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UBC Reports Feb 22, 1973

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REPORTS
VOLUME     NINETEEN,    NUMBER     FOUR
FEBRUARY 22, 1973, VANCOUVER 8, B.C.
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O UBC's award-winning urban vehicle
(above) — nicknamed the Wally
Wagon to honor UBC's President,
Dr. Walter H. Gage - will be on
display March 2 and 3 in the
laboratories of the Department of
Me chanical Engineering on
University Boulevard (see front
cover map) during Open House
1973. Arriving on campus for Open
House by parachute (left) is not
recommended for anyone but
members of the UBC Skydiving
Club, who will display their skills
for onlookers during the triennial,
two-day event. Pictures by the UBC
Photo Department.
\
w^^
kf/' ^
have a
good day
The Walrus stood in uff ish thought
And squinted mightily;
His flipper slowly circled
The dates March 2 and 3.
"I must remind the Carpenter,
It's Open House at UBC."
"One problem," said the Carpenter,
"There's such a lot to see."
The Walrus cleared his throat and said,
"But all of it is free.
And that I have upon
The best authority."
"I'm told," the Carpenter intoned,
"Since nineteen seventy.
They've done a cunning thing and built
A subterranean library.
Not to mention something new
For Geology."
"In the new Gage Residence, they say.
Students live communally.
And what is all this talk I hear
About the IRC."
The Walrus wept, "It is too much
To contemplate," said he.
"Perhaps," the Walrus said, "they'll make
The Carillon to ring.
And all of us can stand around
And sing and sing and sing."
The Carpenter said, "I'd rather watch
Each one do his thing."
"That's what it's all about, you know,"
The Walrus said with glee.
"The faculty and students -■>
Can let the public see.
How its money's being spent,
Out at UBC."
We have to admit that the Walrus and the Carpenter*
do, indeed, have a problem facing them on March 2 an£
3, when the University will stage its triennial Open
House.
Namely, how to take in, in a mere two days, the
displays and exhibits that will be staged by students and
faculty members in UBC's 12 Faculties, which are, iK
turn, made up of some 100 Departments. y
Add to this the demonstrations that will be put on by
a myriad of student clubs which specialize in everything
from skydiving to musical comedy and you have a giant
smorgasbord of activity, both intellectual and non-
intellectual.
One sensible way of taking part in Open House is t6
decide in advance that you're going to visit only those
new buildings which have been built since the campus
was last thrown open to the general public in 1970.
Such a decision will enable you to visit building*
valued at more than $30,000,000, while at the same
time viewing research and teaching facilities in such areas
as medicine, geology, pharmacy, the biological sciences,
nuclear physics and physical education as well as other
important UBC developments in the shape of library
buildings and student residences. •.
A stop at the new Instructional Resources Centre (the
"IRC" mentioned by the Carpenter above) will enable
you to see one of the most advanced facilities anywhere
in the world for the training of students in the health
by jim banham,
editor, ubc reports
BfcSJUr :-. V.* V
Supergraphics that grace the walls of UBC's recently-completed
Sedgewick Library (left), which has been built under the Main Mall, will
provide Open House visitors with a minor psychedelic experience. UBC
gymnasts (above) will display their talents in the University's athletic
facilities. Sedgewick Library picture by Ray Lum.
**-
sciences. The IRC is, of course, part of a cluster of
buildings known as the Health Sciences Centre, a major
^development that is designed to provide integrated
teaching and research facilities for students and faculty
members in medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy and
rehabilitation medicine. In short, you could spend your
whole visit exploring only this one complex.
We suggest, however, that you alsq try to visit the
vnew Geological Sciences Centre where, once you get by
the dinosaur that inhabits the building's main  lobby,
there will be a variety of displays and demonstrations to
peruse.
_____    Farther to the north you'll be able to go underground
and   wander  through   the   recently-opened  Sedgewick
"Library, which contains some 150,000 books and seating
accommodation for about 2,000 students. The super-
graphics that adorn the walls make it a minor psychedelic experience, as well.
r To the east of the new Library is the new Walter Gage
Residence, where groups of six male or female students
live communally, sharing one of four quadrants on each
of the 16 floors of the high-rise towers. Some demonstration rooms in the towers will be open and students
will be on hand to guide visitors.
-i No matter how intent you are on seeing what's new
at UBC, your peripatetic wanderings are likely to
encounter numerous digressions. Between the buildings
mentioned above there are, of course, other buildings
and you may find your attention taken up by everything
from developments in agricultural engineering through
environmental control to the presentation of an ancient
Roman play in the Buchanan Building by students and
faculty members in the Classics Department.
