement. You've worked hard for your pension.
Now it's time for your pension to work
hard for you.
To learn more about how we take the
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Clay Gillespie, bba, cim, cfp
Vice President & Portfolio Manager
cgillespie@rogersgroup.com
Jim Rogers, ba, mba, clu, cfp
Chairman
jimrogers@rogersgroup.com
604.732.6551
www.rogersgroup.com
On Us
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