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Array THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
VOLUME  49      NUMBER  6      JUNE  5,2003
UBC REPORTS
2 UBC in the News
3 Where the Girls Aren't
S Dazzling Discovery
5 Bad Breath
Motion Doodles
Exploring the Fam i ly Trees of Trees
In the Canadian forest, the poplar
and the spruce couldn't be farther
apart. One is a deciduous hardwood tree, the other a conifer.
While the poplar grows very fast,
maturing in as little as five to 15
years, the spruce is a bit of a late
bloomer and still considered young
at 100 years of age. But by mapping out a genetic blueprint for
these two very different tree systems, UBC scientists hope to help
strengthen Canada's forest sector.
"How is it possible that a tree
survives in one location for 1,000
years with tens of thousands of
potential insect or pathogen generations challenging it? What are the
genes that control superior wood
quality of Sitka spruce?" asks Jorg
Bohlmann, an assistant professor
in the Biotechnology Laboratory
and in the departments of Forest
Science and Botany.
"We're interested in how trees
protect and defend themselves
against insects and pests, and what
determines wood and fibre quality,
but the Treenomix project really
goes beyond looking at a single
chemical compound and how that
works against a single insect, to
how a tree works in general, and
its genetic blueprint."
Bohlmann and three other UBC
researchers - Carl Douglas, Brian
Ellis and Kermit Ritland - are leading Canada's first large-scale
forestry genomics project. The four
have overlapping areas of expertise
Making our forests stronger, by Michelle cook
Jorg Bohlmann is part of a team of UBC researchers mapping out a genetic blueprint for poplar and spruce.
in tree and plant biology and
genetics. Bohlmann says this will
enable them to look at a tree from
many different angles to get a complete genetic picture.
With $10.8 million in funding
from Genome Canada/Genome
B.C. and the B.C. government, the
team's goal is to identify and
understand the genes in poplar and
spruce that are responsible for forest health (how trees interact with
their environment in terms of
insects, pathogens and changing
climate), and wood quality (what
determines wood formation and
fibre quality, whether a tree can be
used for high-quality paper or
other industrial purposes).
For their work, they're adapting
strategies such as genome mapping
and partial sequencing. They will
also focus on expressed - or active
- genes and proteins. These are the
genes thought to contribute to specific characteristics of individual
trees. By doing this, they hope to
identify which genes are responsible for certain desirable traits, such
as superior wood quality or pest
resistance.
"The more we understand about
the genomics of trees, the better we
can harness their potential for
increasing demands of Canada's
forest industry," Bohlmann says.
"A genomic blueprint will help us
to use our forest resources in an
ecological and economically
continued on page 6
Campus construction is booming
with major projects carrying a
total value of more than $600
million - more than any other
university in Canada - now
underway.
"These projects are visible evidence of the support UBC has
received from both the federal and
provincial governments," says
UBC President Martha Piper. "We
look forward to new, outstanding
facilities that will accelerate and
strengthen learning and research,
and attract students and faculty to
this campus."
Projects range from student
housing to galleries and research
centres with most of the construction made possible through grants
from the Canada Foundation for
Innovation (CFI) with matching
funds from the B.C. Knowledge
Development Fund.
"The construction represents
years of planning and fundraising, " says Joe Redmond, vice-
president, UBC Properties Trust.
About 15 construction companies are currently working on campus employing crews ranging from
fewer than a dozen workers to
several hundred. The buildings will
support innovation and learning
and include some student and faculty   housing   projects   that   are
Raising the Grade on Campus
Construction projects changing the face of UBC. by Hilary Thomson
The Life Sciences Centre, south of UBC Hospital, is part of the medical education expansion program.
distinct from the residential units
proposed for UBC's University
Town, a development of campus
neighbourhoods comprising housing, parks and commercial outlets.
"UBC, as a single employer, is
one of the largest drivers of the
local design and construction
industry right now," says
Redmond.
Important buildings include the
Irving K. Barber Learning Centre
valued at $60 million. Due to be
completed in May 2006, the centre
has been largely funded by a $20
million donation from B.C. entrepreneur Ike Barber. Constructed
around the heritage core of the
Main Library, the centre will add
more than 18,000 new square
metres of inside floor space and
more than 4,000 square metres of
renovated floor space, fully
equipped    to    support    wireless
technology.
The Life Sciences Centre of B.C.,
established through $ 110 million
from the provincial government, is
a key part of the Faculty of
Medicine expansion program, and
is fast-tracked to be ready for
student enrolment in August 2004.
Currently one of the largest
construction projects in B.C., the
structure covers more than 47,000
square     metres.     It     has     five
above-ground and two below-
ground floors and includes three
laboratory towers connected by
two internal atriums.
Other key projects include the
Museum of Anthropology renewal,
which will feature a building extension, a digital resource
network, labs and expansion of
public gallery space and public education facilities.
The Institute for Computing
Information and Cognitive Systems
will be completed in July 2004 as
part of a new Computer Science
building that will be
integrated with the existing Centre
for Integrated Computer Systems
Research. The new facility is
designed to strengthen research
links between disciplines that
include applied science, health science, education technology and
psychology.
Construction is starting on UBC's
fourth faculty and staff housing
project that will add 60 rental
suites to the 89 units recently
completed.
Tec de Monterrey-UBC House,
currently under construction, will
add 200 student housing spaces
units to Place Vanier. In addition,
plans are underway for a further
2,000 student rooms that will be
completed in 2005-2006. □ REPORTS       |      JUNE     5,     2OO3
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Blame Harry Potter
UBC Canada Research Chair in
mathematical economics Ivar
Ekeland says school children are
losing interest in learning math -
and Harry Potter is at least partly
to blame.
Ekeland told the National Post
that the magic and sorcery glorified by the popular books discourage children from wanting to
understand the real world through
science.
"It's evasion," said Dr. Ekeland.
"It's telling you, 'Science can't help
you, but perhaps magic will.'
"It's a symptom of a lack of faith
in science, and a lack of interest in
reality in society, that translates
into this kind of literature."
