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UBC Publications

UBC Reports May 26, 1971

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Vol. 17, No. 10/May 26,1971/Vancouver8,B.C.
Canada's Governor-General, His
Excellency D. Roland Michener, and two
former members of the University of B.C.
faculty will receive honorary degrees during
UBC's three-day spring Congregation May
In addition, more than 3,000 academic
degrees will be conferred on graduating
students by Chancellor Allan M. McGavin,
who presides over the annual Congregation
The  ceremony  will   begin each day at
2:15 p.m. in UBC's War Memorial
The Governor-General will receive the
honorary degree of doctor of laws (LL.D.)
on Friday (May 28).
On Wednesday (May 26) UBC will honor
Professor Emeritus of English F.G.C.
"Freddy"  Wood,  the  first  native  British
Please turn to Page Two
Has Roots in
Middle Ages
UBC's 1971 Congregation for the
awarding of academic and honorary
degrees contains echoes of customs
and traditions which had their origins 800
years ago in the first European universities.
Few contemporary students realize how
directly the gowns and hoods they wear and
the degrees they receive today are linked to
the dress and academic customs of the high
Middle Ages which extended roughly from
the 12th to the 15th century.
Even the Congregation procession of
dignitaries, faculty members and graduating
students from nearby campus buildings to the
War Memorial Gymnasium is related to the
public, degree-granting ceremony which took
place in the Middle Ages at Bologna
University in Italy.
At Bologna, which was famed for its
training in the field of law, the student first
took a series of private qualifying exams, just
like his modern counterpart, and provided he
passed them was permitted to proceed to the
public ceremony known as the inception.
Prior to the appointed day the candidate
extended personal invitations to friends and
public officials to attend the ceremony. On
the day of the inception, a procession made
up of the candidate, his sponsoring doctor,
some university officials and fellow students
moved to the cathedral, where the aspiring
doctor delivered a speech, set forth a thesis in
his area of study and defended it against
student questioners, thereby playing the part
of doctor, or teacher, for the first time.
Almost all of these aspects of the medieval
ceremony exist in one form or another in the
20th century.
Candidates for the master's and
doctor's degrees at UBC still have a
sponsoring faculty member who
supervises and aids their work in the
development of their graduating thesis topic,
and today's Ph.D. student is still required to
present his thesis and take part in a public,
oral examination staged by the Faculty of
Graduate Studies.
The graduate student of today might well
wish to reinstitute a medieval regulation
which applied to this final, oral exam; the
cathedral examiners were required to treat the
candidates "lovingly," on pain of suspension
from their functions for a year.
After the medieval candidate had been
accepted   at   the   cathedral    ceremony,   the
Please turn to Page Three
Continued from Page One
Columbian to be appointed to the faculty of the
embryo University of B.C. in 1915 and founder of
the UBC Players' Club. The Frederic Wood Theatre in
the Norman MacKenzie Centre for Fine Arts at UBC
is named for him.
The honorary degree of doctor of literature
(D.Litt.) will be conferred on Prof. Wood.
On Thursday (May 27) the honorary degree of
doctor of science (D.Sc.) will be conferred on Dr.
John W. Ker, dean of the Faculty of Forestry at the
University of New Brunswick and a member of the
UBC forestry faculty from 1948 to 1961.
His Excellency D. Roland Michener became
Canada's 20th Governor-General since Confederation
on April 17, 1967. Born in Lacombe, Alberta, April
19, 1900, Mr. Michener was educated at the
University of Alberta, where he received his bachelor
of arts degree in 1920. He was named Rhodes Scholar
for Alberta in 1919 and subsequently read law at
Oxford University, where he received the degrees of
bachelor of arts, bachelor of civil law and master of
arts. He practised law in Toronto from 1923 until
1957 and was elected to the Ontario legislature and
House of Commons in Ottawa. He was speaker of the
House of Commons from 1957 to 1962. He was
Canada's High Commissioner in India and
Ambassador to Nepal from 1964 until his
appointment as Governor-General of Canada.
Prof. F.G.C. Wood was a member of the first class
of Victoria College, organized in 1903 and affiliated
with McGill University. He finished his undergraduate
work at McGill University in Montreal, graduating
with the degree of bachelor of arts in 1910. The same
year he was the recipient of McGill's Shakespeare
Gold Medal.
