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UBC Reports Dec 2, 2004

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 THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
UBC
m
VOLUME  50   I  NUMBER   11   |  DECEMBER  2,2004
UBC REPORTS
2 UBC in the News 3 Creative Arts and Conflict 4 Helping War Victims 9 Reliable Drug Data
Writi
ng
Cancer and Sex
The Unspoken Harm
When Linda Mercer underwent a
radical hysterectomy to treat her cancer, she found herself and her husband
struggling to regain a satisfying sex life.
It's not often discussed, but it's a fact:
surgery that can save a cancer patient's
life often robs her of sexual arousal and
satisfaction.
Cervical cancer is the third most
common cancer among women aged
20-49 years. In Canada, about 1,450
women are diagnosed and 420 die of
cervical cancer each year
At least 40 per cent of women who
have had a radical hysterectomy to
treat cervical cancer or endometrial
cancer, like Mercer had, develop significant cancer-induced dysfunction related
to genital arousal, says psychologist
Lori Brotto, an assistant professor in
UBC's department of obstetrics and
gynecology.
In January 2005, Brotto will launch
North America's first study to explore
a psychoeducational treatment aimed
at helping cancer survivors treated with
radical hysterectomy regain their sexual
health. The treatment integrates
psychological counseling with exercises
and information to help patients gain
insights about feelings, thoughts and
behaviour
"This is an area that is virtually
unstudied," says the 29-year-old
Brotto. "Women's sexuality research
in general is about 20 years behind
similar investigations of men's sexuality
because of taboos and an assumption
that male and female responses are the
same."
When Mercer was asked to participate in a pilot ofthe study, she jumped
at the chance.
"The program offered me hope and
being with a group of other women
with cancer made me feel that I wasn't
alone," says the 55-year old. "I got
help in understanding both the positive
and negative patterns of thoughts and
ideas that affected my feelings - it was
BY HILARY THOMSON
very concrete advice. Cancer is such a
dark time, but you can enjoy having
sex after cancer, there are treatments
available - there's a light out there, and
it's getting brighter."
Working with colleagues at BC
Cancer Agency (BCCA), Brotto will
recruit 66 women, aged 19-50 years old,
with a history of cervical cancer treated
by radical hysterectomy within the last
five years. The research team, located at
Vancouver Coastal Health Research
Institute (VCHRI) will work with
survivors to offer counseling and record
feedback about sexual function. These
psychoeducational aspects ofthe
program will be supplemented with
treatment with sildenafil citrate, known
commercially as Viagra ®.
Participants' progress will be followed
for six months after their final session.
Cervical cancer affects the cervix or
lower part of the uterus leading into the
vagina. Early stage cervical cancer and
endometrial (uterus lining) cancer is
commonly treated by radical hysterectomy - removal of the entire uterus,
adjacent lymph nodes as well as the
upper one-third ofthe vagina.
Many women also have both ovaries
and fallopian tubes removed, and some
receive radiation/chemotherapy which
may further impair sexual function.
Estrogen production stops with removal
ofthe ovaries, resulting in reduced
elasticity ofthe vaginal wall, making
intercourse painful.
In addition, surgery often damages
the autonomic nerves that supply
sensation to the genital area.
The psychological effects of hysterectomy can be numerous and complex
and depression is common, says Brotto.
Many survivors no longer feel like
women because their genitalia have been
altered. There is often the emotional loss
of being unable to bear children.
Survivors may have a different body
image, seeing themselves as
continued on page 3
A Less than Steller Diet
BY MICHELLE COOK
Adolescent Steller sea lions may not be
consuming enough prey to satisfy their
nutritional needs. But, unlike some
young humans, it's not due to bad eating habits, and it could be contributing
to their declining numbers in the wild,
according to a recent study by two
UBC researchers.
The number of Stellers has declined
drastically in recent years with their
worldwide population reduced by an
estimated 85 percent since 1970.
Although the exact cause is unknown,
a change in their food sources, either
due to fishing or environmental reasons, is thought to be a factor in the
decline.
The study focused on whether
young sea lions could physically adjust
to eating lower quality prey when the
high-energy fish, such as herring, that
normally make up their diet are not
available or in limited supply.
"There were questions about
whether the quality and abundance of
fish were affecting the population of
young Steller sea lions in the wild," says
David Rosen, a research associate who
co-authored the study for the North
Pacific Universities Marine Mammal
Research Consortium with zoology
professor Andrew Trites.
"As a physiologist, a logical question
for me seemed to be that even if they
had the behavioural instinct to change
their food intake, was that limited by a
physical capacity to process the food?"
says Rosen.
The year-long study, done with five
captive yearling Stellers at the
Vancouver Aquarium, was designed to
determine the physiological - not
behavioural - factors that influence the
amount of fish that young sea lions can
eat. The goal was to understand how
changes in the availability and type of
fish affect their total food intake. The
study was done with young animals
because they are thought to be the
portion ofthe Steller population most
at risk, and they have high energy
requirements.     continued on page 9 I  UBC  REPORTS  |  DECEMBER  2,  2OO4
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I^\ Calling  all
mf) UBC Authors
Are you the author/editor of a book, or the creator
of a video, cd, cd-rom, or electronic book published
between January 2002 and December 2002?
If so, we would like to hear from you so that you can
be included in the 13th Annual Reception
and other events for UBC authors, scheduled for
UBC Authors Week, March 10-15,2003.
The Reception, hosted by President Martha Piper
and University Librarian Catherine Quinlan,
will be held March 12,2003.
Ifyou are a UBC author, please contact
Margaret Friesen by January 7,2003.
Koerner Library, Room 218D
1958 Main Mall
604-822-4430/fax:604-822-3335
email:mfriesen@interchange.ubc.ca
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IN THE NEWS
Highlights of UBC Media Coverage in November 2004. compi led by BRIAN Ll N
The World Comes to Canada
to Learn
The number of Americans studying
at Canadian universities jumped 29
per cent last year, contributing to a
staggering 145 per cent increase
since 1997/98, according to a survey
conducted by the Canadian Embassy
in Washington, D.C.
UBC saw a 28 per cent jump in
American undergraduates this fall, to
420 students, reports CanWest
News Service. That's a 166 per cent
increase since 2001 and a 303 per
cent jump in five years.
Canada is also one of the most
popular destinations for British
students seeking education abroad.
UBC currently has 72 Brits on
Master or PhD programs, including
fisheries PhD student Louisa Wood,
from Cheshire.
Wood told The Independent that
her UBC experience has underlined
the virtues of moving outside the
UK. "I believe that successfully graduating from different educational
systems greatly enhances employabil-
ity, research skills and academic networking, " she said.
Just Say No
There has been a backlash against
the cost, risk and side effects of medication. UBC pharmacologist James
Wright warns against the over-
dependence on prescription drugs.
"We have this idea that we can
pop a pill and solve everything. It is
craziness," Wright told Forbes.com.
"People are dying from taking too
many drugs at too high doses for
mild conditions where they have
little chance of benefit"
Wright also raised concerns over
Statins, a top-selling drug sold under
UBC VP Research Indira
Samarasekera has been selected
as the University of Alberta's first
female president.
names such as Lipitor and Zocor,
saying its side effects have not
received adequate scrutiny.
"The enzyme these drugs block is
critical for lots of activities in the
body," Wright told BusinessWeek.
"So to think that it is going to be all
for the good is very naive."
To Touch a Coelacanth
UBC fisheries scientist Scott
McKinley will come face to face
with some real live dinosaurs next
spring when he boards a Canadian-
built submarine shaped like a bubble, 200 metres below the surface of
the Indian Ocean.
McKinley, who leads the first-ever
scientific venture to track the elusive
coelacanth, an ancient fish that's
been swimming in the deep, dark
waters off the African coast for
about 400 million years, unveiled his
plans last month at the Vancouver
Aquarium.
"I wish I could touch one,"
McKinley told The Globe and Mail.
The five-year research project is estimated to cost $5 million.
VP Research in a Class by
Herself
UBC VP Research Indira
Samarasekera has been chosen
to be President of the University
of Alberta.
In a Globe and Mail profile, UBC
President Martha Piper was quoted
saying that Samarasekera "has had
president' written all over her for
some time."
UBC microbiologist Brett Finlay
was shocked back in 2000 when
Samarasekera took the job as VP
Research. "Everybody wondered
why the hell she took an administrative job as vice president when she
was such a good researcher," Finlay
told The Globe and Mail. "She's a
superstar in the engineering world."
Directors Education Program
launched
UBC's Sauder School of Business
joined forces with SFU Business
School and the University of
Toronto's Rotman School of
Management last month in launching the first Directors Education
Program (DEP) in the province.
The program is designed to give
people who have completed the
Executive MBA program an additional boost, reports Ming Pao
Daily. Originally established last
November at the Rotman School of
Business in partnership with ICD
Corporate Governance College, the
program offers important resources
for regulators, investors, directors
and government officials. □
UBC United Way Campaign Update
As the 2004 UBC United Way campaign wraps up this
month, volunteers and donors continue to support this
growing campaign.