Don't Panic
Following the discovery of a case
of Mad Cow Disease in Alberta,
UBC microbiologist Bob Hancock
told CTV National News that the
question that needs addressing is
whether any other animals are
affected.
"I don't think Canadians should
be changing their eating patterns
unless this becomes a much more
widespread problem in cattle. I
believe that it's okay to eat beef at
this stage," Hancock said, broadcasting from UBC Public Affairs'
on-campus TV studio.
Live on Farm, Avoid
Allergies
UBC  assoc.  prof.  Helen Dimich-
Ward says growing up around
farm animals may protect children
from allergies and asthma.
Dimich-Ward and colleague C.
M. Trask surveyed 1,158 4-H Club
members, aged eight to 20 and
found that allergic symptoms were
lower among those who lived on
farms when the survey was taken
or who had lived on farms.
Dimich-Ward told The Globe
and Mail that it is not yet absolutely clear that endotoxins are the
protective mechanism. Contact
with farm animals was not the only
factor in her study that appeared to
have a protective effect.
Shut Off Bad Breath
Studies suggest almost 50 per cent
of Canadians have chronic bad
breath or halitosis.
Three years ago, the Breath
Testing Clinic at UBC became the
first clinic in North America to use
gas chromatography, a sophisticated technology that can distinguish
between different types of sulphur
gas and give specific measurements
for each gas.
Sid Katz heads a committee to
resurrect the Thunderbird totem pole.
"This allows me to diagnose the
type of bad breath and treat it
accordingly," Ken Yaegaki, the
clinic's director, told the Calgary
Herald.
Once the problem has been diagnosed, most clinics will suggest a
stepped-up oral hygiene program.
Antibiotic mouth rinses may also
be prescribed, followed by a maintenance regimen of milder mouthwash.
Ferry Fire a Close Call
UBC professor Roger Boshier told
BC CTV that the Queen of Surrey
ferry fire was a close call and passengers should consider themselves
very lucky.
"This was a very dangerous situation, " said Boshier, who specializes in accident prevention. He
added that the 300 plus passengers
on the Queen of Surrey would have
been in danger if the fire had been
any worse.
"There wasn't a ferry captain in
the world who would want to have
to evacuate 300 passengers into life
rafts off a large ferry like that,"
said Boshier. "Because they know
that during practices and partic-
uarly during real incidences, things
go wrong."
"This was a very near miss.
Unfortunately, the federal authorities have got away with it this time
because there has been no loss of
life, but it was very close and very
Smallest Seahorse Found
Biologists have discovered the
world's smallest known seahorse
hiding amid the coral off
Indonesia.
The pygmy seahorse averages 16
millimetres in size, smaller than
most fingernails. Scientists originally mistook it for a juvenile of
another seahorse species.
McGill University doctoral student Sara Lourie led the identification study for UBC-based Project
Seahorse.
Lourie named the species
Hippocampus denise after the
woman who took the pictures,
Denise Tackett. Lourie told BBC
Online the name means "wild or
frenzied", which seemed appropriate.
Thunderbird Totem to
Rise Again
One of the twin symbols of native
students at UBC is about to be resurrected.
The Victory Through Honour
totem pole is about to be resurrected. The original totem was presented to UBC's Alma Mater Society in
1948, as was the right to use the
popular Thunderbird crest.
But a half century of weathering
and a vandalism incident two years
ago now leaves the totem in fragments in a campus warehouse,
reports the Vancouver Courier.
Anyone wishing to contribute to
the project should contact Sid Katz
at UBC's community affairs office.
U.S. Students Flocking
North
The number of students from the
United States attending school in
Canada, whether high school or
university, doubled to slightly more
than 12,000 in 2001 from around
6,500 in 1990, according to recently released figures from Citizenship
and Immigration Canada.
At the undergraduate level, UBC
has tripled its U.S. enrolment to
241 this year from 69 students in
1998-1999.
"Canada is a safe, international,
nearby        location," Donald
Wehrung, director of the
International Student Initiative
told The Globe and Mail.
Second-year student Anne
Thompson said the agricultural
science program at UBC drew her
immediately. The Seattle resident
acknowledged that tuition is much
cheaper than in the United States.
Some of the U.S. private colleges
she applied to would cost around
$22,000 (U.S.) a year. At UBC, her
tuition is about $14,000
(Canadian) a year.
"I just really like living in
Canada," said Thompson.
"Especially at this time, looking
back at these last two years, I'm
really grateful to be in Canada." □
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DEXTER  ASSOCIATES  REALTY-604-228-9339
REPORTS
Director, Public Affairs
Scott Macrae scott.macrae@ubc.ca
Editor
Paul Patterson  paul.patterson@ubc.ca
Design Director
Chris Dahl  chris.dahl@ubc.ca
Designer
Sharmini Thiagarajah  sharmini©exchange.ubc.ca
Contributors
Michelle Cook michelle.cook@ubc.ca
Brian Lin  brian.lin@ubc.ca
Erica Smishek erica.smishek@ubc.ca
Hilary Thomson  hilary.thomson@ubc.ca
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Publications Mail Agreement Number 1689851 REPORTS      |      JUNE     5,     2OO3      |      3
Where the
Girls Aren't
New interdisciplinary
course aims to boost
female interest in
computer science
BY ERICA SMISHEK
A typical girl loves her computer -
but she doesn't understand how it
works and isn't dreaming of a
career in information technology.
That could change if Women's
Studies Programme chair Tineke
Hellwig and Computer Science
Prof. Anne Condon have their
way.
The pioneering pair has banded
together to establish Connecting
with Computer Science, a new
UBC course they believe is the only
one of its kind anywhere. Cross-
listed in both the Faculties of Arts
and Science beginning this fall, the
hands-on course introduces computer science through connections
with fine arts, linguistics, music,
philosophy, psychology, biology
and women's studies.
By emphasizing the use of computer tools as a means of creativity
and human expression and the role
computer science plays in addressing basic questions about human
intelligence and the mechanisms of
life, Hellwig and Condon hope to
widen women's interest in and
access to the field.
