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UBC Reports Jan 26, 1995

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Going, Going . .
^•m Gavin Wilson photos
Bystanders laugh as a student takes a tumble after trying to ride the
bucking barrel, one of many events held recently during Aggie Week,
sponsored by the Agricultural Sciences Undergraduate Society.
1995 Honorary Degrees
Pilot, actor among
13 degree recipients
by Connie Filletti
Staff writer
University of British Columbia graduates Wendy Clay, surgeon general ofthe
Canadian Forces, and actor Joy Coghill, are among
13 distinguished individuals to be awarded honorary
degrees by UBC this year.
Clay, a 26-year veteran ^
of the Canadian Forces,
began her military career
while studying medicine at
UBC In the 1960s. A pilot
and flight surgeon, she is
currently the only female
general In the Canadian
In addition to an award-
winning career as an actor, Coghill enjoys continuing success as a director,
theatre producer, artistic director and
teacher. Her influence on all aspects of
theatre in Canada was recognized with
Joy Coghill
the Order of Canada, presented to her in
Other eminent UBC graduates receiving honorary degrees are: William Esson,
chief justice of the Supreme Court of
British Columbia; Thomas
Franck, director of New
York University's Centre for
International Studies; Jack
Hodgins, one of Canada's
finest fiction writers; and
Gloria Webster, a leader In
First Nation's cultural affairs.
Honorary degrees will
also be conferred on: Wan
Kyoo Cho, president ofthe
Biolndustry Association of
Korea; HongTao Chow, national policy advisor to the
president ofthe Republic of China and a
leader in establishing the annual Canada-
Taiwan Higher Education Conference;
Leslie Dan, founder and president of
See DEXxREE Page 2
Zoology professor's
low-oxygen work
earns gold medal
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
Peter Hochachka has travelled from
the ice floes of Antarctica to the world's
highest mountains to discover how people and other mammals adapt to low-
oxygen environments.
His research has made the UBC Zoology professor an international leader in
comparative physiology and biochemistry, and now it has earned him the 1995
Canada Gold Medal for Science and Engineering.
The award is the highest honour given
by the Natural Sciences and Engineering
Research Council (NSERC), Canada's largest university research granting agency.
'The Gold Medal award recognizes Dr.
Hochachka's extraordinary contributions
to Canadian research," said NSERC President Peter Morand. who will present the
medal in Ottawa in June.
"He has been described as the world's
foremost researcher in adaptational
physiology and the dominant creative
influence in his field."
Hochachka's groundbreaking studies
of the different ways in which animals
convert food and oxygen into energy have
changed the course of biological research
and our understanding of how animals,
including humans, adapt to their environment, Morand said.
'Thanks to his efforts, UBC has a top
research team in a new and exciting field,
and an area of growing medical attention," he added.
Hochachka's research focuses on how
humans and other mammals adapt to
low-oxygen environments, both underwater and at high altitudes.
For example, the Antarctic Weddell
seal can hold its breath for well over an
hour, diving to depths of 600 metres or
more. Himalayan Sherpas can work, without extra oxygen, for prolonged periods at
altitudes that would be deadly to most
Hochachka looks to uncover the profound physiologic and biochemical adaptations that are key to this ability to
function with little or no oxygen.
His insights have come from research
on adaptations to oxygen deprivation in
many different species — molluscs, fishes,
seals, beavers and humans, to name only
a few.
Martin Dee photo
Peter Hochachka
"I'm a zoologist. An interest in animals
has always driven my research,"
Hochachka said. "Early in my career, it
occurred to me that although evolution
and adaptation are themes that go
through the life sciences, at the biochemical level there was a dearth of knowledge. I thought this must be a field ripe
for exploration."
Hochachka's initial work in the 1970s
served as an intellectual "jump start" for
the field of comparative physiology and
biochemistry, acting as a catalyst for an
explosion of research around the world.
Since then, his pioneering studies have
advanced the understanding ofthe metabolic mechanisms underlying environmental adaptations, demonstrated weaknesses in existing theories of metabolic
control, and proposed new models to
explain how the supply of energy to muscles is regulated.
In recent years, he and his students
have been focusing on uncovering the
exact molecular and metabolic defense
mechanisms against oxygen deprivation.
This work has captured the interest ofthe
medical community because ofthe implications for diseases caused by or complicated by lack of oxygen. Hochachka is
one of the few zoology professors to ever
lecture at Harvard Medical School.
See MEDAL Page 2
Common Thread
Offbeat: A recent Asia Pacific meeting looks like a UBC alumni reunion
Baby Talk 4
A child's difficulty with language and speech may indicate other problems
Smoke Screen 5
Forum: Behind the images, the tobacco industry is simply pushing drugs
Forest Futures 12
Profile: Prof. Gene Namkoong's work on genetic diversity gains recognition 2 UBC Reports • January 26, 1995
News Digest
Traffic changes
spell relief
Re: Letter "Catering to cars
a mistake," UBC Reports, Nov.
17, 1994. The Main Campus
Plan was approved in 1992.
The Strategy for Roads took
into account the existing
chaotic road system and the
need to manage increasing
demands for better access to
new buildings.
Until last summer. Health
Sciences, East, Main, West
and Lower malls all had
varying and sometimes confusing traffic regulations.  The
regulations were challenged
and exploited daily by couriers.
office suppliers, taxis, fast food
vendors, staff, faculty and
students.  Additionally, some
visitors to the campus were
confused and frustrated by the
complex system of one-way
and dead end service roads.
Continued from Page 1
Of special interest to physicians is his work on adaptations
to chronic high altitude oxygen
deprivation in native people.
Hochachka's research team
was the first to study Quechuas
from the Andes and Sherpas from
the Himalayas in modern university and hospital laboratories.
The team has identified certain heart, brain and muscle adaptations that allow Quechuas
and Sherpas to function normally, even thrive, at very high
altitudes. This work continues
as part of a major research effort
supported by a Collaborative
Project Grant from NSERC.
While Hochachka encourages
and enjoys the dialogue that has
grown up between his discipline
and clinical medicine, he emphasizes that the true essence of
his work is its fundamental nature.
"What I'm doing is fundamental science — studying and understanding adaptations," he
said. 'There's still an enormous
step to be taken by science before we can really talk about
applications in medicine."
Continued from Page 1
Novopharm Ltd. and founder of
the Canadian Medicine Aid Program which provides medical assistance to emerging nations;
Garth Drabinsky, who has
helped put Canada centre stage,
alongside London and Broadway, In live theatre with his productions of Kiss of the Spider
Woman and Showboat; Ivar
Ek eland, former president ofthe
University of Paris-Dauphine,
who was instrumental In facilitating the opening of Palestinian
universities In the West Bank
and Gaza; and 'Vincent Stogan,
cultural and spiritual leader of
the Musqueam/Sto:Lo Nation
and one ofthe principal resident
elders at UBC's First Nations
The honorary degrees will be
awarded during UBC's two
graduation ceremonies: Spring
Congregation, May 30 to June 2
and Fall Congregation, Nov. 23.
Determined drivers were often
observed cruising down Main
Mall or quickly traversing
University Boulevard from the
Bookstore to West Mall.  The
road system was further
compromised by the need to
allow service vehicles lo access
buildings fronting Main Mall.
Parking and Security personnel were constantly required to
make judgements on the
validity of drivers' rights to be
on service roads.  Staff and
students with disabilities were
also required to utilize this
same confusing system.   It was
not surprising that some
(drivers) chose to ignore
regulations for convenient
pick-up of passengers in
inclement weather.  Also, it
was common to witness drivers
speeding down West Mall or
taxis dropping off passengers
outside the Henry Angus
Building.   Finally, the increasing building density strained
the existing road circulation to
the point of being unmanageable.   It was clear a new road
system was urgently required.
The road strategies in the
Main Campus Plan required
accessibility to only those
destinations that absolutely
needed access bv vehicles and
also required acknowledgement that the inner campus is
a special (sacrosanct) place for
pedestrians.  The yellow post
barriers with no entry signage
virtually eliminated campus
core traffic while the ring road
system — West Mall,
Agronomy. East Mall and
Crescent Road — was clearly a
logical choice requiring only
the removal of the largely
redundant no entry signs in a
few sections. However to
ensure the automobile did not
automatically become "king"
again, new road speed signs
and speed buttons were
installed.   (Traffic was audited
before and after the recent
changes and average speed
reductions of 30 per cent have
been recorded.)
In summary, the logic ofthe
decision was based on the
need to adapt an unmanageable road system to meet the
new conditions of an increasingly densely built campus
while enhancing the pedestrian
campus core.
David Grigg
Manager, Engineering
UBC Campus Planning and
Are You Considering
Canadian Permanent
Do You Need Help With
Van Reekum Veress
Immigration Consulting
For All Immigration
Berkowitz & Associates
Statistics and Mathematics Consulting
• research design • data analysis
• sampling • forecasting
Jonathan Berkowitz, Ph.D
4160 Staulo Crescent, Vancouver, B.C., V6N 3S2
Office: (604) 263-1508
Home: (604) 263-5394
Caring For Pets and People
West Tenth Veterinary Qinic
106 - 4545 W. 10th Ave.
Please call 224-7743 for appointment.
Conveniently located next to the Point Grey Safeway.
We Sell
All UBC Surplus
Every Wednesday
2352 Health Sciences Mall 822-2813 • 822-2582
• Elegant 2 Bdrm/2 Bath Apartment in Thames Court
• Spacious (1143 si], bright, N/W corner unit
• Flooded with afternoon sun. Balcony overlooks garden
• Gorgeous Kitchen with extra storage, opens to D.R.
• Gas F/P, 2 parking spaces, storage locker
• Private Rec. Centre incl. pool, sauna, hot tub and
exercise equipment
• Asking $308,000
Stuart Bonner  732-1336
Remax Crest Realty
Department of Psychiatry,
University of Pittsburgh
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
Deviant Behaviour in Children and
Parental Alcohol Consumption:
Laboratory Studies of
Reciprocal Effects
Thursday, February 9, 1995 - 4:00 PM
in Kenny Building, Room 2510
Peter Suedfeld Lounge
UBC Reports is published twice monthly (monthly in
December, June, July and August) for the entire
university community by the UBC Community
Relations Office, 207-6328 Memorial Rd., Vancouver
B.CV6T 1Z2.
Managing Editor: Steve Crombie
Editor: Paula Martin
Production: Stephen Forgacs
Contributors: Connie Filletti, Abe Hefter, Charles Ker,
Gavin Wilson
Editorial and advertising enquiries: (604) 822-3131
(phone), (604) 822-2684 (fax).
UBC Reports welcomes the submission of letters and
opinion pieces. Opinions and advertising published in
UBC Reports do not necessarily reflect official
university policy.
Material may be reprinted in whole or in part with
appropriate credit to UBC Reports. UBC Reports ■ January 26, 1995 3
Students protest
Axworthy proposal
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
Tens of thousands of Canadian students were expected to join a nationwide
protest Jan. 25 of federal government
proposals that would cause tuition fees
to soar three times their current level.
The Canadian Federation of Students
called on its members to boycott classes
for the day, but UBC's Alma Mater Society decided against endorsing a strike in
favour of organizing a campus rally.
The AMS anticipated that more than
2,500 students would take part in the
rally at the Student Union Building plaza,
called to condemn the proposals outlined
in Human Resources Minister Lloyd
Axworthy's green paper on social security.
UBC students were also expected to
take part in a citywide rally in downtown
Vancouver later in the day.
Students launched the protest in response to the Axworthy green paper, which
proposed dropping federal funding for
post-secondary education in favour of a
massive cash infusion for an income-
contingent loan repayment plan.
University administrators, faculty and
students have warned that this would
drastically increase tuition fees and harm
the infrastructure needed for research
and teaching.
Meanwhile, in an earlier meeting in
Ottawa, Axworthy told a group of graduate student leaders, including UBC's
Graduate Student Society President
Vighen Pacradouni, that he may consider
offering cash grants to students as part of
an expanded loan system.
Pacradouni said it was the first time
that the minister had publicly hinted at
offering grants to offset the increased
student loans the new system would bring.
The student leaders told Axworthy that
graduate students spend more time in
school and would face even higher debt
loads on graduating than undergraduates.
The result could be a brain drain as
Canadian graduate students leave for the
United States where endowments cover
the cost of tuition fees for many students,
they warned.
The students told Axworthy they are
not opposed to financial aid reform if its
aim is to root out inefficiencies or abuses
by borrowers and lending institutions.
But it is a mistake to link financial aid
reform to funding cuts, they said.
"If Axworthy is looking at making universities more efficient, his proposals don't
necessarily get at that." Pacradouni said.
Axworthy told the graduate students
that if he thought the green paper proposals would result in a significant decrease in accessibility to post-secondary
education, he would not have proposed
by staff writers
The Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade held its Asia Pacific
"Heads of Mission" meeting on campus earlier this month. The gathering could have easily been billed the "UBC Alumni Heads of Mission."
Graduates in attendance included: John Bell. High Commissioner, Malaysia (BCom '62)international Trade Minister Roy MacLaren (BA '55):
Maurice Hladik, Charge d'affaires, Korea (MSc '69): John Paynter, Ambassador. China (BA '62); Raymond Chan, Secretary of State. Asia Pacific
(BASc '77); John Curtis, Senior Policy Advisor, Trade and Economic Policy
Branch (BA '63); Hugh Stephens, Resource Planning and Management
Secretariat (BA '67); Raphael Girard. Asst. Deputy Minister, International
Service (BA '63); Rear Admiral Bruce Johnston. Commander, Maritime
Forces Pacific (BA '64); and John MacDonald. President, MacDonald
Dettwiler and Associates. Ltd. (BASc '59).
• • • •
The front-page picture ofthe Jan. 12 issue of UBC Reports showed
graduate student Noel Genoway preparing the Asian Centre bell for a
ceremonial New Year's ringing. The bell is traditionally rung 108 times
on New Year's eve in a symbolic dispelling ofthe 108 earthly desires which,
according to Buddhist teachings, plague human beings. In explaining the
108 "Bonno," as they are called in Japanese, Keith Snyder of Tozenji
Buddhist Temple in Coquitlam points out that a more accurate translation
would be "negative mental states" or "hindrances to enlightenment." The top
20 hindrances are:
1. greed
2. anger
3. ignorance
4. pride
5. doubt
6. belief in an eternal self
7. belief that there either is or is not an afterlife
8. denying the principle of cause and effect
9. upholding the previous three as the truth
10. undertaking difficult practices in vain for the sake of what is not the
way to liberation
lack of repentance
lack of shame
15. regret for having done something good in the past, or for not having
done something bad
16. cloudiness of thought
17. being rash
18. melancholy
19. petty anger
20. concealing one's past
Snyder adds that the first three hindrances are the so-called "three
poisons" from which all other negative mental states spring. Perhaps that is
why the bell ringer at the Asian Centre event limited his efforts to a few tolls
rather than the traditional 108.
Much Mochi
D Thomson photo
Sushi, sashimi, soba and mochi (sticky rice) cakes were some of the
delicacies served at the Asian Centre's Oshogatsu event earlier this month.
Organizers estimate that 1,000 visitors attended the Japanese New Year's
Parents, coaches asked
to help with sports ethics
by Abe Hefter
Staff writer
Three UBC researchers are taking a
grassroots approach toward helping establish a more complete set of ethical
guidelines for Canadian amateur sport.
Counselling Psychology professors
Colleen Haney and Bonnie Long and research assistant Gayle Howell Jones plan
to survey approximately 500 coaches,
athletes and parents of athletes to get
their views on such issues as cheating,
fair play and eligibility.
"This is our way of enhancing the
ethical guidelines already established by
the various sports governing bodies across
Canada, like Sport Canada and the Canadian Coaching Association," said
Howell Jones.
To initially explore the perception of
ethical issues in sport, Haney and Howell
Jones interviewed coaches, athletes and
parents of athletes in a series of focus
group studies across the Lower Mainland. Each ofthe 12 focus groups looked
at a particular sport.