Prof. Wood taught at Victoria High School from
1910 to 1914 and then enrolled at Harvard
University, where he was awarded the master of arts
degree in 1915. The same year he was appointed to
the faculty of UBC, which opened its doors in
Six weeks after UBC opened. Prof. Wood
organized the UBC Players' Club and was director of
it until 1931. He was also one of the founders in
1921 of the Vancouver Little Theatre.
Prof. Wood was also a noted UBC teacher whose
course on the English novel was one of the most
popular courses offered by the UBC English
department. He resigned as professor of English in
Dean John W. Ker is a native of Chilliwack, B.C.,
and a UBC graduate who received his bachelor of
applied science in forestry degree in 1941. He carried
out graduate work at Yale University and was
awarded the degrees of master and doctor of forestry
there in 1951 and 1957, respectively.
Before joining the UBC Faculty of Forestry in
1948, Dean Ker was employed by the B.C. Forest
Service. At UBC he was responsible for the
development of courses in forest mensuration or
statistics and forest economics and finance.
He has been dean of the forestry faculty and head
of the Department of Forest Management at the
University of New Brunswick since 1961.
Following are the heads of the 1971 graduating
The Governor-General's Gold Medal (Head of the
Graduating Classes in Arts and Science, B.A. and
B.Sc. degrees): William N. Celmaster, West
The Wilfrid Sadler Memorial Gold Medal (Head of
the Graduating Class in Agricultural Sciences, B.Sc.
degree): William D.H. Woodward, Vancouver.
The Association of Professional Engineers Gold
Medal (Head of the Graduating Class in Engineering,
B.A.Sc. degree): R. Campbell Pearce, Vancouver.
The Kiwanis Club Gold Medal and Prize, $100
(Head of the Graduating Class in Commerce and
Business Administration, B.Com. degree): Neil A.
Carson, Vancouver.
The University Medal for Arts and Science (Head
of the Graduating Class for the B.A. degree): Linda L.
Clark, Vancouver.
The Law Society Gold Medal and Prize (Call and
2/UBC Reports/May 26, 1971
Admission fee)(Head of the Graduating Class in Law,
LL.B. degree): David W. Donohoe, Vancouver.
The Hamber Gold Medal and Prize, $250 (Head of
the Graduating Class in Medicine, M.D. degree):
Tetsuo Inouye, Vancouver.
The Horner Gold Medal for Pharmaceutical
Science (Head of the Graduating Class in
Pharmaceutical Sciences, B.Sc. degree): Karen L.
Pylatuk, Coquitlam, B.C.
The Helen L. Balfour Prize, $125 each (Head of
the Graduating Class in Nursing, B.S.N, degree): Mrs.
Margaret Fershau, Vancouver; Mrs. Lily Rusch,
Osoyoos, B.C.
The Canadian Institute of Forestry Medal (best
overall record in Forestry in all years of course, high
quality of character, leadership, etc.): Kenneth H.
Baker, Vancouver.
The H.R. MacMillan Prize in Forestry, $100 (Head
of the Graduating Class in Forestry, B.S.F. degree):
Donald G. Hoffman, Vancouver.
The Dr. Maxwell A. Cameron Medal and Prize
(Head of the Graduating Class in Education,
Secondary Teaching Field, B.Ed, degree): Karen
Elizabeth Dellow, Vancouver.
The Dr. Maxwell A. Cameron Medal and Prize
(Head of the Graduating Class in Education,
Elementary Teaching Field, B.Ed, degree): Janet Lee
Bye, North Vancouver.
The College of Dental Surgeons of British
Columbia Gold Medal (Head of the Graduating Class
in Dentistry, D.M.D. degree): William A. Jones,
The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada Gold
Medal (outstanding student in Architecture, B.Arch.
degree): Helmut P. Kassautzki, Vancouver.
The Ruth Cameron Medal for Librarianship (Head
of the Graduating Class in Librarianship, B.L.S.
degree): Thomas W. Skinner, Vancouver.
