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UBC Reports Mar 31, 2011

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Array UBC
^jM,
a place of mind
THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
R E PO RTS
March 2011
UBC gets new eyes on Asia
HIV/AIDS and
the forest connection
Celebrate Research:
a week of discovery UBC REPORTS
VOLUME FIFTY SEVEN : NUMBER THREE
WWW.PUBLICAFFAIRS.UBC.CA/UBC-REPORTS
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scott macrae  scott.macrae@ubc.ca
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Next issue: 7 April 2011
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fa place of mind
THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Public Affairs Office
Canada's man in Asia
When Joseph Caron was 21, he sewed a Canadian flag on his backpack
and headed abroad looking for adventure.
by Basil Waugh
Highlights of UBC media coverage
in February 2011
Compiled by Heather Amos
UBC RESEARCH
Roasting coffee beans
United Press International, the Globe and
Mail, the Canadian Press, the Vancouver
Sun and others reported on a new study
that suggests that roasting coffee beans
creates antioxidants, which are believed
to help protect cells from damage and
premature aging.
"We found that the main contributor
to antioxidant activity is the product of
roasting," said lead author Yazheng Lui,
a student at UBC's Faculty of Land and
Food Systems who did the lab work as
part of her master's thesis.
The work of Lui and her coauthor,
professor David Kitts, also indicated
that medium rather than the dark
roast might be better ifyou want the
maximum dose of antioxidants. The
beneficial compounds created by the
roasting process start to break down
with excessive roasting at high heat.
Arctic fishing under-reported
Researchers with UBC's Fisheries
Centre and Department of Earth
and Ocean Sciences say Canada and
other Arctic nations are not properly
reporting their catch data to the United
Nations. They estimate that 950,000
tonnes offish were caught in Russian,
Canadian and U.S. Arctic waters
between 1950 and 2006, which is 75
times higher than reported.
The study by UBC's Daniel Pauly and
Drik Zeller was reported by Reuters,
United Press International, the Globe
and Mail, CBC, CTV and others. The
researchers explain that ineffective
reporting has created a false sense of
security about the state of Arctic waters.
"We now offer a more accurate
baseline against which we can
monitor changes in fish catches and
to inform policy and conservation
efforts," said Zeller.
Fewer big fish in the sea
A study by presented at the annual
meeting of the American Association
for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
by Villy Christensen of UBC's Fisheries
Centre was reported by the Guardian,
Time, ABC, Agence France Presse
and others.
It confirmed some previous
indications that populations of
predator fish at the top ofthe food
chain have suffered huge declines,
shrinking by around two-thirds in
the past 100 years. It was also found
that the total stock of "forage fish"
has more than doubled over the
past century. This study is the most
comprehensive analysis ever offish
stocks in the world's oceans and
how they have changed over the past
century.
UBC EXPERTS COMMENT
Discussions on Egypt
UBC professors and students
provided perspective on the uprising
in Egypt for CBC, TVO, the Montreal
Gazette, the Province and others. They
discussed the changing government,
the role of social media and the role
of women. Some members ofthe UBC
community with ties to Egypt also
spoke about their feelings about the
protests and their support for their
friends and family overseas.
"The key message is one of support
for the people of Egypt," said Tyseer
Aboulnasr, Dean ofthe Faculty of
Applied Science at UBC. "Nobody
knows who is driving this; it's not
driven by a particular group. It is driven
by people who have been waiting for
this for a very, very long time."
Olympic legacies
One year after the Olympic and
Paralympic Winter Games came to
Vancouver, UBC experts provided
insight on the lessons learned and
legacies ofthe event for the Globe
and Mail, CBC, the Vancouver Sun, the
Province and others.
Among the UBC researchers who
provided expert commentary were
Tsur Somerville, a professor in the
Sauder School of Business, Faculty
of Education's David Anderson, Sid
Katz, a UBC professor and Olympic
specialist, and Joe Weiler, a UBC law
professor who has been studying the
legacies of the 2010 Winter Games.
Laura Moss, director ofthe
Canadian Studies Centre, talked
about how the Games helped redefine
us as a nation. "It was a significant
event for community-building," she
said. "Canadians' sense of confidence
and assurance caught the international
community by surprise."
