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UBC Reports Jul 1, 2010

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Array UBCREPORTS
THE    UNIVERSITY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA        VOLUME   56    NO   07        JULY   1,   2010 WWW.UBC.CA
a place of mind
Toothless no more:
lmn,,oving implant success
PAGE 3
Helping children in pain:
'- on latest discoveries
Sustainable road safety lab
in Canada
PAGE 11
Money may ruin the moment
UBC psychologist Elizabeth Dunn studies money and happiness.
BY BASIL WAUGH
A new UBC study has found that
money - having it, seeing it, thinking
about it - can impair our ability to
enjoy everyday pleasures.
It is the latest research by UBC
Psychology Asst. Prof. Elizabeth
Dunn, who investigates the complex
relationship between money and
happiness.
"Money can help make us
healthier and more secure and
increases our control over life,"
Dunn says. "However, research shows
that money has a surprisingly small
effect on our happiness. We want to
understand why'
Previous studies by Dunn's Social
Cognition and Emotion Lab have
found that spending money on others
can make us feel happy, while stingy
financial decisions can carry negative
downstream consequences for health.
Now comes this new study: the
first evidence that money can impair
our ability to enjoy everyday positive
experiences, which will be published
in the latest issue of Psychological
Science. Taken together, Dunn says
her studies help us better understand
the relationship between money and
happiness.
"Our previous research suggested
that people tend to spend money on
things that don't make them happy,"
says Dunn, who joined UBC five
years ago after stints at Harvard,
the University of Virginia, and the
University of New South Wales. "Now
including discovering a beautiful
waterfall while hiking and going on a
romantic getaway.
For each situation, participants
reported whether they would savour
the experience by displaying positive
emotions, staying in the moment,
sharing the experience with others, or
anticipating or reminiscing about it.
"Thinking about money or being
surrounded by images of it,
can reduce our ability to enjoy
the pleasures of daily life, like
sunny days and chocolate bars."
we see that the very idea of money can
reduce our ability to enjoy the little
pleasures of daily life."
Working with visiting graduate
student Jordi Quoidbach from
Belgium's University of Liege, who
led the study, Dunn asked more than
350 participants - adults with salaries
ranging from $225,000 to $10,500 - to
imagine how they would respond to
a number of pleasurable scenarios,
The results were surprising. When
researchers plotted participants'
responses according to salary, they
found that wealthier participants
reported savoring these pleasurable
experiences less.
But money's negative influence
didn't end there. Just showing
participants images of money at key
moments in the experience had the
continued on page 3 2 UBC    REPORTS    ■    JULY   1,    2010
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Graham Scott was recognized by NSERC for work on respiratory physiology.
REMBRANDT'S ART WAS A
SCIENCE, STUDY FINDS
A new study by UBC researcher Steve
DiPaola suggests that the Dutch
painter Rembrandt pioneered scientific
techniques that guide the viewer's gaze
around a painting, making them linger
longer.
DiPaola explains that Rembrandt
captured the viewer's attention by
placing a sharper focus on a specific
area, as was reported in the Globe and
Mail, CBC, CTV, The Vancouver Sun
and others.
Eye-tracking determined that viewers
fixated on the area in sharper focus more
quickly and stayed longer, resulting in
"calmer eye movements," says DiPaola.
$2.4M STUDY FOR
CONTROVERSIAL MS TREATMENT
The National Post, CTV, The Vancouver
Sun, CBC and others reported on
a $2.4-million, two-year research
study by a team of Canadian and
American doctors to look at whether
a controversial treatment for multiple
sclerosis is legitimate.
The teams will assess whether a
syndrome known as chronic cerebrospinal
venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has a role in
MS. The study follows the claims of Italian
doctor Paulo Zamboni, who says that a
relatively minor treatment for CCSVI has
had beneficial results with MS patients.
"We're planning on doing diagnostic
studies to confirm how common is this
CCSVI phenomenon," said Dr. Anthony
Traboulsee, who is heading up a group
from UBC, Vancouver Coastal Health
Research Institute and the University of
Saskatchewan.
REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN
C-SECTION RATE NOT A RESULT OF
MATERNAL REQUEST
United Press International, The
Vancouver Sun and other Canwest
papers reported on a study led by
Gillian Hanley, a doctoral student at
UBC, that found that the increase in
Caesarean section births is not due to
maternal requests.
"There is a misconception that the
overall increase of Caesarean births is
the result of maternal request," says
Hanley. "Our analysis of British Columbia
data shows that this is not the case."
The study finds there are significant
regional variations in the number
of Caesarean births across British
Columbia. They suggest further research
is needed into why institutions differ in
their responses to similar conditions.
UBC'S OKANAGAN CAMPUS
DOUBLES IN SIZE
The Vancouver Sun, Business in
Vancouver, the Daily Courier and other
media outlets reported that UBC's
Okanagan campus will double in size.
It will purchase 104 hectares of mostly
hayfields from the City of Kelowna for
$8.8 million.
The property will become part of
UBC's endowment lands in perpetuity
"for the benefit ofthe research mission,
the teaching mission and all the
aspirations that make universities great,"
said Brad Bennett, the former chairman
ofthe UBC Board of Governors.
CANADA'S TOP SCIENCE PRIZE
AWARDED
Graham Scott was one of two UBC
researchers who were among this
year's winners ofthe Natural Sciences
and Engineering Research Council of
Canada's top science and engineering
awards.
Scott won the $20,000 prize for his
work in advancing respiratory physiology
and helping researchers understand
enhanced athletic performance.
Diane Srivastava, who works in the
zoology department at UBC, won the
E.W.R. Steacie Memorial Fellowship and
a grant worth $250,000 for her work
exploring the impact species have on
their ecosystem
The National Post, CBC and The
Vancouver Sun reported on the 18 awards
that were handed out by the council,
including Canada's most prestigious
award for scientists, the Herzberg Gold
Medal. UBC researcher Stephen Withers
was one of two runners-up for this prize.
UBC WINS WOMEN'S TITLE
The women's golf team from UBC picked
up their seventh Canadian University/
College Championship in eight years
at Kingswood Park in Fredericton this
month, as was reported in the Globe
and Mail, The Chronicle Herald, The
Winnipeg Free Press and the Daily
Gleaner.
In the women's individual
competition, UBC's Kylie Barros came
second to the University of Victoria's
Anne Balser. Taking third place was
Jocelyn Alford from UBC. On the
men's side, UBC finished second behind
Universite Laval. ■
Executive Director
Editor
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Email: public.affairs@ubc.ca JULY   1,    2010    ■    UBC    REPORTS
Toothless no more: team aims to reduce
rejection of implants
BY LORRAINE CHAN
Don Brunette may well find himself
named the patron saint of toothless
hockey players.
An oral biologist in the Faculty of
Dentistry, Brunette seeks to create a
better dental implant by understanding
how cells behave around different types
of implant surfaces.
Dental implants consist of a
titanium screw or cylinder that is
inserted into the jaw. The post serves as
base onto which the replacement crown
or bridge is attached.
For his research, Brunette draws
upon sophisticated methods of
microfabrication and nanofabrication
which can produce precisely
characterized surfaces. He can then
examine how cells respond to specific
features and shapes of the implant's
surface - that is, its topography - at the
nanometer and micrometer scales.
Brunette's current line of inquiry
evolved from his breakthrough work
with titanium surfaces during the
1980s. At that time, Brunette was the
only researcher in the world studying
Electronic micrographs of macrophages adapting to sandblasted/acid-etched surface topography
(Ti = titanium coating, Nu = nucleus).
microfabricated surfaces and cell
behavior. He observed that microscale
grooves could direct cells in desired
directions and also encourage bone
growth.
a U.S. firm is using lasers to produce
grooves on dental implants.
Of particular interest to Brunette
are cells called macrophages, which in
Greek means "big eater." Macrophages
foreign objects such as implants.
"The intent is to develop surfaces
that induce macrophages to stimulate
healing rather than destructive
inflammation," says Brunette.
Brunette says their findings could have wide application
to other implants including hip joints, catheters and other
devices that contact diverse tissues.
A Vancouver-based implant
manufacturer marketed implants
based on the principles developed in
Brunette's research, and more recently,
are among the first cells to appear at
the site of a wound to clean up bacteria,
explains Prof. Brunette. They also
orchestrate the body's response to
Along with Dentistry Assoc. Prof.