The Canadian Association for Health, Physical
Education and Recreation Medal (Head of the
Graduating Class in Physical Education, B.P.E.
degree): Leonard Marchant, Squamish, B.C.
The British Columbia Professional Recreation
Society Prize, $50 (Head of the Graduating Class in
Recreation, B.R.E. degree): M. Judy Rogers, Nelson,
The College of Dental Surgeons of British
Columbia Gold Medal (leading student in the Dental
Hygiene program): Lorraine Machell, Matsqui, B.C.
The Dean of Medicine's Prize (Head of the
Graduating Class in Rehabilitation Medicine, B.S.R.
degree): Miriam G. Rudland, West Vancouver.
Special University Prize, $100 each (Head of the
Graduating Class in Music, B.Mus. degree): Linda G.
Ligate, Vancouver; Dawn Ross, Vancouver.
Special University Prizes, $100 (Head of the
Graduating Class in Social Work, M.S.W. degree): F.J.
Edward Hillary, Vancouver; Garry Rentz, Edmonton,
Special University Prize, $100 (Head of the
Graduating Class in Home Economics, B.H.E.
degree): Janis E. Zboyovsky, Wellington, B.C.
UBC Hoods Add Color
Each student who receives his degree during
UBC's three-day Congregation wears a hood lined
with a specific color. Here is a list of the colors
associated with each degree:
Bachelor of Arts — University blue; Bachelor of
Applied Science — scarlet; Bachelor of Commerce
— light grey with black and grey cord; Bachelor of
Education — white with cord of University blue;
Bachelor of Home Economics — turquoise;
Bachelor of Music — University blue with cord of
alizarin yellow; Bachelor of Science — light blue;
Bachelor of Architecture — scarlet with white
cord; Bachelor of Physical Education — malachite
green; Bachelor of Recreation Education —
malachite green with gold and green cord;
Bachelor of Science (Agriculture) — maize;
Bachelor of Forestry — brown with green cord;
Bachelor of Science in Nursing — scarlet with
twisted    cord    of    University    blue    and   white;
Bachelor of Science (Pharmacy) — dark green with
cord of scarlet; Bachelor of Science in
Rehabilitation — scarlet and white with twisted
cord of royal blue; Bachelor of Law — amethyst
Master of Library Science — cadmium yellow;
Master of Social Work — magenta.
Doctor of Dental Medicine — lilac and red;
Doctor of Education — blue and gold with blue,
white and gold chevrons on sleeve of gown; Doctor
of Medicine — scarlet and royal blue; Doctor of
Philosophy — blue and gold.
The master's hood is the same as the bachelor's,
lined with the distinctive color. The hood for the
honorary degree of LL.D. (Doctor of Laws) is of
scarlet broadcloth lined with dark blue velvet; that
for the D.Sc. (Doctor of Science) is the same with
dark purple lining and for the D.Litt. (Doctor of
Literature) the same with cream lining. CEREMONY
Continued from Page One
procession paraded through the town. A banquet
followed, attended by all officials, colleagues and
university friends and the newly admitted doctor was
required to present fees and gifts to university
officials. This final step was so costly that many
students were forced to postpone their graduating
ceremony for long periods of time.
Graduating from UBC in 1971 is less costly. Every
degree candidate is still required to make application
to the University to graduate, but no fee is involved.,
At the beginning of the undergraduate student's final
year of study, a $7 graduating class fee is collected by
the University and turned over to the Alma Mater
Society. Undergraduates meet during the year to
decide how this fund will be spent. (For a story on
how this year's class decided to spend its money, see
box below).
There is no formal or mandatory banquet for the
modern student to attend after the graduation
ceremony. UBC's Alumni Association stages an
informal chicken barbeque after two of the 1971
ceremonies and many graduating students will attend
the annual graduation ball on Friday night. (For
details, see story on Page Four.)
The colorful gowns and hoods and oddly shaped
hats worn by faculty members and students at
contemporary graduating ceremonies are also
directly linked to medieval dress.
All three items worn by those participating in
today's ceremony — a gown, a hood and, in the case
of women graduates, a mortarboard cap, have their
histories rooted in the ordinary medieval apparel
worn by almost all peoples of that time.