Before joining UBC, Joseph Caron served as Canada's ambassador to seven Asian countries, including China, India and Japan
After nearly 40 years in Canada's
Foreign Service—where he served as
Canada's top diplomat to Asia - it is
fair to say Caron found adventure in
spades.
Through major global events like
the SARS outbreak, Caron has helped
to manage Canada's complex relationship with Asia, where he served
as ambassador to seven countries,
including China, India, Japan and
North Korea during his career.
In July, he joined UBC's Institute
of Asian Research (IAR) after retiring
from the Foreign Service. As a leading
expert on Canada-Asia relations and
international affairs, Caron now
shares his expertise with students and
researchers as an honorary professor.
Few Canadians have witnessed the
rise of China, India, Japan and Korea
as closely as Caron. The emergence of
Asia furthers the globe's continuing
evolution into "multi-polar world" of
new and traditional powers, he says.
"America and Europe will survive
their travails and remain powerful
on the world stage," says Caron. "At
the same time, China is on the path of
superpower status, and India has great
potential if it can harness its growing
technological and economic might."
Caron's relationship with UBC
began nearly 20 years ago when he
collaborated with two of UBC's top
experts on Asia—Paul Evans of IAR
and the Liu Institute for Global Issues
and Brian Job of UBC's Dept. of Political
Science—on a plan for improved
security collaborations between Canada
and Japan.
"I feel like UBC has been part of
my world forever," says Caron, who
participated in the Vietnam cease-fire
"To really succeed
you need to learn
the language/1 says
Caron, who speaks
English, French,
Japanese and some
Mandarin and Hindi.
mission as a junior embassy official
in the 70s. "I really cherished the
opportunity to work closely with
Canadian universities when I was
abroad or visiting Canada."
Today, instead of advising federal
and provincial government and
business leaders as ambassador, Caron
shares his real-world experiences with
the next generation of leaders.
"It is very rewarding to work with
students," says Caron, who was
also Canada's top representative to
Mongolia, Bhutan and Nepal. "I hope
my experiences can help to illuminate
and clarify the theories that students
explore in studies and research."
One of Caron's key messages to
students is the importance of language
in diplomacy and business.
"To really succeed you need to learn
the language," says Caron, who speaks
English, French, Japanese and some
Mandarin and Hindi. "You need to be
able to speak directly to people and
read their newspaper and literature.
That's what sets the pros apart from
the visitors, and how you begin to truly
understand a country."
Caron helped organize eight G8
summits and served as the main
diplomatic staff for former Prime
Minister Jean Chretien and former
deputy Prime Minister John Manley at
four Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) summits.
Caron, who was born in 1947 and
raised in Pain Court in Southwestern
Ontario, says representing his fellow
citizens is an unforgettable honour.
"As corny as it sounds, the opportunity
to serve your fellow Canadians is truly
satisfying," Caron says. "It is thrilling to
operate in a milieu that is not your own.
I've had a front row seat to the world
and I've loved every minute of it." •
Learn more about UBC's Institute
of Asian Research at:
www.iar.ubc.ca
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia March 2011 Facts about Malawi
15
Million total population
11.9%
HIV prevalence among adults
68,000
Deaths/year from HIV/AIDS
90%
People living in rural areas
74%
People are living in poverty
53
Years life expectancy
90%
Subsistence farming
11,850,000
Hectares is the size of Malawi
"Since HIV can further impoverish those already poor,
we expect HIV-affected households to depend more on forests. CATERING   BY
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Vacation blues:
Global tourism can harm communities
Jet setting to exotic destinations is fun for travelers,
but one UBC researcher is looking at how tourism impacts local communities.
by Heather Amos
the
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celebrate
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2011
March 4-11,2011
A campus-wide showcase of
public events on a variety of
research topics and themes.
All members of the UBC
community are welcome.
Visit our online calendar of
events for more information.
celebrater
ubc.ca
You've been riding a bus through a foreign country and arrive
early in the morning in a town square. As you get off the bus,
young boys approach you and start speaking to you. They try
several languages—English, French, Italian, Arabic, Spanish,
Portuguese—waiting for you to pick up on one of them.