"We covered a whole range of competi
tive sports, both team and individual,
from martial arts to basketball." said
Howell Jones. "Each focus group consisted of three to six people and included
athletes from all levels of competition,
their parents, and coaches from all levels
of certification.
"Once we have established the prevailing themes or issues that emerged from
these focus group studies, we will formulate a questionnaire that will be distributed throughout B.C. and eastern Canada."
Haney and Howell Jones have been
involved with focus group studies since
the fall. With the questionnaire expected
to be completed within the next two
months, they are now looking for approximately 500 athletes, their parents,
and coaches to take part in the study.
'Those who take the time to answer
these questions will be guaranteed anonymity," said Howell Jones. 'The results
of the questionnaire will be presented at
various conferences and coaching clinics."
If you would like to take part in this
study, contact the project office at 222-
Two-day health fair examines
human sexuality issues
by Connie Filletti
Staff writer
Healthy sexuality is the focus of a two-
day fair taking place Jan. 26 and 27 in the
concourse ofthe Student Union Building
between 11:30 a.m. and 2:30 p.m.
The Sexual Evolution, a presentation
of Health Education Outreach, explores
how we can move toward healthy sexuality by involving the whole person in sexual
"Sexuality is more about who we are
than what we do," said Pearl Wierenga,
UBC's health education co-ordinator.
"It includes everything that makes us
male or female, what we are taught, the
roles we play in society, what we think of
our bodies, how we feel about ourselves,
how we relate to others and so much
Campus groups and community resource services will be represented at
several information booths. Participating
campus units include the Women Students' Office, Student Health Services
and Counselling Services. Off-campus
groups include AIDS Vancouver, Planned
Parenthood and the Eating Disorder Resource Centre of B.C.
For more information about the Sexual
Evolution, call 822-4858. 4 UBC Reports ■ January 26, 1995
Language acquisition research:
Early speech patterns may
indicate hidden problems
by Connie Filletti
Staff writer
Toddlers who experience trouble learning how to talk may
have a serious developmental
problem such as autism or cerebral palsy, a UBC speech-language pathologist says.
"Speech and language difficulties should be viewed always
as a symptom of something else.
which is why it is important to
pay attention to them early in
life," says Judith Johnston, director of UBC's School of Audiology and Speech Sciences.
Johnston, who has been researching language acquisition
for 35 years, said that although
children typically begin learning
about speech from birth, they
can vary in age from nine to 18
months before forming t heir first
This point in development is
often difficult to determine because parents vary in what they
count as first words. This makes
it difficult for them to determine
if their child has a speech problem, Johnston said.
She explained that one ofthe
major differences in the way parents view first words is that some
parents pay attention to how a
child uses words and others
"What parents often fail to
notice is that their child only
uses a word in one particular
place with one particular object
or situation. Other children will
be using their early words in a
more general manner."
She stressed that although
first words are often not a good
indicator of a child's success in
language learning, the expectations by age two are much
Research indicates that a two-
year-old child should have a vocabulary of at least 50 words, or
be combining words into short
phrases of two or three words,
Johnston said.
About 84 per cent of children
meet that criterion.
"If children have not reached
that milestone by 24 months
they are at serious risk for language-learning problems, and
those problems may indicate
other social, physical or cognitive difficulties. It would not be a
good idea to assume that everything is fine because a child is
still young," she said.
Johnston said the most common problem children have is
learning the sound system ofthe
language, that is, figuring out
what sounds are important for
meaning and how they pattern.
They may use an "f sound instead of an "s" sound, for example, or leave sounds off whenever they occur at the end of a
Mild problems of this sort that
do not interfere with intelligibility are not a matter of concern
until a child is well into primary
grades. However, widespread
difficulty with speech sounds,
especially when this is combined
with other sorts of speech or
language problems, does warrant attention even in
Other prevalent  difficulties
can involve learning grammar
and vocabulary or processing
language once it is learned. Children with this latter difficulty
may forget verb endings when
they are expressing complex
ideas, for example, or fail to understand speech that refers to
something out of context.
Compared to problems with
speech sounds, these problems
with grammar or processing art-
more difficult to detect and may
have more serious implications.
Johnston said.
"I'm not talking about learning to speak correctly, but learning to speak in an organized
communicative manner."
Judith Johnston
"Children with
difficulty learning to
speak are rarely
children who have
been deprived of
language input. These
problems are not a
result of being
neglected or ignored.
Of a whole series of
possible explanations,
this one is at the end
of the list."
-Judith Johnston
"Grammar is the heart of
language. Without a way to
put words together systematically, you can't express
ideas. Children who have difficulty learning how language
is organized are not learning
grammar and, consequently,
are fundamentally not learning language."
Johnston  said  there  is  no
doubt that children who experi
ence language delays  usually
suffer emotional and social consequences.
They often feel confused and
frustrated if they can't communicate ideas and feelings
easily and successfully to family members, and their ability
to develop good social relationships is hampered if they can't
understand what people are
saying to them.
She added that there are in
tellectual consequences as well.
"We normally use language to
think. It is a wonderful (ool for
solving complicated problems.
Children who are not facile with
language are hindered in higher-
level cognition," Johnston said.
"Research done by myself and
others has shown that children
who have intellectual development near normal at age four
but who have serious language
impairments will, by the time
they are 10 or 1 1. be two to three
years behind in concept development."
Johnston feels that although
parents should always try to
communicate well with even very
young children, be attentive and
speak in language that is appropriate to their level, they should
not feel that thev should have
spoken more or different lvil't heir
child is discovered to have a
speech or language problem.
"Children with difficulty learning to speak are rarely children
who have been deprived of language input." Johnston said.
"These problems are not a result
of being neglected or ignored. Of
a whole series of possible explanations, this one is at the end of
the list."
She does advise parents to
seek the help of speech language
pathologists who are on staff at
most school districts in B.C. and
available through local health
"Changes in clinical practice
during the last decade have led
to more normative research on
very young children," Johnston
"This has enabled speech language pathologists to identify
children with delays in language
acquisition early, and to make
these judgements with a great
deal of assurance."
Johnston believes that we
need to make speech and language interventions available
to more young children and to
draw attention to the problem
through public education. People need to recognize that human speech is a product of
active learning.
"People think of language
learning as effortless and automatic, a process that doesn't
take any particular skill or ability," she said.
"Language learning actually
entails very complicated cognitive mechanisms. It involves
more than merely repeating what
people say to you. If adults realized this they would understand
that difficulty learning to speak
is a serious problem."
Johnston also hopes that
more family physicians will acknowledge that it is possible to
identify children with speech
problems early, and that effective treatments are available.
Most of all. she cautioned
against inaction.
"We need to dispel the myth
that still pervades our society
that if you just wait long enough
everything will turn out fine.
The wait-and-see strategy is
not a wise one any longer for
children with speech and language delays. The consequences are too pervasive and
long-lasting to be treated in
that fashion."
Nominations are now being taken for this year's
President's Service Award for Excellence.
Up to five awards are presented each year and the
winners will each receive an engraved gold medal and
The deadline for nominations is FEBRUARY 28.
Entry forms and brochures have been mailed to all
departments - for extra forms or more information, call
the Ceremonies Office at 822-2484
The President's Advisory Committee
on Lectures
Architect, Seattle
Dream and Spectacle in the Project of
Fifteenth Century Ferrara and the Piazza
Monday, January 30 at 12:30 PM
Lecture in Lasserre 104
Urbanism in Fifteenth Century North
Italian City States
Monday, January 30 at 4:30 PM
Seminar in Recreation Lounge, Green College
Part ofthe Course Sponsored by the Department of Hispanic
and Italian Studies and the UBC Renaissance Seminar
The Interplay ofthe Arts in Renaissance Mantua and Ferrara
Department of History, Texas A&M University
In Hunger's Terrible Shadow:
Changing Gender Roles in French Food
Riots and Society, 1690s-1850s
Monday, January 30  - 12:30 PM
Lecture in Buchanan A-204
Comparative History:
A Vantage Point on Gendered Behaviour
in Food Riots
Monday, January 30  -  4:30-6:00 PM
Buchanan Penthouse  -  Reception follows
Part of Speaker Series, Spring 1995
Gender and History
K-k'^i.' f r- -  ">'"
The YWCA is looking for
Now is the time to nominate your candidate for the 1995
The deadline for nominations is Friday, Feb. 24,1995.
The awards recognize Greater Vancouver, Fraser Valley,
and Howe Sound/Whistler women who have made
contributions to the community in the areas of arts and
culture; communications and public affairs; community
and humanitarian service; education, training and
development; entrepreneur/innovator; health, sciences
and technology; management and the professions;
recreation, fitness and sport. New this year is the
Young Woman of Distinction Award for women
ages 16-24.
The gala Awards Dinner is May 18,1995 at the
Hyatt Regency.
For information, contact the Public Relations Dept. at the
VANCOUVER YWCA UBC Reports ■ January 26, 1995 5
Tricks of the
tobacco trade
by Richard Pollay
UBC Prof. Richard Pollay ofthe
Faculty of Commerce and Business
Administration teaches advertising
and marketing management dealing
with corporate decisions on marketing and consumer research, advertising strategy and implementation. He
also consults for the U.S. Surgeon
General's Office on Smoking and
Health. This is an excerpt from an
address he gave at the University of
Massachusetts. Jan. 16 22 was
National Non-Smoking Week in
Nicotine is truly addictive, a
description well established by the
U.S. Surgeon General among
others. Its use is often fatal when
used exactly as intended, in normal
use.   Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the U.S.
Current estimates indicate that this
year 430.000 American smokers will
die from their nicotine addiction —
more than traffic accidents, suicide,
murder. AIDS. fire, crack, cocaine,
and heroin all combined!
Cigarettes are deadly, not only
because of cancer and emphysema.
Even more die from circulatory
problems, heart attacks and
strokes. There are also many non-
lethal effects. Doctor's see the
evidence of nicotine addiction every
day. More than 20 Surgeon General
Reports over more than 25 years
have summarized literally tens of
thousands of studies. There is no
major contro- 	
versy among
health authorities. They have
every reason to
tell us the truth,
and no reason to
The industry,
on the other
hand, has lots of
reason to lie. if
only to protect
their record
profits year after       	
year. The Philip
Morris Company, for example, seller
of Marlboro and Virginia Slims, will
take profit estimated at more than
$5 million per day. and it's estimated that half of the profits come
from customers addicted as kids.
The typical starter is 12, 13. or
14 years old and naive. Corporate
company documents recognize both
the addiction and the naivete.    This
is the first and a very basic reason
why advertising is important.   Many
people rationalize that "if it was
really dangerous, government
wouldn't let it be advertised."  But it
is dangerous, and government does
let it be promoted.
Cigarette promotional spending
has more than tripled in recent
years, even adjusting for inflation.
The top 10 outdoor advertisers are
all cigarette brands, and at the last
count I heard. 320.000 new billboards had been erected since the
Highway Beautification Act.   Cigarette companies spend over $4
billion a year promoting smoking.
That's more than $10 million a day.
or almost a half a million dollars
every hour. How is this enormous
amount justified?
The purpose of cigarette advertis-
Images make smoking
seem a sexy and stylish
adult custom. Images
make brands
symbolically male or
female. Images make
smokers seem healthy.
- Richard Pollay
ing and promotion is. of course,
ultimately to promote sales and
profits. This is done by influencing
perceptions and attitudes toward
cigarettes.   Cigarettes are defined by
company documents as an ideal
drug delivery system - portable,
convenient, self-administered.  We
could add to this definition: "with a
fire at one end, and a sucker on the
other end."  But remember that the
sucker deserves our sympathy,
because they were likely suckered to
start and get addicted while very
young, long before the legal age of
consenting adulthood.
The industry claims that the only
purpose, and the only effect, of all of
this advertising is on brand
switchers. But very few people
actually switch brands. These days
only seven to 10 per cent of smokers
switch in any year.   Most switchers
are older, health concerned smokers
and cannot justify the enormous
amount of money spent. Switchers
are too few, too frail and too fickle.
Regulation has either been inept
or ineffective, almost totally undermined by lawyers, lobbyists and
advertising creativity. The nicotine
industry acts with impunity,
earning record profits, and has
never been forced to pay a single
penny to a health victim.
Information and images are
presented to shape perceptions,
attitudes and to reinforce the
psychological denial that surrounds
  Cigarette ads
and packages
both suppress
information about
ingredients and
effects. Heavy ad
spending inhibits
and distorts the
information we
might otherwise
get from the news.
Images make
smoking seem a
sexy and stylish
     adult custom.
Images make
brands symbolically male or female.
Images make smokers seem
healthy. Images make smoking
seem commonplace and socially
approved. Images make cigarettes a
symbol of adult independence to
attract young starters.
The industry denies all of this.
Despite claims to the contrary,
some ads target young starters,
and others offer false reassurance
to the health concerned "pre-
quitters."  The industry is very
poorly regulated, despite its
There is a lot that could be done
to demarket cigarettes. We could
quit selling cigarettes cheaply (raise
the price). We could quit distributing them widely (prescription only).
We could quit fancy packaging
(plain packages, big warning). At the
least, we should quit fooling ourselves that the advertising images
and industry are innocent and
innocuous. The blunt truth is that
nicotine industry advertising is
promoting and pushing a deadly,
addictive drug, even though it may
not look like drug pushing when
done by executives in three piece
suits and with beautiful advertising.
Pacific Post keeps tabs
on Asian business, trends
by Abe Hefter
Staff writer
A group of UBC student
journalists is building
bridges to Asian markets out
of a tiny office in the basement ofthe Student Union
With an editorial staff
comprising mostly UBC students and alumni. Pacific
Post hit the stands on Dec.
Billed as a newspaper
that will keep readers in
touch with trends and issues affecting Pacific Rim
business, the twice-monthly
newspaper is the brainchild
of UBC alumnus Chung
"The paper's role is to
educate readers in the Lower
Mainland on growing Asian
market economies affecting
local affairs and dominating
world development." said
Wong, who was bitten by
the newspaper bug as a
writer with the Ubyssey in
"At the same time. Pacific
Post gives students and
alumni the opportunity to
learn more about career opportunities in
Asia by cultivating an understanding of
the Asian markets that are affecting UBC
specifically and British Columbia in general."
Wong first began building editorial
bridges to Asia while attending UBC as
editor of POW (Pacific of the West) in
1992. He sharpened POW's general focus
and the newspaper was reborn as Pacific
Post, drawing on the skills of a core group
that includes editor John Gray and managing editor Gregor Young.
The premier issue of Pacific Post included stories on Malaysian billionaire
Robert Kuok, Prime Minister Jean
Chretien's trip to China, and investment
opportunities in Shanghai.
Abe Hefter photo
Pacific Post is the brainchild of UBC alumnus
and former Ubyssey writer Chung Wong.
Pacific Post's circulation stands at
15.000. The newspaper is available at
retail outlets, hotels, and shopping malls
at approximately 100 downtown Vancouver locations. In addition, 3.100 issues
are inserted in Ming Pao Daily, a Chinese-
language newspaper which serves the
Lower Mainland; 3.800 issues are distributed at no cost to downtown Vancouver offices; and another 1,000 are distributed in Asia.
The newspaper includes a full-time
business manager and advertising representative, and has a marketing office in
downtown Vancouver.
Writes Wong in his Jan. 6 editorial: "As
long as the support continues, the wheels
will be turning at this paper."
News Digest
UBC's Senate, at its Jan. 18 meeting, approved a new calendar statement on
transfer credit policy to advise applicants that not all courses taken in
degree programs at other post-secondary institutions may be given transfer
credit towards a UBC degree program.
• • • •
enate endorsed a one-year suspension ofthe combined Bachelor of Laws
(LLB) and Master of Business Administration (MBA) program because of
extensive revisions being made to the MBA program.
• • • •
The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences has been granted four new graduate
courses in toxicology. The faculty has identified toxicology as an area of
increasing importance in society and cited a large gap between the numbers
of toxicologists being trained and positions available in government and industry
where informed decisions are made on environmental and other toxicological
• • • •
Fourteen individuals and groups are the first recipients ofthe Michael Smith
Awards for Science Promotion.