Douglas Waterfield, Brunette recently
received more than $685,000 from
the Canadian Institutes for Health
Research for their innovative study.
The investigators will explore cell
structure, migration and cell-cell
interactions, as well as gene and cell
signaling activities. In addition to
macrophages, they will examine bone
cells, fibroblasts and epithelium, which
are other cells that come into contact
with implants.
Brunette says their findings could
have wide application to other implants
including hip joints, catheters and other
devices that contact diverse tissues.
"Improved surfaces will enable
faster integration of implants with
bone or other tissues, as well as enable
implants to be used in situations that
currently have a high risk of failure."
Brunette points out that under
"more-or-less ideal" conditions, dental
implant failure rates can be as low as one
or two per cent. However, dental and
other implants are now being employed
in more challenging situations such as
sites with poor bone quality.
"Failure rates can approach 30 per
cent depending on risk factors that
include smoking, oral hygiene, quality of
bone and location within the mouth." ■
£J£30S
WHAT'S ON THE SURFACE
Collaborating on Don Brunette's study is Nick Jaeger, a
professor of electrical and computer engineering in the
Faculty of Applied Science. Jaeger studies fiber optics and
optical sensors, often within the context of power and
telecommunications industries.
Using microfabrication techniques, Jaeger is producing
brand new types of surfaces that will help Brunette and
Waterfield gain insights about cell behaviour. As well,
Brunette's collaborators at the Swiss Federal Institute of
Technology are developing new implant coatings through
nanotechnology such as self-assembled monolayers.
Dentistry Prof. Don Brunette explores how nanofabricated surfaces can influence cell behaviour.
MONEY MAY RUIN THE MOMENT  continued from cover
same negative effect on savouring as
actual individual differences in wealth.
And in a second study, participants
who were shown a photograph of
money spent less time eating a piece of
chocolate and exhibited less enjoyment
of it, compared to people who were
shown a neutral photograph.
Dunn cautions that this doesn't
mean people should be turning down
raises. "Overall, money does have a
small positive effect on happiness," she
says. "It's just much smaller than people
tend to think. And this study helps to
explain why."
"It is a reality of life that we need
money to support ourselves and our
families," says Dunn, who recently
spoke at a Dalai Lama Centre for
Peace and Education symposium on
money, generosity and happiness along
with fellow UBC happiness researcher
John Helliwell.
"What this study does is provide
us is more insight into how money
affects us: constantly thinking about
money or being surrounded by images
of it, can reduce our ability to enjoy the
pleasures of daily life, like sunny days
and chocolate bars." ■
For more information on Dunn's
research, visit: http://www.psych.ubc.
cai~edunnlindex.htm
THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS
Money is only one type of happiness research happening at
UBC. Here are some other examples:
UBC economist John Helliwell has found that the happiest
communities and workplaces are those that exhibit the
highest levels of trust, www.econ.ubc.ca/helliwell
UBC psychologist Mark Holder is exploring how everything
from music, romance and spirituality affects our happiness.
web.ubc.ca/okanagan/ihlcdp/people/mholder UBC    REPORTS    ■    JULY   1,    2010
a place of mind
THE  UNIVERSITYOF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
EQUITY  OFFICE  AND   HUMAN   RIGHTS  AND   EQUITY  SERVICES
DISCRIMINATION AND HARASSMENT REPORT 2009
The Equity Office envisions a community in which human rights are
respected and equity is embedded in all areas of academic, work and
campus life. Through its leadership, vision and collaborative action,
the Equity Office will further UBC's commitment to excellence,
equity and mutual respect.
Human Rights & Equity Services works to ensure UBC Okanagan
is a welcoming and respectful learning and work community for
everyone; one that respects differences, champions fair treatment
and embraces diversity.
POLICY OVERVIEW
The fundamental objectives of UBC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment (Policy 3) are to
prevent discrimination and harassment on grounds protected by the BC Human Rights Code and
to provide procedures for handling complaints and remedying concerns when allegations of human
rights based discrimination and harassment arise. The Policy covers all members of the university
community (students, staff and faculty) in areas pertaining to University work, studies, service
provision or participation in campus life. The 13 grounds of prohibited discrimination are:
•Age (19 and older)
• Ancestry
• Colour
• Family status
• Marital status
• Physical or mental disability
• Place of origin
• Political belief (in the context of employment only)
• Race
• Religion
• Sex (which includes sexual harassment and gender identity/expression)
• Sexual orientation
• Unrelated criminal conviction (in the context of employment only)
The Policy identifies a primary role for Administrative Heads of Units in creating and maintaining
an environment free from discrimination and harassment and, as such, they have the authority
and responsibility to address such concerns. The responsibility to manage complaints of
discrimination and harassment is shared by UBC's Equity Office (which includes the Equity Office
on the Vancouver campus and Human Rights and Equity Services on the Okanagan campus) and
often Administrative Heads of Units work in conjunction with our offices to address and remedy
concerns. The following data pertains only to concerns brought to the attention of the Equity
Office. Concerns brought directly to an Administrative Head of Unit or managed elsewhere in the
University without assistance from the Equity Office are not reflected in this annual report.
For more information about our offices, staffing, educational initiatives or about the Policy itself,
please see our websites at www.equity.ubc.ca and http://web.ubc.ca/okanagan/equity.
complaints received IN 2009
In 2009, 87 concerns were brought to the Equity Office, Vancouver campus. Of these,
64 involved a human rights related allegation and 23 involved an allegation in which no
human rights based element was cited. This total figure is up slightly from 2008, but is lower
than 2006 and 2007 numbers1.
In 2009, 43 concerns were brought to the office on the Okanagan campus. Of these, 32 involved
a human rights related allegation and 11 involved an allegation in which no human rights
based element was cited. This total figure is up slightly from 2007 and 2008 numbers. Because
of the relatively small number of complaints on the Okanagan campus, some details about
the complaints are not included in this report to prevent disclosing personal or confidential
information.
TABLE 1: TOTAL CONCERNS BROUGHT TO THE EQUITY OFFICE
VANCOUVER
OKANAGAN
Non Human Rights Related
23
11
Human Rights Related
64
32
TOTAL
87
43
Non human rights related concerns do not fall under the mandate of the Policy on Discrimination
and Harassment. As such, we cannot see these concerns through to resolution. However, we do
try to provide the parties who have approached the Equity Office with information and guidance
to help them find resolution to their concerns through referrals to other departments or non-
university agencies and/or information about other university policies. We may also work with
other university departments to create plans or offer tips on safety-related issues. The most
common non human rights related concerns that came to our offices this past year involved
university policies such as Student Non-Academic Misconduct, union or employee association
grievances and the UBC Statement on Respectful Environment for Students, Faculty and Staff.
WHAT IS THE UBC RESPECTFUL ENVIRONMENT STATEMENT?
In July 2008, the UBC Executive approved the UBC Statement on Respectful Environment for Students, Staff
and Faculty. This document offers insight into what a respectful environment for working, living and learning
at UBC should-and should not-look like. It offers a description of appropriate conduct, of inappropriate
conduct (namely, personal harassment) and mechanisms for addressing respectful environment concerns at
UBC. Specifically, it identifies those who exercise supervisory responsibility or leadership roles on campus as
having the primary responsibility for remedying these concerns. Each Vice President, in cooperation with Human
Resources, is responsible for ensuring that those in supervisory or leadership roles have the training and skill
development to serve in this capacity.
In the Equity Office, we anticipate that the number of personal harassment concerns (of the Non human rights
related concerns) brought to our office will decrease as more people become aware of the UBC Statement on
Respectful Environment for Students, Staff and Faculty. However, comparison of this year's data to last shows
that this trend has not yet taken hold. To learn more about UBC's commitment to a Respectful Environment for
all its community members, please see www.hr.ubc.ca/files/pdf/UBC_RES_PDF_2008.pdfand
www.hr.ubc.ca/respectful_enviro/index.html.
Non human rights related concerns are those that do not involve any prohibited grounds of
discrimination or harassment, as defined by law. Instead the concerns may involve interpersonal
conflict, bullying or personal harassment, service-related complaints, perceived violations of
employment contracts, cyber-related conduct (cyber bullying, unwanted emails etc) and concerns
in which an Equity Advisor has not been given enough information about the specific nature of
a concern to assess whether or not it could be human rights related. These concerns may involve
allegations of abuse of power, unethical behaviour, concerns about administrative or educational
fairness, interpersonal disputes, disruptive behaviour or issues of campus and personal safety.