There will, of course, be other digressions of a
non-intellectual nature.
Wandering in the vicinity of the Main Library you're
likely to see a member of the student Varsity Outdoor
Club rapelling down the stone face of that building as
part of a mountaineering demonstration. Members of the
UBC Skydiving Club plan to invade the campus regularly
by parachute, landing on the playing field adjacent to
the Student Union Building, which will be another hive
of student club activity, encompassing everything from a
baby-sitting service to a typical Chinese garden, constructed by the Chinese Varsity Club.
If your feet get tired you can do one of two things.
You can get everything from a cup of coffee to a
full-course meal in any one of the cafeterias and snack
bars dotted around the campus or you can just sit and
listen to the talk.
Talk, as you're probably aware, is one of the
mainstays of life at a university and UBC is no
exception. There will be an amazing variety of short
lecture-demonstrations throughout the University, of
course, but there are a couple of longer events that you
may wish to sit in on. The UBC Alumni Association is
sponsoring a debate on the resolution that "Formal
University Education is Obsolete" in the Conversation
Pit of the Student Union Building beginning at 11 a.m.
on March 3, and that evening a UBC astronomy
professor. Dr. Michael Ovenden, will tell you how he
"re-discovered" a lost planet that once circled our sun
and exploded some 16,000,000 years ago. He speaks in
Room 106 of the Buchanan Building at 8:15 p.m.
If you're a graduate of UBC the Alumni Association
hopes you'll drop in at their headquarters at Cecil Green
Park for a reception beginning at 2 p.m. on March 3.
And if you are curious about the shape of things to
come at UBC you should plan to visit the Ponderosa
Cafeteria building on the West Mall, where models of
UBC's planned Museum of Man and the Botanical
Garden will be on display. At this same location a host
of people representing the Registrar's Office, the Dean
of Women's Office and the Centre for Continuing
Education will be on hand to tell you how you can
become a student again.
There'll be lots of student guides on hand to tell you
how to get to areas that interest you and there'll be a
special issue of the student newspaper, The Ubyssey,
available to give fuller details of what's available to see
and hear.
Oh, yes - the hours. The campus is open from 3 to
10 p.m. on Friday, March 2, and from 10 a.m. to 10
p.m. on Saturday, March 3.
Have a good day.
Model of UBC's new Museum of Man to he
constructed on the UBC campus will he on
display in the Ponderosa Cafeteria at the comer
of University Boulevard and the West Mall
during Open House. L/C.MIN IK IIILII Will I Q, pictured above, head of UBC's
Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, steers a difficult course between the
goal of improving academic standards in his Faculty on the UBC campus and devising ways
in which members of the business community can be utilized as a resource in planning the
curriculum and teaching students. His philosophy is that the sought-for point of equilibirum
may exist when five per cent of both the University and business communities are
dissatisfied with what the Faculty is doing.
RCE BUILDS
Mr. Frank Kearney, the general manager of one of
B.C.'s largest real estate and development firms, sliced
off a generous chunk of his medium-rare steak and gazed
reflectively around the small group of company
executives, UBC faculty members and students who had ^
joined him for lunch.
"People," he said. "Our biggest problem is getting
good people. You have no idea how much time and
energy this company expends trying to find the right
people for the jobs that we have to offer. You'd think it
would be easy, but it isn't. ^
"We are looking to the University of B.C. and the
Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration in *
particular as a source of supply of bright young people
who are interested in careers in real estate, in everything
from administration to appraisal, land management and
selling. v   I
"But they must understand that a university degree is
just a beginning. They still have a lot to learn in this
business, or in any other for that matter."
Half a city away, in his book-lined sixth-floor office
in the Henry Angus Building on the University of B.C.
campus, Dean Philip H. White, the man with the
ultimate responsibility for producing people for Mr.
Kearney's workaday world, reflected on the relationships between his Faculty of Commerce and Business
Administration and the community.
TWO BROAD AREAS     -
He sees two broad areas of University involvement "*
with businessmen. One is the responsibility for providing
education and training programs for persons already
established in their careers and the other is to find ways
in which the business community can be used more
effectively as a resource for both students and faculty in
the planning and teaching of undergraduate and graduate
programs. _ftr_t
In doing so, Dean White runs into the classic
"damned if you do, damned if you don't" situation.
"If you get too involved with downtown business the
University community says you are not paying sufficient
attention to academic standards. But if you don't try to i-«
establish a dialogue with businessmen you are criticized   ^
for  living   in   an   ivory  tower,  out of touch with  the
requirements of the business community," he said.