The nationwide competition is named after Michael Smith, director of UBC's
Biotechnology Laboratory and co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in
1993. Smith donated his cash award of about $500,000 to support schizophrenia
research and science promotion.
Among the winners are the Calgary Science Network. Le Club des
debrouillards, Acadia University and the Newfoundland and Labrador chapter of
Women in Science and Engineering.
The Michael Smith Awards for Science Promotion were presented by Industry
Canada during a ceremony held recently in Ottawa.
• • • •
The Science Council of British Columbia is seeking nominations for its
annual Science and Engineering Awards.
Established in 1980. the awards are given in the categories of industrial
innovation, engineering and applied sciences, health sciences, natural sciences,
science communication, entrepreneurial science and overall career achievement
in science and technology.
The deadline for nominations is March 31. 1995.
For more information, call Jennifer Wolfe or Rhonda Livingstone at 438-2752. 6 UBC Reports ■ January 26, 1995
January 29 through February 11
Monday, Jan. 30
History Lecture
In Hunger's Terrible Shadow:
ChangingGender Roles In French
Food Riots/Society. 1690s-
1850s. Dr. Cynthia Bouton, professor. History. Texas A cSi M U.
Buchanan A-204 at 12:30pm.
Call 822-5748.
President's Advisory
Committee on Lectures
Dream And Spectacle In The
Project Of 15th Century Ferrara
And The Piazza Nuova. David
Strauss, architect, Seattle.
Lasserre 104 at 12:30pm. Call
President's Advisory
Committee on Lectures
Urbanismln 15th Century North
Italian City States. David Strauss.
architect, Seattle. Green College
recreation lounge at 4:30pm. Call
Red Cross Blood Donor
Totem Park Commons Block Ballroom from 3-9pm. Call 879 6001
loc. 418.
Mechanical Engineering
On Energy Dissipation Through
Liquid Sloshing And Suppression
Of Wind Induced Instabilities.
Andreas Albat, PhD student.
CEME 1202 from 3:30-4:30pm.
Refreshments. Call 822-6671.
Biochemistry Seminar
Matrix Metalloproteinases: Regulation, Mutagenesis And Function. Dr. Chris Overall, Dentistry.
IRC #4 at 3:45pm. Refreshments
at 3:30pm. Call 822-9871.
Comparative Physiology
Fetal Drug Deposition & Effects.
Dan Rurak, BC Research Institute for Child/Family Health.
BioSciences 2449 at 4:30pm. Call
Dr. Randall at 822-5709.
Tuesday, Jan. 31
Red Cross Blood Donor
IRC Main Lobbv from 9:30am-
3:30pm. Call 879-6001 loc. 418.
Animal Science Seminar
Techniques For Detecting
Macrophage Activity In Fish.
Jimmy Pegg. MSc student.
MacMillan 256 at 12:30pm. Refreshments. Call 822 4593.
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Multi-media Teaching Tools.
Colin Tieock, assoc. member of
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, asst.
professor of Radiology. Medicine.
IRC #3 at 12:30pm. Call 822-
Botany Seminar
Oleosin Gene Expression And Ap
plication In The Production Of
Antibody Fragments In Canola.
Dr. Aine' Plant. Biological Science, SFU. BioSciences 2000 from
12:30-l:30pm. Call 822-2133.
Oceanography Seminar
Dynamic Vs Thermodynamic Effects Of Greenhouse Gas Warming. Dr. George Boer. Canadian
Centre for Climate Modelling/
Analysis, Atmospheric Environment Service, UVic. BioSciences
1465 at 3:30pm. Call 822 451 1.
President's Advisory
Committee On Lectures
Comparative History: A Vantage
Point On Gendered Behaviour hi
Food Riots. Dr. Cynthia Bouton.
professor, i listory. Texas A Sr M L'.
Buchanan Penthouse from 4:30-
6pm. Call 822-5748.
Green College Seminar
Legal Culture In The People's Republic Of China. Pitman Potter.
Centre for Asian Legal Studies.
Law. Green College coach house at
5:30pm. Call 822-8660.
Wednesday, Feb. 1
Orthopaedics Grand Rounds
IML - 2 The Spinal Cord In Space.
Chair: Dr. R.W. McGraw. Speakers: Dr. John Ledsome/Dr. Peter
Wing/Team. Vancouver Hosp/
HSC Eye Care Centre auditorium
at 7am. Call 875-4272.
Financial Planning: Noon-
Hour Lecture Series
UBC Faculty Pension Investments.
Rob Heinkel/Christie McLeod,
Faculty Pension Plan. Angus 110
from 12:30-1:20pm. Sponsored by
Faculty Association/Continuing
Studies. Call 822-1433.
Issues In Antiviral Chemotherapy.
Dr. Stephen Sacks, Infectious Diseases. Wesbrook 201 from 12-
1:30pm. Call 822-3308.
Music Concert
Chamber Music For One Player
with pianist Laurent Philippe.
Music recital hall at 12:30pm.
Admission $2.50. Call 822-5574.
Forest Sciences Seminar
Soil Microorganisms And Tree
Growth: The Below-ground Connection. Dr. Chris Chanway, Forest Sciences. MacMillan 160 from
12:30-1:30pm. Call 822-9377.
Applied Mathematics
Boundary Layer Resolving Spectral Methods. Dr. TaoTang, Mathematics. SFU. Math 203 at 3:30pm.
Call 822-4584.
Women's Studies Lecture
Earth Honoring: Western Desires
And Indigenous Knowledges. Jane
Jacobs. Women's Studies Centre
from 3:30-5pm. Call 822-9171.
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tamoxifen For Primary Prevention
Of Breast Cancer. Robin O'Brien,
PharmD. student. Clinical Pharmacy. Vancouver I Iosp/HSC UBC
Pavilion G-279 from 4-5pm. Call
Respiratory Seminar Series
Aids And The Lung. Dr. Lindsay
Lawson, clinical assoc. professor.
Medicine. Vancouver Hosp/HSC
Laurel Pavilion Taylor-Fidler conference room from 5-6pm. Call
Green College Punishment/
Crime Series
The Cultures Of Punishment And
Crime. Richard Ericson. Law. Anthropology/Sociology. Green College coach house at 5:30pm. Call
Thursday, Feb. 2
Medicine Lecture
Residents Presentations. Drs. R.
Tan/A. Ostry. Vancouver Hosp/
HSC Eve Care Centre auditorium
at 8am. Call 875-4577.
Computer Science Invited
Speaker Seminar Series
Repository Systems. Dr. Philip
Bernstein. Microsoft Corp. CICSR/
CS 208 from 1 1:30am-lpm. Call
822 0557.
Political Science Lecture
The Prospects For Democracy In
Russia. Prof. Alexander Balitsky.
Khabarovsk State Pedagogical
University. Buchanan B218 from
12:30-1:30pm. Call 822-2717.
Fine Arts Gallery Lecture/
The Body And Restraints Social,
Erotic And Aesthetic. Carolee
Schneemann. Lasserre 104 at
12:30pm. Call 822-2759.
Faculty Development
A Brown Bag Work Group: Developing New Teaching Skills. Gail
Riddell and colleagues. David Lam
basement seminar room from
12:30-2pm. Call 822-9149. Repeated on Feb. 9.
Physics Colloquium
Gen: George Green. D. Mary
Cannell. George Green Memorial
Fund. Hennings 201 at 4pm. Call
Green College Seminar
Twins - Did You Start Off As One?
Dr. Judith Hall. Pediatrics/Medical Genetics. Green College coach
house at 5:30pm. Call 822-8660.
Friday, Feb. 3
Pediatrics Grand Rounds
The Pediatrician's Role In Cancer
Management InThe 90s. Dr. Sheila
Pritchard, clinical assoc. professor; Dr. Ron Anderson, clinical
assist, professor; Dr. Jeff Davis,
director, Bone Marrow Transplant;
Cindy Stutzer, clinical nurse specialist, Oncology/Hematology. GF
Strong auditorium at 9am. Call
Health Care /Epidemiology
Sensing Ambient Air Quality Objectives. Dr. Ray Copes, medical
specialist. Ministry of Health.
Mather 253 from 9-16am. Call 822-
Occupational Hygiene
Program Seminar
Environmental Exposure
Modeling: The Ecofate Sol'tware
Program. Dr. Frank Gobas. professor. Research/Environ mental
Management. SFU. CEME 1202
trom 12:30 1:30pm. Call 822-
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Studies On Synaptic Plasticity. Dr.
B. Saslrv. Pharmacology/Therapeutics." IRC #1 from 12:30-
1:30pm. Call 822-4645.
Fisheries Centre Seminar
Sustainable Communities Of Fish/
Fishers. Memorial University Eco-
Rescarch Project. Dr. Rosemary
Ommer. Memorial U. of Newfoundland. Fisheries Centre RalfYorque
room Hut B-8 from l:30-2:30pm.
Call 822-2731.
Joint Universities
Mathematics/Statistics Day
One Fish. Two Fish. Red Fish.
Blue Fish: Counting Fish; Giuga's
Impossibly Hard Conjecture On
Primalitv: Diffusions On Fractal
State Spaces. C. Schwarz: J.M.
Borwein:    M.T.    Barlow.    SFU
I lalpern Centre main campus from
2:30-5:30pm. Sponsored bv UBC/
SFU/UVic: RSVP bv Jan. 27. Call
Judy Currie at 29F4238.
Chemical Engineering
Weekly Seminar
Neural Network And Epidemiology. Dr. Tony Plate, postdoctoral
fellow. ChemEngineering 206 at
3:30pm. Coffee. Call 822-3238.
Theoretical Chemistry
Theory Of Resonances. G. Wei.
Chemistry 402 central wing at
4pm. Call 822-3997.
Saturday, Feb. 4
Vancouver Institute Lecture
Getting To Know Canada. Dr. Jill
Ker Conway, former president.
Smith College, Amherst, Mass. IRC
#2 at 8:15pm. Call 822-3131.
Sunday, Feb. 5
MOA Classical Indian Dance
Spotlight On India. MOA great hall
at 2pm. Free with Museum admission. Call 822-4604.
Monday, Feb. 6
Mechanical Engineering
A Fatigue Crack Initiation Model
For Composite Patches On Metallic Aircraft Structures. Andreas
Albat, PhD student. CEME 1202
from3:30-4:30pm. Refreshments.
Call 822-6671.
1995 Comparative
Physiology Seminar
Physiological Energetics Of Developing Marine Fish Embryos And
Larvae. Dr. Nigel Finn. Zoology,
Bergen. Norway. BioSciences 2449
at 4:30pm. Call Dr. Hochachka at
Green College Seminar
The Coming Quebec Referendum.
H. Alan Cairns/R. Kenneth Carty.
Political Science. Green College
coach house at 5:30pm. Call 822-
Tuesday, Feb. 7
Faculty Women's Club
Simple Financial Strategies: Minimize Income Tax/Maximize Income. James Rogers. Cecil Green
Park main floor at 10am. Call 535-
Centre for Chinese
Research Seminar
Chinese Religions: The State Of
The Field. Prof. Daniel Overmyer,
Asian Studies. Asian Centre 604.
3:30-5pm. Advance copies of paper available. Call 822-2629.
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hydromorphone Analysis And
Pharmacokinetics. Ming Zheng,
grad student. IRC #3 at 12:30pm.
Call 822-4645.
Environmental Programs
Flavour Of The Month: Toxics
And Our Perception Of Risk.
Shona Kellv. Health Care/Epidemiology. IRC #5 from 12:30-
1:30pm. Call 822-2029.
Botany Seminar
Biological And Physical Interaction Dynamics Producing Structure In A High Intertidal Algal
Community. Jeong Ha Kim. PhD
candidate. Botany. BioSciences
2000 from 12:30-1:30pm. Call
Oceanography Seminar
Three Dimensional Simulation Of
Dense Bottom Plumes Over A
Continental Slope. Dr. Lin Jiang,
Naval Postgraduate School,
Monterey, Cal. BioSciences 1465
at 3:30pm. Call 822-4511
Green College Seminar
Newspapers As A Vehicle For Social Change. Patricia Graham,
senior editor. The Vancouver Sun.
Green College coach house at
5:30pm. Call 822-8660.
Wednesday, Feb. 8
Orthopaedics Grand Rounds
Case Presentations For Royal
Columbian Hospital. Chair: Dr.
R.W. McGraw. Speaker: Dr. M.
Piper. Vancouver Hosp/HSC Eye
Care Centre auditorium at 7am.
Call 875-4272.
Financial Planning: Noon-
Hour Lecture Series
UBC Faculty Pension Operations/Benefits. Stan Hamilton/
Dianne Perepeleeta, Faculty Pension Plan. Angus 110 from 12:30-
1:20pm. Sponsored by Faculty
Association/Continuing Studies.
Call 822-1433.
New Models For The Mechanism
Of Transcription Elongation And
Its Regulation. Dr. Michael
Chamberlin. Biochemistry/Molecular Biology, U. of Calif.,
Berkeley. Calif Wesbrook 201
from 12-1:30pm. Call 822-3308.
The UBC Reports Calendar lists university-related or
university-sponsored events on campus and off campus within the Lower Mainland.
Calendar items must be submitted on forms available from the UBC Community Relations Office, 207-
6328 Memorial Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T1Z2. Phone:
822-3131. Fax: 822-2684. Please limit to 35 words.
Submissions for the Calendar's Notices section may be
limited due to space.
Deadline for the February 9 issue of UBC Reports —
which covers the period February 12 to February 25 —
is noon, January 31. The Economic Impact
of the University of British Columbia
Researched & Written by Walter Sudmant
Edited & Designed by Ashley Lambert-Maberly
Office of Budget and Planning
The economic impact of universities is widely recognized
to go well beyond the results of traditional regional economic impact analysis. Though the simple multiplier effects of employment and spending by the University of
British Columbia are indeed substantial, the most significant economic impacts are from higher incomes, higher
productivity, higher employment levels, innovation, and
knowledge creation brought about by the research and
teaching activities ofthe University. Until recently, universities have measured their own economic impact in terms
of their spending and employment in the regional economy, drawing from the traditional research on regional
economic impact. Of course, it has always been recognized
that these studies ignore the fundamental economic impacts of the university, but only recently have universities
begun the more difficult task of quantifying their economic impact more broadly. The University of Massachusetts and Ohio State University have recently completed
such studies. Our study draws on the results of a variety
of university studies, as well as the literature on returns
to investment in university education, and economic impact of research in order to provide some quantitative
estimates and a theoretical framework for the economic
impact of the University of British Columbia.
In order to fully capture the economic impact of the
university this analysis combines and adapts five distinct
models for estimation and quantification of economic
1. The returns to investment in university education
resulting from higher incomes, levels of employment and productivity of university graduates
2. Regional "spillover" effects from universities to
3. The regional economic impact model
This model does not distinguish the university from
any other enterprise, but uses traditional concepts
of income and employment multipliers to quantify
the economic impact of the expenditures of the university.
4. The export base model
This model expands on the regional impact model by
considering some university activities as exports.
5. Research as a source of jobs and economic growth
Each of these models has been developed independently, and the research and available information
on the various areas often do not overlap or complement
one another. For example, the regional economic impact
model has been applied by numerous universities, and
is rooted in well established theory of regional economic
development; quantification of the economic impact
from this model can be very precise, and much of the
necessary data is available and provided by the university itself. Similarly, numerous studies have examined
the returns to post-secondary education, though rarely
with respect to individual institutions. In contrast, the
research on the relationship between university research and economic growth and spillovers is more
recent, tends to be based on national or even international data and evidence, and quantification is much
more difficult. This paper represents the first attempt
to bring these models together, for an overall summary
of the economic impact of the University of British Columbia. Obviously it is not possible to replicate studies for
each of the above models (though we do so for models 2
and 3). Rather, we combine available information with the
findings of existing research in an attempt to provide
some insights as well as estimates of the overall economic
Model 1:
The Returns to
Investment in
University Education
Undoubtedly one of the largest economic impacts of the
university on society is the increased earnings of university
graduates. The earnings arise not only from higher wages
and salaries to highly skilled workers, but as a result of
businesses started or expanded by graduates. These higher
earnings are an obvious and well documented observation,
however, a number of issues must be addressed in the
quantification of this differential. Care must be taken to
distinguish between private returns, returns to government
in the form of increased taxes, and total returns to society;
adjustments must be made for natural abilities which are
highly correlated with university graduation; costs must
reflect not only direct spending, but foregone earnings and
costs associated with fixed assets and depreciation; and
results are sensitive to the interest rate used in net present
value calculations.