"With over $370,000 raised we have achieved 70 per
cent of our fundraising goal to support social programs
and services in the Lower Mainland," Stan Auerbach, this
year's campaign chair, says.   "With one month left we are
confident that we will reach our goal!"
A number of events both on and off campus have contributed to raising awareness about this year's campaign.
"For the third year in a row, UBC volunteers participated in United Way's 'Days of Caring' program for a day. A
group of us visited Surrey Delta Immigrant Services Society
for a day of painting, power-washing and learning more
about one of the agencies that receives core funding from
United Way," Auerbach says.
"Combine this outing with on-campus events like bake
sales, silent auctions, United Way presentations and visits
from agency speakers - and we've been very successful at
raising awareness of both the campaign this year and the
needs of communities across the Lower Mainland.
"Our campaign would not be as successful as it is
without the tremendous hard work and support of the
volunteers on campus. They deserve a huge thank you!"
adds Auerbach.
Community members still interested in supporting this
year's campaign are encouraged to donate before December
9 - the deadline for final prize draws, including a draw for
two flight tickets on Air Canada. Donations will be
accepted until the end of the tax year, December 31.
For more information on the campaign,
visit www.unitedway.ubc.ca or phone 604-822-8929. □
UBC REPORTS
Director, Public Affairs
Scott Macrae scott.macrae@ubc.ca
Editor
Randy Schmidt randy.schmidt@ubc.ca
Design Director
Chris Dahl chris.dahl@ubc.ca
Designer
Sharmini Thiagarajah sharmini@exchange.ubc.ca
Contributors
Michelle Cook michelle.cook@ubc.ca
Brian Lin brian.lin@ubc.ca
Erica Smishek erica.smishek@ubc.ca
Hilary Thomson hilary.thomson@ubc.ca
Advertising
Kim Fisher public.affairs@ubc.ca
NEXT ISSUE: JANUARY 10, 2005
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randy.schmidt@ubc.ca or call UBC.NEWS (604.822.6397) UBC      REPORTS      |       DECEMBER     2,      2OO4      |      3
Bridging Troubled Waters
UBC law professor examines how the creative arts can
resolve cross-cultural conflicts, by erica smishek
Music may soothe the savage beast.
But can it help warring ethnic youth
gangs avoid violence?
UBC law professor Michelle
LeBaron thinks so and will spend the
next three years exploring ways in
which creative arts-based practices can
be used to bridge differences and
resolve cross-cultural conflicts in
Vancouver
LeBaron anticipates the study could
beyond just the analytic and intellectual
to use more of themselves in addressing
conflict.
" [The arts] loosen us up from ruts
we get into. They invoke our imagination, our emotional intelligence, our
spirituality, even our physical selves. We
have to get out of our heads and recognize we need our entire bodies to
resolve conflict."
LeBaron explains that turning points
Michelle LeBaron's dispute resolution research will build new community
partnerships in Vancouver.
build connections among community
agencies, arts organizations, educators
and conflict resolution practitioners and
go a long way to address local intercultural conflicts. This could include assisting relations between Quebecois
Canadian street youth and the police
and business communities; the established Chinese-Canadian community
and more recent Chinese-Canadian
immigrants; First Nations youth and
police; Muslim-Canadians and other
communities post-9/11; or street youth
culture, club culture and the more affluent businesses and residents of "new
neighbourhoods" like Yaletown.
Supported by a $145,000 research
grant from the Social Sciences and
Humanities Research Council of
Canada (SSHRC), it's the first
Canadian study of its kind and
LeBaron says "just the beginning ofthe
wave" of research on creativity and
conflict resolution.
"So much of law and dispute resolution puts tremendous faith in the ability
of adversaries to talk together in reasonable, calm ways," says LeBaron,
director of the UBC program on dispute resolution. "But when the problem stems from part of our identity, our
world view, our meaning-making systems, you can have all the 'rational' discussions in the world but you won't
reach common ground because people
have different systems of rationality. We
need ways to move through conflicts
that recognize and work with our cultural differences.
"Different people have different
ways of conceptualizing what conflict is
and how it should be addressed."
LeBaron has spent more than 20
years researching, teaching and consulting around the world in dispute resolution. A graduate ofthe UBC Faculty of
Law in 1980, she joined the faculty in
2003 after 12 years at the Institute for
Conflict Analysis and Resolution and
the Women's Studies program at
George Mason University in Fairfax,
Virginia.
In the early 1990s, she directed the
Multiculturalism and Dispute
Resolution Project at the University of
Victoria, and has practised as a family
law and commercial mediator. She
continues to consult on organizational
and intergroup conflict, and to help
people design dispute resolution systems to address difficult conflicts.
A poet and creative non-fiction
writer who began her undergraduate
studies as a music major, LeBaron
believes the arts can help people get
in conflict resolution, those moments
that relax the stalemate, often come
from people experiencing each other's
humanity.
LeBaron points to "Peace it
Together," a project organized by
Vancouver activist Reena Lazar that
brought 10 Jewish and Palestinian
teenagers to Vancouver for a 17-day
camp this past summer. The teens participated in workshops using art, music
and theatre as conflict resolution and
also spent five days at a wilderness
retreat on Indian Arm. LeBaron helped
design the project and led some ofthe
workshops.
"Through drawing, sculpting, mime
and other activities, we helped them
relax and talk about their vision for the
process. Later, we used art to help them
reflect on what they'd learned, on how
they intended to integrate these new
relationships in their lives when they
got back home to the Middle East. One
of the sculptures had people with hands
blocking them, resisting them.
"For many of these youths, there
were internal dilemmas - grappling
with how to integrate the friendships
they developed here amidst family, religious and social pressures back home."
Though not an official part of her
study, LeBaron says the project was an
opportunity to put creativity to work
with youth from two diverse communities mired in a long history of conflict.
Her research will include two pilot
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projects - one involving photography
and videography the other participatory theatre - to map community issues,
help people learn more about these
issues and recognize common ground.
Following each pilot, reflection sessions
will identify outcomes, strengths and
weaknesses ofthe selected arts-based
approaches.
An eventual published project manual and pilot project reports will highlight achievements and help identify
future initiatives and funding needs to
support ongoing arts-based initiatives in
Vancouver communities.
"It would be great if the project
could help bring artistic, community
development, intercultural relations and
mediation practitioners closer together
and spark some creative synergies and
partnerships," says Steven Dang, a PhD
student at UBC's School of Community
and Regional Planning and member of
the research team.
Dang believes such collaborations
could help create "stronger, healthier
and more inclusive communities." □
Cancer and Sex
continued from page 1
dehumanized and just a medical
object. Many avoid looking in the mirror because their own body now repels
them.
In addition to anxiety over their
own and partners' response or lack of
it, women are also fearful about a
recurrence of cancer. Many women
believe that intercourse can cause cancer to recur or that they can pass cancerous cells to their partner, says
Brotto.
Her new study will expand on the
pilot which tested the effectiveness of a
treatment manual that contains information and exercises to help restore
healthy sexual functioning. Brotto
hopes to develop the manual so it can
be used by both women and healthcare providers.
"The link between sexual health
and quality of life is well established,"
says Brotto, a Michael Smith
Foundation for Health Research
Scholar. "I hope this treatment can
improve women's sexual well-being
which in turn can lead to a better quality of life for cancer survivors."
The project has been funded by the
Canadian Institutes of Health
Research, the Government of Canada's
agency for health research. CIHR provides leadership and support to more
than 8,000 researchers and research
teams in every province in Canada.
BCCA, an agency ofthe Provincial
Health Services Authority, provides
cancer care across the province.
VCHRI is a joint venture between
UBC and Vancouver Coastal Health
that promotes development of new
researchers and research activity. □
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UBC Program is Helping War Victims be Heard
BY MICHELLE COOK
Erin Baines (centre) walks with some of northern Uganda's "night commuters" to better understand their experience of living in a war-torn region.
Erin Baines was walking with some
of Uganda's "night commuters" in the
town of Kitgum when she got the call
about the deadly ambush.
Night commuters are the estimated
40,000 children who stream into towns
near the country's northern border
every evening at sunset seeking refuge
from the Lord's Resistance Army
(LRA), a rebel group notorious for
abducting young people and killing
unarmed citizens in its brutal 18-year
war against the Ugandan government.
Members of Baines' research team
told her they had been riding in a convoy on the outskirts of town when they
came across a group of civilians who
had been attacked by rebels while trying to transport food to market.
"This is the risk people take when
they try to have a livelihood," says
Baines, the academic director of UBC's
conflict and development program at
the liu Institute for Global Issues.
"One man - a father with small children and the sole provider for his
extended family - was killed. Several
others had been beaten by rebels. One
16-year-old girl was shot in the stomach. "
Baines rushed to the local hospital to
meet the group, and sat with the
wounded girl during her 24-hour wait
for medical attention. Back in her office
in Vancouver, Baines reflects on the incident that occurred in August this year.
"I held her hand for a long time and
she just moaned and whimpered and
you could see how much pain she was
in. I still don't know whether she lived
or not," Baines says.
All this was happening, she adds, at
the same time the Ugandan government
was saying it was close to defeating the
LRA.