"It is pushing the envelope a lot
further than any other course of its
type," says Condon. "It is very rare
to find this highly interdisciplinary
approach.
"This is not a course about
computers in society and it's not
about social issues. It is a technical
course... This is designed to help
get at programming, at what it
means, at why it's important."
Lagging interest in technology
among high school girls has translated into an alarming decline in
women studying computing at
university. Currently only 15-20
per cent of IT graduates at
Canadian universities and fewer
than 25 per cent of IT professionals in the work force are women.
The course (listed as 101 in
Computer Science and 201 in
Women's Studies) is designed to
capture the attention of people
who might not otherwise think
about computers, and to do so at
the beginning, rather than the end,
of their university studies.
"It will show up on the radar
screen of students who would otherwise lock themselves away
because they think it's science and
it's nothing they can do," says
Hellwig.
Condon did substantial research
on feminist approaches to science
and feminist conceptualization
when developing the course.
Programming assignments are
designed to allow students to
explore the connection between
programming and creativity and to
support different styles and
approaches to programming
instead of requiring the "right
answer."
Students, for example, can write
a program to generate haiku poetry or to share their problems and
intelligent   conversation   with   a
boys enjoy computer games, the
level of intensity with which they
typically pursue this is different,
with boys more likely to get into
programming their own games.
Also, girls use computers more for
other goals - to communicate over
the Internet or to get information
about their interests.
"Girls will manage what's provided but they don't create new
things," she explains. "It rarely
becomes a passion in itself. But for
boys it's an end in itself. For some
boys, the computer lab is their
social club. Many boys will know
how to program by the time they
get to computer science class."
She says she has trouble admitting this contrast.
"As a woman, I want to pretend
there are no differences. If we're
different, it could be interpreted to
mean we're not as good. Women in
software psychotherapist.
computer science want to fit in, to
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Women s Studies Programme chair Tineke Hellwig (left) and Computer Science
Prof. Anne Condon are determined to get more women involved in technology.
"Programming is quite a skill
and art," says Condon, a mathematician. "It's very complicated,
and it's difficult to be a great programmer. Everything has to be
exactly right. There is a tendency
to teach students to do everything
right and to teach in a very rigid
framework.
"But that's not the way it works
for everyone to learn. There is no
reason you can't learn programming by exploring and by leaving
room for creativity. There is precision but there is also creativity."
Condon addresses the issue of
gender differences in people's
approach to computer use early in
the course.  While both girls and
downplay any differences from the
men. But differences between girls'
and boys' approaches to computers are partly cultural and it's an
influence all the way through their
education. It's something we have
to acknowledge but it's difficult for
someone in the sciences to do."
Both women believe building
female competence and confidence
with technology is essential to our
culture.
"Computers aren't used for all
the things they could be," says
Condon. "If more women are
involved, technology will be used
differently. The possibilities are
endless and could be very
inspiring." □
Drug Costs May Soar for Canada's Seniors
Study urges major changes to pharmacare. by Hilary Thomson
Pharmacare - it's a national
ailment sorely in need of a cure.
So says a group of health policy
researchers at UBC's Centre for
Health Services and Policy
Research (CHSPR)
They have recently completed a
study that argues, without strong
political  leadership   and  compre-
Some higher income seniors are
hensive management of how
medications are prescribed and
used, government spending will
escalate to the point where
pharmacare for Canada's seniors
will soon be seriously threatened.
"Seniors' drug benefit plans are
under intense financial stress,"
says co-investigator Steven
Morgan, a CHSPR expert in
health-care economics. "Until
recently, provincial governments
have provided generous drug
coverage to virtually all seniors but
changes such as user fees and
eligibility requirements are
seriously eroding that coverage."
Morgan and Jonathan Agnew,
postdoctoral fellows at the centre,
along with CHSPR member
Morris Barer, a Canadian Institutes
of Health Research (CIHR)
director, looked at provincial drug
benefit programs for Canadian
seniors, focusing on coverage,
price control and how medications
are prescribed and used.
The investigation found reduction of seniors' drug benefits amid
a "cost crisis" in the pharmaceuti-
likely to find part of their benefits
cai sector. In the absence of effective cost-control, provincial drug
plans for seniors are fast becoming
unsustainable, the researchers say.
Canada spent almost $ 15 billion
on prescription drugs in 2002, and
the cost of public drug coverage
programs in Canada has almost
doubled since 1995, according to
the Canadian Institute of Health
Information.
Causes of increased drug costs
include greater use of drug therapies and the type and quantity of
drugs used to meet health needs.
Despite the high cost of new drugs,
there is often little evidence they
deliver enough therapeutic value to
justify their price relative to older
"tried and true" medicines,
Morgan says.
Drug prices must reflect
therapeutic value and patients and
doctors need to have sufficient
information to balance the
benefits of a drug against its cost.
"Without this type of decisionmaking, any system of prescription drug financing will be
plagued  by  uncontrolled  costs,"
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and eligibility requirements.
Some higher income seniors are
likely to find part of their benefits
shifted over to help young families
shifted over to help young families pay for medication costs.
says Morgan, who is a CIHR
fellow.
Part of the problem in containing costs is that provincial drug
plans do not take full advantage
of their purchasing power to
negotiate discounted prices with
drug manufacturers. There needs
to be considerable political will,
however, to confront drug manufacturers who often are major
players in provincial economies,
adds Morgan.
Low-income seniors remain
well covered in all provinces, but
it's a different story for seniors
with higher incomes, says
Morgan. Since the mid-1990s,
they have experienced reduced
coverage because of co-payments,
increased  premiums,   deductibles
pay for medication costs. B.C.'s
recently announced Fair
PharmaCare program uses a
means test to determine how much
seniors should pay for their
medications. Much of those cost
savings help to finance a universal
plan for families with high drug
costs relative to the family income.
The provincial government has
asked the research team, in
collaboration with researchers
from the Harvard Medical School
and the University of Victoria, to
evaluate the provincial government's PharmaCare program over
the next three years.