The boys are offering to help you with your luggage and
to direct you to a nearby hotel. Ifyou let them, they will get
a small sum of money from the hotel and maybe a tip. And
according to Jo-Anne Dillabough, an associate professor in the
Faculty of Education at UBC, tourist businesses like these are
a growing problem.
These businesses keep boys out of school, so although they
seem cosmopolitan and can speak five or six languages, they
won't have fundamental skills, like reading and writing.
Dillabough studies the global tourist industry, where
tourism develops from outside of a country and investors,
such as a large North American hotel chains, can gain financial
success with little benefit for the people who live there. This
work emerged out of some earlier research on male youth
subcultures, which Dillabough made into a book, Lost Youth
Culture in the Global City: Class, Culture and the Urban
Imaginary.
Today, she looks at how the global tourist industry has
changed the dynamic of local communities in Morocco and
Up to 40 per cent
of working class
male youth will
leave compulsory
elementary school
to work in the tourist
industry.
what this means for the young boys
growing up in the area.
"You'll see very young boys, sometimes
younger than nine years old, working in
the tourist markets and in the hotels,"
says Dillabough, who is also the David
Lam Chair in Multicultural Education.
"They stop going to school and work to
provide some income for their families."
Tourism took off in Morocco in the
late 1970s as a result of government
investment, which included a global
advertising campaign, and after groups
of hippies and celebrities like Cat
Stevens and Jimi Hendrix had visited
the area. Today, wealthy and influential
developers from Europe and North
America are developing rural villages
into major coastal tourist destinations.
Up to 40 per cent of working class
male youth will leave compulsory
elementary school to work in the
tourist industry, explains Dillabough.
Most of these boys are from
economically disadvantaged homes and
many live in single-parent families and
must work to provide for their families.
Dillabough and her colleagues at the
University of Cambridge, in the U.K.,
have found that many ofthe young
boys and men are thankful that tourists
come to their towns but they cannot see
the negative effects.
The tourist industry is keeping boys
out of school and it undermines their
hopes for education and employment
in the future. Dillabough says this
reality ultimately prevents the boys
from imagining alternative futures, and
tourism becomes the ultimate solution.
"It changes how the boys identify
themselves as cultural actors," says
the researcher. "It also changes the
village because it changes the memories
residents have of their own cultural
traditions."
"Many of us are guilty of going on
holiday and gazing 'exotically' at
something that we imagine is different,"
she says. "But this practice shapes how
local youth view their own cultural
traditions and in many cases forces
young people to refashion and market
their 'exotic' identities in order to
survive."
This issue is not unique to
Morocco, and Dillabough thinks that
international human rights groups
and academic researchers need to pay
more attention to the contradictions
associated with global tourism and the
constraints placed on these young men.
"The sociology ofthe global tourist
industry is not as well developed as
it could be," she says. "Particularly
concerning is the position of
economically disadvantaged young
people." •
Mobile school
In Morocco, where young boys often
don't finish school in order to work in
the tourist industry, Jo-Anne Dillabough,
an associate professor in the Faculty of
Education at UBC, is hoping to run a
pilot program testing the success of a
mobile school.
The school would allow both boys and
girls to be educated about other forms of
employment and about cultural and
political life more generally while they
continue to work in tourism. She also
hopes to educate young people about
some of the harms of global tourism,
including providing information on the
sex-trade and trafficking industry.
"The purpose is to assist in presenting
young people with wider political and
cultural images of their employment, as
well as providing them with a landscape
of possibilities that showcases multiple
paths into the future," says Dillabough.
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia   March 2011 I UBC I      a place of mind
BBC NEWS
CBS NEWS
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THE CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION
March 4-11 2011
THE ECONOMIST
THE FINANCIAL TIMES
THE GLOBE AND MAIL
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INSIDE HIGHER ED
KELOWNA DAILY COURIER
LE MONDE
MACLEAN'S
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USA TODAY
THE VANCOUVER SUN
THE WALL STREET JOURNAL
Last year, UBC's faculty researchers
and students made international news
headlines for their global advances.