The anomaly between the official
version of events and the actual experiences ofthe millions of people living in
war-torn regions like northern Uganda
lies at the heart of what Baines, 35, is
trying to achieve with the conflict and
development program.
Established in 2000, the program's
goal is to partner with civil society
organizations (CSOs) worldwide to
conduct hands-on research and advocacy work on how governments and
out there that attracts attention away
from what is really going on."
The program, currently operating
only in Africa, gathers and disseminates
documentation in several ways. These
include workshops like one held in
Vancouver last month to honour the
reconciliation and re-building work
being done by survivors of Rwandan
genocide. It also includes reports co-
written by program researchers and
works with ISIS-Women's International
Cross Cultural Exchange in Kampala,
Uganda. She attended the Rwanda
genocide survivors workshop in
Vancouver and found the lessons
learned from another nation's conflict
very useful for her organization's
efforts.
"There was a lot to learn, especially
of how people from one country can
look at the same conflict or war differ-
"... a couple of older women just threw up their hands and said 'what can we
say to you? We're poor. We're hungry....Our orphans will never go to school.
There's reprisals and violence. How can we move on?'"
the United Nations respond to violent
internal state conflicts and their aftermath. CSOs are non-governmental
and not-for-profit organizations that
include charities, trade unions, faith-
based organizations, indigenous peoples' movements and foundations.
"In any conflict situation, there are
always many versions ofthe truth but
the one that is always the most dominant is the government's," Baines
explains. "So, if it's possible to listen to
those most affected by the conflict -
whether that's the widow or orphan or
human rights worker in the conflict
zone - what our program is doing is
giving these people a space in which to
reflect on their experiences, gathering
that local knowledge and information
together, and then working with them
to write it down so that it can be used
to document that they actually exist.
"For these people, just being able to
say, 'this happened on this day or that
day' is very important to counter the
massive amount of information that's
Elizabeth Demeter, Ph.D., R.C.C.
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CSO partners, advocacy work, visits to
affected areas and even documentary
films.
The information is then shared with
other CSOs and Canadian and foreign
governments with the goal of informing
their policy decisions on humanitarian
issues and approaches.
"In a way, we are bridging local-level
knowledge from those most affected by
conflicts with the international actors
and hoping there's a two-way exchange
of information," Baines says.
Although it's too early to tell whether
the work is influencing high-level decision makers, the program's African
partners are already seeing results.
Michael Otim is the program coordinator for the Gulu District NGO
Forum, an umbrella organization supporting the work of several CSOs in
northern Uganda. The Forum has partnered with the conflict and development program on several initiatives
including a documentary film, two
reports on the situation in the region
and an international advocacy trip to
several countries to increase awareness
of Uganda's internal conflict.
Otim says the program has helped to
raise the Forum's profile internationally
and nationally, establish it as a resource
for visitors and researchers to the
region, and strengthen the network of
northern Ugandan CSOs.
The result is an "increased awareness
about the problems of the conflict in
northern Uganda as well as increased
humanitarian assistance by the international community," Otim says. "In
addition, it has strengthened the position ofthe CSOs as 'watch dogs' in the
north by exposing certain ills that communities are faced with as a result of
the ongoing conflict."
Despite a history of tensions between
countries in the region, Baines hopes to
further develop regional networks of
CSOs to share information and
exchange experiences common to all.
One partner who welcomes the
approach is Harriet N. Musoke, who
ently," Musoke says. "Creating space
for people to heal, retell their stories
and learn what others are doing in
other countries to maintain peace was a
useful forum."
It was a trip to Rwanda that
changed the course of Baines' work.
Originally from Halifax, Baines' doctorate at Dalhousie University focused
on humanitarian emergencies and
refugee populations in Central America
and the Balkans. Then she was asked
to go to Rwanda, post-genocide, to
conduct a study.
"Everything I had learned up to that
point wasn't helpful in understanding
what had happened in Rwanda and
the aftermath and effects. It was a UN
community that had failed miserably to
protect these people and continued to
fail 10 years after."
On the trip, Baines met a group of
women and orphans in a village hard
hit by the genocide. During a discussion
about their lives and the assistance
they'd received from aid programs,
Baines felt them becoming increasingly
exasperated by her questions.
"Finally, a couple of older women
just threw up their hands and said
what can we say to you? We're poor
We're hungry. We have AIDS. Our kids
are never going to go to school. Not
that they're our kids. Our orphans will
never go to school. There's reprisals
and violence. How can we move on?'"
The reality ofthe survivors' living
conditions sent Baines "into a little bit
of shock" and had a profound effect on
her academically and personally. She no
longer wanted to do research that "sat
on a shelf." She made a shift to more
hands-on academic work and took on
a personal commitment to engage with
and exchange ideas to support women
and children like those she met in
Rwanda.
Baines, who arrived at UBC in 2001,
thinks solutions to humanitarian crises
like the ones she witnessed in central
Africa are possible but not without radical structural change at the internation
al level. She is critical ofthe big UN
agencies responsible for humanitarian
work as well as national governments in
Africa and abroad for approaches she
says are reactive, ineffective and institutionalized. As a result, program designs
often miss the most critical dynamics of
the peace process at the local level.
She cites the current situation in
northern Uganda as a classic example of
the international community's flawed
approach. Ninety per cent ofthe population there lives in displacement camps
without basic rights, but there is a
movement by traditional leaders in the
camps to re-introduce traditional justice,
counselling and cleansing ceremonies
for returning fighters. They feel this
local response is effective, yet the
International Criminal Court (ICC)
recently indicated it wants to try LRA
leader Joseph Kony and others for
crimes according to its guidelines.
"The traditional leaders have very
set ideas of what justice and reconciliation is that is very different from the
international community's ideas,"
Baines explains. "In Uganda, they
worked hard to get an amnesty agreement [that would allow re-introduction
of traditional justice], they feel it's working and feel it's the only path to reconciliation but the ICC, if it doesn't exercise sensitivity to these local initiatives,
may very well undermine the peace
process.
"Local leaders fear the timing ofthe
ICC will scare away commanders from
returning under the amnesty act. That's
why we need to listen more and do a
major re-think about applying universal
principles."
What would work, Baines says, is listening to what people at the centre of
conflict are saying. Based on findings
from workshops and ground work
done last year, Baines found that when
the State or international community is
unwilling or unable to protect citizens,
they find ways to protect themselves.
"There's all sorts of coping mechanisms and people are amazing in their
will to survive, and not just survive but
keep their culture and their dignity," she
says.
This was best summed up for her at
the funeral for the man killed in the
ambush outside Kitgum. The next day,
the entire community was mobilized
and well organized to hold it.
"People told us 'this happens so
much we're ready for it. As a community we pull together, it's the only way we
can cope and pull through it,'" Baines
recalls.
"We have to stop talking amongst
each other and start listening vastly
more to them, and design our programs
and interventions around their existing
coping mechanisms, encourage them to
come up with their own solutions and
carry them out." □ Call for Comments
IC     REPORTS      |      DECEMBER     2,     2 O O 4      |     5
Proposed revisions to Policy #85, entitled "Scholarly Integrity" were presented to the
Board of Governors for information and review on November 23, 2004.
Policy #85 was approved in 1995 and last revised in 2001.  The changes made in 2001
were de minimus revisions to respond to recently introduced requirements from federal
research funding agencies.   Over the last three years, the Scholarly Integrity Investigative
Committee and the administration have identified areas of the Policy where further changes
are warranted.   In general, the proposed changes bring the Policy closer to actual practice
and attempt to simplify and clarify the wording in the Policy.
The next stage in this process is to seek advice, guidance and comments from the University
community.   Please submit feedback to the Office of the University Counsel at
university.counsel@ubc.ca.  All feedback should be submitted by 4:30 pm on Thursday,
December 16, 2004.
Subject to feedback from this public consultation process, these proposed documents will
be submitted to the Board of Governors with a request for final approval at its regularly
scheduled meeting in January of 2005.
THE   UNIVERSITY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
BOARD   OF   GOVERNORS
Policy No:
85
Approval Date:
January 1995
Last Revision:
January 2005 [Anticipated]
Responsible Executive:    Vice-President, Research
TITLE: SCHOLARLY INTEGRITY
Background & Purposes:
The University community has always recognized the necessity for maintaining the
highest ethical standards in the conduct of Scholarly Activities. Individuals are expected
to assume direct responsibility for the intellectual and ethical quality of their work. The
University of British Columbia has developed this Policy to communicate expectations,
increase awareness of integrity issues, and encourage scholars (be they students or
members of faculty and staff) to assume personal responsibility.
The purposes of this Policy are:
- to promote scholarly integrity among scholars, in order to maintain and enhance
the value of impartiality that universities offer society;
- to proscribe activities which breach generally acceptable standards of scholarly
conduct; and
- to provide a process for dealing with allegations of Scholarly Misconduct quickly.
1. SCOPE
1.1.    This Policy applies to all full-time and part-time faculty, staff and students
of the University.
2. GENERAL
2.1. Individuals are personally responsible for the intellectual and ethical quality
of their work and must ensure that their Scholarly Activities meet University
standards.