Tables 2A and 2B outlines the type of non human rights related concerns brought to the Equity
Office in 2009 and the context in which these concerns arose. As with previous years, allegations
of bullying/personal harassment and interpersonal conflict made up the majority of the non human
rights based concerns on both campuses.
TABLE 2A: DESCRIPTION OF TYPE AND CONTEXT OF NON HUMAN RIGHTS RELATED CONCERNS
VANCOUVER
Academics
Employment
Residence
Club
UBC Service
Non-UBC
TOTAL
Interpersonal Conflict
1
6
2
9
Bullying/Personal Harassment
2
7
1
10
Service Related Concern                          1                                                                                                             1
Terms & Conditions of Employment                                 1                                                                                       1
Cyber-Related Conduct                           1                                                                                                             1
Not Specified                                                                                                                                      1               1
TOTAL
5
14
0
1
0
3
23
TABLE 2B: DESCRIPTION OF TYPE AND CONTEXT OF NON HUMAN RIGHTS RELATED CONCERNS
OKANAGAN
Academics
Employment
Residence
Club
UBC Service
Non-UBC
TOTAL
Interpersonal Conflict
1
1
2
Bullying/Personal Harassment
2
3
5
Service Related Concern
1
1
2
Terms & Conditions of Employment
2
2
Cyber-Related Conduct
0
Not Specified
0
TOTAL
3
6
0
0
2
0
11
For 2008 and earlier data for both campuses, please see the Discrimination and Harassment Reports in the Publications section of our website, www.equity.ubc.ca. JULY   1,    2010    ■    UBC    REPORTS
Tables 3A and 3B provide a broad look at the human rights related concerns that were brought
to the Equity Office in 2009. On both campuses, human rights related concerns are approached
in one of three ways: as a consultation from a third party (someone not directly involved as a
party to the concern); as a consultation from a person directly involved in the concern (direct
consultation); and as a case from parties directly involved or from administrative heads of units
where permission to proceed with an informal or formal case management process has been
granted. Of course, sometimes a concern which started as a consultation turns into a case, or vice
versa. The data in this report reflects not in which stream (consultation or case) a concern started,
but where it concluded.
DIRECT CONSULTATION: WHAT'S THE BENEFIT TO ME? A COMPLAINANT'S PERSPECTIVE?
Although both complainants and respondents are welcome to consult with an Equity Advisor, in the direct
consultation stage, it is usually the complainant who approaches our office. A direct consultation for a
complainant (or respondent) can be beneficial for many reasons. It can:
• Give you a place to talk in private about what you're experiencing
• Help you explore a range of options to address your concern. This may include self-advocacy tips,
advice on other university policies and procedures, options outside of the university and referrals to
community and campus resources for additional safety and support
• Help you understand if your concern fits under a human rights lens
• Help you learn about UBC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment and its complaint resolution
procedures before you decide whether or not you wish to make an official complaint
• Let you know how much time you have to bring forward your concern, especially ifyou are not
yet ready to proceed
All members of the university community are free to consult with an Equity Advisor at any time.
Call 604-822-6353 (Vancouver) or 250-807-9291 (Okanagan) to set up an appointment.
The ability to consult before, or instead of, initiating the complaint procedures in the Policy on
Discrimination and Harassment is an important part of the work of Equity Advisors on both
campuses. A person may choose to consult with an Equity Advisor for a number of different
reasons. Table 3A outlines the file type of human rights related concerns - third party consultation,
direct consultation, or case - that were brought to the Equity Office in 2009.
TABLE 3A: HUMAN RIGHTS RELATED CONCERNS BY FILE TYPE
CONSULTATION: WHAT'S THE BENEFIT TO ME? AN ADMINISTRATIVE HEAD'S PERSPECTIVE
Equity Advisors are available to consult with Administrative Heads, and others acting in a supervisory
capacity, at any stage of a complaint. We can offer advice on preventative approaches; how to address
a concern expeditiously to prevent escalation of issues; how to ensure fair process for all parties during a
complaint resolution process; tips for working with complainants and respondents; options for remedial
resolution and so on. What's the benefit to consultation? Equity Advisors can work with Heads in a
consultative capacity to:
• Co-manage a concern
• Help guide the complaint resolution process
• Facilitate or prepare for meetings with parties to a concern
• Avoid pitfalls and common mistakes
• Help find creative resolution options at the informal stage
• Ensure the process moves in a fair and timely manner
• Be a sounding board on which to bounce your ideas
• Further your knowledge of the University's and Heads' obligations under
UBC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment
Although those who are concerned that they may have transgressed the Policy are welcome to
consult with an Equity Advisoi; it tends to largely be Administrative Heads, potential complainants,
those acting on another person's behalf and persons for whom the policy holds no jurisdiction
(i.e. non-UBC community members or non-UBC context) that consult with the Equity Office the
most. Tables 9A, 9B and table 10 provide a more detailed profile of who approached the Equity
Office in 2009.
When a complaint becomes a case in the Equity Office, the informal or formal process is initiated
and both complainants and respondents are engaged in the process. Equity Advisors play a
neutral role; that is, they do not advocate for either party. All parties to a concern are given the
opportunity to share their concerns and to respond to the allegations raised by the other party.
The number of cases and consultations in 2009 reflects a decrease from previous years.
UBC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment applies in most areas of university life.
Exceptions to this include incidents which involve someone who is not a member of the university
community (i.e. someone who is not a UBC student, staff or faculty member) or where the
allegations occurred outside of the university context. Table 3B outlines the employment, housing
or service-related context of the human rights based concerns brought to the Equity Office in
2009. These allegations arose in academic, employment, residence, athletics/recreation/club, UBC
service or non-UBC environments. Again, academics and employment are the contexts in which
most allegations arise. This is consistent with the data in previous years.
TYPE OF FILE
VANCOUVER (N =
= 64)
OKANAGAN (N = 32)
Third Party Consultation
19
9
Direct Consultation
35
19
Case
10
4
TOTAL
64
32
TABLE 3B: CONTEXT OF HUMAN RIGHTS RELATED CONCERNS
Third party consultations or direct consultations may involve allegations which are premature in
nature or are outside the jurisdiction of the Policy because they involve non-UBC parties, non-UBC
contexts or are outside the twelve month time limit for making a complaint. They may also involve
concerns which would otherwise fall under the Policy but for which the complainant has not given
us permission to proceed1 with case management procedures. Consultations may involve people
who are looking for advice or assistance in managing a concern on their own or in advocating for
someone else. Consultations can also be preventative in scope. For example, these may include
issues in which someone would likely face a barrier to service or a harassing situation in the future,
were the preventative steps not taken. Assistance to removing or overcoming this barrier before a
denial of access or harassing comment or conduct has been made may result from the consultation.
Lastly, Administrative Heads of Unit (or others in a supervisory capacity) often call the Equity
Office for advice on how to address a situation in their unit. When no direct intervention is
required from our office, as the Administrative Head of Unit is prepared to handle the concern
directly, this is also counted as a third party consultation. Although a consultation does not
proceed through the case management procedures provided for in the policy, assistance given at
this stage may range from a single meeting up to months of time and effort on the part of the
Equity Office.
VANCOUVER
3rd Party
Direct Consi
jits
Coi
mplaints
TOTAL
Academics
10
11
4
25
Employment
5
14
4
23
Residence
1
1
2
Ath/Rec/Club
4
4
8
UBC Service
1
1
2
Non-UBC
4
4
TOTAL
19
35
10
64
OKANAGAN
3rd Party
Direct Consults
Coi
nplaints
TOTAL
Academics
6
5
4
15
Employment
1
10
11
Residence
1
1
Ath/Rec/Club
1
1
2
UBC Service
1
1
Non-UBC
1
1
2
TOTAL
9
19
4
32
There are 13 grounds of prohibited discrimination in the BC Human Rights Code and,
consequently, in UBC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment. Concerns brought to the
Equity Office must engage one or more of these grounds to be considered human rights related.
Table 4A displays the grounds of prohibited discrimination alleged in the 45 direct consultations
(n=35) and cases (n=10) brought to the Equity Office on the Vancouver campus in 2009. Some
of these concerns point to a single ground, while others include multiple or intersectional
grounds within a single concern.