The general idea is illustrated in figure 1 (Stager, 1987).
An individual foregoes earnings in the present in order to
obtain the net earnings differential over the rest of the
working lifetime. Several key concepts are useful in considering lifetime earnings.
1. Discounted present value is a calculation used to
reflect the factthat future earnings are less valuable
than current earnings; therefore, in order to compare, the future earnings must be discounted by
some factor (usually 3 percent, disregarding inflation).
2. Social versus private rate of return: since Canadian
education is subsidized by government, the returns
to the individual are greater than if the individual
paid the full cost. Therefore, a fair public policy calculation must take into account both the costs to government and returns to government from increased
tax revenue of university education. Social rate of return refers to the rate of return after inclusion of
these factors.
3. Internal rate of return: The lifetime earnings equation
can be expressed as a series of costs & benefits; as
long as the benefits (discounted) exceed the costs, the
investment (private or public) in university education
is worthwhile economically. The internal rate of return
is the discount rate which makes costs exactly equal to
Conventional studies
look at economic impact simply in terms
of university expenditure (on salaries,
etc.) wkile ignoring
more important and
effective measures
of impact.
This study will
examine all five
models, including a
more detailed
analysis of botk
tke regional economic
impact model (tke
traditional ap-
proack) and tke re-
University graduates
earn kigker salaries
and excel in business. Increased earnings are returned to
society through taxation and spending. 2 Economic Impact • January 26, 1995
Studies skow tkat
tke increase in
income of a university graduate is
greater tkan tke
total cost of tkeir
education. Furtker-
more, tke ratio of
increased earnings
to costs is rising.
Tke advantage of
university graduates
over otkers in tke
labour market is
expected to grow.
annual earning and
other benefits
enrolment     graduation
The discounted present
value of the excess of
benefits over costs is
defined as the net present value of the education. Net present value
can also be converted
to an annual income
stream; that is, we can
refer to the economic
value of investment in
education either as a
lump sum or as a
stream of annual income differentials.
In understanding the validity of any estimate of the
returns to university education, three key points must be
kept in mind. First, all studies
show a positive social rate of
return on university education.
That is, whatever reasonable
assumptions are made
about the numbers, the results always show that the
present value of the increase in lifetime earnings
resulting from a university
degree is greater than the
total (government plus private) cost. The question of
whether universities yield a
positive social return is not
at issue. Second, quantitative estimates of the benefit
can vary widely, both among
different studies, and of
course among different degrees. For example, one
widely used measure, the
internal rate of return across
all degrees, varies from a low
of 6% (V&H, 1981) to a high
12% (Bluestone, 1993). Using another measure, the estimated annual income
stream varies from $12,000
(Stats Can) to $18,750
(Bluestone). Third, the return
on university education is
steadily increasing as the
earnings gap due to education widens - an observation noted in numerous
labour market studies
Together, these three
points suggest that we may
readily make conservative
and uncontentious estimates of the returns to university education by
selecting the more conservative assumptions for the
calculation, as follows:
Table One summaries the results of a number of studies
on returns to post-secondary
education. All studies utilize
the same basic concepts. The
elements in a calculation of
private returns is illustrated
in the Graph below [Stager,
page 67]. To extend the concept to social returns, two
major elements must be added: the institution's (or government's) cost per degree granted, including estimates
for costs associated with capital and depreciation; and the
earnings differentials which must be calculated gross of taxes.
The results of such a calculation can be summarized in a
variety of ways. Table One shows internal social rates of
return, as well as the equivalent income stream differentials
(Note that individuals' income streams will reflect the shape
shown in the lifetime earnings curve in figure One. The income
stream equivalent is simply another, sometimes more useful
way to state the results of rate of return calculations, based
on current costs). In order to simplify the calculations we use
Figure One
high school
employment years
Table One
Rates of Return to University Education
Summary of the Studies
Implied or Derived
Annual Income Stream
Social Rate
Due to
of Return
for Ability
University Education*
Stager 1989
Stager 1960
Vaillancourt & Henriques
Constantatos & West
1 1,500
Statistics Canada
* Based on 3 5 years of employment, average over all occupations and degrees
Figure Two
Educational Attainment and Growth in Net Annual Earnings
Index 1973 = 100
Four year Degree
High School Dropout
the average rate of return over all university degrees. This
is equivalent to another conservative assumption for the
application to UBC graduates, since the mix of degrees
awarded by UBC tends to have a higher rate of return than
average (see table Two).
Table One also includes an adjustment to the social rate
of return. Clearly not all of the increases in earnings
observed for university graduates are directly due to
education. University students are a select group, both in
terms of natural ability and socio-economic status, and as
such are predisposed to higher earnings prior to entering
university. Estimates for the effects of selection range from Table Two
Rates of Return
for Selected Bachelor and 1st Professional Degree Programs
Ontario, 1985
Arts & Science:
Other Occupations
Social Work (BSW)
All Occupations
Table Three
Total Lifetime Earnings and Rates of Return to University Education
A. The total cost of the average university degree
1. Annual operating expenses (Provincial Coverment Funding)
2. Annual operating expenses (Student Tuition and Other Income)
Total Annual operating expenses
3. Additional indirect costs of capital, land, etc. (Stager:   add 60%)
Total Institutional cost
B. Divide by average number of degrees per year output (steady state)
1. Institutional cost per degree
2. Provincial Goverment cost per degree  (Al+A3)/B
C. Average foregone earnings per degree
(including factor for probability of unemployment)
D. Other costs borne by student
Total cost per degree (BI +C+D)
Equivalent annual income stream at 7.58% over 35 years
Net present value of $11,500 income stream at real rate of 3%
Net present value of the degree, in excess of all costs
Total payback ratio
Economic Impact • January 26, 1995 3
20 to 30 percent of ;he income differential. Rates of
return have been adjusted
downward accordingly so
that we can unequivocably
interpret the results as being purely the result of the
effects of university education.
In keeping with the principle
of conservative estimates, we
select the lowest rate of return, that of C&W, of 7.58%.
Note that we have selected a
rate considerably lower than
that implied by the U of M
study. The major reason for
the discrepancy lies in the U of
M assumption that the current
trends toward higher differentials for university education
will continue (as in fig.2 above).
Our results deliberately and
conservatively assume the differential in the future will be
the same as that in the past.
Given current costs (table 3)
this translates into an annual
income stream of $11,500;
that is, the average degree
granted by UBC generates an
income stream of $11,500
per year beyond the earnings which would have been
generated had the degree
not been granted.
From this figure we can make
the following statements:
We can compute the present discounted value of
the lifetime earnings differential and compare
with actual costs, yielding
the overall dollar return.
Discounting at three percent (the figure used by
Bluestone, etc.; riskless
real rate of interest used
for cost benefit, etc.) the
net present value of the
earnings increment due to
the average university degree is $2 58,603. Using the
total cost figure per degree
of (table 3) of $150,333 results in a payback ratio of
172 percent on total investment.
The calculation above is the total return (private and government) on total investment (private and government).
Following the work of Bluestone, we can also estimate the returns to government. Using a marginal tax rate of 4096
the degree holder pays an additional net present value of $103,442 in taxes; table 3 estimates the total cost to
government of production of the average university degree to be $82,000 (once again, including indirect costs of
capital, etc.). Therefore there is a real total return to government of 12696, purely in the form of additional tax
revenue resulting from the subsidization of universities. In fact the return could be considered much greater,
since we have made no adjustments to university costs for the research component, nor have we considered
multiplier effects of higher incomes, as did Bluestone. If we assume one third of government costs are for support
of research, the benefits of which we measure elsewhere, then the payback ratio increases to 18996.
For every dollar spent by government in support of the university, $1.26 is returned (on a present discounted value
basis) in the form of taxes. This significant return is somewhat lower than the much less conservative estimate of the
University of Massachusetts study which calculates a return of $1.57.
The average UBC
graduate earns a
minimum ofsii,^oo
annually in excess of
probable earnings
For every dollar that
society invests in
university education,
si.jz is returned.
Government is
returned 126% of
their investment in
the form of a
dditionaltax revenue
resulting from
university subsidy.
Or consider this:
every year (in
steady-state) the
government invests
sS2,606 and receives
an income stream of
sifMo annually from
higher taxes alone!
This works out to a
real rate of return of
Model 2:
Regional Spillover
Effects from Research
Certainly the economic impacts of research are international as model 5 below will demonstrate. However, a most
dramatic and more easily observable impact of university research takes the form of spillover effects on innovation, 4 Economic Impact • January 26, 1995
The heavy commitment
to research of major
universities invariably
affects commercial
innovation &nd Job
creation in the heal
U.S. Patents Received:
no other Canadian
university earned a
place in the top ft!.
U$C research
accounts for 6,jft
jobs and $426
million in annual
For each // million
spent on research,
*.f patents are
4o% of all research
ongoing in British Columbia is undertaken
byme itself
productivity and job creation in the region surrounding a major research
university. Case studies have
confirmed the central roles
played by universities such
as Stanford and MIT in the
development of centres of
high technology commercial
innovation in the surrounding regions. Innovative commercial development cannot
exist without the supply of
talent and ideas provided by
university graduates, students, and faculty.
(from Economic and Social Impacts of UBC's NCE
Program, University-Industry Liaison Office,
fanuary 1994)
• Because of PENCE {the
Protein Engineering Network of Centres of Excellence], UBC successfully
recruited a faculty member with an international reputation and
expertise in Nuclear
Magnetic Resonance
Spectroscopy, an important contemporary analytical technology used
to conduct sophisticated
• Companies with research agreements
and Network associations, such as Microtek
R&D and StressGen,
have attracted world
experts to live and
work in British Columbia.
• Network and technology
transfer managers,
knowledgeable in both
business and science,
have built and continue
to forge strong links between industry and UBC
• Internationally respected researchers
and scientists come to
the NCEs at UBC to
work on a temporary
basis (265 have visited
during the last three
• Talented students attend
UBC to receive up-to-date
undergraduate and
graduate training, forming a highly skilled labour pool for B.C. 's
developing and future
knowledge-based industries.
Figure Three
U.S. Patents Granted
University Research Expenditure for 29 States
'i                       i
1                          ■
£                                                  i
1                       i
i                 i
1                       $
-"f'~     '"""""fr-
$                                                 >:
■  s
V                                                ?•
i                          i
I                       1
1                                                  ^
■i                               y.
1                         l
1                               I
%                                  ¥
i             s
i                       i
1               1
\      I
,^„.v,.f,,,.v.v,~ ,
ft:                                   ¥
ft                                   *
ft                             s
i               i
■ ■
1                 1
I                 I
 *       ■ ■'	
£                                  'f
■     ■   ■
i                  i
i              1
0 50 100 150 200 250
University Research (Smillion)
Note: 10 year averages, from Jaffe, A3., 1989
Table Four
U.S. Patents Received for 1991 & 1 992
Top Universities in North America
2 California
12 Washington (St. Louis)
3 Texas
13 John Hopkins
4 Stanford
14 Pennsylvania
5 Florida
1 5 Michigan
6 Wisconsin
16 British Columbia
7 Cornell
1 7 Rockefeller
8 Cal Tech
18 Virginia Tech
9 Minnesota
19 Ohio State
10 Iowa State
20 NC State
Table Five
Economic Impact
of High-Technology Companies Evolved from UBC
Total Number of Companies
Total Sales
Total Number of Employees
B.C. Companies
Canadian Companies
Other Companies
Total Companies
as a Percent:
as a Percent:
as a Percent:
as a Percent:
A recent attempt to quantify this 'spillover' effect has
been made by the Harvard economist A.B. Jaffe. While
his research utilizes complex econometric modelling,
the idea can be illustrated simply. Figure 3 shows the
data on university expediture on research and the number of corporate patents granted in a number of U.S.
states. There is a clear positive relationship. However,
many other factors contribute to an explanation for the
number of patents granted in a region (in particular,
corporate spending on Research and Development). The
objective achieved by Jaffe's research is to develop a
model which computes the effect of university spending
on patents granted while controlling, or holding constant, the other factors. The results show the significant
effect of university research on corporate patents. In other
words, the very existence of a research intensive university has a positive impact on the levels of technology and
innovation in the local region.
The Research and Development environment in British
Columbia is substantially different from the states analyzed by Jaffe in that a much larger fraction of research
takes place at the University of British Columbia relative
to private corporations (UBC accounts for 6096 of all
British Columbia research activity). Nevertheless, we can
apply Jaffe's set of equations to British Columbia data,
with one adjustment. Research and Development expenditure in Canada is at one-half the U.S. level. Using data Economic Impact • January 26, 1995 5
Table Six
Economic Impact of Spillover Research
Companies Evolving Directly from UBC Research
Average Revenue
Average Employees
Cumulative Number of Licensed Technologies
Number of Companies per Licensed Technology
Assuming 1 licensed technology per patent:
Spillover Patents/Technologies (note 1)
Spillover Companies (.82 x 48)
Spillover Revenue (39 x $6 million)
Spillover Jobs (48 average employees x 39)
$592 mil
$6 million
$234 mil
note 1:   Difference resulting from substituting "0" for UBC research  spending in
equation 1 of Appendix A.
The University is the 6th largest employer in the Greater
Vancouver Regional District,
and is directly responsible for
14,000 full-time and part-
time jobs. In addition, the
University is indirectly responsible for local spending
from students, visitors, conference attendees, etc. The
traditional economic impact
model estimates the stimulative effect on the local economy of the expenditures of an
enterprise in the region.
While this conventional approach does provide important information for local
decision makers, it is not necessarily the model of economic impact that UBC
should choose to emphasize,
since the regional model does
not address those far more
important economic impacts
of UBC which result from
teaching and research.
from the "World Competitiveness Report," requires that
predicted levels of research for British Columbia be adjusted
accordingly. Though the application of the model to British
Columbia is somewhat crude (i.e. the model was developed
for U.S. states over a different time period), the calculation
serves two purposes. First, the validity of the model for BC
can be checked against actual data; second, we can obtain
an estimate, or at least some sense ofthe order of magnitude
of the elusive spillover effect. The results (Appendix A)
predict 68 patents awarded to BC industry in 1990/91. If we
add to 68 the approximately 20 patents granted to BC
universities we obtain a prediction from the model of 88
patents granted to British Columbians in 1990/91. In fact,
there were 87 patents received by British Columbians. While
the accuracy ofthe model may well be coincidental, we may
safely assume that Jaffe's qualitative results can be generalized to the UBC. The activities of UBC have a significant effect
on overall innovation.
Once the relationship between research and corporate patents has been established, other economic impacts can be
roughly estimated. For UBC we have data on spin-off companies (companies created by UBC technology or know-how).
The relationship between patents, licensed technologies,
jobs, and revenue is extremely volatile, and not well quantified. However, to obtain an appreciation for the magnitude
of the results of the Jaffe model, we calculate the impact of
spillover research based on the average revenue and jobs
created for those 94 spin-off companies for which we do
have detailed data
The Jaffe model indicates that (at current levels of Research
spending) for every $3 million in university research expenditure, one patent is generated outside of the university, as
the result of the spillover effect. This is in addition to the
estimated 1.5 patents per $3 million generated directly by
university research. Tables 5 and 6 show that in addition to
the $600 million in revenue and 4,500 jobs evolving from
University of British Columbia research, the spillover effect
of research induced by the presence of the University results
in an additional $234 million annually, and 1872 jobs (see
Appendix A for further details).
Model 3:
The Traditional
Regional Economic
Impact Model
With a total revenue of $687 million annually, UBC
exerts enormous economic impact on the local region.