2.2. Members involved in Scholarly Activities must not commit Scholarly Misconduct,
and without limiting the generality of the foregoing, must:
- evaluate the work of students in a fair manner;
- give appropriate recognition, including authorship, to those who have made a
material intellectual contribution to the contents of the publication or research
project, and only those people;
- fairly allocate interest of inventorship in proportion to the intellectual
contribution of the contributors;
- use unpublished work of other researchers and scholars only with permission and
with due acknowledgement;
- use archival material in accordance with the rules of the archives;
- obtain the permission of the author before using new information, concepts
or data originally obtained through access to confidential manuscripts or
applications for funds for research or training as a result of processes such
as peer review;
- conform to the University's policies and procedures on research including
those involving working with humans, animals, biohazards, radioisotopes
and environmental compliance;
- use scholarly and scientific rigour and integrity in obtaining and analyzing
data, and in reporting and publishing results;
- use research funds in accordance with the terms and conditions under which those
funds were received, including terms related to confidentiality, publication and
intellectual property;
- disclose to the University, journals, sponsors, funding agencies or those
requesting opinions, any conflict of interest, financial or other, that might
influence their decisions on whether the individual should be asked to review manuscripts or applications, test products or be permitted to undertake work sponsored
from outside sources; and
- respect the intellectual property rights of others in the conduct of research,
the development of academic materials, and the dissemination of results.
2.3.   The University will investigate allegations of Scholarly Misconduct in a timely,
impartial and accountable manner and take appropriate action, including any necessary steps to preserve evidence, when it becomes aware of allegations of
Scholarly Misconduct.
3. DEFINITIONS
3.1. "Fabrication" means invention or forgery of research data or citations.
3.2. "Falsification" means alteration, selective omission or misrepresentation of
research data or citations.
3.3. "Investigative Committee" means a committee appointed by the Vice-President for
the purpose of investigating a particular allegation.
3.4. "Plagiarism" means the presentation ofthe thoughts, writings or inventions of
another as one's own without scholarly attribution.
3.5. "Principal Investigator" means the person who has primary responsibility for a
research project. In the case of a project funded by an external or internal grant,
this will normally be the holder of the grant. In the case of a project that is not
funded, this will normally be the initiator of the project. The Principal Investigator
is usually the supervisor of the research team (which may include other
researchers) and is usually a faculty member.
3.6.     "Scholarly Activity" means teaching, research, scholarship or artistic/creative activity
in the course of a faculty, staff or student body member's work or studies at the
University and includes activities that would be appropriate for inclusion
on a curriculum vitae or in an Annual Report to a Department Head.
3.7. "Scholarly Misconduct" means conduct that deviates significantly from that
which is acceptable within the relevant scholarly community and includes
without limitation:
- Plagiarism;
- Fabrication or Falsification of research data;
- conflict of scholarly interest, such as suppressing the publication of the work of
another scholar;
- the unfair evaluation of a student's work;
- failure to obtain approvals for research involving animal and human subjects,
biohazards, radioisotopes, environmental effects, or failure to conduct such
research in accordance with the protocols prescribed;
- conduct that contravenes guidelines or procedures on scholarly integrity that are
adopted by a faculty for scholarly communities within that faculty;
but does not include any matter involving only an honest difference of opinion, mistake or an honest error of judgment.
3.8. "Vice President" means either the Vice-President, Research or the Vice President
Academic who is the central point of contact for a particular allegation.
PROCEDURES
Approved: May 2001
Revised: January 2005 (Anticipated)
Pursuant to Policy #1, "Procedures may be amended by the President, provided the new
procedures conform to the approved policy. Such amendments are reported at the next
meeting of the Board of Governors and are incorporated in the next publication of the
UBC Policy and Procedure Handbook."
1. GENERAL
1.1. Acts of Scholarly Misconduct may be committed with varying degrees of wilfulness.
It is recognized that the borderline between scholarly incompetence, carelessness and
negligence, on the one hand, and intentional dishonesty, on the other, may be very
narrow. The result is objectionable in any case, even if different degrees of discipline
are appropriate.
1.2. Careful supervision of new members of faculty and staff by their supervisors and
Department Heads is in the best interest of the University, the supervisor, the new
member and the scholarly/scientific community. The complexity of scholarly and scientific methods, the necessity for caution in interpreting possibly ambiguous data,
the need for advanced analysis, and the variety of protocols for reporting research
data all require an active role for the supervisor in the guidance of new members of
faculty and staff.
1.3. Principal Investigators and co-investigators who have failed to exercise reasonable
care in directing and supervising researchers who have committed Scholarly
Misconduct may share in the blame and be subject to discipline accordingly.
1.4. Research conditions for all involved in a research team should be outlined in a letter
from the Principal Investigator before team members become engaged. Entitlement
to ownership of primary data, software, and other products of research can vary
according to the circumstances under which research is conducted. A shared understanding about ownership should be reached among collaborators, especially
between supervisors and their graduate students, before research is undertaken. To
assist Principal Investigators in documenting these understandings, sample letters to
colleagues, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students about such issues as compensation, supervision, authorship, records of data, ownership and/or use of data, publication rights, and commercialization, are available from the Office of Research
Services. The Faculty of Graduate Studies will send notices about this requirement to
all students accepted for graduate studies and their supervisors at the time of admission. These notices and a copy of the letter from the supervisor to the graduate student detailing the terms above are filed in the student file in the Faculty of Graduate
Studies. 6
C     REPORTS      |      DECEMBER     2,     2004
1.5. A factor in many cases of alleged Scholarly Misconduct has been the absence of a
complete set of verifiable data. The retention by the University of accurately recorded
and retrievable results is of utmost importance.   All primary data must be recorded in
clear, adequate, original and chronological form. In scientific departments, a record of
the primary data, regardless of ownership, must be maintained in the laboratory and
cannot be removed. Original data for any given study must be retained in the unit of
origin for at least five years after the work is published or otherwise presented (if the
form of the data permits this, and if assurances have not been given that data would
be destroyed to assure anonymity). Supervisors and collaborators will have unrestricted access to all data and products of their collaborative research (if assurances have
not been given that access to the data and/or products would be restricted to assure
anonymity).
1.6. All authors listed in a publication should have been involved in the research. Each is
expected to have made a significant intellectual or practical contribution, understand
the significance of the conclusions, and be able to share responsibility for the content
and reliability ofthe reported data. The concept of "honorary authorship" is unacceptable. In the event that a researcher involved in the research disagrees with the
content or conclusions of a publication, the Principal Investigator may proceed to
publish the results and the dissenting researcher may elect to have his or her name
removed from the list of authors of that publication.  The dissenting researcher may
independently write his or her own publication (so long as the data has not been
destroyed nor assurances given that access to the data and/or products would be
restricted, to assure anonymity).
1.7. A gradual diffusion of responsibility for multi-authored or collaborative studies could
lead to the publication of papers for which no single author is prepared to take full
responsibility. Two safeguards in the publication of accurate reports are the active
participation of each co-author in ascertaining which part of a manuscript falls within
his/her specialty area and the designation of one author who takes responsibility
through due diligence for the validity of the entire manuscript.
5. REPORT OF THE INVESTIGATIVE COMMITTEE
5.1. Upon completion of its review ofthe evidence gathered in the investigation, the
Investigative Committee will prepare a written report addressed to the Vice-President
on its finding and recommendations. The report will contain:
- the full allegation;
- a list of the witness (es) who gave evidence;
- a summary of relevant evidence;
- a determination of whether or not Scholarly Misconduct occurred;
- if Scholarly Misconduct has occurred, its extent and seriousness; and
- recommendations on any disciplinary or remedial action to be taken in the matter in
question and/or changes to procedures or practices to avoid similar situations in the
future.
5.2. Recommendations ofthe Investigative Committee may include, without limitation:
- withdrawing all pending relevant publications;
- notifying publications in which the involved research was reported;
- redefining the status of the involved individuals;
- ensuring that the units involved are informed of appropriate practices for promoting
the proper conduct of research;
- informing any outside funding agency of the results of the inquiry and of actions to
be taken;
- recommending any disciplinary action to be taken.
5.3. Prior to completing its final report, the Investigative Committee will provide the individuals) alleged to have committed the Scholarly Misconduct and those making the
allegation with an opportunity to review and comment on a draft report.
5.4. The Investigative Committee will normally deliver its final report to the University
within four months of the Vice-President instructing the Investigative Committee to
investigate.
1.8.    All inventors listed on a patent application must have made an inventive contribution
to the invention.   Each is expected to have made a significant intellectual contribution.
2. ALLEGATIONS
2.1.    The initial report of alleged Scholarly Misconduct may come from various sources
inside or outside the University. For example, the allegation may come from a member of faculty or staff, a University administrator, a granting source, a student, a
member of the general public, a media report or an anonymous source.  The ability of
the University to investigate an allegation may be hampered if it is from an anonymous or uncooperative source and investigations are always subject to principles of
natural justice.