As with previous years, concerns which include a sex/gender allegation are most frequently
reported to the Equity Office, Vancouver. This is followed by concerns involving race, physical
or mental disability, religion and place or origin. It is worthwhile noting that the place of origin
ground was always cited in conjunction with another ground and 5 of the 6 times that it was
cited was with one of the other most cited grounds above. Other concerns cited included grounds
of age, family status, political belief and sexual orientation.
Table 4B displays the grounds of prohibited discrimination alleged in the 23 direct contacts with
the Okanagan office, both the direct consultations (n=19) and cases (n=4) in 2009. While 74%
(17) of the direct contacts related to single grounds, 4 related to 2 grounds simultaneously,
and 2 related to more than 2 grounds.
Concerns relating to a physical or mental disability and sex/gender were most frequently reported
to the Okanagan office, with concerns related to sexual orientation following in frequency. Other
concerns cited included age, ancestry, family status, place of origin, colour, race and religion.
Why do we need permission to proceed with a case? The UBC Policy on Discrimination and Harassment, like the BC Human Rights Code, is a complaint-driven process. Unless the concern is of such a serious nature that it poses
a substantial threat to an individual, group or to the University (for example, serious allegations involving sexual or physical violence, or threats thereof), the Equity Office will not proceed with a case without permission from the
complainant to do so. This allows persons who have concerns about harassment to approach the Equity Office in confidence to discuss their concern and explore available options before they decide whether or not they wish to initiate
procedures under Policy 3. In this Policy, Administrative Heads of Unit have a responsibility to maintain a discrimination and harassment-free environment and can work to address concerns in their departments, even in the absence of a
specific complaint. Thus permission to proceed is not required by Administrative Heads of Unit in the same manner as it is by Equity Advisors. UBC    REPORTS    ■    JULY   1,    2010
TABLE 4A: GROUNDS OF PROHIBITED DISCRIMINATION: ALLEGED (N=45)
Direct Consults (n=35) and Cases (n=10)
VANCOUVER
Age
Ancestry
Colour
Family Status
Marital Status
Physical or Mental
Disability
Place of
Origin
Political Belief
Race
Religion
Sex/Gender
Sexual Orientation
Unrelated Criminal
Conviction
TOTAL
Age
2
2
Ancestry
0
Colour
0
Family Status
1
1                                                                                                                                                                                             2
Marital Status
0
Physical or Mental Disability
5
1                                                                                                           6
Place of Origin
1
1
3
1
6
Political Belief
0
Race                                                             1
3
1
3
8
Religion
1
1
Sex/Gender                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1
14
1                                                          16
Sexual Orientation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1
1
2
Unrelated Criminal Conviction
0
TOTAL
3
0
0
1
0
6
0
1
5
6
19
2
0
43
Additionally, 2 concerns involved intersections on 3 grounds each:
• age, colour and sex/gender (1)
• place of origin, race and religion (1)
TABLE 4B: GROUNDS OF PROHIBITED DISCRIMINATION: ALLEGED (N=23)
Direct Consults (n=19) and Cases (n=4)
OKANAGAN
Age
Ancestry
Colour
:amily Status
Marital Status
Physical or Mental
Disability
Place of
Origin
Political Belief
Race
Religion
Sex/Gender
Sexual Orientation
Unrelated Criminal
Conviction
TOTAL
Age
0
Ancestry
1
1
Colour
0
Family Status
1
1
Marital Status
0
Physical or Mental Disability
6
6
Place of Origin
2
2
Political Belief
0
Race
1
1
Religion                                                                                                           1
1
Sex/Gender                                                     1                                                                                                                              1
3
5
Sexual Orientation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1
3
4
Unrelated Criminal Conviction
0
TOTAL
1
1
0
2
0
6
3
0
1
0
4
3
0
21
Additionally, two concerns concerns involved intersections on several grounds each:
• Ancestry, colour, place of origin, race (1)
• Ancestry, colour, race (1)
DISCRIMINATION AND HARASSMENT: WHAT MIGHT THESE CONCERNS LOOK LIKE?
For reasons of confidentiality, we cannot discuss details of actual concerns brought to the Equity Office. The
below examples offer a summary illustration of the types of circumstances that may bring someone to our
office and the approach we could take to reach resolution.
Dr. A approached the Equity Office with a concern about how he is treated in his department. He feels that
he gets all the "difficult" studies to run in the lab, including those which require a significant amount of time
outside of normal working hours. Other people who work in the lab are not asked to do the experiments
which require overnight or round the clock observation. Dr A is not compensated for the additional hours
worked, which have been extraordinary. When he tried to address this with his supervisor, the supervisor
responded that "I hired you because you people are hard workers and don't complain. I prefer to hire
people from your home country because you're happy to have a job and will do whatever I ask. Ifyou don't
want to work for me, I can find someone else who will." The Equity Advisor met with the complainant
and respondent to hear all sides of the concern. The respondent acknowledged differential assignment of
duties across the staff and acknowledged making the above statements, but said that they were meant
to be encouraging, not disparaging. The Equity Advisor discussed how this concern was in violation of the
UBC Policy on Discrimination and Harassment on the grounds of place of origin and race. Remedial options
were explored. In addition, the Equity Advisor liaised with Human Resources who addressed employment
standards issues and compensation.
An Administrative Head of Unit from a small unit called to consult with an Equity Advisor about the
University's duty to accommodate a faculty member with a disability. The faculty member has disclosed that
she has diabetes and is losing her sight. The department wants to be able to help her, but is concerned about
the cost of accommodations. The nature of the accommodations sought includes restructured job duties
and adaptive computer software and hardware. The Equity Advisor discusses the duty to accommodate to
the point of undue hardship and the role of the employee, employer and faculty association in the process
of accommodation. The Equity Advisor also refers the Administrative Head of Unit to the Equipment
Accommodation Fund for Employees with Disabilities.
Two students approached the Equity Office with a concern about the way they are treated by a teaching
assistant. They report that the TA "yells and screams" at a handful ofthe students in tutorial, makes
disparaging comments about the quality of their work in front of others and mocks them when they get
an answer wrong. The two students also allege that the TA makes repeated disparaging comments about
women's role in their traditionally male dominated field of study. The Equity Advisor discusses their concerns
in depth and learns that they are the only two women in the tutorial. Comments about women's suitability
in the field tend to follow when these women speak up in tutorial. The Equity Advisor works with the
Administrative Head of Unit to address the concern. The students are moved to another tutorial section, at
their request, and the department head mandates coaching and reassigned duties for the TA. The students
are also informed ofthe UBC Respectful Environments Statement and referred to the UBC Ombuds Office
(Vancouver) and Counselling Services for assistance.
As explained above, a person who approaches the Equity Office in a direct consultation may have a
human rights related allegation, but does not proceed with a case management procedure through
the Equity Office. Table 5 shows the reasons why a direct consultation did not proceed
to a case in 2009.
TABLE 5: DIRECT CONSULT NOT PROCEEDING DATA FROM BOTH CAMPUSES
DIRECT CONSULT NOT PROCEEDING
VANCOUVER(N=
=35)
OKANAGAN (N=19)
Non UBC context/party/timeline
8
5
Complainant does not wish to proceed
9
4
Premature/Preventative
15
8
Proceeding in a different process
3
2
TOTAL
35
19
Most of these direct consultations at UBC Vancouver's Equity Office did not proceed to a
case because the allegations were premature or because the Equity Office was approached in a
preventative capacity (43%). In 26% of the concerns, the complainant did not give us permission
to proceed with a case. Like the BC Human Rights Code, UBC's Policy is complaint-driven. Unless
the allegations of discrimination or harassment are very serious in nature - for example, ones
with potential consequences that threaten the safety or lives of individuals, units or the University
- the complainant has the right to withhold consent to proceed with an allegation through case
management procedures. This provision is in place to allow members of the University community
to consult with the Equity Office before they make an informed decision to proceed, or not,
with a case under the Policy,    (see footnote 2, "why do we need permission to proceed with a
complaint?")
In 23% of the direct consultations, concerns lay outside of the Policy's jurisdiction. These
may have been concerns where one or more of the parties were not members of the University
community, where the alleged discriminatory conduct happened outside of the UBC context or
where the allegation was brought to the Equity Office past the time limits for making a complaint.