Their initiatives, innovations and
insights are captured in the
2009110 Year in Headlines.
ubc.ca/yih
10:00 AM - 11:30 AM
Early Child Development:
From Cell to Society
Human Early Learning Partnership
Vancouver Campus
Library Processing Centre
12:30 PM - 4:30 PM
Creating Change, Creating Impact
Symposium
Universities Allied for Essential
Medicine/Neglected Global Diseases
Initiative
Vancouver Campus
Life Sciences Centre
5:00 PM - 7:30 PM
For Better or for Worse: Women's
Efforts to Promote Men's Health
School of Nursing
Off Campus
Cafe Scientifique/Juliet's Cafe
5
8:15 PM - 9:30 PM
UBC Excellence in Research Lecture
Vancouver Institute
Vancouver Campus
Woodward Instructional Resource Centre
7
10:00 AM - 12:00 PM
Recent Advances in Diabetes Treatment
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences/
Canadian Diabetes Association
Vancouver Campus
Telus Studio @ the Chan Centre
10:00 AM - 12:30 PM
Nursing Research: Impacting Lives/
2011 Research Day at Providence
Health Care Research Institute
Off Campus
St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver
10:00 AM - 1:00 PM
UBC Pain Lab Open House
Department of Psychology
Vancouver Campus
Douglas Kenny Building
12:00 PM - 1:00 PM
Microfluidics: From Jell-0
to diagnosing disease
rdCUILy (JI  /AppII c(J oClcllCc
Vancouver Campus
Michael Smith Laboratories
12:00 PM - 1:00 PM
Roadmap to an integrated design
and manufacturing of polymer
composite products
Lunchtime Feature Presentation
Okanagan Campus
University Centre Ballroom UNC200
5:00 PM - 7:30 PM
Marketing in the Social Interest
Sauder School of Business
UBC Robson Square
Theatre
5:00 PM - 7:00 PM
Wyman Lecture: Diversity and
Democracy
Faculty of Graduate Studies
Vancouver Campus
IKBLC Lillooet Room
5:00 PM - 7:00 PM
Chaucer and Multilingual Writing
in Medieval England
Green Collage
Vancouver Campus
Green College Coach House
5:00 PM - 7:00 PM
For Better or for Worse: Women's
Efforts to Promote Men's Health
Off Campus
Bohemian Cafe
525 Bernard Avenue, Kelowna
6:00 PM - 7:00 PM
Visioning low-carbon communities
to build energy literacy
Faculty of Forestry/
Faculty of Applied Science
Off Campus
Vancouver Public Library
7:00 PM
Ghana: Digital Dumping Ground
Film screening and panel discussion
Off Campus
Rotary Centre for the Arts
421 Cawston Avenue, Kelowna
8
10:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Heart + Lung FEST 2011
James Hogg Research Centre
Off Campus
Sheraton Wall Centre, Vancouver
10:00 AM - 3:00 PM
Postdoctoral Showcase
Postdoctoral Fellows Office
Vancouver Campus
St. John's College
12:00 PM - 1:00 PM
Forestry Research Seminar
Faculty of Forestry
Vancouver Campus
Forest Science Centre
12:00 PM - 1:00 PM
The "livable" suburbanized city:
post-politics and the influence
of Vancouver
Faculty of Applied Science
Vancouver Campus
Kaiser Building
12:00 PM to 1:00 PM
Memory politics and digital media:
a new chapter in Argentina's past
Lunchtime Feature Presentation
Okanagan Campus
University Centre Ballroom UNC200
3:00 PM - 5:00 PM
Postdocs in Medical Research
Child & Family Research Institute
Off Campus
Chan Centre for Family Health Education,
Vancouver
7:00 PM - 9:00 PM
Move It! New Aspects in Mobility
raCUIty OT IVIGQICIrlc
Off Campus
St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver
9
8:30 AM - 5:00 PM
Heart + Lung Health FEST 2011
James Hogg Research Centre
Off Campus
Sheraton Wall Centre, Vancouver
8:30 AM - 2:00 PM
Mutiple Sclerosis Workshop
endMS Research & Training Network,
Western Pacific
Vancouver Campus
UBC Brain Research Conference Room
12:00 PM - 1:00 PM
When it comes to Biomechanics...
is injury prevention the best medicine?