For more information on the
study, visit the Web site at
www.chspr.ubc.ca. □
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Learning Through
Engagement
The arts open opportunities for enhanced achievement
BY ERICA SMISHEK
Students who participate   in   the
arts at school perform better in
math and are more wholly involved
in learning, according to a recently
released national study involving
UBC researchers.
"There was just an infusion of
joy," says Education Assoc. Prof.
Kit Grauer. "There was an engagement with all learning. Kids wanted to come to school."
Grauer and Prof. Rita Irwin,
head of the Dept. of Curriculum
Studies in the Faculty of Education,
were co-investigators on a national
team studying the Royal
Conservatory's Learning through
the Arts (LTTA) program, a three-
year initiative with more than
6,000 10-to- 12-year-old
students, 900 teachers and 130
principals from six Canadian sites
including Vancouver.
The national study found that
LTTA students scored as much as
11 percentile points higher on
standardized mathematics tests of
computation and estimation than
their peers in control schools.
In a separate regional study of
the eight schools in the Vancouver
site, UBC researchers saw evidence
that students are more committed
in physical, emotional, intellectual
and social ways when arts are part
of the curriculum.
"It's really about engagement,
about the kind and quality of
involvement that kids have," says
Irwin.  "It's not about doing more
math. It's about getting the child
totally involved in whatever they're
learning, getting them to feel the
knowledge."
The LTTA program brought
actors, musicians, painters and
writers into more than 170 schools
across Canada over a three-year
period. Together with teachers,
these artists created lively ways to
present curriculum and bring new
vitality to the classroom. Students
learned math, language, history
and social studies by making
images, creating dances, telling
stories and singing songs.
Irwin, Grauer and UBC graduate
students involved in the regional
study used a digital camera to
record what happened in
classrooms.
"We saw this incredible
engagement in the kids," says
Grauer. "It didn't seem to matter
what art form they were working
with. They were bodily involved
with the storytellers, with the
visual artists. There was this kind
of transformation."
While many people assume that
the arts somehow detract from the
learning of other subjects, both the
national and regional studies show
this isn't the case. Researchers
discovered that time for involvement in the arts does not come at
the expense of achievement in
languages and math.
In addition, students, teachers,
parents, artists and administrators
UBC researchers have discovered that Vancouver students like this young boy are more committed to learning when
arts are part of the curriculum.
alike told researchers about how
the arts motivated children and had
numerous benefits.
"The arts can help children deal
with self-esteem, with their sense of
belonging, with their sense of
connectedness in ways that you
can't just talk about. When kids
dance it, they understand. When
kids sing it, they understand," says
Grauer.
Students weren't the only ones
transformed by the arts experience.
At the end of the three-year period, a significant number of LTTA
teachers believed that the arts were
an effective way to teach language,
science and math. LTTA teachers
also reported a number of changes
in classroom practices that reflected their increased commitment to
teaching through the arts and their
growing skills and confidence in
embedding the arts in their teaching practices.
Irwin is encouraged by the sense
of revitalization many teachers felt
and the possibilities arts could have
for future professional
development.
"Teaching is pretty stressful
stuff. For teachers to feel that
'aliveness' in their own learning is
something we can't forget," Irwin
says.
Both educators believe programs
like LTTA show a sustained sense
of commitment to the whole child
and to lifelong learning, and can
counter a growing trend in the
United States for more testing as a
means of assessing children and the
quality of their education.
"I call it the tyranny of the test -
the notion that tests measure
what's being achieved right now,"
says Irwin. "Instead, it's sustained
learning through engagement that
really matters. The arts provide
engagement opportunities across
the curriculum."
The national assessment of
LTTA was prepared by Dr. Rena
Upitis and Dr. Katharine Smithrim
of Queen's University. Their final
report is available online at
www.ltta.ca □
LIVE AND LEARN.
Experience teaches us what we want
from life and how we want to live it.
Set in Point Grey at British Columbia's
seat of Higher Learning is Chancellor
House - a limited collection of terraced
apartment homes and duplex town-
houses. It's a new home you'll learn
to love, and love to live in.
TO LEARN MORE AND FOR PRIORITY
REGISTRATION,  LOG ON TO
www.preview.chancellorhouse.ca
OR call 604.801.7038
COMING SOON at the UNIVERSITY of BRITISH COLUMBIA. UBC      REPORTS      |      JUNE     5,      2OO3      |      5
UBC Research Drives Canada's Fledgling Emerald Industry
Former student makes a dazzling discovery, by Michelle cook
It was late August 1998 when Bill
Wengzynowski spotted something
green while prospecting in a
remote area of southeastern
Yukon.
He was looking for copper and
zinc and he thought the green
patches might be malachite, but on
closer inspection the UBC graduate
suspected he had found something
far more surprising - and
significant. Emeralds.
Wengzynowski had obviously
paid attention in mineralogy class
and no one is happier about that
than Lee Groat, an associate
professor of geology in the
Department of Earth and Ocean
Sciences who taught
Wengzynowski while he was at
UBC.
"He remembered enough of his
mineralogy to determine that the
samples might be something
rarer," Groat recalls with a smile.
"He called me and said he had
something he'd like me to
look at."
Wengzynowski, who was
conducting the exploration for
Vancouver-based Expatriate
Resources at the time, asked Groat
to analyze the samples to
determine the source of their
brilliant green colour. Groat
confirmed his former student's
hunch. The minerals were
high-quality emeralds - the first to
be found in Canada.
The dazzling discovery raised a
lot of scientific questions for
Groat. Why were the emeralds
there? Were there more to be
found? And where was the best
place to look?
In  a quest for answers,  Groat
UBC Prof. Lee Groat (left) has been collaborating with his former students Bill Wengzynowski, president of Archer,
Cathro & Associates, and Bonnie Pemberton of True North Gems on the development of Canada's emerald
industry. Below left: some Yukon emeralds, in their natural and cut form.
various scientific specializations to
help analyze the samples.