The time limit established in the Policy is twelve months from the incident or last incident in a
series of incidents. This differs from the BC Human Rights Code which has a six month limit.
However, in the University setting, where many courses are eight months in duration and students
may not feel safe or comfortable bringing forward a concern until the course has finished and
grades have been submitted, the twelve month time limit for the UBC Policy is prudent.
Table 5 also shows the reasons that the 19 direct consultations in 2009 did not proceed to cases at
the UBC Okanagan office. In 42%, the concern that was brought forward was either premature
or the complainant consulted with the office in a preventive capacity, looking for ways to manage
a potential future concern. In 26% of cases, the concern fell outside of the mandate of the Policy.
The reasons for this can vary: the situation may have involved a non-UBC context or respondent,
or may have occurred outside of the time limit of the policy. In 21 % of the direct consultations in
2009, the complainant did not wish to proceed. Finally, in 2 of the direct consultations in 2009,
a case did not proceed because the concern was being addressed through a different process. JULY   1,    2010    ■    UBC    REPORTS
TABLE 6A: BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS - INTERPERSONAL (N = 49)
VANCOUVER
Unwelcome Verbal
Behaviour
Unwelcome written
orVisual Behaviour
Unwelcome Physical
Attention
Stalking
Threats
Assault
Retaliation
Biased Academic
Decisions
Biased Employment
Decisions
Exclusion or Denial
of Access
Total number of concerns in
which behaviour was cited
Unwelcome Verbal Behaviour
6
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
16
Unwelcome written or Visual Behaviour
5
2
1
8
Unwelcome Physical Attention
4
111                                                                                                                           7
Stalking
0
Threats
0
Assault
2
2
Retaliation
0
Biased Academic Decisions
4
1                              1                                    6
Biased Employment Decisions
8
8
Exclusion or Denial of Access
2
2
TABLE 6B: BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS - INTERPERSONAL (N=23)
OKANAGAN
Unwelcome Verbal
Behaviour
Unwelcome written
or Visual Behaviour
Unwelcome Physical
Attention
Stalking
Threats
Assault
Retaliation
Biased Academic
Decisions
Biased Employment
Decisions
Exclusion or Denial
of Access
Total number of concerns in
which behaviour was cited
Unwelcome Verbal Behaviour
3
1                                   4
Unwelcome written or Visual Behaviour
4
4
Unwelcome Physical Attention
2
1
3
Stalking
0
Threats                                                                    1
1
Assault
0
Retaliation
0
Biased Academic Decisions                                          1
1
Biased Employment Decisions
1
1
Exclusion or Denial of Access                                                                                                                                                                                         1
2
3
Not identified/other: 5    Unwelcome verbal behaviour, biased employment decisions, exclusion/denial of access: 1
Table 6A offers a description of the interpersonal behaviours that were alleged in the 49 of 64
human rights related direct consultations and cases (excluding third party consultations) at
UBC Vancouver's Equity Office. Some of these concerns involved a single type of behaviour,
where others involved two behaviours. This year, we did not have any concerns in which 3 or
more types of interpersonal behaviours were alleged. Unwelcome verbal behaviour (insults,
slurs, inappropriate jokes or innuendo) was cited most often (25%), followed by allegations of
unwelcome written or visual behaviour (email, graffiti, videos, letters etc) and biased employment
decisions which were each cited in 13% of concerns. This pattern is consistent with data from
previous years.
The types of interpersonal behaviours that were alleged in the 23 human rights related direct
consultations and cases at the Okanagan campus are described in Table 6B. The two most
common types of behaviour seen in 2009 were unwelcome written or visual behaviour (4
incidents) and unwelcome verbal behaviour (3 incidents). A number of incidents involved two
types of behaviour associated with the same complaint, such as unwelcome physical attention
combined with unwelcome verbal behaviour, or unwelcome physical and verbal behaviour. One
complaint involved three separate types of behaviour while five incidents either did not identify
any of these types of behaviour or described some other behaviour.
At UBC Vancouver's Equity Office, 15 of the 64 human rights related direct consultations and
cases involved alleged systemic barriers. Table 7 shows the behavioural descriptions of these
concerns. Sixty-seven percent cited an environmental barrier, while 27% cited systemic concerns with
UBC or departmental policies and practices. The number of consultations and cases citing systemic
concerns has risen from that of previous years. Of the human rights concerns brought forward to the
UBC Okanagan office in 2009, only three related to alleged systemic discrimination or harassment.
Of these, all three related to UBC or departmental policies and practices (see Table 7).
TABLE 7: BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS - SYSTEMIC
VANCOUVER (N =
=15)
OKANAGAN(N=3)
Policies and Practices
4
3
Curriculum
1
0
Environment
10
0
TOTAL
15
3
WHAT'S A SYSTEMIC BARRIER?
Again, for reasons of confidentiality, we cannot discuss details of actual concerns brought to the Equity
Office. However, for illustrative purposes, we offer these examples of types of systemic barriers.
POLICIES AND PRACTICES - Concerns about ways of doing things that intentionally or unintentionally create
a barrier for people on one of more grounds of prohibited discrimination. For example, using forced choice
(male/female) gender options on forms that do not allow for non-binary gender options is a systemic barrier
to gender variant people in policies and practices. Asking for "mother's and father's names" on enrolment
or financial aid documents would also be a systemic barrier as it denies the reality of same sex headed
families and single parent headed families.
CURRICULUM -Concerns about barriers to/in pedagogy, course content, course work, courses of study. An
omission, misrepresentation or suppression of avenues of scholarly inquiry that are related to human rights
related grounds. For example, a concern that the approach to teaching the history of a country excludes
the contributions of immigrants and indigenous persons could be a concern of systemic discrimination in
curriculum.
ENVIRONMENT - Concerns about aspects of the built, social or psychological environment, including
physical, communication or attitudinal barriers. For example, holding a lecture in a room that is not
wheelchair accessible or having an accessible washroom with a doorway that is not wide enough for most
power wheelchairs would be environmental barriers.
For UBC Vancouver's Equity Office, table 9A outlines the gender and position of complainants
and respondents in non human rights based consultations (n=23), human rights related direct
consultations (n=35) and cases (n=10). When a person was acting in a supervisory role in relation
to the other party to a concern, that person was counted in the administrative ("admin") category.
People who are administrators in the UBC context but were not acting in a supervisory capacity
within the concern would be counted as staff or faculty, as applicable.
In 2009, more women brought forward concerns as complainants (66%) than any other group
(men, 22%, gender variant people 6%). Women and departments were cited as respondents most
often (24% each), followed closely by groups (22%) and men (19%).