A detailed series of calculations for the Regional Economic Impact Model can be found in Appendix B, showing
the economic impact of the University of British Columbia
on the surrounding region through the use of a regional
multiplier. These specific findings are summarized below.
Local purchases of $196 million generate local income of
$177 million, using local value added statistics for the
Greater Vancouver Regional District. Salaries and wages
generate $354 million in local income. External to the UBC
accounts, visitors and students generate an additional $45
million in local income. Direct university spending results
in local income of $576 million. The multiplier effect
brings the total economic impact on the GVRD to $859
million, corresponding to approximately 14,000 jobs.
Perhaps the most important result of these conclusions is
the relationship between government funding of universities and income and job creation. This study shows that
every $1 million in provincial grants to the University of
British Columbia generates $2.5 million in personal income and 25 jobs through the local multiplier effect.
Model 4:
Export Base Model
The export base model responds to a fundamental
criticism of the regional impact model. The model
fails to consider alternative uses of the resources
devoted to the university. In other words, it could be
argued that similar economic impacts could be derived
from other types of government expenditure, or even
from reduced taxation and the resulting increase in
private consumption. The regional impact model does
not distinguish between spending which is brought into
the local economy as a result of the existence of the
university, and spending which would have taken place
in any case. The export base model provides a simple
modification to the regional impact model, in that it
extracts the local spending which would not have taken
place without the university. The university is considered in economic terms as an "exporter" in the sense
that money flows into the province as a direct result of
the university (eg research funding, visitors, foreign
students); or, in the sense of keeping economic activity
inside the province which would otherwise go elsewhere.
Table 7 summarizes the results in two categories. The
first category lists sources of revenue to the University of British Columbia comprising revenue which
would not otherwise accrue to British Columbia.
The largest such source is the research funding from the
federal granting agencies of approximately $83 million. Attached to each source is an "export factor"; an estimate of the
UBC is tke M
largest employer in
tke CVRP witk 14,666
full and part-time
jobs. Tke presence of
UBC also encourages
spending from otkers
(e.g. students and
Tke university attracts
expenditures wkick
wouldkave gone
elsewkere kad UBC
not existed (e.g.
researck funding,
students). 6 Economic Impact ■ January 26, 1995
fraction of the total revenue
which would be lost to the
province without the existence of the university. For
example, the export factor
for research grants is 10096,
since all of that revenue
would disappear were it not
for the University of British
Columbia. On the other
hand, we cannot assume
that all fee revenue would
move elsewhere if the university did not exist. We
make the assumption
(taken from the University
of Massachusetts, study)
that 43 percent of domestic
students would go out of
province for university education if the University of
British Columbia did not exist, hence 43 percent of domestic fee revenue is
counted as "export" (this
also includes the assumption that the other universities are at full capacity).
The second category of "export" consists of those expenses made in British Columbia which would not
otherwise be made in the
province. Although many
industrial and commercial
expenditures could fall under this category, we ignore
this in the export model and
include them only under
the "research spillover
model." For the export base
model we consider only two
types of expenditure: student spending and visitor
spending. For visitor spending the export factor is 100
percent; for student spending the factor is 43 percent
(as above) for domestic students, and of course, 100
percent for foreign students, for an average of 50
percent (see Appendix A on
student spending).
UBC's presence here
draws i^oo million in
revenue, creating
The total economic
impact from out-of-
province revenue
alone exceeds UBC's
annual provincial
operating grant!
Table Seven
Export Base Model Revenues and Expenditures
Sources of Revenue for Export Base model
Government of Canada Research Grants
Governmrnt of Canada, other
Foreign fees
Domestic fees
Bequests and Donations
Non-Government Research Grants/contracts
Sub-total: internal to university
Sources of Spending for Export Base Model
Student Spending
Visitor spending (UBC conferences)
UBC Conference centre
Sub-total external to university
Total UBC "exports"
Income multiplier
Total Economic Impact
Job multiplier (as per Appendix B)
Total job creation
Export factor
16.3 jobs
per Smillion
Figure Four
Contributions of Selected Factors
to Real Economic Growth in the U.S.
1948 to 1978
advances tn
Economic growth is
fueled by advances
in knowledge.
Universities are at
the forefront of
knowledge creation
and tecknological
Estimating that/f%
of growth is
propelled by
knowledge advances
suggests UBC
contributes an
annual free million
to the B.C.
The overall result is that the
University of British Columbia can be viewed as a British
Columbia exporter, with approximately $200 million in
out of province revenue. Once again the multipliers can
be applied for income and employment. The results (table
7) show approximately $300 million in income and 4,800
jobs. Unlike the traditional economic impact model, these
results can be stated as net positive increments to British
Columbia's economy, beyond the contribution of the Provincial government. Therefore, the University as an export/revenue generating organization returns more to the
province than the annual provincial operating grant.
Model 5:
Research as a
Source of
Prod uctivity G rowth
The regional spillover model is a very localized analysis of the
worldwide economic impacts of research. Certainly the
existence of a university stimulates local economic activity
in innovative fields, but far more important is the cumulative and symbiotic effects of new knowledge on world
economies. Universities are key participants in this process. Figure 4 summaries the results of the study by E.F.
Dennison on accounting for U.S. economic growth. His,
and a number of other studies agree that the principle
driver of economic growth is knowledge creation, and that
advances in knowledge are responsible for approximately
35 percent of real growth. Universities have a central role
in the production of new knowledge and adaptation to
technological change. This process takes place not only
through the mechanism of research discoveries, but by
providing the population with the technical, social and
entreprenuerial skills to use new knowledge.
Quantification of this profound function of the universi-
tiy to any degree of accuracy is probably impossible. Yet,
the magnitude overwhelms all other economic impacts.
If we assume that advances in knowledge as defined by
Dennison are proportional to research, then the University of British Columbia is responsible for 60 percent of
knowledge advances originating in B.C., and 60 percent
of the training necessary to apply innovations arising
from the rest of the world. If we accept that a similar
fraction of British Columbia economic growth is due to
innovation and knowledge creation (ie. 35 percent), then
approximately $500 million in annual economic growth
can be attributed to the University of British Columbia. Economic Impact • January 26, 1995 7
Table Eight
Total Annual Economic Impact
1. Lifetime earnings and productivity of graduates
Net present value of total benefit - total cost per degree
muliplied by approx 6,000 degrees awarded annually
2. Local economic impact of research
Direct effects
Indirect (spillover) effects
3. Export effects
4. Sources of Economic growth
Total Economic impact
This research represents the first attempt ever to quantify
the total economic impact of the University, comprising
all of the complex components for which quantitative
models exist.
The quantification is at best an estimate, and at worst,
only a ballpark order of magnitude. However, the assumptions have been selected conservatively, and wherever
possible, models have been verified empirically, or corroborated with the research of others. Table 8 summarizes the results of each model (the regional model has
been excluded in favour of the more conservative export
model). The total economic impact is estimated at S2.3
billion annually—where 'economic impact' can be considered synonymous with wealth creation. By way of comparison, the GDP of the Province of British Columbia for
1990/91 was S74 billion; the forest and logging sector
GDP (excluding forest products manufacturing) was S1.4
billion, mining was S1.9 billion. Whatever reasonable
assumptions are made concerning economic impact, the
University of British Columbia, as does any major research university, makes a massive contribution to the
A conservative
estimate suggests
UBC's economic
impact to be fa? billion annually—
equivalent to over
j% of tke entire
CPP for Britisk Columbia.
Appendix A
Modelling the relationship between University research and total patents
Jaffe's model applied to British Columbia
Equation 1:  Industrial R&D expenditure
(dollar figures are in 1972 U.S. millions)
Model variable
BC Value
University R&D spending
Manufacturing value added ratio
Population ('000)
Log of industry
Industrial R&D as
predicted by U.S.
Industrial R&D ad
justed for Canada
Equation 2:  Corporate patents
(dollar figures are in 1972 U.S.   millions)
Model variable
BC Value
a log(x)
Industrial R&D (from eq. 1)
University R&D spending
Log of cor
porate patents
Appendix A
By altering the values for
university Research and
Development spending,
we obtain estimates of the
spillover effects:
1. Sensitivity of corporate
patents = 1 patent
per S3 million in university research in
2. Removal of UBC R&D
spending implies 48
fewer patents. 8 Economic Impact • January 26, 1995
UBC is labour intensive.
It ranks dtk in terms of
employees, but only jftk
in terms of total revenue.
witk students included in
tke employee count, we
even rise to tjtk place!
We can use tke concept
of local Value Added
(LVA) to compare UBC
witk other industries.
Local Value Added is tke
ratio of salaries and
profits to tke total
output,- therefore it can
be thought of as the
contribution to inputs
made by workers and
entrepreneurs to obtain
tke final output.
Sources of Revenue
1 992/93 (thousands)
Government of Canada
Province of British Columbia
Other Governments
Sub-total Government
Student fees (credit)
Student fees (non-credit)
Bequests, donations and non government grant
Sales and services
Investment Income
Sub-total non-government
Total Revenue
Annual Revenue
of 24 largests firms in GVRD and UBC
BC Hydro
Crown Forest
Charlwood Group
MacMillan Bloedel
Kelly Douglas
Hollinger Inc.
MacMillan Bloedel
Charlwood Group
Jim Pattison Group
2000  4000  6000  8000  10000 12000  14000  16000
Appendix B
Sources of
• Total revenue for
1992/93 for the University of British Columbia was $687
• Less than 50 percent
of total revenue was in
the form of grants
from the provincial
• For every $1 million in
provincial funding,
UBC generates an additional $ 1 million in
other sources of revenue.
• Much of the University's revenue is from
sources outside the
province, including
S87 million from the
Government of Canada.
• UBC generates $136
million in revenue
from sponsored research grants and contracts. Sponsored
research alone would
rank as one of the
province s major revenue producers, exceeding the revenues of
British Columbia firms
such as BC Petroleum,
and among the top
100 firms in the province.
• Bequests, donations
and non-government
grants account for
over $52 million in
revenue annually.
• Over $550 million of
UBC spending is spent
locally, primarily in
• Approximately 80 percent of UBC spending
is in the local economy.
• The LVA ratio for UBC
spending is relatively
high, at 59 percent
(the LVA for the wood
industry is 49 percent,
10 percent for the
chemical and petroleum industry, and 37
percent for the food
and beverage industry.)
• University spending is
job intensive, with 59
percent of total spending and over 70 percent of General
Purpose Operating
spent on salaries and
• As an indicator of job
intensiveness of university spending, UBC
ranks 25th in terms of
revenue, but sixth in
terms of the number
of employees.
• Seventy percent of university purchases of
goods and services are
• Over $90 million is returned to the provincial and federal
government in the
form of income taxes.
• In addition to direct
University spending,
UBC generates over $70
million in student
spending (funds expended in the local
economy and not
counted in University
• Making the conservative
assumption that only
full-time students have
an impact on the local
economy (i.e. part-time
students would be here
anyway), UBC gives rise
to spending by almost
24,000 full-time students. These calculations include estimates
only for those expenses
not paid directly to the
university (e.g. tuition,
books, residence fees).
• Nearly 5,000 full-time
graduate students are
attracted to UBC, many
from other provinces
and countries. Approximately 25 percent of
full-time graduates are
foreign students. Spending by graduate students in the local
economy is undoubt- edly higher than the estimates used here.
Sources of Revenue
Economic Impact • January 26,1995 9
• The University of British Columbia is directly
responsible for over
40,000 conference centre visits, comprising
over 97,000 person
days of visitor spending
in the province. As the
major research university in province with
conference facilities, it
is safe to assume that
nearly all of the associated spending would
have gone outside the
• Visitors to the UBC
Conference Centre
alone are estimated to
have spent over $5 million. In addition, there
are thousands of visitors to the campus as
prospective students,
tourists, academic visitors, parents, medical
patients, and attendees at special events,
for whom we are unable to estimate their
• Based on Tourism Vancouver's estimates of
delegates attending
conventions in Vancouver, the 14,000 delegates to conferences
held at UBC comprise
nine percent of the total.
• In 1992/93 UBC spent
$48 million on Capital
projects (excludes debt
services), including
building renovations,
building contracts, and
professional fees.
• Approximately $34 million was spent on contracts and professional
fees. Construction is
both labour intensive
and value-added intensive. These expenditures are estimated to
have resulted in full-
time employment for
300 person years in
1992/93 above and beyond the employees of
the university.
• Capital projects on the
UBC campus make up a
significant fraction of
all construction in the
GVRD. In 1992/93 the
value of capital expenditure at UBC was equal
to approximately 10
percent of all commercial activity in the
GVRD (based on build-
Other sources
Notes:     For every dollar of Province of B.C. grants, UBC
generates another dollar of revenue from non-provincial
government sources.
Almost 20 percent of total revenue is generated by
sponsored research.
University Spending
1. Total University Spending, from all funds, 1 992/93
Salaries + Benefits
2. Spending in Local Economy
Goods and Services
(estimated by Purchasing)
Total spending in local economy
Fraction spent locally
Student Spending
1. Full-time students
(assuming only full-time students have an impact)
2. Distribution by residence
Home 64.00%
On campus 19.00%
Away from home      24.00%
3. Estimated nine month incremental spending by residence
(excluding expenses already counted in direct university expenses, eg. tuition)
Home $2,000
On campus $2,000
Away from home     $5,600
Total Student Spending
$71,378 10 Economic Impact ■ January 26,1995
Visitor Spending
Average Spending per day
Visitors to UBC Conference Centre
Conference delegates:
Non-affiliated visitors
Organized tours
Total Visitor spending
x average 3 day stay
x average 2 day stay
x average 2 dau sta
less University Revenue from Conferences
Net additional spending in local economy
The UBC Workforce
Full-time        Part-time
of UBC Workforce
CUPE 2950 +Office & Tech
other instructors, i^^^^HHHHi
and researchers
Children's Service
Excluded Office
technicians iH
Farm Workers
manaaement ^^^_
Management and Professional
and professional i^H»»™
other laiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiM
(cure, etc) ^^^^^^"
Language Instructors
Operating Engineers
OX    10%   20X    30X   40X
Student Services
Student Workers
Teaching Assistants
Total Paid UBC Employees
Other categories
UBC paymaster only
Without pay
Total Staff Headcount
Induced Income Generation
and wages
student and
visitor spending
ing permit values recorded in 1992).
• UBC employs over
14,000 staff and faculty, making it the
province's 6th largest
• Local spending by UBC
employees induces further employment in
the local economy. Using an employment
multiplier of 1.62 results in a total of approximately 23,000
jobs attributable
either directly or indirectly to the University.
• UBC, either directly or
indirectly, accounts
for approximately
three percent of all
jobs in the Vancouver
Census Metropolitan
• For every $1 million in
grants from the provincial government, UBC
creates 67 jobs.
• Fifty-eight percent of
the non-student UBC
work force consists of
professional or technical positions, a much
higher fraction than
the overall workforce.
Income within the local
economy is generated by
UBC in several ways:
Direct salaries paid to employees
$354 million
Income from visitor
spending is generated
when visitors spend in the
local economy. This income can be estimated
multiplying estimates of
visitor spending by the local value added ratio for
businesses serving visitors. Using an average
service industry ratio of .8
and subtracting that portion of UBC visitor spending already collected as
UBC revenue, we estimate
income due to visitors at:
$2 million
Similarly, student spending is estimated to generate income of
$43 million
Local income is also generated by UBC non-salary
purchases. Using object of
expense data from financial records, figure 7
shows local non-salary
purchases broken down by
category. For each category a local value added
ratio is estimated (see ~*^^*^^m
Economic Impact • January 26, 1995 11
Davis, H.C., Economic Base
and Input-Output Multipliers: A Comparison for Vancouver, BC, Annals of
Regional Science, 9, 1975,
1-89). For example, expenses such as professional fees are responsible
for a relatively large ratio
of local income to expenses, since nearly all
spending becomes local income. Whereas, supplies
arc often imported, hence
a lesser degree of local income in generated. The resulting calculation shows
local income generated of
$177 million
Finally, induced income refers to the fact that for
every dollar of income,
some fraction is again
spent in the local economy, and continues to generate further income. The
induced income for the
Vancouver region can be
estimated by use of the income multiplier (Davis,
1986) of 1.49. Total induced income is estimated
$282 million
Total direct and induced
income is estimated at
$858 million
For every S1 million in pro-
uncial grants to UBC, S2.5
million in personal income
is generated.