Somewhere in between there is a happy medium, or
should we say an unhappy medium?
"I sometimes think that the equilibrium point for a -v
Faculty   such  as ours is for the University community    _,
and   the   business   community   to   be   five   per   cent
dissatisfied with what the Faculty is doing," Dean White
added.
As   it   heads   towards   this   equilibrium   point,   the
Faculty is exploring new ways of opening up channels of **
communication with businessmen. „
Luncheons, such as the one referred to above, are
being scheduled on 29 Thursdays throughout the academic year. The luncheons are hosted either by the
Faculty or by participating business firms and are
attended by three students, three businessmen and two -«
faculty members.
"They are proving a very useful device for the
participants to exchange ideas about the things that are
going on in the business world and at the University,"
the dean said.
The Faculty's Undergraduate Curriculum Review •*
Committee invited businessmen to make submissions to
it. "We were interested in hearing what businessmen
have to say about our curriculum and what ideas they
might have about revising it," says Dr. Michael Goldberg,
chairman of the committee.
The  Executive Programs Division of the Faculty is •-
expanding its offerings beyond non-credit short courses, „
seminars and  institutes to programs such as the "Distinguished   Discussion  Series,"  designed  to bring outstanding businessmen,  politicians and  academicians to
Vancouver to speak on topics of interest to businessmen.
Each of the other divisions of the Faculty is involved w
in some form of communication with the particular area
of the business community that it serves. Two examples
are   an   advisory   committee   of   businessmen   in   the
Finance Division and a close relationship with profes-
i /■ trf* i-» ^../f^.i oo   i mo By John Arnett, UBC Reports Staff Writer
BRIDGES WITH BUSINESS WORLD
sional   associations   by   members   of   the   Division   of
Accounting and Information Systems.
Dr. Whatarangi Winiata, associate professor in the
Finance Division of the Faculty, says the liaison com-
^.mittee between his division and businessmen has been
active for two years.
"This kind of communication is, we believe, essential,
but the form that it takes should be examined very
closely and this is what we are in the process of doing,"
he says.
j_. The committee was originally set up to provide
two-way communication between faculty members and
businessmen. "The idea was to give businessmen some
idea of what we were doing while at the same time we
obtain feedback in areas like curriculum development,
research, visiting lecturers and general public relations."
Meetings have been held two or three times a year
with a guest speaker or discussion groups on selected
''topics but, adds Dr. Winiata, both businessmen ancl
faculty members are concerned that the committee has
not lived up to its original expectations.
"Some members of the Faculty would like to see it
continued in its present form, others would like to see it
replaced with small working groups that would deal with
^specific problem areas."
The Division of Accounting and Information Systems
has a close liaison with professional associations in
business. The Division has an advisory council, made up
of faculty members and chartered accountants, which
meets four or five times a year. A second advisory group
►involving faculty and representatives of three professional accounting associations — chartered accountants,
certified general accountants and registered industrial
accountants — has also been formed.
While the primary reason for such advisory groups is
to plan continuing education programs for professional
accountants,   the   contacts   give   faculty   members   an
opportunity to find out what is going on in the "real
world" of business, says Mr. C.L. Mitchell, chairman of
the Division of Accounting and Information Systems.
"The analogy of the business world being our
laboratory   is  quite   frequently   used.   We  can  use the
•experiences   of   the   businessman   to  obtain   empirical
M evidence and test hypotheses."
Mr. Mitchell says the Division has not, in the past,
sought formal advice from professional associations on
course content. "However, this is being done on an
informal basis. We might discuss with t£ix accountants,
-"-for example, what they wouldlike to see offered in a
v course. We then examine our own offerings to see if
there are any gaps. We then look at those gaps to see
whether or not they should be filled.
"We then ask ourselves whether or not the material
that   is   included   in   their   body   of   knowledge   has  a
"^conceptual content that permits generalized principles to
,be established. If that body of knowledge is so technical
or specialized that it cannot be generalized then we
think it is better for the student to acquire this
knowledge within the profession."
ESTABLISH CONTACTS
Mr. Mitchell says faculty members within the Division
hold memberships in such organizations as the Institute
of Management Science, the Society for Management
Information Systems, the Data Processing Management
* Association, the Financial Executives Association, the
Estate Planning Council, the Canadian Tax Foundation
and so on.
"These memberships permit a two-way interchange.