What they found was that the
area around Regal Ridge is made
up of slices of oceanic rock - called
accreted terraines. More than 100
million years ago, when continents
were colliding in massive tectonic
shifts to form mountains, slabs of
ocean floor, containing chromium
and vanadium, got caught between
colliding continental plates. When
only a half carat in size. Stones of
at least one carat are necessary to
make mining worthwhile.
This summer, with funding
support from the National Sciences
and Engineering Research Council
of Canada (NSERC), True North
Gems Inc. (the Vancouver company which purchased the Regal
Ridge property from Expatriate
Resources), and the Yukon
government, Groat is heading back
Rarer and more valuable than diamonds, emeralds have been
prized for centuries. The Inca and Aztec Indians of South
America worshipped them as holy stones.
along with other UBC researchers,
students and graduates have been
the driving force behind the
development of Canada's fledging
emerald industry.
Rarer and more valuable than
diamonds, emeralds have been
prized for centuries. The Inca and
Aztec Indians of South America
worshipped them as holy stones.
Cleopatra had her own emerald
mines, now long exhausted, near
the Red Sea, and the Roman
emperor Nero was said to have
watched gladiators fight through
emerald lenses.
The world emerald market is
currently estimated to be worth
more than US$5 billion with most
stones mined in Columbia, Brazil,
Zambia, Afghanistan        and
Pakistan.
As he opens boxes of emerald
samples from around the world,
Groat says that, at first, the
Canadian emerald find seemed to
be an anomaly.
"I was pretty excited when I first
saw the samples. I knew there was
beryl up there, I'd seen it on
previous trips. What I hadn't put
together   is   that   there   could   be
emeralds, too" Groat says.
Emeralds are a type of beryl, a
mineral made of beryllium,
aluminum, silicon and oxygen - all
elements common in the
continental crust. While ordinary
beryls are colourless, emeralds are
green because at some point in
their formation, some of the
aluminum was replaced by the
elements chromium or vanadium.
Emeralds are rare because these
elements belong to a completely
different chemical family from
beryllium and the two drifted apart
billions of years ago.
Once Groat confirmed that
Wengzynowski had found
emeralds, he wanted to find out
how the elements necessary to
form them had come into contact
with each other in a wind-swept
corner of the Yukon.
In the summer of 1999, Groat
spent 10 days collecting samples in
the area, now known as Regal
Ridge. Back at UBC, he pulled
together a team that included
fellow UBC Professor Jim
Mortensen, the university's
Mineral Deposit Research Unit,
and international researchers with
those patches of oceanic rock were
forced up against the continental
shelf, they came into contact with
continental rock containing
beryllium.
"Initially Regal Ridge seemed to
be different from other emerald
deposits," Groat says. "But as we
learned more about it, we saw that
the Yukon deposit has
similarities with those in Zambia
and Afghanistan.
"Now, just knowing the
geology up there, I'm confident
that there are more deposits. It's
not going to be easy to find them,
but with science we can target
them much better."
UBC's initial research helped to
spark a staking rush. This summer
at least seven companies will be in
the Regal Ridge area doing
exploration work, but Groat says
more analysis is necessary before
researchers can be certain of the
area's feasibility for emerald
mining.
In terms of their colour, Groat
says Canada's emeralds rank with
the world's best, but it is still
unknown whether the deposits will
yield stones big enough for profitable commercial mining. To date,
the largest stone found has been
up north with two students to do
additional analytical work at Regal
Ridge. They'll also visit another
site, called Lened, in the western
Northwest Territories where
emeralds have also been found.
Although paler in colour, the
Lened deposits appear to resemble
Colombian deposits, which
produce the world's finest quality
emeralds. Most of this summer will
be spent working on a regional
study outlining the likeliest places
to look for emeralds.
Grout hopes to finish the
analytical studies on Regal Ridge
and Lened by early to mid-2004
and complete the regional study by
2006. In mining terms, the project
is still in its infancy, but Groat
expects it will soon be
possible to tell whether full-fledged
mining is feasible at Regal Ridge.
"I think we will know whether
or not there will be a mine at Regal
Ridge by next year. It basically
depends on what True North Gems
finds this summer when they go
underground," Grout says. "What
will be really exciting is if someone
else, maybe us, makes another
discovery."
Grout is mindful of the gap
between   discoveries   and   actual
production, but points out that
only a short while ago people said
there were no diamonds in
Canada.
"We're the second largest
country in the world so we should
have these gemstones," Groat says.
"I certainly wouldn't be surprised
to see Canada producing emeralds
in the future and like our
diamonds, Canadian emeralds
would command a premium." □
U BC 2003
Rick Hansen
Wheels in
Motion
Skates, bikes, and blades will be
out in force as UBC staff, faculty
and students and the local
community get in motion to raise
awareness and funds for spinal
cord care and research.
The Rick Hansen Wheels In
Motion event will be held
Saturday, June 14, from 9 a.m. -
2 p.m. at SUB Plaza, one of more
than 150 events taking place across
Canada.
Members of the campus
community are encouraged to
form teams to wheel - on bicycles,
wheelchairs, inline skates and
scooters - walk or jog around a
.6km or 2.5km course. Pledges
from the event will be directed
toward research and to improving
the quality of life for people with
spinal cord injury.
Teams can register or pledge
forms can be obtained by
contacting Gerry Latham at
latham @safety.ubc.ca.
For further information go to
www.wheelsinmotion.ubc.ca □
UBC
kudos
International Space
University Chooses
UBC to Host Summer
Program
The International Space
University (ISU) in
Strasbourg, France has
selected UBC as the host site
for its 2005 Summer Session
Program.
The program, which
changes location each year,
draws together more than
100 graduate-level students
from more than 25 countries
for two months to learn
about all aspects of space
exploration and research.
The professional network
created among the young
professionals and recent
graduates who attend the
program, along with the
faculty drawn from around
the world, is an important
life-long career tool.
The session in Vancouver
will be the second in Canada
since the program was
pioneered in 1988. □ 6     I
REPORTS      |      JUNE     5,      2OO3
UBC ALUMNI
ALUMNI   SPOTLIGHT >
Classical music concerts usually conjure up images of well-heeled
audiences, furrow-browed intellectuals and black-tie formality.