In medieval times, practically everyone wore as a
basic item of apparel a long robe or gown, which
varied in materials, cut, color, and trimmings
according to the needs, position and wealth of the
wearer. Over the gown was worn a cloak, often lined
with fur or wool, which had attached to it a hood
that could be pulled up to cover the head in cold or
inclement weather.
The hood, when not covering the head, was
allowed to hang down the wearer's back. From the
13th century," the hood was often absent from the
cloak and was worn as a separate item. It was
replaced by a light undercap which usually took the
form of a close-fitting headpiece.
Each of these medieval elements, with only minor
variations, make up the dress worn by graduating
students at UBC's Congregation ceremony.
Students receiving their first degree wear a black
gown of "the ordinary stuff material" (stuff simply
means woollen) with long sleeves and the yoke edged
in khaki cord. The master's gown is the same, without
the cord.
UBC's doctor of philosophy gown is somewhat
different. It consists of an ankle-length gown of
maroon silk material with front facing panels of UBC
blue with gold piping. The hood has blue silk on the
outside and is lined with gold material. The Ph.D. cap
is a Decanal bonnet of maroon silk with gold cord
and tassel.
The brightly colored hoods worn by graduating
students have evolved over the centuries from the
garment which once covered the heads of medieval
men. As time passed various colors came to be
associated with each degree. These colors are used in
the material which lines the students' hoods.
Occasionally a colored cord is used as an
embellishment on the edge of the hood.
At UBC's graduating ceremony, all candidates for
earned degrees, with the exception of doctor of
philosophy candidates and honorary degree
recipients, enter the War Memorial Gymnasium
wearing their hoods and carrying their degrees, which
they received in the Student Union Building, where
the student congregation procession assembles.
Because the Ph.D. degree is the highest earned
degree awarded by UBC, doctoral candidates have
their hoods placed over their shoulders after being
presented to UBC's Chancellor, Mr. Allan McGavin.
The Chancellor confers on all students the degrees
which were granted in the previous week at the
meeting of the Senate, UBC's paramount academic
Similarly, honorary degree recipients, honored for
their public service or contributions to University life,
receive their hoods after UBC's President, Dr. Walter
H. Gage, has presented the candidate to the
Chancellor and read a citation which outlines the
reasons for conferring the honorary degree.
For a listing of the colors associated with each of
the degrees awarded by UBC, see box on Page Two.)
The   mortarboard  hats worn  by  UBC's women
The woodcut above, done in England in the
late Medieval period, shows a teacher seated
at his desk with students at work on either
Eight Groups Aided
A $20,000 gift from UBC's 1971 graduating
class has been distributed among eight
Support of the projects is designed to improve
the quality of life at the University and in the
community, according to Miss Jeannette Faubert,
the treasurer of the 1971 graduating class.
Seven of the gifts went to student-sponsored
organizations, but one allocation of $200 was
made to the University Health Service for
emergency ambulance service ancl the provision of
drugs for needy students.
"We are grateful for the provision of this
money because we have never had enough funds to
supply these services to needy students and it will
be of great value to those who will be the
recipients," said Dr. A.M. Johnson, director of the
University Health Service. He said the fund will be
allocated on the basis of genuine need and that
each case will be assessed on its merits.
The largest gifts of $5,000 each went to the
Environmental   Crisis  Operation   (ECO)   and   to
Get-lt-On, now called the Window Project.
ECO is a University environmental student
group whose formation was sponsored by Dr. C.S.
Holling, director of the Institute of Animal
Resource Ecology. The group concentrates on
gathering and disseminating information and
promoting education about environmental control.
The Window Project will work with other
youth-oriented groups such as the Crisis Centre,
the Now Bus, and the Inner-City Service Project to
help improve services for transient and other
/outh. Miss Faubert said.
Gifts of $3,000 and $4,000 respectively went
to Speak Easy, a student group which strives to
help other students solve personal and social
problems, and to the UBC Day Care Council, a
group which wants to establish improved day care
A gift of $1,350 was contributed to a fund for
the construction of an Asian Studies Centre on the
campus and $450 was given to the Mental Patients
graduates evolved from a close-fitting cap into a fuller
and looser bonnet, which eventually became so large
that the corners began to droop. The practice of
inserting a board in the hat to keep the corners from
falling originated in England in the 16th century.