We hope that we can make some contribution to the
organization's    development    through     informal     discissions,  participation  in committees and  so on.  Our
__, faculty members in turn establish valuable contacts that
can be of assistance, for example, to students in doing
research and finding employment as well as keeping our
faculty members up-to-date on current business practice.
We sometimes find, through such contacts, that business
^ practice  is in  advance of some of the theory that we
teach."
Dr. Goldberg, an associate professor in the Faculty, is
involved in building up contacts with the business
community for an entirely different reason.
As chairman of the Faculty's Curriculum Undergraduate Review Committee he went to great lengths to
seek out the views of businessmen on what they would
like to see included in the curriculum.
The report, completed in January and now before the
Faculty for study, called for closer ties with what it
termed the "real world." It suggested that this could be
accomplished through an interneship program in business  and   industry  for  students;  greater  emphasis  on
Research
Funds
Increase
Research funds gt^med t© members of the
Faculty of Commerce and Business
Administration have increased dramatically
over the past seven years - from $12,000 in
1966-67 to $163,443 in the current academic
year.
Fifty-two members of the total faculty of 80
have been allocated research grants for 29
different projects.. Grants range from a few
hundred dollars fmm-UBC funds to a $61,580
federal Department of Industry, Trade and
Commerce grant shared by five faculty
members-
Sources of research grants include: the
Canada Council, the Canada Transport Council,
the Defence Research Board, the National
Research Council, the Department of National
Health and Welfare, Central Mortgage and
Housing, plus a number of B.C. agencies and
associations.
UBC's Research Administrator, Dr., Richard
Spratley, says one of the measures of the
academic quality of a Faculty is the amount of
research money that its members receive.
"When you. consider the increasing
competition for research funds on a
country-wide basis, UBC's Faculty of
Commerce and Business Administration has
been doing extremely well," he says.
Total research support in the past seven
years is as follows: 1966-67 - $12,000;
1967-68 - $13,393; 1968-69 - $52,253;
1969-70 - $90,224; 1970-71 - $157,432;
1971-72 - $142,555; 1972-73 - $163,443.
The Faculty is also thfe recipient of a
$350,000 grant from the Canadian
International Development Agency to develop
new programs in the Division of Accounting at
the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. This
project will extend over 4% years.
application and experience as opposed to theory and
concepts; appointment of businessmen as "clinical professors" or businessmen-in-residence; greater use of
business people for research purposes; and encouragement of year-round and night-time operation of the
University to interest working people in taking courses
and interacting with students and staff.
"The lack of views of business people represented one
of the great gaps in previous policy discussions in this
Faculty," the report said.
Stereotyped images of businessmen being interested
solely in efficiency and profit were often dispelled
during meetings that the Curriculum Review Committee
held with businessmen.
One such meeting, late one afternoon in the Faculty
Club, sparked spirited discussion on creativity. One of
the businessmen present criticized young graduates for
being insensitive to the creativity of business.
He added: "A place must be found somewhere in the
curriculum to discuss the 'creative challenge' of business.
There is far too much talk about people in business
being interested solely in making money and too little
talk about the creative faculties that it satisfies."
This  increasing   interaction with  the  business com
munity comes at a time when UBC s Faculty of
Commerce and Business Administration has established
itself as one of the leading business schools in Canada.
Listed among its faculty members are men who have
distinguished themselves in the fields of labor relations,
transportation, finance, accountancy, business and politics.
The Faculty's graduate program has been accredited
by the prestigious Association of American Collegiate
Schools of Business. Such accreditation — the only one
given outside of the United States to date — is given only
after an exhaustive examination of the program offered.
Another measure of the success of the graduate program
is that it is attracting an increasing number of students
from other parts of the continent and the world.
While enrolment in most other Faculties on campus
has levelled off or shown a slight decline, the number of
students in the Faculty of Commerce and Business
Administration in 1972-73 has jumped by nearly 15 per
cent over 1971-72 to a total of 1,380 students for the
current Winter Session.
The Faculty's graduates are among leaders in the
business and industrial world. To name a few: Mr. Art
Phillips, Mayor of Vancouver; Mr. Taferra De Gueffe,
Governor of the Bank of Ethiopia; Mr. W.R. Clerihue,
President of Chemcell; Mr. Richard Higgins, President of
Canada's newest bank. The Unity Bank; Mr. Donovan
Miller, President of the Canadian Fishing Co. Ltd and a
former member of UBC's Board of Governors.
An eminent U.S. business educator and visiting
professor during the fall of 1972 in the Finance Division
of the Faculty, Dr. Alexander A. Robichek, professor of
finance at the Graduate School of Business at Stanford
University, says he was impressed with everything he had
seen during his stay at UBC.