The highest proportion of complaints came from students (41 %) although students make up
71% of the UBC community. Staff, who make up 14% of the UBC community, were complainants
in 32% of the concerns and faculty, who make up 15% of the UBC population, were complainants
in 16% of the concerns. However, when looking at the respondent data, 50% of all respondents
were in the administrative category, that is they were acting in a supervisory capacity in relation
to the complainant. Faculty and students (18% each) followed as the next highest number of
respondents. UBC    REPORTS    ■    JULY   1,    2010
TABLE 8: UBC VANCOUVER & UBC OKANAGAN COUNT, FULL & PART TIME STUDENTS,
STAFF AND FACULTY
VANCOUVER OKANAGAN
Students
46, 789
6,015
Staff
8,934
382 (includes full and part-time)
Faculty
9,888
337
TOTAL
65,611
6,734
UBC Vancouver count (2009; source: PAIR)
UBC Okanagan count (2009; source: UBC Okanagan Facts & Figures, http://web.ubc.ca/okanagan/about/facts.html)
TABLE 9A: DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF VISITORS TO THE EQUITY OFFICE: DIRECT CONTACT WITH
PARTIES TO A CONCERN - UBC VANCOUVER
TABLE 9B: DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF VISITORS TO THE EQUITY OFFICE: DIRECT CONTACT WITH
PARTIES TO A CONCERN - UBC OKANAGAN
(cases, direct consults and non human rights consults)
COMPLAINANT PROFILE (N=32)
GENDER:
Male
Female
Gender
Variant
Group
Unknown
Department
TOTAL
Case
2
2
0
0
0
0
4
Direct Consult
8
10
0
0
1
0
19
Non Human Rights Consult
3
5
0
1
0
0
9
TOTAL
13
17
0
1
1
0
32
(cases, direct consults and non human rights consults)
COMPLAINANT PROFILE (N = 68)
GENDER:
Male
Female
Gender Variant
Group
Unknown
Department
TOTAL
Case
2
8
0
0
0
0
10
Direct Consult
5
24
4
2
0
0
35
Non Human Rights Consult
8
13
0
1
0
1
23
TOTAL
15
45
4
3
0
1
68
POSITION :
Student
Staff
Faculty
Admin
Other
TOTAL
Case
4
0
0
0
0
4
Direct Consult
6
6
7
0
0
19
Non Human Rights Consult
3
1
5
0
0
9
TOTAL
13
7
12
0
0
32
NOTE: The category of ADMIN relates to people who are acting in a supervisory role vis a vis the other party within the context
ofthe complaint
POSITION :
Student
Staff
Faculty
Admin
Other
TOTAL
Case
6
1
3
0
0
10
Direct Consult
17
10
5
0
3
35
Non Human Rights Consult
5
11
3
1
3
23
TOTAL
28
22
11
1
6
68
NOTE: The category of ADMIN relates to people who are acting in a supervisory role vis a vis the other party within the context
ofthe complaint
RESPONDENT PROFILE (N=32)
GENDER:
Male
Female
Gender
Variant
Group
Unknown
Department
TOTAL
Case
3
1
0
0
0
0
4
Direct Consult
3
2
0
1
6
7
19
Non Human Rights Consult
1
2
0
0
5
2
9
TOTAL
7
5
0
1
10
9
32
RESPONDENT PROFILE (N =
GENDER:
POSITION:
Male
Female
Gender Variant
Group
Unknown
Department
TOTAL
Case
5
0
0
1
0
4
10
Direct Consult
4
9
0
11
2
9
35
Non Human Rights Consult
4
7
0
3
6
3
23
TOTAL
13
16
0
15
8
16
68
POSITION:
Student
Staff
Faculty
Admin
Other
TOTAL
Case
2
0
3
5
0
10
Direct Consult
8
1
3
19
4
35
Non Human Rights Consult
2
3
6
10
2
23
TOTAL
12
4
12
34
6
68
NOTE: The category of ADMIN relates to people who are acting in a supervisory role vis a vis the other party within the context
of the complaint.
For the UBC Okanagan office, the gender and position of complainants and respondents in non
human rights based consultations (n=9), human rights related direct consultations (n=19) and
cases (n=4) are described in Table 9B. This table shows the positional relationships between
complainants and respondents. The complainant profile for gender in 2009 shows approximately
53 % of complaints (17) brought forward by females, while males brought forward 41 % (13).
The respondent profile differed, with 31% of respondents of unknown gender (10), and 28%
(9) departments. Males (22%) and females (16%) followed in frequency of respondents. Unlike
Vancouver, no complainants or respondents in 2009 identified as gender variant.
Although students make up 89% of the UBC Okanagan community, the percentage of concerns
they bring to the office is smaller than their campus representation (13, or 41% of all cases, direct
consultations and non human rights consultations in 2009). Faculty, who make up 5% of the UBC
Okanagan community, were complainants in 38% of the concerns (12 total) and staff, at 6% of
the campus population, were complainants in 22% of the concerns. Turning to the respondent
data, 34% of all respondents were in the administrative category, compared to 50% of Vancouver
respondents. A comparable group of respondents were classified as "other" positions (34%) while
faculty and students each were respondents in 12% of complaints.
Student
Staff
Faculty
Admin
Other
TOTAL
Case
1
0
1
2
0
4
Direct Consult
3
1
1
8
6
19
Non Human Rights Consult
0
1
2
1
5
9
TOTAL
4
2
4
11
11
32
NOTE: The category of ADMIN relates to people who are acting in a supervisory role vis a vis the other party within the context
ofthe complaint.
Table 10 illustrates the profile of people who approached the Equity Office with third party
consultations and the purpose of their contact. As the data shows, most people who approached
the Equity Office in a third party capacity were people acting in an administrative capacity (in
relation to one or more of the parties to a concern). These often are Administrative Heads of
Units who have been made aware of a concern in their unit and are looking for advice on how
to respond to the situation but do not disclose much of the detail of the concern itself. Equity
Advisors are available to provide timely case management assistance to Administrative Heads, as
previously discussed. Concerns from third parties are also often preventative in nature. That is,
administrators, staff and faculty members may be looking to address concerns in their department
which are premature before they escalate into discrimination or harassment. This category includes
provision of advice on the department's duty to accommodate its students, staff and faculty on
human rights grounds.
WHAT IS THE DUTY TO ACCOMMODATE?
The Duty to Accommodate is a legal obligation to meaningfully incorporate diversity into the workforce by
identifying and removing barriers and eliminating or changing policies and practices, rules and behaviours
that adversely impact people based on a prohibited ground of discrimination. The employer must provide
accommodation, or provide alternate arrangements to eliminate the discriminatory barrier, unless it would
be an undue hardship on the employer to do so based on factors such as health, safety or cost. The duty to
accommodate is a responsibility shared by the employee, employer and union or professional association.
Although usually referenced in regard to disability, the duty to accommodate applies to all human rights
related prohibited grounds of discrimination. Service providers have a similar duty to accommodate. For
more information on the duty to accommodate, see Creating a Respectful and Inclusive Workplace for
Employees with Disabilities at www.equity.ubc.ca/publications/index.html.
For UBC Okanagan, nine people approached the office as third parties in 2009 (Table 10).
The majority of these were female (78%). They were acting in a wide range of capacities:
student, staff, faculty, administrative and "other," with the largest group being staff
(4 of 9 contacts). Their purposes for contacting an Equity Advisor also varied, from responding
to an incident or allegation, to advocating for someone, to wanting to learn more about equity
issues or policies (33% each). The context of their concerns included responding to disruptive
visual or print materials on campus (56%); gathering advice for students and staff; and
addressing personal concerns. JULY   1,    2010    ■    UBC    REPORTS
TABLE 10: PROFILE OF VISITORS TO THE EQUITY OFFICE: THIRD PARTY CONSULTATIONS
CONTACT INITIATED BY:
VANCOUVER (N=19)
OKANAGAN(N=9)
Female
12
7
Male
7
1
Gender Variant
0
Group                                                                                                                                            1
Department
0
CAPACITY:
Student                                                                                 1                                                       1
Staff
1
4
Faculty
6
1
Admin.
10
2
Other                                                                                    1                                                       1
PURPOSE:
Preventative
8
0
Response to allegation/incident
9
3
Advocacy for self/other
2
3
Discussion/information only
3
UBCO: Nature/Context: posters/visual display/print materials/graffiti concerns (5); advice for assisting students and staff (2);
personal concerns(2)
Although the number of concerns that proceeded to a case through the Equity Office at the
Vancouver campus was smaller this year than in previous years, Table 11 outlines the outcome
of these ten cases. As previously noted, the majority of cases proceed in the informal process and
this year was no exception. Eighty percent of the cases involved the informal process, while the
remaining 2 cases were either addressed by the formal process or by another university policy.
Of the four cases that came to the Equity Advisor at the Okanagan campus in 2009, two were
resolved through the informal process. One case was abandoned by the complainant, while
another was taken up in extra-university procedures.
TABLE 11: OUTCOME OF CASES
VANCOUVER (N =
=10)
OKANAGAN (N = 4)
Informal Process: Resolved
6
2
Informal Process: Abandoned by Complainant
1
2
Informal Process: Ongoing
1
0
Formal Process: Ongoing
1
0
Formal Process: Resolved
0
0
Action taken under other university policy
1
0
TOTAL
10
4
An increase in consultations, rather than cases, is a common trend across both campuses. The
complexity of the consultations has also increased proportionately. We are finding that more
administrative heads are consulting with us when they first hear of a concern. This allows us to
work to address and resolve a concern before it escalates into a more difficult situation. A remedial
approach at this early stage has proven successful at repairing relationships between the parties
(or unit) before parties become polarized. For years it has been the view of the Equity Office that
early prevention, and when possible and applicable, an approach that finds local solutions to local
concerns, is the best way to address and resolve issues. It appears that we may be turning the
corner in this regard.
a place of mind
THE  UNIVERSITYOF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
EQUITY OFFICE, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
2306 BROCK HALL, 1874 EAST MALL, VANCOUVER, B.C. V6T 1Z1
T 604-822-6353     F 604-822-3260
E EQUITY@EQUITY.UBC.CA
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3333 UNIVERSITY WAY, KELOWNA, B.C. V1V 1V7
T 250-807-9291
WWW.UBC.CA/0KANAGAN/HES 10 UBC    REPORTS    ■    JULY   1,    2010
ttcm^Si-
fade 1he ikwwt of Atmnert...
at the UBC Bookstore Plaza
(University Boulevard &. East M
the
A fully licensed restaurant with an upscale casual
dining atmosphere on the south side of campus.