Local Income Generated
1. Local Income generated from University Purchases
Distribution of purchases by type and local value added
Type of expense
Food and Beverage
Professional Fees
Scholarships and Bursaries
Total Non-Salary
2. Cross Income from salaries and wages
3. Total Local income generated from first
round of UBC spendi
4. Visitor Spending
5. Student spending
Total first round income generated by UBC
Income Multiplier for Lower Mainland
Total Economic Impact of UBC on CVRD Income
Appendix C
UBC Technology Transfer Licenses by Region
Number of      Number of
Technologies       License
Licensed       Agreements
B.C. Companies
Canadian Companies
Foreign Companies "
Number of
per Region
UBC Research Funding by Faculty
1 992/93 (estimated)
Percent of
per Region
Cumulative Number of Technologies Licensed
100 ■■■■■■■■•■■■••■•
1986/87   1987/88   1988/89   1989/90   1990/91   1991/92   1992/93
Research Funding
f millions
1986/87       1987/88       1988/89       1989/90       1990/91       1991/92       1992/93
Total Research Funding
Agricultural Sciences
Applied Science
Commerce and Business Administration
Graduate Studies
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Health Sciences
Royalties, Industrial Grants, Contracts
and Collaborative Agreements
1986/87   1987/88   1988/89   1989/90   1990/91   1991/92   1992/93
1992 12 Economic Impact • January 26, 1995
Appendix D
Some Case
The four major sources of
economic impact summarized in this study are very
general effects, applicable
to any major research university. However every
university will generate
economic impacts and
outputs specific to that institution. It would be impossible to enumerate, let
alone measure, all of the
ways in which UBC makes
its impact as distinct from
other universities. (More
specific information is
available from publications
such as "Economic and Social Impacts of the University of British Columbia's
Networks of Centres of
Excellence Program," prepared by the University-Industry liaison Office, and
our University inventories
of research.)
In the following section we
highlight a number of examples and cases specific
to the University of British
Columbia, some of which
are implicitly included
within the broad areas of
impact summarized, other
which represent impacts
which will be made in the
and Health
The Vancouver Hospital
and Science Centre is
highly integrated with the
UBC Faculty of Medicine
and School of Nursing. The
UBC pavillion on campus
is one of the two major
sites for the Hospital,
which altogether employs
approximately 8,000 employees. This symbiosis
between the University
and Hospitals has resulted
in Vancouver's prominence in medical care and
research; Vancouver is recognized as the location of
the fourth or fifth largest
medical complex in North
America. While the economic impact of medical
care and research is implicitly included under the
area of "knowledge creation and dissemination," it
is a very significant to note
that "many UBC discoveries have resulted in significant reductions in health
care costs and better care,
putting people back to
work earlier....prevention
of death and disabilities
can also have a positive
economic impact" (Dr. M.J.
The World of
The over S325 million
raised by this campaign
and post-campaign projects, in addition to the
"export factor" already
considered, will generate
significant economic activity for the province. The
creation of 60 new chairs
at the University will result
in an estimated S60 million in additional research
income over the next ten
years—very little, if any of
this income would flow to
British Columbia in the absence of these chairs.
The campaign will generate over $100 million in
construction on campus,
with all of the corresponding multiplier effects. As
an indication of the enormous magnitude of the
construction projects generated by the campaign,
total commercial building
values for the City of Vancouver for 1992 were $ 149
The development of University land for residential
housing will eventually generate $60 million for capital
and endowment programs.
Interest being generated by
this fund is already funding
research in the social sciences. In addition, the completion of more than 300
housing units on the first
three sites with another 125
under construction on the
next two sites has had a
significant impact on the
residential construction
industry. The two sites under construction add
about $30 million of activity to the industry and at
least another $100 million
of construction can be expected on the remaining
Private and
The Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada
(PAPRICAN), located on the
campus of the University of
British Columbia, generates
approximately $4.5 million
in revenue annually, and is
funded primarily by the Canadian Pulp and Paper Industry. PAPRICAN employs
148 people including 41
scientists, engineers and research supervisors, and
brings approximately $2.8
million in research funding
to the province.
Forintek, a wood products
research organization
funded by the Canadian
wood products industry,
employs 8 5 full-time equivalent staff on the campus of
the University of British
Columbia, and has annual
revenues of over $14 million.
Agriculture Canada employs 56 staff in agricultural research on the UBC
campus, and makes annual expenditures of approximately $4 million.
The National Research
Council Institute for Machinery Research will be
housed in a new $11 million facility loacted on the
UBC campus. The focus of
the facility will be on research into the operation
of high technology machine equipment. It will
employ in excess of 100
people with an operating
budget anticipated to
reach $150 million per
year. Calendar
UBC Reports ■ January 26, 1995 7
January 29 through February 11
Music Concert
Kathleen Rudolph, flute: Rita
Costanzi. harp: Terence Dawson,
piano: John Rudolph, percussion. Music recital hall at
12:30pm. Admission S2.50. Call
Poetry Reading
GlamourTreatment For The Mentally Insane. Cathrvn VanDusen.
Lasserre 105al 12:30pm. Sponsored by The Canada Council.
Call 822-2759.
French Colloquium
La Critique Textuelle Et Les
Chansonniers Du Moyen Age.
Ineke Hardy. MA student.
Buchanan Tower 799 from 2:30-
3:30pm. Call 822-2879.
Applied Mathematics
Faculty Presentations
Modelling Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows. Dr. DouwSteyn.
Geography. Math 203 at 3:30pm.
Call 822-4584.
Geography Colloquium
The Colour OfWork. Dan Hiebert.
Geography 201 at 3:30pm. Refreshments. Call 822-4929.
Women's Studies Lecture
Sex And Empire Building: Prostitution In The Making And Resisting Of World Orders. Suzanne
Baustad. Women's Studies Centre from 3:30-5pm. Call 822-
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Risk-benefit Assessment Of Nicotine Preparations In Smoking
Cessation. Jane Kirkpatrick.
PharmD student. Clinical Pharmacy. Vancouver Hosp/HSC
UBC Pavilion G-279 from 4-5pm.
Call 822-4645.
Respiratory Seminar Series
Five Years Of Lu ng Transplant I n
BC. Dr. David Ostrow. assoc.
professor, Medicine. Vancouver
Hosp/HSC Laurel Pavilion
Taylor-Fiddler conference room
from 5-6pm. Call 822-7069.
Ethnic Studies Prog .> ii
Empires. Emigres And Aliens:
Young People's Negotiations Of
Popular Racisms In Canada.
Leslie G. Roman/Timothy J.
Stanley. Green College recreation lounge at 8pm. Call 822-
Eating Disorder Session
The Tyranny Of Body Image. Slide
presentation by Medlawatch and
panel discussion. SUB 207-209
from 12:30-2:20pm. Call Eating
Disorder Resource Centre of BC
at 631-5313.
Thursday, Feb. 9
Medicine Lecture
Graduate Student Presentations.
Steven Drews/Allan Rempel,
grad students. Vancouver I Iosp/
HSC Eve Care Centre auditorium at'8am. Call 875-4577.
ArtsFest '95
UBC Symphony Orchestra. Soloist Andrea Bell: Jesse Read,
conductor. Old Auditorium at
12:30pm. Program includes Bartok Concerto lor Orchestra/
Saint-Saens Cello Concerto. Call
Film Screening/Talk
The Homoerotic Body In Painting And History: Two Films From
The Tangled Garden. Ken
Anderlini. Lasserre 104 at
12:30pm. Call 822-2759.
Faculty Development
A Brown Bag Work Group: Developing New Teaching Skills. Gail
Riddell and colleagues. David Lam
Building basement seminar room
from 12:30-2pm. Call 822-9149.
CICSR Distinguished Lecture
Work oriented System Design. Dr.
Lucy Suchman, Xerox Palo Alto
Research Centre, Palo Alto, Calif.
CICSR/CS 208 at 4pm. Call 822-
Physics Colloquium
Indust: Nano-Technology, Applied
To Surfaces. Roger H. Appeldorn.
3M Company. Hennings 201 at
4pm. Call 822-3853.
Leon/Thea Koerner
Memorial Lecture
Deviant Behavior In Children/Parental Alcohol Consumption: Laboratory Studies Of Reciprocal Effects" Prof. William E. Pelham,
Western Psychiatric Institute,
Pittsburgh. Pa. Kenny 2510 Peter
Suedfeld lounge from 4-5pm. Co-
sponsored by Psychology. Call 822-
BC Research Seminar
Information Superhighway: Exploring The Internet And A View
OfThe Future. Linda Harasim,
assoc. professor. Communications, SFU: Frances Atkinson,
Academic Computing, SFU: Deb
Reidlinger, Stentor Alliance of
Telephone Companies. BC Research auditorium at 7:30pm.
Reservations required. Call 222-
5505 ext. 856.
Green College Law/Society
Doing Legal History Right: Problems, Perils And Prospects Of
Interdisciplinarity. Dr. Carolyn
Strange, Criminology. U. of Toronto. Green College coach house
at 8pm. Call 822-8660.
In Airway Epithelial Cells. Dr.
Robert Harris, research associate.
Pharmacology/Toxicology. IRC # 1
from 12:30-'l :30pm. Call 822-
Occupational Hygiene
Program Seminar
Aerosol Composition InThe Fraser
Vallev. Dr. Sara Pryor. post doctoral fellow. Geography. CEME
1202 from 12:30-1:30pm. Call
Mathematics Colloquium
Wavelet Transforms And Properties Of Functions. Dr. John
Fournier.  Math   104 at  3:30pm.
Refreshments. Call 822-2666.
Chemical Engineering
Weekly Seminar
The Thermodynamics And Mechanism Of Protein Adsorption. Susan
Liu. grad sludent. Chem Engineering 206 at 3:30pm. Coffee at
3:15pm. Call 822-3238.
Theoretical Chemistry
A Realistic Potential For Hydrocarbons: An Example Of A Many
Body Potential. M. Blair. Chemistry. Chemistry 402 central wing at
4pm. Call 822-3997.
Saturday, Feb. 11
Regent College Workshop
The Historical Jesus: Who Was
The Pre-Easter Jesus?: The Deat h
And Resurrection Of Jesus: Jesus And Life Today. Marcus Borg/
N. Thomas Wright. Regent College main auditorium from 10am-
4:30pm. Fee $25. Call 228-1820.
Vancouver Institute Lecture
An Evening With Robert
Bateman: Artist And Environmentalist. Robert Bateman. IRC
#2 at 8:15pm. Call 822-3131.
Friday, Feb. 10
Pediatrics Grand Rounds
To Err Is Human. Dr. David Dix/
Dr. Eiko Waida, chief residents.
GF Strong auditorium at 9am. Call
Health Care/Epidemiology
Cohort Study Of BC Sawmill Workers Exposed To Chlorophenates.
Dr. Clyde Hertzman, assoc. professor." Mather 253 from 9-10am.
Call 822-2772.
ArtsFest '95
UBC' Jazz Ensemble. Alan
Matheson. guest trumpet/piano
soloist: Fred Stride, director: music of Duke Ellington. Music recital hall at 12:30pm. Call 822-
Techniques For Teaching
Second Languages Workshop
Second Language Teaching Conference. Carr 1 lall conference room
at 12:30pm. Hosted by The English Language Institute/The Centre for Intercultural Language
Studies. Call 822-1525/5457.
Music Performance
UBC Symphony Orchestra.
Andrea Bell, guest soloist: Jesse
Read, conductor. Old Auditorium
at 8pm. Program includes Bartok Concerto for Orchestra/
Saint-Saens Cello Concerto. Call
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Intracellular Calcium Responses     Under  the  auspices  of Healtli
Student Housing
A service offered by the AMS has
been established to provide a housing listing service for both students and landlords. This service
utilizes a computer voice
messaging system. Students call
822-9844. landlords call 1-900-
451-5585 (touch-tone calling) or
822-0888. info only.
Friday Morning Tour
School/College Liaison tours provide prospective UBC students with
an overview of campus activities,
facilities and services. Brock Hall
204from9:30-1 lam. Reservations
one week in advance. Call 822-
Counselling Psychology
Midlife Daughters/Daughters-In-
Law. Daughters, who are caring
for a parent in a care facility, are
needed for a study on stress and
coping. Involves one evening small
group discussion with women similar to yourself. Call Allison at 822-
Acne Study
Must be able to attend 4 visits over
3 months. Seeking 18-35 years of
age with moderate acne. Honorarium will be paid upon completion. Call Sherry in Dermatology
at 875-5296.
Grad Centre Activities
Dance To A Latin Beat. Every
Thur. at the Graduate Centre at
8:30pm. To find out more about
free Mon. movies (presently Japanese) in the penthouse at the Grad
Centre, free Tai Chi and other activities call the hot-line at 822-
International Student
Women's Support Group. Jennie
Campbell. International Student
Advisor/Program Coordinator.
International House every Thurs.
between 4-5pm.   Call 822-5021.
Campus Tours
School and College Liaison lours
provide prospective UBC students
with an overview of campus aclivi-
ties/faculties/services. Fridays at
9:30am. Reservations required one
week in advance.  Call 822-4319.
UBC Libraries
Library' branches and divisions
are offering more than 100 training/tutorial sessions this term.
Leant how to use the online catalogue/information system, or one
of more than 75 electronic
databases in the library. Check
branches/divisions for times and
dates.   Call 822-3096.
Clinical Research Support
Care/Epidemiology. Provides
Methodological, biostatistical,
computational and analytical support for health researchers. Call
Disability Resource Centre
The centre provides consultation
and information for faculty members with students with disabilities. Guidebooks/services for students and faculty available. Call
Women Students' Office
We are taking registration for January groups including Mature
Women Students; Self- esteem;
Assertiveness Training, and
Women of Colour and Meditation.
Personal counselling and advocacy
are available to women students.
Call 822-2415 or drop by Broek
Hall 203.
Equity Office
Advisors are available to discuss
questions or concerns. We are prepared to help any UBC student, or
member of staff or faculty who is
experiencing discrimination or
harassment, including sexual harassment, find a satisfactory resolution. Call 822-6353.
Continuing Studies Writing
Writing 098: Preparation For University Writing And The LPI. Winter Session. Call 822-9564.
Research Study Volunteers
Role Stress In Dual-earner Parents Of Pre-school Children.
Wendy Hall. UBC School of Nursing. Participants will complete 2
short questionnaires onlv. I lono-
rarium offered.   Call 686"-0877.
A Study on Hearing and Age
Senior (65 yrs. or older) and junior
(20-25 yrs.) volunteers are need.
Expected to attend 3 one-hour
appointments at UBC. Experiments will examine how hearing
and communication abilities differ with age. Honorarium. Call
Dermatology Studies
Volunteers Required
Genital Herpes
16 yrs/older. Approx. 8 visits over
one-yr. period. All patients will be
treated with medication.   No con
trol group. Call 875-5296.
Skin Infection
Looking for participants with infections such as infected wounds,
burns, boils, sebaceous cysts or
impetigo. 18 yrs/older. 4 visits
over maximum 26 days. Honorarium. Call 875-5296.
Audiology/Speech Sciences
Volunteers needed with normal
hearing, who are native-English
speakers; 18-35 years old. with
no previous instruction in linguistics to participate in a study
of speech perception in noise.
Honorarium paid. Call 822-5054.
Statistical Consulting/
Research Laboratory
SCARL is operated by the Dept.
of Statistics to provide statistical
advice to faculty/staff/students.
During Term 2. 94/95, up to 3
hours of free advice is available
for selected clients. Call 822-
Faculty and Staff Volleyball
Mondays/Wednesdays Gym B,
Osborne Centre at 12:30pm.
Drop-in or attend regularly for
recreation.   Call 822-4479.