But June Goldsmith has succeeded in airing out this stuffy image
and making classical music fun and accessible. Eighteen years ago
she founded Music in the Morning, a non-profit organization that
arranges and promotes classical music concerts at various venues
in Vancouver including the Chan Centre. It thrives in a
cash-strapped Arts scene by offering quality performances to
daytime audiences.
What singles out the performances is the communication
between artist and audience, and the casual, coffee-morning
atmosphere. Before performing, the artists will offer their
commentary on the piece, the composer, or their experiences as a
musician - giving their audience a refreshing perspective, and a
new way to appreciate the music when it is performed. Another
key to the program's success is variety. Chamber music, ballet,
opera - all have been examined by a voracious and growing
following.
Goldsmith introduces the concerts and has also presented
onstage conversations with the likes of Judith Forst and Karen
Kain. This year saw the introduction of Rush Hour at the
Vancouver Art Gallery: one-hour concerts for downtown workers
to catch before heading home. Goldsmith hopes to tap a younger
audience and, to this end, the organization also holds workshops
at local schools.
Before founding Music in the Morning, Goldsmith taught
music appreciation for UBC's Continuing Studies. She holds an
MA in Music from Stanford and was inducted into the B.C.
Entertainment Hall of fame in 2000. □
UBC Alumni Association
Annual General Meeting
June 18, 2003
5:30 pm
UBC Robson Square
Bad Gums
not Bad
Brushing
Causes Bad
Breath
Gingivitis is at the root of
the problem
BY HILARY THOMSON
Think brushing, flossing and swig
ging mouthwash can save you
from bad breath?
Think again.
"There is a common superstition
- even among dentists - that oral
hygiene is directly linked to bad
breath," says Ken Yaegaki,
director of the Faculty of Dentistry
Breath Testing Clinic and a world
expert on halitosis. "Our clinical
experience doesn't support that
theory at all."
That's why Yaegaki has teamed
up with colleagues in Beijing and
Tokyo to investigate the primary
cause of bad breath. He is
co-supervising the work of primary
investigator Xuenan Liu, a doctoral student at Tokyo Medical and
Dental University. With colleague
and co-supervisor Yoko
Kawaguchi, Yaegaki has overseen
the study of approximately 2,000
adults of all ages through
interviews and examinations at
Beijing health clinics, schools and
local offices of the Communist
party.
The project is the first clinical
bad breath study ever done in
China, a country with strong
educational links to Japan.
The findings have reversed
common thinking to show that
gum disease, not poor oral
hygiene, is the primary and direct
cause of bad breath.
Yaegaki hopes the findings will
help promote regular trips to the
dentist.
"Even in Canada, almost half
the population does not have regu-
A Beijing student takes breath test in China's first halitosis study.
Iar exams and cleaning," he says.
"I want to change this behaviour
through people's fear of bad
breath. They may be more motivated to have regular check-ups to
avoid getting the gum disease that
leads to bad breath."
Researchers use a halimeter to
test bad breath. The system uses
gas chromatography as a measuring device and provides precise
readings of sulphur compounds,
high levels of which are the basis
of bad breath.
Other causes of halitosis include
tongue coating from various
health conditions such as diabetes,
or liver disease, throat inflammation or sinusitis, and some
medications.
Many remedies, including most
mouthwashes are "a little bit
more effective than water," in
combating    bad    breath,     says
Yaegaki. Some products, such as
sugar-free mint-flavoured gums
actually worsen halitosis by breaking down tongue coating and
releasing malodorous compounds
into the mouth.
Oral hygiene is improving in
China as the economy improves,
creating a huge market for tooth
cleaning and breath freshening
products, Yaegaki reports. This
summer, he will supervise a postdoctoral fellow from Beijing where
two dental schools have started
bad breath clinics and research.
The findings from the recent
study will be published at an international breath odour conference
in April 2004.
For more information on UBC's
Breath Testing Clinic, visit the Web
site at http ://www. dentistry,
ubc.ca/clinic/proserv/breathtest-
ing.stm or call 604.822.8028. □
Blvd.
University
lijl^i J
University Boulevard Draft Neighbourhood Plan & UBC Campus Transit Planning:
Following an extensive consultation process from February 10 to April 7, 2003, the University Boulevard Draft
Neighbourhood Plan is being revised to reflect suggestions and concerns offered by participants during
the consultation.
As well, the Campus Transit Planning process has identified a preferred transit service concept which has
been considered in association with the University Boulevard Draft Neighbourhood Plan.
Tell us what you think
Further campus and community consultation is being conducted to review the neighbourhood planning
principles, the revised neighbourhood plan and the proposed improvements to transit infrastructure.
You can participate in this consultation in a number of ways:
1. INTERNET
http://www.universitytown.ubc.ca.
2. OPEN HOUSES
(SUB Concourse,  6138 Student Union Boulevard)
Mon. June 9: 3 pm to 8 pm
Wed. June 11: 10 am to 3 pm
Mon. June 16: 10 am to 3 pm
Wed. June 18: 10 am to 3 pm
Neighbourhood planning principles
Neighbourhood planning principles
Revised neighbourhood plan; presentation at noon
Revised neighbourhood plan; presentation at noon
3. SPECIAL MEETINGS (June 2 - 20)
Your group can request a special meeting from June 2 - 20 by contacting the University Town inquiry
line at 604.822.6400 or by e-mailing info.universitytown@ubc.ca.
4. CAMPUS and COMMUNITY PUBLIC MEETING
Monday, June 23: 7 pm in the SUB Ballroom (2nd Floor).
How Campus & Community Feedback Will Be Used
Feedback gathered through this consultation will be reported to the UBC Board of Governors in July.
Information will be posted on the web.
For further information contact:
Linda Moore
Associate Director, External Affairs (University Town)
Tel:  604.822.6400
Fax: 604.822.8102
or info.universitytown@ubc.ca
UBC
X/
UNIVERSITY TOWN
Exploring the Family Trees
continued from page 1
sustainable way with reduced
pressure on naturally grown
forests, if we can accelerate tree
breeding and selection."