6. AUTHORITY OF THE VICE-PRESIDENT
6.1. In cases of collaborative research involving other institutions, the Vice-President may
modify these Procedures to facilitate the conduct of parallel or joint investigations.
6.2. The Vice-President has the authority to:
- close down and declare "off limits" facilities used for research;
- protect the administration of University and outside funds involved in the research;
- obtain and retain relevant documentation (e.g. lab notes, computer disks, hard
drives, proof of credentials) related to an investigation; and
- request that members of the University community appear before an Investigative
Committee and answer the Investigative Committee's questions or supply materials
to it.
2.2.    Allegations of Scholarly Misconduct received by the University are forwarded to the
Vice-President, Research. The Vice-President, Research is the central point of contact
for receiving allegations, as he/she is normally sufficiently at arm's length so as to be
viewed as impartial and free of personal conflicts of interest. If the Vice-President,
Research feels it would be inappropriate to receive a particular allegation for whatever reason, he/she may refer the allegation to the Vice President Academic.
3. RESPONSE TO ALLEGATION
3.1. Upon receipt and review of an allegation, the Vice-President may:
- request that the relevant unit of the University review the matter and report to the
Vice-President; or
- appoint an individual to review the matter and report to the Vice-President.
3.2. After receipt of any report regarding an allegation, the Vice-President may:
- dismiss the allegation;
- request additional information or investigation prior to making a determination on
the matter; or
- inform the person (s) named in the allegation in writing of the allegation and
appoint an Investigative Committee, if in the judgement of the Vice-President the
allegation has sufficient substance to warrant an investigation.
4. INVESTIGATIVE COMMITTEE
4.1.    When the Vice-President has determined that an Investigative Committee is warranted, he or she will form an Investigative Committee by appointing three experienced
academics, which may include emeritus academics or academics external to the
University.   One of the members will be appointed as the Chair of the Investigative
Committee.  A maximum of one member of the Investigative Committee may be
external to the University.  The members of the Investigative Committee must be at
arms length from both the individual(s) alleged to have committed the Scholarly
Misconduct and those making the allegation.
7. DECISION OF VICE-PRESIDENT
7.1. If the Investigative Committee determines that Scholarly Misconduct has not occurred,
the Vice-President will make a final determination on what action, if any, is necessary
in light ofthe Investigative Committee's report and will communicate that decision to
the President, the individual alleged to have committed the Scholarly Misconduct, and
the Dean(s) and Department Head(s) of the individual(s) named in the allegation.   In
such instances, every effort will be made by the Vice-President to protect the reputations of the individual(s) alleged to have committed the Scholarly Misconduct from
undue harm.
7.2. If the Investigative Committee determines that Scholarly Misconduct has occurred, the
Vice-President will forward the Investigative Committee's report:
- in the case of a student, to the President.  The President will make a final
determination of what discipline or other action, if any, is appropriate and will communicate that decision in writing to the student and the Vice-President.
- in the case of a faculty member, to the President and the relevant Dean and/or
Department Head.  The Dean, Department Head or the President (consistent
with the provisions of any relevant collective agreement) will make a final determination of what discipline or other action, if any, is appropriate and will communicate that decision in writing to the faculty member and the Vice-President.
- in the case of a member of staff, to the relevant Director or Department Head.  The
Director or Department Head (consistent with the provisions of any relevant collective agreement) will make a final determination of what discipline or other action, if
any, is appropriate and will communicate that decision in writing to the member of
staff and the Vice-President.
7.3. In all cases the Vice-President will send copies ofthe Investigative Committee's report
and the final decision within seven days of receipt of the final decision to the President
and the relevant Department Heads, Deans or Directors of those involved in the allegation.
4.2. The mandate ofthe Investigative Committee is to find on a balance of probabilities
whether Scholarly Misconduct has occurred, and if so, its extent and seriousness.
4.3. The Investigative Committee may review any Scholarly Activity relevant to the allegation, including any abstracts, papers or other methods of scholarly communication. A
special audit of accounts may also be performed on the sponsored research accounts
ofthe involved individual (s). Individual (s) may be required to prove credentials.
7.4. Where Scholarly Misconduct is found to have occurred, the Vice-President will send
copies ofthe Investigative Committee's report and the final decision within thirty days
of receipt of the final decision to any organization that has funded the research.
7.5. The Office ofthe Vice-President, Research will periodically prepare and publish
anonymized summaries of decisions for the purpose of educating University
members on acceptable practices for scholarly integrity and research ethics.
4.4. The Investigative Committee has the right to see any University documents and question any student or member of faculty and staff during its investigation. All members
of faculty, staff and students must cooperate fully with the Investigative Committee
and make available any documents requested by the Investigative Committee in the
course of its investigation.
4.5. The Investigative Committee must ensure that it is cognizant of all real or apparent
conflicts of interest on the part of those involved in the inquiry, including both the
individual(s) alleged to have committed the Scholarly Misconduct and those making
the allegation.
4.6. The Investigative Committee may seek impartial expert opinions, as it deems necessary or appropriate, to ensure the investigation is thorough and authoritative.
4.7. In the investigation process, the individual(s) alleged to have committed the Scholarly
Misconduct have the right to know the allegations under investigation and to respond
fully.
8. APPEAL OF DISCIPLINE
8.1.    Discipline imposed for Scholarly Misconduct may be appealed:
- by faculty members in a union, through the grievance procedure outlined in the relevant collective agreement(s);
- by staff members in a union, through the grievance procedure outlined in the relevant
collective agreement(s);
- by students, through the Senate Committee on Student Appeals on Student Discipline.
9. GOOD FAITH
9.1. In all proceedings and subsequent to a final decision, the University will make every
effort to protect those making an allegation in good faith from reprisals or harassment.
9.2. The University will take disciplinary action against individuals found to have
purposefully made false allegations. Call for Comments
IC     REPORTS      |      DECEMBER     2,     2004      |      7
Proposed revisions to Policy #90, entitled "Over-Expenditure on Research and Specific
Purpose Trust Project/Grants" were presented to the Board of Governors for information
and review on November 23, 2004.
The current policy has been in force since November 1991.   In the light of significant
increases in research volumes at UBC over the last several years, greater clarification
of the Policy and the roles and responsibilities of various university personnel is required
to ensure that UBC exercises prudent fiscal management over research funds. Over-expenditures have grown in conjunction with increasing research volumes and it was seen as
both necessary and desirable to ensure that there is an appropriate mechanism in place for
handling over-expenditures that are not resolved on a timely basis.
The proposed revisions have been drafted as a result of a lengthy process of discussion by a
committee of 11 members, drawn from a broad cross-section of the University community.
In addition to the above committee members, Research and Trust Accounting, the Office
of Research Services and the University Industry Liaison Office have provided input to the
draft.   Following the work of the committee, the draft was distributed to the Associate
Deans of Research, and was discussed at a meeting of Department Heads within the Faculty
of Medicine and at the Committee of Deans.   Incorporating feedback from the above
actions, discussions then took place between the responsible Vice-Presidents to ensure that
the Policy meets the needs of UBC as a whole.
The next stage in this process is to seek advice, guidance and comments from the
University community.  Please submit feedback to the Office of the University Counsel at
university.counsel@ubc.ca.  All feedback should be submitted by 4:30 pm on Thursday,
December 16, 2004.
Subject to feedback from this public consultation process, these proposed documents will
be submitted to the Board of Governors with a request for final approval at its regularly
scheduled meeting in January of 2005.
UBC
THE   UNIVERSITY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
BOARD   OF   GOVERNORS
Policy No:
90
Approval Date:
November 1991
Last Revision:
January 2005 [Anticipated]
Responsible Executive:
Vice President Academic and Provost
Vice-President, Administration and Finance
Vice-President, Research
TITLE: OVER-EXPENDITURE ON RESEARCH AND SPECIFIC PURPOSE TRUST PROJECT/GRANTS
Background & Purposes:
The University administers large volumes of funds for research and other University
purposes.   Over-expenditures can result in potential loss of University funds,
administrative effort to resolve issues and risk of non-compliance with external funding
source requirements.   Over-expenditures are not permitted unless prior approval is
obtained.   For example, temporary Over-expenditures may be approved to
accommodate timing of payments for new, multi-year grants or renewal grants).
The purpose of this Policy is to set out the responsibilities for effective fiscal
management of funds administered by the University and to outline the procedures
relating to Over-expenditure on research and specific purpose trust project/grant accounts.
1. RESEARCHER RESPONSIBILITIES
1.1 Researchers are accountable for all PG's for which they have been granted signing
authority. Researchers are not permitted to overspend such PGs unless they have
obtained prior approval pursuant to Section 2.2.
1.2 Researchers must designate an alternative PG for Committed Payroll Expenses.
Notwithstanding Section 1.1, where a Committed Payroll Expense would cause an
Over-expenditure in a PG and the Researcher has not designated an alternative PG
with sufficient funds to meet the Committed Payroll Expense, RTA will transfer to
the PG an amount equal to the Committed Payroll Expense from the GPOF PG of the
relevant Head of Unit so that the Committed Payroll Expense can be met from the PG.