Faculty of Applied Science
Vancouver Campus
Kaiser Building
12:00 PM - 1:00 PM
Psychological ownership:
dilemmas in knowledge sharing, innovation
and change
Lunchtime Feature Presentation
Okanagan Campus
University Centre Ballroom UNC200
2:00 PM - 6:30 PM
Forestry Graduate
Research Poster Showcase
Faculty of Forestry
Vancouver Campus
Forest Sciences Centre Atrium
3:00 PM - 5:00 PM
Health Care: Does Collaboration
Make a Difference?
College of Health Disciplines
Vancouver Campus
Institutional Resource Centre
4:00 PM
Genomics and Medicine:
Should you be afraid?
Expert presentation and short film
screening
Genome BC
Okanagan Campus
Fipke Centre FIP140
5:00 PM - 7:00 PM
When efficiency trumps quality:
discussions about what happens when
health care is treated as a commodity
School of Nursing/CIHR
Off Campus
Roundhouse Cafe, Vancouver
5:30 PM - 6:30 PM
The Burgess-Lane Memorial Lecture
Faculty of Forestry
Vancouver Campus
Forest Sciences Centre
6:00 PM - 8:00 PM
Clean energy for the future
Faculty of Applied Science
Off Campus
Vancouver Public Library
10
8:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Heart + Lung Health FEST 2011
James Hogg R
CjCCII *^l I   \w
entre
Off Campus
Sheraton Wall Centre, Vancouver
10:00 PM - 5:00 PM
Sci Treck Tradeshow
UBC Supply Management
Vancouver Campus
Life Sciences Centre
12:00 PM - 1:00 PM
Future Delta: motivating climate
change action grounded in place
Lunchtime Feature Presentation
Okanagan Campus
University Centre Ballroom UNC200
12:30 PM - 1:30 PM
CfIS Your Degree in Three
College for Interdisciplinary Studies
Vancouver Campus
CK Choi Building
3:30 PM - 5:30 PM
Interactive Research Colloquium
on Health and Occupation
Department of Occupational Science
& Occupational Therapy
Off Campus
Vancouver General Hospital
5:30 PM - 8:00 PM
Celebrate Research Awards Gala
Office of the VP Research & International
Vancouver Campus
Old Auditorium
11
8:00 AM - 7:30 PM
Heart + Lung Health FEST 2011
James Hogg Research Centre
Off Campus
Sheraton Wall Centre, Vancouver
11:00 AM - 4:00 PM
School of Library
and Archival
Sciences
Research Day
and Archival Sciences
Vancouver Campus
Irving K. Barber Learning Centre
12
8:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Heart + Lung Health FEST 2011
James Hogg Research Centre
Off Campus
Sheraton Wall Centre, Vancouver
For more information on these and other Celebrate Research
events in Vancouver, visit: celebrateresearch.ubc.ca.
For more information on these and other Celebrate Research
events related to the UBC Okanagan Campus, visit:
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How can parents prevent
teenagers from dropping
out of high school?
by Vivian Tran and Basil Waugh
10
New UBC research finds that the importance parents place on
education at home can play a major factor on teens' decision
to continue high school or drop out.
This key finding of a new UBC - Copenhagen Business School
study raises new questions about how parents' education
levels influence high school dropout rates.
Previous studies have shown that children are far more
likely to drop out of high school if their parents are also high
school dropouts. For example, recent data suggests boys
whose parents dropped out of high school have a 16 per cent
chance of dropping out of school themselves. That's compared
to a dropout rate of less than one per cent for boys whose
parents both have university degrees.
However, UBC economists Giovanni Gallipoli, David Green
and Kelly Foley (who is now at the Copenhagen Business
School) suggest that the family trait that matters most is not
parental education, but how much parents value education.
To date, researchers have focused on two areas to explain
dropout rates by family education levels: contrasts in
cognitive (literacy, skills acquisition and problem-solving)
and non-cognitive skills (self-esteem, motivation, efficacy,
perseverance and initiative) of children.
The new study, released by the Canadian Labour Market and
Skills Researcher Network (CLSRN), quantifies the influence
of these skills on the dropout decision, but also explores the
role of parental valuations of education, which they define as
the social and economic importance of education that parents
express to their children.
The researchers find that children with identical skill levels
maybe more or less likely to complete school depending on
their parents' characteristics and inclinations. For example,
children with median level skills are far less likely to drop out
of high school if their parents place a high value on education.