In contemporary universities, students are used to
the idea of degrees being earned in order, beginning
with the bachelor's degree and progressing through
the master's to the doctor of philosophy.
In medieval times, the process was reversed, largely
as a result of the fact that the first universities were,
quite simply, teacher-training institutions.
The first known records show the doctorate in
use at the University of Bologna in the middle of the
12th century. It was also found about the same time
at the University of Paris, famed for theology and the
liberal arts.
Originally, the doctor's and master's degrees were
used interchangeably, each indicating that the holder
was qualified to give instruction to students.
Gradually the master's degree became more common
in the faculties of arts, while the doctor's degree
became more common in the professional faculties of
theology, law and medicine.
In the earliest medieval institutions it was the
students who made up the "universities," while the
professors were members of a guild or college. To
obtain admission to the guild, students were required
to undertake a course of study and pass a series of
examinations in order to obtain a license to teach
(licentia docendi), even if the student had no
intention of continuing in the teaching profession.
On receipt of the teaching licence the graduate was
entitled to style himself doctor or master, depending
on the custom of the country in which the licence
was granted. Through evolution, a master of arts was
entitled to teach the liberal arts, while a doctor of
laws (now an honorary degree) was a certified teacher
of law.
Doctor's degrees were rarely conferred on
women in medieval times but there were
some noteworthy exceptions. Novella
Andrea, daughter of a distinguished professor of
canon law at the University of Bologna, was so
accomplished at law that she frequently lectured to
students in her father's absence. She was reputed to
be so beautiful that she was compelled to lecture
behind a curtain, lest her face distract the students.
It was not until much later that the bachelor's
degree came into use in England. The term first
appeared in the University of Paris in the 13th
century and was used to designate not the completion
of a course of study but entrance into an
apprenticeship status preparatory to the master's
The derivation of the term bachelor is obscure.
One authority says it is probably derived from the
Latin bacca or vacca, a cow, and a baccalarius or
baccalaureus was one who engaged in the care of
cows. The transition from cowherd, to peasant, to
young man without a specific occupation, to young
man as an apprentice, is "involved but logical,"
according to the same authority.
Even the contemporary complaints of students
that universities put too much emphasis on obtaining
a degree is far from new. Erasmus, the great Christian
humanist who bestrode the late medieval and early
Renaissance periods, was probably echoing the
sentiments of many a student of the day when he
caustically wrote:
"I must acquire the absurd title of 'Doctor.' It will
not make me a hair the better, but as times go no
man can be counted learned, despite of all which
Christ has said, unless he is styled 'Magister' (Master).
If the world is to believe in me, I must put on the
lion's skin. I have to fight with monsters, and I must
wear the dress of Hercules."
■ ■■A 4% Volume 17, No. 10 - May 26,
IID|^ 1971- Published by the
M BB M M M University of British Columbia
mwMWmm and distributed free. UBC
REPORTS Rep0rts appears on Thursdays
during the University's winter session. J.A.
Banham, Editor. Linda Adams, Production
Supervisor. Letters to the Editor should be sent
to Information Services, Main Mall North
Administration Building, UBC, Vancouver 8,
UBC Reports/May 26, 1971/3 -*^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
Enjoying a few congenial beakers of beer are
members of the Young Alumni Club at Cecil Green
Park. Young Alumni Club has recently swung into its
summer schedule of informal Thursday evening
gatherings featuring suds, socializing, music and,
occasionally, dancing. The schedule runs to August 26.
UBC Fails to Communicate
With Ordinary People
The University is failing to communicate with
ordinary people because it is speaking right over the
tops of their heads, says the executive director of the
UBC Alumni Association.
Jack Stathers returned to campus recently with
this impression following conclusion of an extensive
alumni-sponsored faculty speaking tour of the B.C.
interior. The tour was designed to spread more
knowledge about new developments in forestry and
health sciences at UBC.
The program, carried out in stages from February
to May, saw the Alumni Association bring senior
faculty representatives to 13 interior centres to
discuss at alumni, public and service club meetings,
and on radio and TV, the significance of new
developments 1n their field at UBC. Participating in
the tours were Dr. J.A.F. Gardner, dean of Forestry,
Dr. D.D. Munro, assistant dean of Forestry, Dr. J.F.