Research PGs within his or her unit where future budget will be allocated to that PG
(e.g. new, multi-year, or renewal grants).
2.3 Any decision on whether to approve a temporary Over-expenditure pursuant to Section
2.2 is entirely at the discretion of the Head of Unit. If a Head of Unit approves a temporary Over-expenditure, the Head of Unit becomes responsible for resolving the temporary
Over-expenditure with the Researcher, failing which the temporary Over-expenditure will
be resolved by RTA pursuant to Section 3.2.
3. RESEARCH AND TRUST ACCOUNTING RESPONSIBILITIES
1.3 Where funds have been transferred from the GPOF PG of a Researcher's Head of Unit
to pay for a Researcher's Committed Payroll Expense, the Researcher must reimburse
the GPOF PG of his or her Head of Unit on a timely basis and in any event no later
than 90 days from the date of transfer, unless the Head of Unit has approved a longer
period for reimbursement.
1.4 Researchers shall:
1.4.1 ensure that all expenditures charged to the PG are eligible costs in accordance with
the requirements set forth in a grant or contract signed by the sponsor;
1.4.2 review their monthly PG reports on a timely basis;
1.4.3 advise Financial Services of any errors, omissions or duplications in expenses or
budget on a timely basis; and
1.4.4 request inactivation ofthe PG upon completion ofthe research project.
1.5 Where a Researcher anticipates a renewal or other source of funding beyond the designated "end date" of the PG, the Researcher shall notify the Office of Research Services,
the University-Industry Liaison Office and RTA prior to such end date.
3.1 RTA shall:
3.1.1 provide PG reports to Researchers and unit roll-up reports to Heads of Unit
on a timely basis and in any event not less than monthly;
3.1.2 provide timely notice to a Researcher when his or her expenditures and
commitments approach a $0 balance;
3.1.3 inform Researchers and Heads of Unit when sponsor funding becomes questionable;
3.1.4 provide Over-expenditure Listings to Heads of Unit on a timely basis and
in any event not less than quarterly;
3.1.5 provide timely customer service to Researchers and Heads of Unit to assist them in
resolving queries raised in respect of their PGs;
3.1.6 reject/disallow new commitments or expenditures (other than Committed Payroll
Expenses) that would result in an Over-expenditure in a PG;
3.1.7 inactivating any over-expended PGs that are not resolved within 60 days after notification of Over-expenditure to the responsible Researcher; and
2. HEAD OF UNIT RESPONSIBILITIES
2.1 A Head of Unit:
2.1.1 is responsible on an overall basis for investigating and monitoring Over-expenditures within his or her unit;
2.1.2 may refuse a request from a Researcher in his or her unit for approval for the establishment of new PGs if a Researcher has an unresolved Over-expenditure;
3.1.8 inactivate expired PGs on a timely basis where there is inactivity for a specified period and where the final balance is insignificant.
3.2 Where a temporary Over-expenditure that has been approved pursuant to Section 2.2 has
not been resolved within 90 days of the date of the Over-expenditure Listing, RTA shall
transfer the Over-expenditure to the GPOF PG of the Head of Unit who approved the
Over-expenditure.
4. DETAILED CONSIDERATIONS
2.1.3 shall review his or her monthly unit roll-up reports and investigate temporary Over-
expenditures and transfers of Committed Payroll Expenses;
2.1.4 shall review with Researchers in his or her unit any PGs included on the Over-
expenditure Listing to encourage a timely resolution of the Over-expenditure; and
2.1.5 is responsible for controlling and reconciling all aspects of his or her GPOF PG.
2.2 A Head of Unit may grant approval for temporary Over-expenditures in Non-Contract
. 1 Unrealised cash - Sponsor obligations not met:   Provided that a grant or contract signed
by the sponsor is in place, researchers are not responsible for ensuring that funding is
received from the sponsor.  An under-realisation of cash may result from a sponsor experiencing financial difficulties or refusing to pay.   Provided that expenditures up to that
time were within the originally allocated budget, and further provided that the research
deliverables required by that date have been met under the contract, Researchers and
Heads of Unit will only be held responsible for expenses incurred after the Head of Unit
or Researcher has been notified that future funding is in doubt. u
C     REPORTS
DECEMBER
4.2 Unrealised cash - Researcher obligations not met: An under-realisation of cash may
also result when funding is withheld due to Researchers failing to meet their obligations.   Specific situations include non-submission (or late submission) of progress or
final reports, and unsatisfactory deliverables.  A further example in this category would
be costs incurred by a Researcher that are subsequently rejected by the sponsor as
being ineligible costs under that award.   Budgets may be reduced in line with the actual
amount received and the Researcher is responsible for resolving any Over-expenditure
that may be caused by such budget reductions.
4.3 Death of a Researcher: Where a Researcher is deceased, the responsibility for resolving
Over-expenditures is assumed by his or her Head of Unit.   The financial burden of any
under-realised cash resulting from an inability to deliver a final report will be resolved
on a case-by-case basis.   Deans must liaise with RTA in such cases to negotiate a
settlement from the sponsor.
4.4 Correction of errors: If a PG is erroneously credited with revenue, cost reductions or
budget allocation, or erroneous charged, the error can be corrected at any time.
4.5 Extraordinary Expenses: Refer to Policy #86 for details on the treatment of extraordinary salary and benefit costs related to grant and contract-funded employees.  Note
that the insurance fund contemplated under Policy #86 will not cover a shortfall in
salary and benefit costs where the Over-expenditure is a result of excessive spending
in other cost categories.
5. DEFINITIONS
5.2 "Head of Unit" means a Dean of a faculty, Director of a centre, institute or school,
Head of a department, Chair of a division or the equivalent.
5.3 "GPOF PG" means the PG over which a Head of Unit has authority and which
contains monies from the General Purpose Operating Fund.
5.4 "Over-expenditure" means when commitments and actual expenditures exceed the
budget available for the PG in question.
5.5 "Over-expenditure Listing" means a report containing details of PGs: (1) to which
amounts have been transferred to cover Committed Payroll Expenses pursuant to
Section 1.2 unless such amounts have been reimbursed pursuant to Section 1.3; or
(2) that are in an over-expended position.
5.6 "PG" means a trust account administered by RTA.
5.7 "Research PG" means a PG (designated with the fund code Rxxxx) for a research
purpose.   Research PGs can be classified into Contract Research PGs and Non-contract
Research PGs.   "Contract Research PGs" are typically funded by industry while
"Non-contract Research PGs" are typically funded by government agencies and related
organizations.
5.8 "Researcher" means the individual responsible for each PG (usually the lead principal
investigator in the case of Research PGs, or other named individual in the case of
Specific Purpose Trust PGs).
5.1 "Committed Payroll Expense" means an expenditure that must be made to satisfy a
salary or other payroll commitment that has already been entered into and that would,
if not made, expose the University to legal liability.
5.9 "RTA" means Research and Trust Accounting.
5.10 "Specific Purpose Trust PG" means a PG (designated with the fund code Sxxxx) for
all purposes not related to research.
UBC
NEWS TV
p A niO   UBC Public Affairs has opened both a radio and TV studio on campus where you can conduct live interviews with local, national and international
media outlets.To learn more about being a UBC expert, call us at 604.822.2064 and visit our web site at www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/experts/signup
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Can We Trust the Drug Companies?
The Therapeutics Initiative is working to get reliable data to doctors and patients
BY HILARY THOMSON
Imagine you are a 75-year-old woman
who has been taking a daily drug to
relieve arthritis pain. You're shocked to
learn the drug just got pulled off the
market worldwide and you wonder if
you can trust your doctor to know
what's safe.
With the recall in September 2004 of
Vioxx®, a top-selling arthritis pain
medication that was found to increase
cardiovascular problems, and a U.S.
Congressional hearing into how the
drug's safety was evaluated, a UBC ini-
medications, like these ones, that are
widely prescribed but which have
uncertain therapeutic value. Our efforts
frequently put us at odds with drug
companies."
Started in 1994 with a five-year
annual grant of $540,000 from B.C.'s
Ministry of Health (MOH), the TI is
now operating on a three-year, $1 million per annum grant from MOH. The
group reviews evidence of effectiveness
for drugs prescribed for everything
from male pattern baldness to depres-
evaluate evidence ofthe drug's therapeutic advantage and report back to
government and, in a summarized fashion, to practitioners via the newsletter.
Physicians and pharmacists also learn of
critically appraised evidence through
annual drug therapy courses and
numerous interactive seminars.
The TI's evaluation group measures
the impact of these education efforts on
prescribing patterns and assesses how
drugs are being used. It also uses
provincial health databases to learn the
"The main challenge in our work is getting to the truth," says Wright. "It's been estimated
that about 90 per cent ofthe published literature is biased by economic interests."
Uative dedicated to disseminating evidence about drug therapies couldn't be
more relevant.
Under the direction of Jim Wright,
a professor in the departments of
pharmacology & therapeutics, and
medicine, the Therapeutics Initiative
(TI) has been providing physicians and
pharmacists with up-to-date evidence
on the effectiveness of prescription
drugs for 10 years.