By 2005, the team plans to have
more than two hundred thousand
gene transcripts partially or
completely sequenced. These will
be valuable in studying gene
function and evolutionary
patterns of genes. They will also
be one of the largest collections of
such sequences in the world.
To undertake such a massive
task, Bohlmann and his colleagues
have assembled 18 specialists
from around the world. They have
also partnered with Genome B.C.
platform technology experts, and
scientists at the B.C. Cancer
Agency's Michael Smith Genome
Sciences Centre, the Microarray
Centre at Vancouver General
Hospital and the University of
Victoria's Proteomics Centre.
Other collaborators include the
B.C. Ministry of Forests, the
Canadian Forest Service, B.C.-
based forest biotechnology
industry and other industry
partners such as Canada's Pulp
and Paper Research Institute.
UBC's Forestry faculty has provided lab and office space for the
newly recruited group of
researchers.
Bohlmann says if Canada wants
to have a sustainable forestry
industry,    cutting   edge   genetic
knowledge about the trees is a
must. For this reason, he is keen to
share the project's findings with
industry and the public. The tools
will allow researchers and end
users to work with gene
expression profiling in large
marker sets for a variety of
applications including identifying
the genes underlying wood
formation, stress tolerance and
disease resistance, and using this
knowledge to improve and
accelerate tree breeding for
quality traits critical to the forest
industry.   □
Point Grey
Guest House
4103 W. iothAve.
Vancouver, B.C.
Call or fax 604-222-4104
info@pointgreyguesthouse.com UBC      REPORTS       |      JUNE     5,     2OO3      |      7
A Lot of Hot Air
Tobacco advertising and the myth ofthe "light" cigarette
BY ERICA SMISHEK
There is no such thing as a safe
cigarette - and tobacco companies who market "light"
versions are just blowing smoke,
says UBC Commerce Prof. Rick
Pollay.
"Light cigarettes have been
marketed as if they are safer,"
says Pollay, who has studied
tobacco advertising for more
than 15 years. "But there is no
safe cigarette. It's a lie, a ruse."
Last month, a B.C. man
launched a suit against Imperial
Tobacco, alleging that the
company engaged in "deceptive
trade practices" in the
marketing of its "light" and
"mild" cigarette brands. The
suit is the first of its kind in
Canada and is expected to draw
support from other current and
former smokers of light brands.
Pollay has testified at numerous tobacco-related trials
throughout North America.
Quebec Superior Court judge
Andre Denis called him "a
virtual living encyclopedia on
tobacco advertising and a
scrupulously rigorous marketing
researcher" at a trial last year in
which Denis upheld the
constitutionality of the
Canadian Tobacco Act.
In an Oregon case, Pollay
testified that tobacco companies
created the low-tar or "light"
cigarette to give smokers an
excuse not to quit amid a
growing anti-smoking
atmosphere.
His research shows that
marketers essentially created the
illusion of a healthier cigarette,
thanks in part to virtuous brand
names and descriptors such as
"mild" and "ultra" to reassure
smokers   and   discourage   them
from quitting the habit.
"The more time you spend
researching this area, the more
you find they're up to their sly
old tricks," says Pollay.
"They're always pursuing their
self-interest of profit. They're
never really giving public
interest or public health any
concern."
Pollay grew up in New
England in the 1950s and
smoked Marlboros for 15 years.
He joined UBC in 1970 as a
specialist in marketing,
consumer behavior and the
social and cultural effects of
advertising. He turned his
research focus to tobacco in
1987 when asked by lawyers to
study cigarette advertising of
the 1930s to 1950s in order to
testify in New Jersey's Cipollone
trial.
"At that stage of my career, I
liked the richness of it," Pollay
explains. "The tobacco industry
and its regulation is very
interdisciplinary. It involves
political, medical and epidemiological aspects; it also involves
public health, law, psychology,
commerce and ethics.
" [Tobacco companies] are
always doing something wrong.
If it wasn't always illegal, it was
certainly immoral."
His studies of advertising
reveal much about how the
tactics of the tobacco industry
have changed when targeting
different types of audiences
(men/women, started/concerned
addicts), introducing new
technologies (filters, "light"
products) and adapting to new
regulations or events (ban of TV
advertising, the health scare of
the 1950s).
"They know what they're
doing," he says matter-of-factly.
In addition to advertisements,
Pollay has also reviewed
corporate documents from the
tobacco industry and trade
information to find evidence of
the industry targeting to women
and youth.
"Take the heroic independence of the Marlboro cowboy,"
he says. "He has no foreman, no
parents, no bullies. There is no
sheriff in Marlboro country.
This cowboy is free to be and do
his own thing. That's very
appealing to adolescents."
Pollay says advertising to
women initially served to
legitimize the activity of
smoking. It later made connections to the women's movement
- remember the "you've come a
long way, baby" campaign of
the 1960s? - and now focuses
on fashion and beauty through
sponsorships of Canadian
fashion designers or the use of
digitally distorted images that
make women appear as tall and
slim as possible.
Cancer researchers say it's
working. When the Canadian
Cancer Society reported in April
that the lung cancer death rate
among women has jumped 46
per cent since 1988, they drew a
direct line to years of attention
paid to young women by
tobacco marketers.
"There is nothing in it that is
very liberating," says Pollay of
this target marketing. "There is
nothing liberating about
smoking... It's an equal
opportunity tragedy."
Pollay has collected more than
10,000 cigarette advertisements
spanning the 20th century, with
film copies donated to the
Roswell Park Cancer Institute in
Buffalo, New York. The Richard
W. Pollay 20th Century Tobacco
Advertisement Collection can be
searched online at http://
roswell. tobacco documents,
org/. □
Retiring Within 5 Years?