Patio opening soon...
watch for our summer menu.
HOURS:
Monday - Friday
To Go Counter: 9:30am - io:oopm
Restaurant: 11:00am - 10:00pm
'
Located at 2205 Lower Mall, Marine Drive Residence, Building #4       \_)
For hours of operation visit www.food.uhc.ca simcis
JAMELIE HASSAN
At the Far Edge of Words
Because .. . there was and there wasn't a city of Baghdad, 1991, billboard.
Collection: Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, UBC, Purchased with the financial support of the Canada
Council for the Arts Acquisition Assistance Program and Salah J. Bachir, 2005. Photo by Howard Ursuliak
June 18 -August 22, 2010
free admission
This exhibition is co-organized by Museum London and the Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery.
Canada Council    §Bg    Consell des Arts
for the Arts    ^F>    du Canada
MORRIS AND HELEN BELKIN ART GALLERY
Kevin Allen looks at ways we can prevent foodborne illnesses.
Boiled salad anyone?
continued from cover
BY LORRAINE CHAN
Consumers who like their veggies raw
may find themselves more and more
in the position of "making faith-based
purchases when it comes to produce,"
says Kevin Allen, a UBC food safety
expert who studies E. coli and other
pathogens.
In May, several U.S. states had issued
massive recalls for romaine lettuce
contaminated by E. coli. Days later, the
Canadian Food Inspection Agency also
issued a recall of romaine lettuce.
Upon hearing the news, Allen
purged his fridge of salad mixes
containing romaine. With children
ages two and six, he wasn't taking any
chances. He explains that bacteria
known as Shiga toxin-producing E.
coli (STEC) can cause severe illnesses,
among them hemolytic uremic
syndrome (HUS).
"Children are more likely to develop
HUS which may result in kidney
damage, potentially leading to death,"
says Allen, assistant professor in the
Food, Nutrition and Health program of
the Faculty of Land and Food Systems.
The HUS mortality rate is three
per cent for children five years and
younger. In persons who are 60 years
and older, that mortality rate climbs.
Currently, government and beef and
produce industries have procedures
in place to monitor and test for E. coli
Oi57:H7 bacterium. However, there are
not yet any detection methods available
to show up a strain such as E. coli O145
which was associated with the romaine
outbreak in May.
That killer pathogens are found
at all on products such as lettuce
represents a tremendous shift in the
epidemiology of foodborne diseases
over the past decade, says Allen.
Traditionally, foodborne illnesses
have been associated with meat,
poultry and eggs. With these products,
consumers could rely on the fact
that thorough cooking would kill
pathogenic organisms.
"But if your salad leaves are
contaminated by a pathogen, there is
no remedy."
Processing plants that prepare
pre-washed salads or other produce
use a dilute water and chlorine solution
which may fail to eliminate E. coli
or salmonella. In the home, repeated
washings may also fail to rid produce of
bacteria, particularly if the organisms
have been internalized by the plant.
While it is important that
consumers continue to include fresh
fruit and vegetables in their diet, notes
Allen, they also need to understand that
our produce is not risk free. "Certain
commodities such as alfalfa sprouts
and certain leafy greens are frequently
associated with foodborne disease."
that their feed is often contaminated by
the organism," says Allen.
Run-off water from cattle operations
can contaminate irrigation ponds and
rivers, and may serve as infection points
for wild game. Fecal contamination of
hides and carcasses during slaughter is
the primary cause of contaminated beef.
Indirect fecal contamination of
produce by contaminated manure,
fertilizer or irrigation water is thought
to be responsible for the increase
in foodborne disease attributed to
produce.
Allen stresses, "We need to better
understand how to minimize its
presence in cattle, and design more
effective intervention strategies that
successfully eliminate it in foods,
particularly produce."
Prior to joining UBC in January,
Allen worked within industry,
That killer pathogens are found
at all on products such as lettuce
represents a tremendous shift in the
epidemiology of foodborne diseases
over the past decade.
An important facet of Allen's work
is looking at how and why E. coli is so
successful at finding its way into, and
surviving in, our food chain.
Currently, E. coli strains enter the
human food supply through various
means, the main source being large-
scale cattle operations. The organism is
cycled into the environment through
fecal matter. E. coli Oi57:H7 and other
toxigenic strains frequently infect
and subsequently colonize cattle and
possibly other animals that come into
contact with cattle such as deer or mice.
"One ofthe most significant reasons
why we have E. coli O157 in cattle is
researching a vaccine to minimize
E. coli O157 prevalence in cattle. He
continues this task at UBC.
Allen is also comparing various
strains of E. coli O157 to devise better
food safety policies and intervention
strategies. This fall, he will collect
physiological data on how different
stressors such as heat or chemicals affect
the bacteria.
"What we're going to do is look
at stress response and virulence
gene expression and compare three
lineages to see if there are differences
explaining why these lineages are linked
differentially to human disease." ■
TRACKING PATHOGENS
For every reported case of foodborne illness, there are 20 to 30 that
go unreported, according to UBC food safety expert Kevin Allen.
And what's more, Canada, until recently, lacked the
means to monitor and trace foodborne diseases. But with the
establishment of C-EnterNet, a multi-partner system
facilitated by of the Public Health Agency of Canada, that is
changing, says Allen.
C-EnterNet is similar to that of FoodNet in the U.S. which over
the past decade has overseen surveillance and data collection of
outbreaks involving pathogens such as listeria, salmonella and E. coli.
"Although Canada is still in the early stages, C-EnterNet will
provide us with baseline data necessary for evaluating the efficacy of new
intervention strategies," Allen says. JULY   1,    2010    ■    UBC    REPORTS
Helping children
in pain
BY BRIAN   LIN
Simple explanatory diagrams and
soothing words can be powerful tools
for health professionals working
with a child in pain, according to a
new book by clinical psychologist
Leora Kuttner.
Published last month, A Child in
Pain: What Health Professionals Can
Do to Help follows Kuttner's successful
1996 book for parents and several
award-winning documentary films
on pediatric pain management. The
new book outlines the latest scientific
discoveries on pain management
and provides practical strategies for
physicians, dentists and hospital
personnel who care for children.
"Pain is one of the least understood
and most neglected domains of health
care, especially for children," says
Kuttner, a pediatric clinical professor
in UBC's Faculty of Medicine who
in 1983 established the first pain and
anxiety management program in North
America at BC Children's Hospital's
Oncology Department.
models and simple and clear words,
develop a cognitive grasp of what this
scary thing called 'pain' is, and how to
help make it better.
"Once they understand, they can
start participating and report more
accurately what's affecting them -
which ultimately contributes to better
diagnosis and improved treatment
outcome."
Kuttner cites an example of
administering morphine to a child who
is recovering from surgery. "You could
just give it and not say anything," says
Kuttner. "Alternatively, you could give
it and say 'see how quickly this eases
your pain.'
"Or for a younger child you could
say: I am going to give you some really
powerful medicine that will not only
make the hurt go away but may even
make you feel silly and laugh!"
In this process, the power of words
and imagery can engage the child and
calm her anxiety.
In addition to the child's verbal
report of pain, health professionals
should note the non-verbal behaviours
Children are highly reliable witnesses
of their own pain; they need to
be listened to, believed and their
concerns need to be addressed.
"Pain is the most common
reason for children to seek a medical
consultation - and the most common
reason for avoiding it," says Kuttner.
Blending research findings with
numerous clinical examples from her
30 years of practice, Kuttner suggests
ways health professionals can better
communicate with children and help
them become part of their own pain
management team.
"There's been a long history of
underestimating the children's capacity
to understand what's happening to their
body and to participate in their care,"
says Kuttner. "Health professionals tend
to talk to parents, but even a three-
year-old can, with the help of diagrams,
of both child and caregivers, says
Kuttner.