In fact, the current issue ofthe
group's newsletter, Therapeutics Letter,
(which has a circulation of 10,000)
addresses the storm of uncertainty
surrounding the class of drugs called
COX-2s. Used to treat inflammation,
the class includes Vioxx® and
Celebrex®.
The newsletter focuses on COX-2's
product monographs - legal documents written by drug companies to
list pertinent data, including potential
benefits and harms. The newsletter
reported that the monographs do not
adequately inform of harms and that
they provide insufficient information
as to whether COX-2s increase
myocardial infarction or other cardiovascular events.
"We've been looking at this class of
drugs for several years now," says
Wright, a faculty member since 1977.
"Our work nearly always surrounds
sion in children and adolescents, and is
one of only a handful of such groups
in Canada.
In addition to provincial work, TI
members also complete one-quarter to
one-third ofthe federal government's
common drug reviews, a year-old
process overseen by the Canadian
Coordinating Office for Health
Technology Assessment.
"The main challenge in our work is
getting to the truth," says Wright. "It's
been estimated that about 90 per cent
of the published literature is biased by
economic interests."
Dr. Warren Bell, a general practitioner in Salmon Arm, B.C., says he uses
the newsletter "for clarifying and interpreting the relentless propaganda ofthe
drug industry" and adds that he has
formed a number of prescribing
practices directly out ofthe pages of
the letter
The largest working group in the TI
is the drug assessment group, headed
by Ken Bassett, a faculty member in
the department of family practice and
the Centre for Health Services and
Policy Research at UBC.
Some ofthe 30 assessments completed annually are triggered by new
drug submissions to PharmaCare, the
province's drug subsidy program. TI
researchers review the submissions,
impact of drug prescribing patterns on
patient health outcomes.
A challenge for the group is a perception that the TI may not be independent
from the provincial government's
interest in decreasing costs of
PharmaCare. Wright counters by saying
that TI reviews and reports to government don't include cost data and are
limited to evidence of drug benefits and
harms derived from clinical trials.
PharmaCare includes TI reports as just
one ofthe pieces of information it uses
to make funding decisions, he adds.
Internationally, many TI members
are actively involved in the Cochrane
Collaboration. Named for Archie
Cochrane, a British medical researcher,
epidemiologist and advocate of rigorous
reviews of health intervention evidence,
the collaboration is an international
organization dedicated to making
available reviews ofthe effects of
health-care treatments and therapies.
Wright says it's currently not possible
for groups like the TI and the Cochrane
Collaboration to get complete data
from all clinical trials conducted
worldwide. However, he does have a
vision for greater access to reliable and
unbiased data.
"What's needed is to get more
people involved in Cochrane, better
access to data from all clinical trials,
UBC researchers assess effectiveness of a myriad of medications.
more systematic reviews published and
more countries providing universal free
access to the Cochrane resource," he
says.
Many countries, such as Australia,
Finland, Ireland and England, make the
Cochrane Hbrary's resources available
without charge. In Canada, however,
only one province - Saskatchewan -
has paid for the licence. The federal
government has balked at a $500,000
annual fee that would make the library
freely accessible to all Canadians, says
Wright.
For more information on the TI,
visit www.ti.ubc.ca. □
Media regularly seek the expertise of Therapeutics Initiative director Jim Wright.
The following are some ofthe media outlets where he has been quoted recently.
Business Week • CBC TV • Forbes.com  National Post • Newsday • Toronto Star
Building a Better Mouse
BY MICHELLE COOK
Steller Sea Lions
continued from page 1
UBC forestry faculty have produced a
modern version (above) of Engelbart's
original wood mouse (right)
Consider the computer mouse.
Most of us spend hours each day
holding one, yet we rarely give a second thought to how it feels or looks.
We can thank Stanford engineer
Douglas Engelbart for coming up
with the idea, in 1963, for the user-
friendly little fellow and its interactive
point-and-click feature that revolutionized computer use. But, as the
ultimate human/machine interface,
forestry professor Philip Evans found
the device lacking, and set out to
design a better mouse.
The problem, says Evans, director
of UBC's Centre for Advanced Wood
Processing, is that the mouse is made
of plastic and
plastics,
while wonderfully versatile,
aren't very tactile.
Wood, on the other hand, begs to
be touched. Its grain and surface texture, warmth, resilience and characteristic smell makes it what an interface is supposed to be, compatible
with the components or materials it
links. Throughout history, wood has
been the material of choice for many
products, and despite the availability
of other more modern, synthetic
materials, it is still preferred in many
applications - banisters, pro-league
baseball bats, sailboat tillers, canoe
paddles just to name a few. Why not
the computer mouse too?
Evans did a little digging and was
delighted to learn that the first prototype of Engelbart's groundbreaking
device was, in fact, hewed out of
wood. Albeit ergonomically challenged by today's standards, it was a
sturdy little block with two metal
wheels and the electrical wire "tail"
that would soon earn it its name.
Evans and colleague Zbigniew
Krupowicz set out to update the
wood mouse by designing a fully
functional ergonomic optical model
with great tactile and visual appeal.
Since today's computer-numericatly
controlled multi-axis wood processing centres can rapidly machine
wood into virtually any shape,
they weren't limited to any particular form.
The result is four mice that
look very much like their plastic
cousins but are made from
teak, ebony, purpleheart,
and cocobolo
sanded to a super
smooth finish. All
are fully functional and plug into a
USB port.
Evans says the wood models are
pleasant and restful to use, and the
universal response from everyone
who cops a feel is that they want
one. But don't expect to find one of
these caress-able little devices in your
Christmas stocking. Evans has no
plans to mass-produce them and the
prototypes are not for sale. □
For the study, the sea lions were allowed
to eat as much as they wanted.
Researchers tried to remove any behavioural constraints to getting fish so the sea
lions didn't have to work for their food.
Using different feeding schedules, the
Stellers were offered either high-energy
herring or low-energy capelin (a small silvery fish and a relative ofthe freshwater
smelt) daily or every other day.
Researchers quickly found out their
study participants were not picky eaters.
Rosen says the sea lions only took one to
two days to adapt to changes in their
food supply.
"We didn't expect the sea lions to eat
much. We thought if they were used to
eating seven kilograms offish, they
would eat seven kilograms offish. But
they were able to adapt much more
quickly to changes in their food supply,"
Rosen says.
The sea lions increased their intake of
herring when herring was only available
every other day. When low-energy
capelin was on the menu every other day,
the sea lions consumed more compared
to when they ate herring or when they
ate capelin every day.
The problem was the sea lions
appeared to reach a limit on how much
fish they could consume and process.
In order to get a similar energy intake
with the lower quality food, they had
to gorge themselves, eating up to 80 per
cent more. That left them stuffed and
lethargic.
Rosen says these results suggest that, in
the wild, younger Stellers may be having
physical difficulty eating enough quantities of lower energy prey, particularly
when they're not eating on a daily basis.
This limitation of food intake may be
an important clue to understanding
how changes in fish availability and
species might have contributed to the
decline of Stellers in the north Pacific. □
Sea Lion Research Wins
Award
It's not a stretch to say the Steller
Sea Lion Open Ocean Research
Project is making waves. The
world's first-ever open water study
of Stellers earned UBC trainers
from the North Pacific Universities
Marine Mammal Research
Consortium the top prize at the
International Marine Animal
Trainers Association in Sweden
earlier this year.
The study involves training
Sitka and Bonilla, two Stellers
raised at the Vancouver Aquarium,
to dive in the wild and return to
the surface in order to measure the
energy they expend. The goal is to
figure out how much energy
Stellers need to swim, forage for
food and capture prey.
This is the first time Stellers have
been successfully trained in open
water. Researchers hope to see
consistent results in a wild setting
that will help them to better understand the animals' biology and
behaviour, and increase the
chances of conserving the dwindling numbers of Sitka and
Bonilla's counterparts in the wild.
For more in project visit
www.marinemammal.org. □ io    I
IC      REPORTS      |       DECEMBER     2,      2OO4
KUDOS
U.S. National Parks Service Awards
Emily Gonzales, a PhD candidate in UBC's Biodiversity Research Centre, is
one of eight students in North America to be named a Canon National
Parks Science Scholar by the U.S. National Parks Service. The US$78,000
scholarship is designed to support the next generation of scientists working
in the fields of conservation, environmental science and national park management, and provide them with the resources to conduct research critical to
conserving national parks in the Americas.
Gonzales, from Victoria, B.C., is studying the relative influence of exotic
grass competition in Garry oak ecosystems. For her research project, she will
be developing baseline data for Canada's newest park, the Gulf Islands
National Park Reserve, located on Mayne, Saturna, the Pender Islands and
others in the Strait of Georgia, to help preserve and restore Garry oak
ecosystems in the park.
Another UBC student, Joleen Timko, a PhD candidate in the Resource
Management and Environmental Studies Graduate Program, received an
honourable mention award of $ 1,000 from the National Parks Service. □
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UBC Team to Compete in U.S. Defense
Department Robotic Challenge
UBC's Centre for Environmental
Research in Minerals, Metals and
Materials (CERM3) will participate
in a U.S. Defense Department competition designed to accelerate research
and development in autonomous
ground vehicle technology to help
save lives on the battlefield.