McCreary, dean of Medicine, Dr. D.H. Williams,
associate dean of Medicine, Dr. S. Wah Leung, dean
of Dentistry, and Miss E.K. McCann, acting director
of the School of Nursing.
From the discussion at the meetings, Stathers said
it was obvious that while there was great interest in
UBC, there was also great public ignorance of how
the University had changed. "It seems to me that the
University in its communications efforts doesn't
reach the ordinary person," said Stathers. "I think
we're talking right over the tops of their heads."
And while the speaking tours were a success in
terms of the public and alumni response, Stathers said
several of the academics participating recognized that
it was difficult for them to speak in terms clearly
understandable to the layman. "This is," he said, "a
natural occupational hazard for the academic."
Another thing that was noted on the tours was
that the public seemed to have high expectations of
the University, he said. Stathers said that when Dean
Gardner pointed out considerable progress being
made in his Faculty toward developing a technique
for eliminating pulp mill odors, the public didn't
seem surprised in the least. The general attitude, he
said, seems to be that the University is expected to
tackle and solve such problems.
Stathers said he also noted that in several centres
"there was strong local interest and support for their
colleges." And the UBC faculty representatives were
able to point out that the University had set up
procedures to facilitate transfer of students from the
colleges to the University. This, he said, was a point
much appreciated.
The alumni-faculty tours will be continued, and
perhaps expanded to other centres in the coming
year, said Stathers. He said he hoped alumni would
suggest topics of concern which could be covered by
faculty speakers during the tours.
Yesterday, a Student;
Today an Alumnus
The term alumni occurs throughout the graduation
ceremony. If you are a graduate you are an alumnus.
It's as simple as that. Or is it?
Do you think that the education you have just
received was good enough? Maybe you think it could
have been better. Is UBC meeting the needs of the
society it serves? You have some ideas on that too, no
Are you interested in making sure that UBC moves
forward with the times, that students of the future
have at least as good an opportunity as you have had?
We think you are.
You have put a lot of yourself in UBC. But, once
you are gone, will you still have a chance to voice
your opinions?
Yes. This is the purpose of the UBC Alumni
Association. Through it you can have a continuing
voice in the affairs of the University. You become a
member of the Alumni Association automatically,
upon graduation. You can make of it what you wish.
In September you will receive the UBC Alumni
Chronicle, the Association's magazine and later, when
you are established, a request for a donation to the
Alumni Fund to help students and student-initiated
projects. During your undergraduate years, it is
possible that you were one of the many students who
benefitted from this alumni giving program.
A continuing interest in University affairs is
something you can always give. It's a gift highly
valued by the University. To keep you in touch with
the latest happenings on the campus and in University
affairs, the Alumni Association holds branch meetings
in major centres across Canada, in the U.S.A. and,
occasionally, abroad. You will receive invitations to
these functions and perhaps be surprised at the
pleasure in seeing old friends and in hearing about the
UBC you now may be quite eager to leave.
Will you keep in touch with us, your fellow
graduates, and when the time is right, lend your
support to the students of the future and the
institution that, in many respects, has served you
Jack Stathers,
Executive Director,
UBC A lumni A ssociation
Graduation^ Chicken ^C
Ceremonies   Barbecues
Wednesday, May 26; Thursday, May 27,
and Friday, May 28. The ceremonies
begin at 2:15 p.m. at the War
Memorial Gymnasium ... for
further information call the Ceremonies
Office, 228-2484.
Wednesday and Thursday, after the
graduation ceremonies, graduates,
relatives and friends are invited to
Cecil Green Park (6251 N.W. Marine
Drive) for a delicious chicken feast
(refreshments available) ....
reservations and tickets from the
Alumni Office, 228-3313 ($2 a person)
Ball   ^C
In the B.C. Ballroom at the Hotel
Vancouver . . .    Friday, May 28,
from 8 p.m. . . .   Tickets, $5 a
couple, are available now at the AMS
business office in SUB.
4/UBC Reports/May 26. 1971


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