Badminton Club
Faculty/staff/grad students welcome. Osborne Gym A, Fridays
from 6:30-9:30prri. $15 yr; $2
drop in. John Amor. Geophysics/Astronomy.   Call 822-6933.
Surplus Equipment
Recycling Facility (SERF)
Disposal of all surplus items.
Every Wednesday, 12-5pm. Task
Force Bldg., 2352 Health Sciences Mali. Call Vince at 822-
2582/Richat 822-2813.
Fine Arts Gallery
Open Tues.-Fri from 10am-5pm.
Saturdays 12pm-5pm. Freeadmission. Basement of Main Library.  Call 822-2759.
Nitobe Garden
Winter hours are Mon-Fri from
10am-2:30pm. Admission is free.
Call 822-6038.
Botanical Garden
Open daily from 1 lam-5pm.
Shop in the Garden, call 822-
4529; garden information, 822-
Red Cross
Blood Donor Clinics
Monday, Jan. 30  3:00-9:00 pm
Totem Park Commons Block Ballroom
Tuesday, Jan. 31
IRC Main Lobby
9:30 am-3:30 pm 8 UBC Reports ■ January 26, 1995
Draft #5
The University of British Columbia
has a special (national and international) role in a well-articulated provincial system of higher education. A
well-defined vision and mission drive
strategic planning to achieve its goals
and priorities. The University is committed to effectiveness, efficiency and
accountability and every avenue is
explored to limit expenditures and to
generate additional sources of revenue.
Maintaining the quality required
-*- to achieve its mission depends on
stopping the erosion of operating
funds, i.e. on maintaining the real
value ofthe provincial grant and tuition fees. UBC will continue, by all
methods possible, to achieve greater
effectiveness and efficiency and, in
doing so, will be accountable to the
people of British Columbia. Any continuing savings will be used to enhance academic activities. The University will also make every effort to
raise endowment funds from private
sources to support chairs and professorships to attract and retain exceptional faculty and thereby to reinforce the margin of excellence.
With these commitments firmly in
place, the University will determine
future tuition fee increases in a manner that offsets any reduction in the
provincial grant in constant dollars
perweighted full-time equivalent student. Constant dollars will be calculated using an inflation index appropriate to the University including
imposed and regulatory costs, e.g.
mandated increases in the cost of
benefits. (The resulting index is expected to be about one or two percent
higher than CPI.) Tuition fee increases will provide an additional
allocation equal to one-third of the
basic annual increase to fund scholarships for the most outstanding students and bursaries for those in greatest need.
The sections which follow say something about the University's special
role and strategic planning, steps
taken to enhance effectiveness, efficiency and accountability and to gain
access to additional resources. The
policy on tuition fees is proposed in
, the light of the evidence of careful
planning and decision-making designed to ensure that the people of
British Columbia get the greatest
possible return on the resources entrusted to the University to carry out
its mission. We also recognize that
governments and citizens are observing that a university education is not
only an investment for the benefit of
society in general but that it confers
a private benefit on the individual.
An issue with which we are engaged
is the determination of an appropri-
-» ate balance between public and private investment for public and private benefit.
This policy draft is being put
forward for review and discussion. Please direct comments to
President David Strangway.
UBC's Special Role
A recent economic impact study has
shown that UBC makes a major contribution to British Columbia's economy. It
is now recognized as one ofthe principal
job creators in the province. In an increasingly knowledge-intensive world, the
province requires an outstanding university, among the best in Canada and the
world, not only for economic but for social
and cultural leadership.
1. A diverse and well articulated post-
secondary system is now well established in the province and within
this system UBC can and must play
a very special role.
2. Outstanding research and teaching in core academic fields and in
the professions are essential to the
fttture prosperity of the province.
3. In addition to teaching and research, the University provides benefits to British Columbians in many
ways, e.g. the enhancement of the
arts, the transfer of technology.
4. Carrying out the University's special role requires that we maintain
the quality of teaching, learning,
research and service at UBC.
5. We plan to maintain the policy in
place since 1965 that the student
body at UBC should be 28.000
(22,000 undergraduate and 6.000
graduate students).
6. We recognize that the quality ofthe
faculty is key to our mission.
7. We recognize that the quality and
efficiency of support staff are key to
our mission.
Commitment to
Effectiveness,   Efficiency
and Accountability
1. Effectiveness and efficiency have
improved dramatically and are reflected in the awarding of 40% more
degrees annually now than ten years
2. The increased retention rate of
undergraduate students is the product of an admission process that
selects students with the highest
academic standards and of a variety
of other strategies designed to provide support for personal and academic growth while students are at
the University.
3. Graduate students are equally rigorously selected and are now being
consulted as faculties work to improve retention and completion rates
in graduate programs.
4. Since 1981/82 UBC has absorbed
a 27% reduction in the constant
dollar value of the provincial grant
per weighted student and has accordingly improved its efficiency (or
its productivity) dramatically. The
effective value ofthe provincial grant
has been reduced even further by
the requirement that the University
absorb without incremental funding the costs arising from government legislation and regulation and
from mandatory or fixed costs in
such areas as Unemployment  In
surance. Canada Pension Plan, equity, safety, environment. Workers'
Compensation, utility rates, insurance rates. Freedom of Information
and Protection of Privacy. We can no
longer absorb added fiscal demands
without commensurate funding.
Major reengineering projects are
now under way to seek further
efficiencies. The principles of continuous quality improvement are
applied explicitly in a number of
departments and in several additional projects.
We have raised awareness of the
importance of stewardship and have
introduced incentives for fiscal responsibility by allowing carry-forward of surpluses and deficits as a
first credit or first charge against the
following year's budget of a faculty.
7. Both efficiency and accountability
are served by the policy of requiring
an increasing number of self-funding ancillaries to operate on a breakeven basis with no subsidies (including salaries and benefits, capital and space operating costs):
• Bookstore
• Athletics and Sports Services
(complete by 95/96)
• Biomedical Communications
(complete by 95/96)
• Educational Measurement
Research Group
• Computing and Communications
(complete by 95/96)
• UBC Press
• Media Services
• University Computing
• Information Systems
• Telecommunications Services
• Food Services
• Housing and Conferences
(note:- Any minor remaining subsidies
have been identified and will be removed
by the end ofthe 1995/1996 fiscal year.)
8. Many units, sub-units or programs
- not referred to as ancillaries -
generate their own revenues and do
not receive support from the general
provincial operating grant or from
credit tuition revenue. They carry
forward 100% of any year-end deficit or surplus and cover all their
costs including the cost of employee
benefits. These principles apply either to the entire budget of the unit
or. at least, to a designated portion
of its functions and its budget:
• Oyster River Farm
• Medical Student Alumni Centre
• UBC/Ritsumeikan (academic
• Library photocopying
• Interlibrary loans
• Student Health Service (designated
• Animal Care Centre (budgeted
• Campus Planning and
Development (capital portion)
• University Industry Liaison Office
(budgeted portion)
• University Research Forests
• Green College
• Academic Equipment Fund
• Cooperative Education Fund
• Graduate Student Awards Fund
• Oral Medicine Clinic
• Partnership Costs of University
College Programs
• Teacher Education Expansion
• Teaching and Learning
Enhancement Fund
• Student Aid Fund
• Development Office (budgeted
• Pacific Educational Press
• Distance Education Office
(Faculty of Education)
9. A number of programs operate now
(or will in the near future) with special purpose budgets supported either wholly or largely by endowment
income. These programs cover their
own costs including the cost of employee benefits:
• Disability Resource Centre
(budgeted portion)
• Rick Hansen National Fellow
• Graduate Program in Occupational Hygiene (budgeted portion)
• Peter Wall Institute for Advanced
• Social Science and Humanities
Research Fund
• endowed chairs
• endowed professorships
• MAGIC (budgeted portion)
• Centre for Applied Ethics
(budgeted portion)
10. Many units or sub-units have a
significant part of their operation
supported by outside revenue. As of
1995/1996, year-end shortfalls or
excesses in budgeted outside revenue will be carried forward to reward stewardship and enhance accountability.  Such units include:
• Belkin Art Gallery (future)
• Frederic Wood Theatre
• Child Study Centre
• Museum of Anthropology
• Botanical Garden (moving towards
• South Campus Farm
• Faculty of Medicine (MSP revenue)
• Chan Shun Centre for the
Performing Arts (future)
• Dent 'i Clinic
11. Continuing studies across all faculties and units have been mandated to operate on a self-sufficient
basis, i.e. they carry forward year-
end deficits or surpluses. Faculties
are reimbursed by these units for
the cost of services provided through
them to students and to the public.
12. An aggressive early retirement program has provided both budget reduction and faculty renewal opportunities. It has been a significant
factor in our ability to maintain a
faculty renewal rate of at least 5%
per year. Thus tenure has not been
a barrier to appropriate levels of
renewal and change.
13. The costs of operating our physical
plant have been kept consistently
among the lowest in Canada.
14. UBC is one ofthe few universities
in Canada that has already had to
eliminate selected academic programs (and the associated tenured
15. Major steps have been taken and
continue to be taken to reduce the
unnecessary usage of utilities - electricity, water, gas, etc.
16. To assess their standing, effectiveness and efficiency we now review UBC Reports ■ January 26, 1995 9
every academic and service program
periodically (every five to seven years)
with appropriate national and international comparisons.
17. The year-round usage ofthe campus is increasing sharply. Within
the next few vears, we will have as
many students in the two terms of
the summer session as in the two
terms of the winter session. Some
programs are operating officially, and
the whole University is operating, in
effect, on a trimester basis.
18. In search of greater effectiveness
and efficiency, we have embarked
on a review of academic organization, including the nature and size
of departments and faculties. Already some departments in each of
several faculties have merged and
others have been eliminated.
19. The entire 1994/95 provincial innovation grant equal to one percent
ofthe operating grant has been allocated to the training of faculty and
staff, the acquisition of current technology, the implementation of new
applications in each ofthe faculties
and networking of those applications across the University. We arc
committed to maintaining the student/faculty ratio as a fundamental
element in the quality of education
and we are seeking to enhance the
quality ofthe learning environment
Draft #5
through the innovative use of technology.
We have increased substantially
the support of student aid through
operating budgets, endowments and
part-time work opportunities and
this, together with provincial and
federal loan programs, means that
no student, otherwise admissible, is
denied the opportunity to study at
UBC lor personal financial reasons
Commitment to Maximizing
1. With the participation ofthe provincial government we have conducted the most successful
fundraising campaign in Canadian
history to support academic enrichment through buildings and endowments.
2. We have used wisely the Hampton
Place income to develop an endowment base to support UBC's mission
and to enhance fundraising activities for university priorities by providing matching funds (and there
will be more opportunities on the
South Campus for similar projects
in the future).
3. Based on widely accepted space
standards.  UBC is short of space
and we will continue to seek all
possible means to correct this short -
fall and to deal with maintenance,
and the refurbishment of existing
space or its replacement when acceptable standards cannot be
achieved through refurbishment.
We will be recommending annual
graduate student tuition fees to ensure that full tuition is paid as long
as graduate students remain enrolled and that fees are based on full
or part-time study, clearly defined.
For some new and redeveloped
graduate programs in professional
fields, tuition fees are being established at a level which will recover all
or most of the program operating
costs, both direct and indirect, e.g.
DPharm. and MBA.
As new programs, particularly in
fields which serve specific needs ol
industn' and society, external endowment and operating funds are
being sought, e.g. advanced wood
products processing, fire protection
engineering, vocational rehabilitation counselling.
We arc developing t he policy framework to enable faculties to plan for
full cost recovery for a predetermined number of international students - not to exceed 15% of enrolment - in undergraduate and pro
fessional graduate programs.
We are maximizing the return to
UBC and to the creators of intellectual property developed in the University, through royalties on patents,
through licences and through the creation of companies in which the University takes equity as appropriate.
We are now recovering at least part
of the cost to UBC for a number of
services provided:
• processing of applications
• issuing of transcripts
• administration of ancillaries
• overhead costs of conducting
research on contract
The judicious use of campus facilities for academic conferences has
generated sufficient revenue to facilitate the building of student residences and thereby enabled us to
reach our goal of accommodating
25"ii of students on campus. Anv
further construction of residences
will be aimed at addressing requirements for a change in the mix. e.g.
meeting the need for family housing
for older students, students with
children, single parents.
The building of faculty and staff
rental accommodation has been a
significant factor in enabling us to
recruit outstanding faculty.
Circulation: 37,000 ,,/
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Take A Seat
Michael Kelly, director
of Athletic and Sport
Facilities, takes his
seat among the 2,307
that are being
installed at War
Memorial Gym.
Ninety-five per cent of
the new individual
theatre-style seats are
now in place. The
gym's upgrading
includes the
installation of 600
retractable platform
seats at floor level,
new scoreboards and
basketball backboards,
and plans for an
improved sound
Abe Hefter photo
Drug info
line will
aid B.C.
by Connie Filletti
Staff writer
UBC's Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences is participating in
a new initiative designed to provide seniors with drug information.
The project, known as the
British Columbia Seniors Medication Information Line (B.C.
SMILE), is expected to begin in
April and will cost approximately $315,000 over three
B.C. SMILE will operate from
Monday to Friday, 10:00 a.m. to
4:00 p.m., from the Faculty of
Pharmaceutical Sciences. Inquiries will be answered by licensed pharmacists in the faculty.
In addition to a local telephone
number for Vancouver residents, seniors, their caregivers
and family members living elsewhere in the province can call
a toll-free line with any drug-
related questions, including
adverse reactions, drug and
food interactions and the misuse of medications.
John McNeill, dean of the
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, estimated that the service will be able to handle approximately 2,000 calls per
There will also be a data line
available allowing access to UBC
and the B.C. Drug and Poison
Information Centre networks.
B.C. SMILE is a joint effort of
UBC, the province's Ministry of
Health, the B.C. Drug and Poison Information Centre, the Science Council of B.C. and the
pharmaceutical industry.
Members of the Campus Planning and Development
Review Committee would like to thank those
individuals and organizations who have expressed
their views on the operations of the Campus
Planning and Development Department.
We welcome additional submissions in writing or fax by
February 15, 1995 to the Committee:
c/o Office ofthe Vice-President, Admin, and Finance
Rm. 121, Old Administration Building, Zone 2
6328 Memorial Road, University of British Columbia
Vancouver, B.C.  V6T 1Z2 or FAX# (604) 822-3134
Information on the Committee's composition and Terms of
Reference may be obtained from the Office ofthe Vice-President.
Administration and Finance
Political Science Students, Past and Present
The enquiry into allegations of "pervasive sexism and
racism" in the Political Science Department, which began
in September of 1994, is entering the final stage of the
interview process.
If you have relevant information, positive or negative,
about the Department and have not as yet made your
views known to me, please contact me as soon as possible,
and no later than February 10, 1995. I will not receive
submissions from concerned and/or interested students
after that date.
Should you have any concerns about confidentiality, I
would be pleased to discuss those concerns with you on a
confidential basis in advance of a formal interview.
Please contact me either by voice mail at 737-0448, or by
mail at #300 - 1275 West 6th Avenue, Vancouver; V6H
1A6. You may speak as long as you wish on my voice mail.
If I am not in when you call, kindly leave a phone number
and times during which I can return your call.
I am conducting my interviews on Campus, in Room 246
of the Family and Nutritional Sciences building (located
behind the bookstore on East Mall). If it is more convenient
for you, a meeting may be scheduled at my own office
location on West 6th.
Joan I. McEwen
The classified advertising rate is $15.75 for 35
words or less. Each additional word is 50 cents. Rate
includes GST. Ads must be submitted in writing 10
! days before publication date to the UBC Community
Relations Office, 207-6328 Memorial Road, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z2, accompanied by payment in cash,
cheque (made out to UBC Reports) or internal requisition. Advertising enquiries: 822-3131.
The deadline for the Feb. 9, 1995 issue
of UBC Reports is noon, Jan. 31.
Retirement Income, Deposits,
Investment Funds, Life Insurance.