The UBC team is comprised of students and professors from the Faculty
of Applied Science with a multidisci-
plinary set of skills in mechanical,
electrical, computing, engineering
physics, materials science, and mining
engineering technologies. Several students from the Sauder School of
BY MICHELLE COOK
run at night, Meech says, Team
Thunderbird would have an advantage given its knowledge of robotic
operations conducted in the dark.
DARPA's mission is to pursue
R&D technology in areas where the
payoff is very high and where success
can provide dramatic advances in
"...Whether the application is military or civilian such as mining, forestry, search
and rescue, or fire-fighting, robotics can help prevent human injury or death."
Mon to Fri 8am-9pm • Sat to Sun 10am-6pm
The DARPA Grand Challenge
2005 will take place in the Mojave
Desert on October 8, 2005. The
Defence Advanced Research Projects
Agency (DARPA) is offering a $2
million prize to the vehicle that completes the course in the fastest time
within a 10-hour period.
Called Team Thunderbird, the
UBC group is expected to be the only
Canadian competitor in next year's
challenge. The team expects to have
its robot, an SUV covered in maple
leaves, ready for hardware testing by
mid-December, with a fully
autonomous system in place by mid-
February.
"Someday soon, robotics technology will allow us to accomplish tasks
that today place humans at risk,"
says team leader Andrew Lyon.
"Whether the application is military
or civilian such as mining, forestry,
search and rescue, or fire-fighting,
robotics can help prevent human
injury or death. Team Thunderbird
is excited to be able to put together
a Canadian team that can contribute
to this effort and develop the technical innovations that will help us win
the prize."
Business have also volunteered their
time to help run the financing end of
the initiative. The team has already
attracted some sponsorship but, in
order to fully develop the vehicle, it
needs to raise an additional $300,000.
Mining engineering professor John
Meech says the team's base in the
Mining Engineering department gives
it an edge. Robots are already being
used successfully in several underground and open-pit mines to load,
haul, and dump ore. If the race were
both civilian and military capabilities.
The agency's DARPANet computer
network in the 1970s was the forerunner to the Internet.
The 2005 event will be the second
DARPA Grand Challenge. In March
2004, 15 robotic vehicles attempted
to navigate a challenging 142-mile
route along desert tracks between
Barstow, California and Las Vegas,
Nevada. The farthest distance any
team got on the course was 11.3
kilometres. □
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by countless cultural, social and outdoor opportunities. Literally steps
from the Chan Centre, the Museum of Anthropology, and Pacific Spirit
Regional Park, Argyll House East is a rare collection of apartment homes,
penthouses and cityhomes built to the highest standards. All this, and
it's in the established neighbourhood of West Point Grey on the grounds
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SPECTACULAR VIEW HOMES AVAILABLE
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For more information call us at 604.228.8100
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\k.   VII   IIOUSI   I A REPORTS      |       DECEMBER     2,     2 O O 4      |
Retiring Within 5 Years?
TIMEPIECE   1970
Key punch room and card reader at the Computer Centre in the Klink Bldg. Circa 1970.
Transformation of a Lifetime by brian l
in
When computer science
professor Richard Rosenberg
(left) arrived at UBC from the
University of Michigan in 1968,
long hair, massive beards and
I   wild ties were high fashion while
\      I   mainframes - not personal computers - were the standard.
The soon-to-be-retired Rosenberg, currently acting
director ofthe dept. of computer science, has witnessed
an incredible transformation. The department that started small, in a space converted from a parking structure,
is now a hotbed of research noted for its graphics,
visualization, computational intelligence and robotics
groups. There are now approximately 55 faculty
members.
In fact, the only things faster than the department's
computers these days may be the human brains
working and studying there.
Just last month, two of three teams of student
programmers took first and third place in the Pacific
Northwest Division at the annual Association for
Computing Machinery Programming Competition.
The first place team beat out powerhouse teams from
Stanford and Berkeley and will compete in the World
Finals in Shanghai in April. □
Writing 101 Strikes a Chord in Vancouver's
Downtown Eastside
BY LEAH MARCHUK
A unique Canadian university
outreach program that makes liberal
arts education accessible to inner-city
residents is expanding in Vancouver's
Downtown Eastside (DTES).
Growing out of the successful
Humanities 101 program, which was
started seven years ago and boasts
150 graduates to date, UBC will begin
offering residents a new writing
course in January.
Humanities 101 was started by
two UBC students who hoped that,
by offering low-income people access
to education in the humanities, they
could correct some of the educational
imbalances that exist between economically polarized groups. Students
pay no fees for resources, including
books, materials, meals, bus transportation, fieldtrips and childcare.
The course seems to have struck a
chord. Many graduates have gone on
to further studies and full-time
employment.
Now Writing 101, an intensive,
hands-on course teaching the principles of academic, business and creative writing, has just completed a
successful pilot with 15 area residents,
to favourable reviews.
"Learning the basics, getting a
foundation after 40 something years -
it was nice to have that opportunity,"
says Bruce Alexander, a graduate of
the UBC Humanities 101 program.
Alexander, who currently works for
a Vancouver auto parts manufacturer,
says he struggled with English grammar his entire life before taking
Writing 101.
"I've read a number of books on
how to improve my writing, and it
just never really took," says
Alexander, who says the course made
he says.
the difference.
"It's like ifyou
put a boat in a
tub of water and
it sinks, well you
need to know
where the holes
are before you
can fix it."
"It's even
improved my
ability to communicate with
fellow employees,
Professor Peter Babiak, academic
director of Humanities 101, which
covers a broad range of disciplines,
says the chance to learn how to write
well resonates in a particular way
with DTES residents.
"Creative writing means more
to them than to average university
students," says Babiak. "It's not just
a form of expression, it's a way of
being heard."
"There are stories that you want
to tell, that you want people to hear,
that are important for people to
hear," says Alexander.
Writing 101 assignments were
designed to reflect the interests and
concerns of students. Students were
required, for example, to conduct
library research on British
Columbia's Safe Streets Act, which
will impose fines on panhandlers.
By encouraging feedback on
the course - both in class and at
student-attended steering committees
- Babiak hopes students will have a
voice in the direction of Writing 101.
"If it weren't for the fact that we
have the support of our graduates,
the course wouldn't be nearly
as successful."
ZdLwj.
I'M
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Graduates ofthe 2003-04 Humanities 101 program.
From the perspective of Ramona
Montagnes, who not only
co-developed Writing 101 but also
teaches it, the course is beneficial
for everyone involved.
"The students are lively, intelligent,
and highly motivated. I believe I have
learned more from [them] than they
have from me. I was unaware of many
of the social issues that form their lives
and found this to be quite humbling."
Babiak says the innovative
Vancouver outreach program is gaining international attention.
"We have anywhere from 40 to 60
calls per year from Canada, the US,
and abroad who'd like to create an
imitation program," says Babiak. "It's
not only innovative, it's cutting edge.
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www.mediagroup.ubc.ca 12      |      UBC      REPORTS      |       DECEMBER     2,      2OO4
Full-time family,
part-time housing developers
CO-DEVELOPMENT   IN   A   NUTSHELL
Co-development housing is a key sustainability strategy in UBC's
University Town. It addresses UBC's commitment that 50 percent
of new residential market and non-market housing is for people
who work or study on campus.
Co-development housing involves a group of future homeowners
applying to lease land from UBC to create new townhouses
or apartment condominiums. Because the co-developers are
ultimately the owners, savings can be realized through the
elimination of builders' profit and marketing costs.
On behalf of the co-developers, UBC Properties Trust, UBC's
property managment arm, arranges for:
• The lease of land from the university
• The plan and design of the project
• The neccessary approvals
• Construction financing
• Construction of the project
Hawthorn Green is UBC's first co-development and the
first of its kind in a North American university. Construction is
underway on the second 61-unit Logan Lane project and a
third project will be launched in January 2005.
Mike Feeley and Linda Quamme and their children Catie
and Liam are new University Town residents. They have
just finished building and moving into their new townhome
in Hawthorn Green. Located in UBC's Hawthorn Place
neighbourhood, each townhouse in Hawthorn Green has its
own self-contained rental suite providing new opportunities
for both owners and students to live and work on campus.
The Feeleys' story and their role as co-developers is
central to UBC's University Town vision to become one of
Canada's great academic communities-a community
that enables students, faculty and staff to live and work on
one of the world's most beautiful university campuses.
UBC Properties invites faculty and staff to attend an informal focus group workshop to talk about co-development.
Help us identify the qualities and preferences for what may
ultimately become your new home. To participate please
call 604-731-3103 ext. 2 4 9 or e-mail Jennifer Craig at
jcraig@ubcproperties. com.
Learn more about University Town.
Visit www.universitytown.ubc.ca
UNIVERSITY TOWN
UBC
A   SUSTAINABLE   FUTURE
UNIVERSITY  TOWN
6328   MEMORIAL   ROAD,   VANCOUVER,   BC     V6T   1Z2
WWW.UNIVERSITYTOWN.UBC.CA

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