Similarly, a boy whose parents never finished high school
will be just as likely to drop out as another boy whose parents
both have a Bachelors degree if those boys have similar skill
levels and their parents place the same value on education.
"This suggests that the family trait that matters most is
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia   March 2011
not parental education, but how much
parents value education," says Gallipoli.
"This is important because it shows that
kids can still thrive in school if parents
make education a priority around the
house. A parent's education isn't as
important as we previously thought."
According to the researchers,
parents can express the importance of
education in a variety of ways, including
family discussions about educational
opportunities and benefits, rewards
for academic performance and college
savings accounts. An ongoing study
will help to determine which parental
strategies are most effective.
The researchers argue that their
results suggest dropout rates can
be reduced in ways other than the
slow, cross-generational process of
raising parental education and early
skill development, although parental
valuations of education are also likely to
be deeply ingrained and difficult to shift
except over the very long run.
The authors also suggest governments
can support parents by expanding
mentoring programs and extending
hours in school and publicly provided
childcare. •
View the study here: clsrn.econ.ubc.ca
New protocols could transform
telecommunications
For the past decade, the telecommunications industry has been researching
ways to harness and pool energy from individual cell phones as a way
to boost the entire network.
by Lorraine Chan
Such a system could use the existing
hardware and signals for mobile
communications.
UBC researcher Diomidis
Michalopoulos has developed
communication protocols that help to
move wireless providers one step closer
to this vision.
A postdoctoral fellow in the Dept. of
Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Michalopoulos focused on principles of
fairness and efficiency to anticipate the
ebbs and flows of energy usage.
"Similar to how geese fly in a V
formation so they're stronger and more
aerodynamic, my protocols will assess
and select channels based on signal
strength and energy level."
Michalopoulos has garnered
international recognition for his
discovery. In 2010, he was one of
three scientists worldwide to receive
a Marconi Young Scholar Award. The
award recognizes scientists who have
made a major impact in their field by
the age of 27—Guglielmo Marconi's age
when he made the first transatlantic
radio transmission in 1901.
"Diomidis' work has a very clear
application that can be
commercialized to benefit society,"
says Panos Nasiopoulos, Director ofthe
1
The power transmitted by cellular
subscribers is variable and depends
on the distance—and generally the
environment—between the user and
network antenna.
2
If there is an obstacle between the user
and the network antenna, the user
requires extra power. Depending on the
size of the obstacle, communication may
be impossible due to dead zones.
Institute for Computer, Information
and Cognitive Systems (ICICS).
"Diomidis' ideas may lead to a major
overhaul ofthe telecommunications
industry," says Prof. Robert Schober,
ICICS member and Michalopoulos's
supervisor in the Dept. of Electrical and
Computer Engineering.
Currently, wireless service providers
have to set up a network of terminals to
provide coverage.
As well, mobile networks will be able
to host a large number of users beyond
the current saturation point ofthe
existing infrastructure.
"Consider having to host a dinner,"
says Michalopoulos. "It's much easier
to feed a large number of guests if
you ask them to contribute to the
communal food. Similarly, ifyou have
a network system where users will
offer part of their resources to assist
"Similarly, if you have a network system
where users will offer part of their resources
to assist other users, the network can host
considerably more users."
The signal is relayed from the source
to destination terminals, supported
by a network of relay terminals so that
information reaches its destination—
the user.
"Right now, telecommunications
companies are scrambling to keep up
with customers' appetite for mobile
content, from text messages to video on
demand," says Michalopoulos.
However, with a system where each
cell phone user is acting as a mobile
relay, the entire network is strengthened - resulting in fewer dropped
calls and dead zones in areas such as
basements.
"A network using the protocols like
the ones I'm working on would increase
coverage in low-signal areas and be
able to re-route around obstacles,"
Michalapoulos says.
other users, the network can host
considerably more users."
By pooling resources, individual
users and the network as a whole
would consume less energy. Along
with reducing transmission power, the
cooperative energy model would lessen
environmental impact since service
providers wouldn't need to build fixed
base stations.
Michalopoulos points out that
cooperative mobile communications
presents an ideal model for China
and India, where the penetration of
wireless users is much higher than in
North America.