Local, independent, personalized service with comprehensive
knowledge. Integrating your
financial needs to your own
personal, professional association, group and government
benefit plans. Please call Edwin
Jackson BSc, BArch, CIF, 224-
3540. Representative of
GEORGIA Brokerage Inc.
editing, copy editing, rewriting,
dissertations, reports, books. I
would be delighted to look at
your manuscript, show you how I
could improve it, and tell you
what I would charge. Please call
me for more information. Timothy
King, 263-6058.
conveys the therapeutic joy of
peace and the beauty of life.
Also the charm of protocol which
I teach. Educated at St. Mary's
College, Montreal. Pearl Little
Clements, 682-1558.
what software programs are
available for analysing your
data? Come to Choosing and
Learning Software for Qualitative
Data Analysis: A Working
Conference, Feb. 17-18, 1995.
Contact Sue Cox (suecox®
unixg.ubc.ca) or Raewyn Bassett
Professional Word Processing
Service, laser print, medical
transcription, medical documents, resumes, university term
papers, theses, letters. Free pick
up, delivery in West End, same
day service when possible. For
quality service at reasonable
rates call Sammira 687-1410
(residential, leave a message).
Wanted T® Kent
professors (non-smokers) seek
furn. accommodation (house,
apt. - minimum 2 bedrms - or
house exchange) in Vancouver
during sabbatical Sept. '95-May
'96. Call Winnie Holland or Greg
Brandt (519) 679-9595 or email:
Rhode Island professor seeks
West Side house (or Apt.)
exchange or rent, July and Aug.
'95 (possibly June), n/s, no pets.
Fax (401) 792-2580.
2-3 bdrm home to rent from June
25, '95to July 1, '96 (dates flexible)
in Kitsilano or Pt. Grey.Call (509)
perfect spot to reserve
accommodation for guest
lecturers or other university
members who visit throughout
the year. Close to UBC and other
Vancouver attractions, a tasteful
representation of our city and of
UBC. 4103 W.lOth Ave.
Vancouver, B.C. V6R2H2. Phone
or fax (604) 222-4104.
Located near the Museum of
Anthropology, this is an ideal spot
for visiting scholars to UBC. Guests
dine with residents and enjoy
college life. Daily rate $50.00, plus
$ 13/day for meals Sun. -Thurs. Call
822-8660 for more information
and availability.
jTrichcTbeachI guest house
Ideal accommodation for UBC
visitors, close to UBC, reasonable
rates. 3780 W. 3rd Ave. Call hosts
Ken and Carla Rich at 224-1180.
retreat. Enjoy breathtaking
panoramic views over Montague
Harbour. Private and quiet west
coast cedar home over 2,000
sq.ft., 3 bdrm, 2 bath, full kitchen,
washer/dryer, open plan living
areas, stone fireplace, workshop,
two car carport, mature
landscaped garden. Close to all
amenities. Partially furnished.
(One year lease available). Call
evenings (604) 261-4987.
and den (or 3 bedrms)
townhouse. Sundecks, small
garden, Kitsilano, near beach.
$1800. Utilities negotiable. May 1
-Dec.30/95. References required.
734-3491, call after Jan. 28.
equipped one bdrm suite. Walk
to UBC: Private entrance/patio,
n/s, no pets. $950/mo. incl. cable,
hydro and local phone calls.
Weekly/monthly rates. 228-8079.
KERRISDALE 2 bdrm, new and
completely furnished garden
suite w/deck, n/s, no pets, close
to UBC and downtown bus
routes, cable, parking, share w/
d. Would suit professional couple/
single. Available now until mid-
June. $950/mo. incl. utilities. Call
263-9982 or 822-2714.
Calverhall area. Unfurn, $1200/
mo. plus util. Well-kept, 2 baths,
2 bdrms, dining and den. 2
fireplaces. Private garden
(maintenance incl.) n/s, no pets.
Prefer quiet professional couple.
For info call Christine at 261 -7012.
UBC Reports
classifed ads
for 35 words or less
Office To Rent
professional office with waiting
room; medical licence; 483 sq.ft;
$770/mo. 264-7205. UBC Reports ■ January 26, 1995 11
Gavin Wiison photo
A Rose Garden ... As Promised
Plant Operations gardener John Heady plants some ofthe 700 roses that are
going into the new Rose Garden atop the Marine Drive parkade. The original
rose garden was dug up in 1993 to make way for construction ofthe parkade,
which provides space for about 1,000 vehicles.
Steam bath gives flower
growers clean, cheap
alternative to chemicals
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
A UBC plant scientist is demonstrating that some plant disease-causing
microbes can't take the heat.
Assoc. Prof. Bob Copeman has developed a method using heat to kill a
fungus that attacks cyclamen, a flower
crop worth $2 million per year to Lower
Mainland growers.
Growers were having a problem with
the Styrofoam trays used for cyclamen
seedlings. The containers are frequently
reused to save money, but this also
makes them prone to a fungal contamination that is difficult to remedy.
The growers could treat the fungus
with a powerful brew of chemicals, but
would prefer an alternative that is less
costly and less hostile to the environment.
Copeman proposed using a "hot
room" heated with water from boilers
used to heat commercial greenhouses.
He found that storing the containers
in 75 C temperatures for two or three
clays destroys the fungus and does not
shrink the Styrofoam.
"It's an environmentally friendly way
of decontaminating growing materials
such as pots and trays, and it also puts
waste heat from boilers to good use."
Copeman said.
The method has been adopted by
one major grower, and others are expected to follow suit.
Copeman has also developed biological controls for a disease that is a
problem even in soilless growing media, such as rock wool and sawdust,
which are commonly used in B.C.'s
multimillion-dollar greenhouse agriculture industry.
To combat crown and root rot. a
major problem wherever greenhouse
tomatoes are grown, he has inoculated
seeds with closely related non-pathogenic strains of the disease-causing
Commercial-scale trials showed that
this method, which avoids the use of
chemicals, improved disease protection and boosted yields 18 to 22 per
cent compared to untreated control
"We have to encourage people not to
rely just on chemicals." Copeman said.
"There are often more environmentally
friendly ways ol accomplishing the same
ends. Sometimes they are more expensive and labour intensive, but those
are trade-offs we'll have lo make.
"In the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, we feel il is important to encourage students to lake an inlcgraled approach that uses several solutions in
pest and disease control." he added.
by staff writers
Charles Laszlo. a professor of Electrical Engineering, has been appointed director of the Institute of Hearing Accessibility Research
(IHEAR) for a five-year term.
IHEAR was established at UBC in July. 1994 to foster research into
hearing accessibility and to help people with hearing problems in everyday
Laszlo. who joined UBC in 1974. is former director ofthe university's
Clinical Engineering Program, a graduate program that trains engineers to
work in hospitals on clinical technologies and health care delivery.
An inventor and advocate for the disabled. Laszlo's areas of research
include developing innovative communications technology such as devices
that help the hard of hearing use telephones and view instant captioning of
• • •  •
Prof. Jane Gaskell. assoc. dean of graduate
programs and research in the Faculty of
Education, has been appointed to the 12-
member board of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC). A faculty member
since 1974. Gaskell's research and publications
have focused particularly on the role of women in
the education system. She is currently leading a
national study looking at 21 "successful" secondary
schools across Canada. Gaskell has served as
president ofthe Canadian Society for the Study of
Education and the Canadian Association for Foundations of Education. The SSHRC. established in
1978. is the primary federal agency supporting
training and research which leads to further understanding of the economy,
society and culture.
• • •  •
Prof. David McClung has received the 1994 Honorary Fellowship Award
from the American Association of Avalanche Professionals for his
contributions to snow science and practice.
Before coming to UBC in 1991, he conducted research for the Canadian
Department of Environment at Canmore, Alberta and with the National
Research Council at Vancouver and Rogers Pass.
He is also author ofthe Avalanche Handbook, which contributed to
avalanche literature by providing reliable guidelines for avalanche control
McClung, who holds a joint appointment with the departments of Civil
Engineering and Geography, received the award at the association's annual
meeting in Snowbird. Utah.
• •  •  •
Bank executive Donald Potvin has been appointed to the University of
British Columbia Foundation for a three-year term.
Potvin is the senior vice-president. Western Canada commercial and
corporate banking division, ofthe Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce.
He is also vice-chair of the Salvation Army's advisory board and chair of
the board of trustees of St. Paul's Hospital.
The UBC Foundation is responsible for fostering public awareness of
UBC. facilitating programs and activities to help increase financial support
for the university and for managing its funds and property.
• •  •  •
Prof. Ken Haycock, director of the School of Library, Archival and
Information Studies, has been elected chair ofthe West Vancouver
School Board for 1995. Haycock was first elected to the board in 1993
and for the past year has chaired its public education committee.
At UBC. Haycock teaches graduate courses in the management of
information agencies and services. A member of more than 30 professional
associations, Haycock was also elected North American director for the
International Association of School Librarianship in 1994.
UBC nursing faculty win
funding for four projects
by Connie Filletti
Staff writer
Several faculty members of UBC's
School of Nursing are recipients of 1994
Nursing Research Competition Awards.
A total of $99,066 in grants was
awarded to five research projects, four of
which include UBC participation.
Joan Bottorff, an associate professor
of Nursing and Elizabeth Davies, a professor of Nursing, are members of a research team awarded $23,000 to examine
palliative care patients' experiences and
perspectives on making personal choices
about the nursing care they receive.
Elaine Carty. an associate professor of
Nursing, and colleagues from B.C.'s Women's Hospital, will use their $24,949 award
lo study ii" interventions such as narcotics, epidural anesthetics, electronic fetal
monitoring, augmentation and forceps
delivery are used less if a women waits
until she is in the accelerated stages of
labour before going to the hospital.
Former acting director ofthe School of
Nursing Carol Jillings and graduate student Lynne Maxwell were awarded
$18,462 to evaluate family environment
factors that may influence cardiovascular risk.
Funding for the Nursing Research
Competition Awards is provided by the
B.C. Health Research Foundation, the
B.C. Medical Services Foundation and
the Mr. and Mrs. P.A. Woodward's Foundation.
The competition was created to provide practising clinical nurses and nurse-
researchers with educational and research experiences to improve the quality
of nursing care and patient health. 12 UBC Reports ■ January 26, 1995
Giving forests a future
Forestry Professor Gene Namkoong is winning recognition for his research
into the role of biological diversity in sustainable forest development
by Abe Hefter
Staff writer
A grin steals across Gene
Namkoong's face as he displays a
letter written to him by United
States President Bill Clinton.
""*"       "You often wonder whether the work
that you think is important has much
impact at the global policy level.   It's a
little scary that people are taking you
seriously," says the head of UBC's
Forest Sciences Dept. in the Faculty of
"I'm not used to that."
Judging by the recognition that
Namkoong has garnered recently, it
may be something he should get used
In addition to receiving a letter from
the U.S. president in recognition of his
research in the area of forest genetics,
Namkoong was awarded the 1994
Marcus Wallenberg Prize for his
pioneering work in ensuring biological
diversity in the forests of the world.
Namkoong donated the $1 10,000
prize toward the establishment of a
graduate fellowship in the area of forest
conservation biology at UBC. The
provincial government added $95,000
while the federal government contributed $50,000.
Namkoong also made separate
donations to the U.S. Forest Service
Program, Seoul National University in
Korea, and North Carolina State
University, where he studied and
taught for 30 years before joining UBC
in 1992.
Namkoong's deeply rooted belief in
the value of higher education led to his
decision to contribute to various
"My wife, Carol, and I have been
instilled with a basic belief in the value
of education.  My wife's parents were
educators all their lives while my
grandfather was a well-known educator
«•■ in Korea.  I wanted to contribute to that
strong family tradition."
As a youngster, it was Namkoong's
strong family ties that enabled
him to escape the streets of New
York City. A self-confessed "slum kid,"
Namkoong and his older brother would
leave behind the reality of life in post-
9 depression Manhattan by crossing the
George Washington Bridge to the wide-
open spaces of a New Jersey
campground that often proved to be
Namkoong's salvation.
Namkoong's teenage fascination with
trees and green spaces grew into a
lifelong academic pursuit.  After
"" graduating from State University of
New York with a master's degree in
forestry, Namkoong went to work for
the U.S. Forest Service before obtaining
his PhD in Genetics and Statistics in
1960 at North Carolina State.
After 10 years of research in the area
•*■ of mathematical genetics, Namkoong'
set his academic sights on natural
population genetics and its application
to breeding trees. He began work with
the belief that humans, either deliberately or inadvertently, had affected the
*r long-term evolution of crops with a
short-sighted approach to genetic
management. The reality of the
situation grabbed the world by the
throat in 1970 when a U.S. corn blight
wiped out 50 per cent of the crop in the
"Here was an entire crop that was
threatened," says Namkoong.  "When
you realize that only three crop species
- wheat, rice and maize - provide about
50 per cent of the world's calories, you
can see how vulnerable the entire
agricultural system is."
Namkoong believes the heart of the
problem lies in the fact that there
is not enough genetic variation in
many crops to ensure their long-term
development.  Since it is difficult to
broaden the base and provide a commercial product at the same time,
breeders have concentrated on the
most promising varieties, in terms of
"If a crop breeder starts with 10
varieties, he or she may end up with
only five because the rest just aren't
worth developing.   It is important,
particularly for trees, that we avoid this
short-sighted development of the
genetic resource."
The devastation caused by the corn
blight led Namkoong to pose several
questions:  What are optimal levels of
diversity? Can you simplify breeding
projects to increase diversity? What is
the genetic foundation for more diversity?
He began to answer those questions
some 10 years later while on sabbatical
at Oxford University, where his practical applications began to take root as
he studied breeding programs involving
tropical trees in Africa and Southeast
By developing multiple varieties of
tropical trees. Namkoong began to take
Abe Hefter photo
Gene Namkoong
"The idea is not to try to overwhelm natural systems with
a uniform technology, hut to use our understanding to
moderate those natural systems for diversity. It is the basis
for continued increase in both productivity and in the
adaptive evolutionary potential of forests, and is one ofthe
biological keys to sustainable forest development."
his theory and put it into practise.  He
discovered that new programs are more
easily developed with multiple varieties
than with the traditional forms of
breeding, allowing different varieties of
trees to develop at different rates.
This application has since been
broadly used throughout Asia, Africa
and South America.  Namkoong's work
is also now being supported as a
system for maize breeding in independent research at North Carolina State.
"The idea is not to try to overwhelm
natural systems with a uniform technology, but to use our understanding
to moderate those natural systems for
diversity," he explains.
"It is the basis for continued increase in both productivity and in the
adaptive evolutionary potential of
forests, and is one of the biological keys
to sustainable forest development."
When Namkoong arrived at UBC,
Forestry Dean Clark Binkley
encouraged him to explore
forestry's "global revolution" as the new
head of the Forest Sciences Dept.
"In North America, you could always
go elsewhere and get more wood." says
Namkoong.   'That's not the case any
There are no longer any timber
frontiers. How we deal with this
situation as professionals is substantially different now than it was even 10
years ago."
According to the Marcus Wallenberg
Foundation, Namkoong has few peers
in the area of scientific research in the
forest industry sector.
Namkoong was in Sweden last
September to receive the prize for his
"path breaking contributions to quantitative population genetics, tree breeding and management resources, which
form a solid scientific basis for the
maintenance of biological diversity in
forests all over the world."
A year earlier, Michael Smith,
director of UBC's Biotechnology Laboratory, had received the Nobel Prize in
Chemistry for his discovery of site-
directed mutagenesis, a technique
which allows scientists to reprogram
the genetic code.
"It's interesting that both prizes were
awarded as a result of research in the
area of genetics," says Namkoong.
"Although Michael's research
involves individual gene manipulation
and my work looks at multiple gene
complexes, our research is complementary in that we are both looking at ways
that genetical systems are understandable and adaptable."
Namkoong admits he was surprised to discover he had won the
Marcus Wallenberg Prize.   Most of
the previous prize winners have been
involved in chemistry, physics, or the
engineering aspects of wood as a
material.  Others have been involved in
various aspects of biology, mostly
directed toward increasing productivity.
"In my mind, my research was not in
the area in which the prize was
awarded.  I never considered my work
to be of industrial significance."
Others, including Bill Clinton, would


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