Don Proteau
B.Comm, CFP
Senior Financial Planner
Assante Financial
Mangement Ltd.
dproteau@assante.com
Frank Danielson
B.Ed., CFP
Senior Financial Planner
Assante Financial
Mangement Ltd.
fdanielson@assante.com
♦ Complimentary consultations available for
UBC Faculty and Staff
♦ Retirement and Estate planning
♦ UBC pension expertise
♦ References available
"/ am completely satisfied with the service I am receiving from Don. "
M. Dale Kinkade,
Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, UBC
"Frank and Don made me feel very comfortable with their advice and
long range planning. Their knowledge of the faculty pension plan is
also a plus for UBC professors. "
Dr. J. H. McNeill,
Professor, Pharmaceutical Sciences, UBC
Call or e-mail today for a complimentary retirement analysis
604-638-0335
As b a nte
I
Berkowitz & Associates
Consulting Inc.
Statistical Consulting
research design • data analysis • sampling • forecasting
^^^^^^^h   Jonathan Berkowitz, Ph.D ^^^^^^^™
4160 Staulo Crescent, Vancouver, B.C. V6N 3S2
Office: (604) 263-1508 Fax: (604) 263-1708
Academic Editing
Editing
Shaping
Revising
Academic papers, articles, journals, presentations, proposals
Immediate attention and prompt delivery
Hourly rate with estimates - Coursework not accepted
 David Harrison 	
20 years academic work in Canada, U.S. and Europe
E-mail: dharrison@direct.ca Ph: 604-733-3499
Commerce Prof. Rick Pollay has been called a "virtual living enclopedia" for his knowledge of tobacco advertising
and marketing. He has collected more than 10,000 cigarette advertisements spanning the 20th century.
(Media
131
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Building I       UBC      REPORTS      |      JUNE     5,      2OO3
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Board of Governors approves
UBC Visual Identity Policy
In May 2003, UBC's Board of Governors approved a Visual
Identity policy meant to guide UBC units in their use of the
university's name, typeface, initials, specified colours and logo
(at left), as well as their relationship to other visual features in
printed and electronic materials.
The appropriate use of these elements enhances the University's reputation,
leverages quick recognition, reduces design costs and inefficiencies, and
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communication;
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(e) University business cards, letterhead, and other stationery; and
(f) University brochures and other publications.
An electronic version of the full Policy and Guidelines is available at:
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Dave Burke and Matthew Thorne are using computer science to help amateur artists sketch electronically.
Motion Doodles
Software makes computer animation accessible to
artists of all ages
BY GAYLE MAVOR AND MICHELLE COOK
Can't draw a stick figure to save
your life? New software designed
by two Computer Science graduate
students may give hope to all the
budding artists out there blessed
with more enthusiasm than skill.
Motion Doodles can quickly
turn even very young children into
amateur animators, say its designers Matthew Thorne and Dave
Burke. Ifyou can draw with a pencil, you can use it. That means anyone, regardless of their computer
skill or artistic ability, can create
rudimentary animations.
"In less than a minute, you can
have a figure up on the screen and
moving around doing leaps and
somersaults," says Burke, who
worked on developing the software's character sketching abilities.
All it takes is a simple swish of
your mouse or stylus. In a two-part
process, the software lets you
sketch a series of basic loops representing a human head, torso, arms
and legs. Once you've got those
seven basic body parts, you can
add hair and hands if you wish.
The computer transforms your
doodle into a figure capable of
replicating basic (and some not-so-
basic) human motions.
Then the fun really begins. Draw
a forward circle with your mouse
and your doodle executes a front
flip of Olympian caliber. Drag your
mouse in arcs and your doodle
marches forward, with each arc
specifying the length and height of
each step. You can make the figure
jump, tiptoe, stomp - whatever
suits your mood. You can even add
a few landscape features like trees
and hills. You don't even need to
worry about proportion. In the
world of Motion Doodles, even a
stubby legged animation can leap
tall buildings in a single bound.
"You don't really need any art
skills at all to do this," says
Thorne, who developed the data
base of motions that provides the
user with choreography choices.
Motion Doodles may seem like a
high-tech Etch A Sketch® toy but
in spirit it lies somewhere between
the simple interfaces used in computer games that allow players to
steer characters, and the more diffi-
cult-to-use "keyframing" interfaces
that professional animators use to
control every aspect of a character's
motion. There is currently no software on the market quite like it.
Thorne has been working on
developing Motion Doodles since
October 2002 as part of his master's thesis on how to "sketch"
motion. His principal reference for
the project has been The
Animator's Survival Kit, a book by
Roger Rabbit creator Richard
Williams. One of the biggest challenges has been finding a set of
appropriate doodles that map to
the natural motions of the human
body.
Just as the musical notation system was created to write songs or
"capture" music hundreds of years
ago, Thorne has had to invent a
notation system for motion, says
his thesis supervisor Michiel van de
Panne, a Canada Research Chair in
Computer Graphics and
Animation.
"We're designing a new language, a system of shorthand or
gestural notations to create motion
that is easy to understand and use,"
says van de Panne.
While the project is in its infancy,
Van de Panne hopes it will lead to
more complex sketching software
in the future. The possibilities for
both the 2D and 3D versions of
Motion Doodles are open to further exploration. Aside from its
potential as a fun animation tool
for artists of all ages, it could be
used to quickly draw storyboards
for film animation or video games.
It would also be useful as a choreography tool for diving, dancing or
gymnastics routines.
Before that van de Panne would
like to see the software's repertoire
of motions enlarged and get a prototype into the hands of amateur
animators for testing. After that,
don't be surprised to see a doodle
moonwalking soon on a screen
near you. □
TIME    PIECE    1926
As long as there has been a UBC there have been emergency response exercises and drills. One of
the earliest was in 1926 when the four-man crew of this tin lizzy fire truck stood ready in front
of the library. Apparently uniforms were optional back then. Today, UBC continues to engage in
training exercises. On June 19, firefighters, ambulance, police and other campus emergency
personnel will take part in a full-scale emergency exercise. The staff will be challenged by
multiple incidents happening on campus as the result of a naturally occurring disaster. Props and
actors will add to the realism. But don't be alarmed, as the photo shows, we were prepared then
and we're prepared now.

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