"Given the population density of
those regions and the number of cell
phone users, those countries could use
a different network structure than the
one in the Western world." •
3
With a cooperative communications model,
users can assist each other to overcome dead zones
and also reduce transmission distances, thus cutting down
on the amount of transmission power required.
11 www.aplaceofmind.ubc.ca
A daily aggregation of co
1 University of British
UBC's newest school
gets a new director
By Patricia Hal
Crocodile tears?
Facial clues reveal
fake or sincere
remorse
by Jody Jacob
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to address critical local and
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www.ionapacific.ca
Course Offering,
Faith and Modernity:
Islam in a Secular Age
July 11-15, 2-5 pm
Public Lecture,
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Citizenship, Identity, Anxiety
Tuesday, July 12, 7 pm
Amyn B. Sajoo is a scholar at Simon Fraser
University's Centre for the Comparative Study
of Muslim Societies & Cultures
Dr. David Patrick will take up the post of director of the School of Population and Public Health in April
Ask Dr. David Patrick about Canada's early explorer David
Thompson, and he'll tell you how his leadership style is still
relevant today.
"He took the time to try to understand the First Nations he
was meeting along the way," says Patrick, who will become
the new director ofthe School of Population and Public
Health (SPPH) in April. "He wasn't up on a podium looking
for laurels. He was just doing a thoroughly professional job
of exploring the unknown, mapping it, and making the world
more accessible."
SPPH—UBC's newest school—houses 45 full-time faculty,
125 clinical, adjunct, associate and emeritus faculty, 83
administrative and research staff, and 250 graduate students.
Its research and teaching focus on themes within population
and public health: epidemiology and biostatistics; global
health and indigenous populations; health care services
and systems; maternal-child health; occupational and
environmental health; public health, emerging threats and
rapid response; and social and life course determinants of
health. Faculty members and students conduct research here
and around the world.
A recent example of SPPH faculty impacting health
internationally is Assoc. Prof. Steve Morgan, who was
appointed to the World Health
Organization's Consultative Expert
Working Group on Research and
Development. Morgan is bringing
his expertise in the economics of
pharmaceutical markets and drug
development to the working group's
wide range of international experts.
"The formation ofthe school that
[founding Director] Martin Schechter
catalyzed is allowing the full critical
mass at UBC to come together, with
the potential for a much bigger impact
on policy and research provincially,
nationally and internationally," says
Patrick. "We need to be a home for
anyone interested in our overall vision
and mission of population and public
health regardless of their discipline—
from the humanities through any
aspect ofthe sciences. SPPH brings
the potential for broad interdisciplinary contributions not simply to the
health care system, but to the broader
applications of population health and
public health prevention."
Prior to coming to this new role,
Patrick served as Associate Director of
STD/AIDS Control, then as Director of
Epidemiology Services at the BC Centre
for Disease Control. He completed his
MD in Ottawa and his internal medicine
and infectious diseases training in
1991. Early in his tenure at BCCDC,
he completed the Master of Health
Sciences at UBC.
"Strangely enough, it was the
epidemiology course I took from Martin
Schechter that sealed my interest in
this path," he says. Patrick joined the
Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology
as an associate professor in 2001 before
becoming a full professor in SPPH in
2009.
"Teaching brings me back to the
roots of curiosity—why seeking new
A new study led by Leanne ten Brinke,
a PhD Candidate of psychology at
UBC's Okanagan campus, investigates
how genuine and falsified remorse
reveals itself on the human face, and
how these facial clues can help detect
whether a person is faking regret or
sincerely sorry.
Published in February in
the journal Law and Human Behavior,
ten Brinke's study examined and
coded the facial behaviors associated
with emotional deception in
videotaped accounts of true personal
wrongdoing, accompanied by either
genuine or fabricated remorse, among
31 Canadian undergraduate students.
"From the coding process we knew
what emotions were present,
we knew the duration of each emotion,
and we also knew the sequence,"
says ten Brinke. "So we were able
to compare these variables in the
context of genuine and falsified
remorse."
"We were able to
compare these
variables in the
context of genuine
and falsified
h
remorse.
The study's findings have important
implications forjudges and parole
board members, who look for genuine
remorse when they make their
sentencing and release decisions.
"Obviously offenders are motivated
to pretend to be remorseful and legal
decision makers are motivated to
detect crocodile tears," says ten
Brinke.
knowledge is not just important but also
good fun," he says.