"Parents bring their own
upbringing into their handling ofthe
child's pain - they may have a grin
and bear it' or 'tough it out' attitude
and that would impact how - and
how much - the child expresses pain,"
Kuttner adds.
"On the other hand, family
members may fear or exaggerate the
pain through their own discomfort or
inability to deal with what the child is
going through. Health professionals
need to catch these nuances that can
add to the pain."
In general, says Kuttner, children
are highly reliable witnesses of their
Leora Kuttner's new book suggests ways health professionals could help a child in pain.
own pain; they need to be listened to,
believed and their concerns need to be
addressed.
"The last thing we should say when
pain will occur is 'this won't hurt a
bit,' because that's a blatant lie and a
breach of trust," says Kuttner. "We
need to acknowledge the pain and help
by providing good analgesics, skilled
psychological techniques and sound
physical interventions.
"These three facets of pain
management can - and should -work
synergistically together providing the
child with comprehensive relief." ■
CLOSING THE GATE ON PAIN
In Leora Kuttner's new book A Child in Pain: What Health
Professionals Can Do to Help, she suggests using explanatory
yet scientifically accurate diagrams to help introduce
medical concepts to children in pain.
This diagram illustrates the Melzack & Wall's Gate Control
Theory, a guiding principle in the field of pain research.
The use of imagery can help children visualize and
understand the various strategies that may be used to
help them feel better.
For example, competitive sensory input
such as physiotherapy - and
cognitive-behaviour methods -
such as distraction or hypnosis -
can all help "close the gate" on pain
The book is available at
Children's Hospital Bookstore or at
www.bookstore.cw.bc.ca.
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Poster creation services
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rroup	 UBC    REPORTS    ■    JULY   1,    2010
New centre pulls together autism efforts
Pat Mirenda is working to piece together the 'puzzle' of autism.
BY  HEATHER AMOS
Your three-year old boy has just
been diagnosed with autism, a
neurobiological disorder that affects
a person's communication skills and
social abilities. Despite all sorts of
research on treatments, no one can
tell you exactly how to support him so
that he will learn and develop.
Part of the reason is that no two
individuals with autism spectrum
disorders are the same. One can be
profoundly developmentally delayed
and have no language, while others
are only mildly affected with average
or above average intelligence and
functional language.
With one in no children affected by
autism, it is important to figure out how
to help each child cope with the specific
challenges he or she faces.
Pat Mirenda, a professor in the
Department of Educational and
EARLY INDICATORS OF AUTISM
No big smiles or other joyful expressions
No imitation of sounds, smiles, facial expressions
pointing, reaching, or waving
No babbling or words
Any loss of speech or babbling or social skills
Counselling Psychology, and Special
Education at UBC's Faculty of
Education, is part of a Canada-wide
research team doing just that, funded
by the Canadian Institutes of Health
Research and the B.C. government. Her
team is surveying 400 children from the
time they are diagnosed until they reach
Grade 5.
"We want to know what type of
treatments work the best," says Mirenda.
"And in order to do that, we need
information about the children, their
families and their school experiences."
Once complete, this research should
provide a clearer picture of how best to
intervene when a child displays certain
symptoms. Unfortunately, Mirenda has
identified another problem. There is no
easy way to get this information to the
families who need it.
"The kids and the families are
suffering because coordination
between all ofthe researchers and
clinicians working on autism is not
available," says Mirenda, who decided
to address this problem by establishing
the Centre for Interdisciplinary
Research and Collaboration in Autism
(CIRCA) at UBC.
"We need to develop more
coordinated systems and this centre
gives us the opportunity to bring people
together and create synergies."
In April, during Autism Awareness
month, CIRCA co-sponsored a three-
day conference with ACT-Autism
Community Training, and for the
first time brought together all of the
researchers working on autism in B.C.
"Many of the people at the
conference weren't familiar with
the research being conducted in the
province," said Mirenda. "How are
we supposed to solve this problem if
everyone is in their own silo?"
Apart from creating a network for
addressing autism issues, CIRCA is also
working to educate more professionals
who can work directly with families.
UBC has the only Master's program
in Special Education with emphasis
on autism in the province. Each year
about 15 students in this program also
complete the coursework to become
Board Certified Behaviour Analysts.
Recently, CIRCA received $1 million
from the B.C. Ministry of Children and
Family Development to hire two new
faculty members with a focus on autism.
One will be taking the autism Masters
program to Vancouver Island in the fall.
Nineteen students have registered for
the Vancouver Island program. Within
the next few years, Mirenda hopes to
have another program starting in the
Okanagan or northern B.C.
Applied Behaviour Analysts work
with individuals and families living
with autism to teach them language,
play, social, self-help, motor, and other
skills. Most children learn by imitating
their parents, siblings and friends.
Children with autism are less likely to
do that. They don't absorb information
and then apply it to their own actions,
so they need specific instruction in
order to learn.
Having more professionals with
knowledge on how to work with
children with autism, and provincial
capacity-building are among the goals
of CIRCA.
"One day, I hope every community
centre in the province will have someone
who knows how to make programs
and activities available to people with
autism," Mirenda said.
She'd also like to see more
collaborative projects, where researchers
across all fields work together to
understand the complexities of autism
spectrum disorders.
"There are lots of pieces to the
'puzzle' of autism, and the main goal
of research is to understand all of the
pieces and how they fit together, in
order to improve the lives of people with
autism and their families." ■
Prof launches first Sustainable Road Safety lab
BY JODY JACOB
Civil Engineering Professor Gordon
Lovegrove is bringing Canada's
first research lab on Sustainable
Road Safety (SRS) to UBC's
Okanagan campus.
The lab will be the first in the world
to build, apply and validate expert
systems that reliably predict road
Lovegrove. "The root-cause of the
road safety problem lies in building
communities that nurture over-use
of the auto. One of the ways we can
address that is by controlling land use
so communities are more walkable,
bikeable andbusable."
Lovegrove's SRS research has
developed and applied community-
based, macro-level collision prediction
level of road safety in our community,
using an array of GIS (geographic
information systems), GPS (global
positioning systems) and other online
and in-field data-extraction tools
coupled with an expert system," says
Lovegrove.
"We can not only create the tools
that predict it, but use those tools to
design land use and transportation
"... we have designed a neighbourhood layout prototype
that newly developed models predict will have more than
60 per cent fewer collisions..."
walkable and less auto-dependent, more
livable and less polluting, sustainable
communities," he says.
Lovegrove is one of only a handful
of researchers working in this field
worldwide, and the first to develop
and demonstrate potential benefits in
several case studies. His results suggest
that the use of SRS principles and
CPMs can help planners and engineers
to preclude road safety problems, and
their associated social and economic
burdens, from occurring at all.
"Initial case studies suggest potential
road safety benefits never seen before.
For example, we have designed a
neighbourhood layout prototype that
newly developed models predict will
have more than 60 per cent fewer
collisions compared to conventional
road patterns."
Several Canadian practitioners and
federal agencies have approached him
to apply his research to test his results in
full-scale applications.
Canada's first research lab on
Sustainable Road Safety will be up
and running with the completion of
the Engineering and Management
building at UBC's Okanagan campus in
mid-2011.   ■
collisions associated with planned
and existing community development
patterns.
The World Health Organization
estimates that worldwide, 20 to 50
million people are injured or disabled
each year in road crashes. By 2020, the
total number of road deaths is expected
to increase by 65 per cent and become
the third-worst global 'disease.'
"To combat this 'disease,' reliable,
science-based tools are needed to
drastically improve road safety," says
models (CPMs) that empirically
associate neighbourhood traits -
demographics, traffic congestion, road
network, and land use - with road
collisions.
In theoretical applications, his
models predict that sustainable
development patterns can lead to
significant, permanent and sustainable
reductions in road collisions.
"The intent is to use our research lab
to produce tools for use by community
planners and engineers that predict the
changes to planned and existing
communities that will reduce driving
and improve safety."
Lovegrove notes that follow-up
monitoring and evaluation will then
bring the research full-circle from
theory to practice, to validate the
models produced in the lab and used in
the field.
"Then what you've got is a
quantifiable defense for decision
makers in control of land use to
refine their communities into more
COLLISION COURSE
• Despite the best efforts of road safety authorities over the
past century, each year more productive years of life are lost in
North America due to road collisions than any other disease
• Each year, road crashes kill 3,000 Canadians and cost   ^^_^
taxpayers $30 billion

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