When he's not working, Patrick is
cycling, skiing, sailing, or blowing off
steam on his trumpet with his rhythm
and blues or jazz bands. Or he's spending
time with his wife of 23 years, Patricia,
and their two teenage daughters.
Although he'll be continuing with some
communicable disease research and his
teaching, he plans to devote his efforts to
leading SPPH and renewing its strategic
plan.
"I'm going to be spending the majority
of my time here on campus trying to make
sure this ship is on the right course," he
says. "What I aspire to do in a leadership
position here is to keep this place imbued
with a sense of optimism about what it
can become." •
Her analysis of nearly 300,000
frames of both the upper and lower face
showed that participants who displayed
false remorse exhibited more ofthe
seven universal emotions (happiness,
sadness, fear, disgust, anger, surprise,
and contempt) than those who were
genuinely sorry.
"We found that during falsified
remorse, people showed a greater
range of emotional expression,"
she says. "They were more likely to
show anger and contempt, where as
the genuine folks didn't show these
kinds of emotions."
Working with colleagues Stephen
Porter and Brian O'Connor from
the Centre for the Advancement
of Psychology and Law (CAPSL) at
UBC's Okanagan campus, and Sarah
MacDonald from Memorial University
of Newfoundland, ten Brinke's research
showed that the sequence of facial
emotions could also reveal important
clues to deception.
"Particularly in the lower face, liars
were much more likely to be what we
termed as 'emotionally turbulent,'"
says ten Brinke. "This means they
were more likely to jump from positive
to negative emotions immediately.
During genuine remorse, people
are more likely to return to a neutral
emotion in between the extremes." •
12
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia March 2011
13 outtakes
Reflections on academic life
Water waves and physics
by Lorraine Chan
UBC physicists and civil engineers have successfully tested a theory by eminent
physicist Stephen Hawking. In 1974, Hawking posited that black holes emit a weak
level of radiation even as they exert gravitational pulls so strong that little can
Professor Greg Lawrence reads the waves in a six-metre flume
M
Our bodies simply
don't know how to
respond to such
a diet, which is
unprecedented in our
evolutionary history."
escape, not even light. The UBC team published results in a recent issue of
Physical Review Letters.
Study co-author Prof. Gregory Lawrence, who teaches in the Faculty of Applied
Science, helped to design simple experiments that featured water flowing over an
obstacle in a six-metre flume. Holder of a Canada Research Chair in Environmental
Fluid Mechanics, Lawrence provided expertise in investigating an analogy between
water waves and black holes.
How did you get involved in this study?
I was intrigued by [UBC theoretical physicist] Bill Unruh's discovery that the
mathematical equations describing some aspects ofthe physics of black holes are the
same as those governing water waves in a moving fluid.
Were you surprised that you got the results you did?
It was a collaboration that you could never plan. Frankly, we achieved more than I
had dreamed possible with such simple equipment in such a short period of time.
It has been the most fulfilling research experience I've had.
What was one of the "aha" moments?
At one point, Bill and I were watching long waves in the flume and saw something
we didn't expect: a small group of short waves that appeared after the long waves
disappeared. It was very subtle, but we had seen something new. We turned to each
other and it was like "Did you see that, or was it a ghost?"
What made the research experience so fulfilling?
Several things. The experience of working with an interdisciplinary team on a
problem that was completely new to me. The discovery of results of great interest to
theoretical physics using simple experiments performed in a flume usually devoted
to undergraduate teaching. The realization that these experiments also revealed new
aspects of water wave mechanics that are counter to what I had been taught.
The prospect that our results are of engineering relevance, for example, to the study
of flooding caused by tsunamis traveling up rivers. Finally, I used to stick my hand in
the flume to illustrate waves travelling upstream. But it didn't work because I wasn't
imposing long enough waves. In future I will ensure that I generate longer waves. •
Learn more about the findings at: www.science.ubc.ca/news/505.
To learn more about Prof. Lawrence's research,
visit: www.civil.ubc.ca/people/faculty/faculty-lawrence.php ft »1
H •<
We had a hunch that
if we brought together
a diverse range of UBC voices,
the result would be inspiring.
We were right.
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