"The faculty is a well-diversified group and there are
people who are doing some extremely interesting research in areas such as investment, money capital
markets, financial institutions and international
finance," he savs.
BRIGHT FUTURE
"And, potentially, the Faculty has a very bright
future because enrolment in all of the major U.S.
business schools is levelling off and there is not the
competition for new faculty members that there has
been in the past."
The Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, one of 12 Faculties on the UBC campus, is
internally organized into eight divisions, covering
accounting and management information, finance, international business, management science, marketing,
organizational behavior and industrial relations, transportation and utilities and urban land economics.
The Faculty offers undergraduate studies leading to a
Bachelor of Commerce degree and a graduate program
leading to a Master of Business Administration, Master
of Science in Business Administration and Doctor of
Philosophy. The Faculty also offers a two-year Licentiate in Accounting program.
The Faculty also runs a variety of professional and
diploma courses in accounting, banking, urban land
economics, management, marketing and sales management.
The Executive Development Program offers a comprehensive series of workshops and seminars designed to
give businessmen opportunities to keep up with new
developments in business theory and practice.
The Faculty had its beginnings in 1916 when the
Vancouver Board of Trade established a committee to
meet with representatives of the young University of
B.C. to discuss the possibility of setting up a course
leading to the Bachelor of Commerce degree.
A year later the UBC Senate approved a recommendation that a commerce course be established
"subject to the provision of the necessary funds."
Despite repeated attempts to get the program started,
those funds were not forthcoming until 12 years later,
when   courses   leading   to   the   B.   Com.   degree  were
Please turn to Page Nine
See GENERAL EDUCATION
I ID/"   D„„,
./cu   oo   -imo/c s
'UPPOSE   you   are   the
Minister of Health in a dictatorship.
You have a budget of $100,000.
For that money you can remove 170 acutely-infected
appendixes or repair 40 diseased hearts by open-heart
surgery.
Which would you choose?
Would you favor appendectomies on the grounds that
heart disease is an ailment of middle age and people who
suffer from it have lived at least half their lives anyway?
Or would you spend the money on open-heart
surgery because middle-aged heart-disease victims have
contributed a couple of productive decades or more to
society and have "earned" their operations?
Or would you simply toss a coin, remembering that
open-heart operations are done on children with congenially malformed hearts and that many middle-aged
people suffer from appendicitis.
If you could afford only one operation for lung
cancer and two patients were eligible, one who ignored
all warnings and smoked all his life and the other who
gave up smoking, which one would you give the
operation to?
These aren't academic questions. They are the kind of
problems society is just now beginning to face. They are
problems of which diseases are treated and which are
not, which community gets the new medical centre, who
lives and who dies.
The process has begun of arranging the almost endless
list of our health demands into some kind of priority.
Many of low priority will simply go begging.
This kind of selection is an exquisitely sensitive
subject. It's an activity most people find repugnant.
Many of us would rather not know that it goes on.
Anyone who takes the activity seriously is confronted
with a crushing weight of doubt.
Who should decide who is treated and who isn't? The
public? The health professionals? The government? And
if that isn't controversial enough, how should the choice
be made?
These are fearful questions. They are now being asked
because the entire health care machine is being examined
nut by nut and bolt by bolt for the first time in North
America. It's being taken apart because many people are
dissatisfied with it. The old model has outlived its
usefulness, many people say, and it's time for a new one.
But the job isn't as simple as that. Many health experts
can't even agree on what parts of the old machine should
be examined or what to examine them with.
How do you measure good health care, whether
you're getting the biggest bang for your health dollar?
By the number of doctors? By the number of people
occupying each hospital bed each year? Does good
health care mean more people in hospital beds, or does it
mean fewer? This vagueness allows both defenders and
critics of the present health system to argue about "the
quality of health care" with impunity.
You might well ask how we got into this mess. A
guess might be that our legislation hasn't kept pace with
technological and social changes.
Traditionally, money has been the most important
factor in deciding who gets medical treatment and who
doesn't. But attempts have been made throughout
history to ensure treatment for those who couldn't
afford it. Many towns in Europe in the Middle Ages
hired doctors to treat citizens regardless of their ability
to pay. The demand for medical treatment reached such
proportions in France in 1375 that the king allowed
quacks to practice because physicians and surgeons were
too expensive for most people. And in 1542 the
"Quacks' Charter" in England gave quacks the same
privileges for the same reasons.
il
|PART from the ability
of patients to pay, another dampening factor on the
demand for medical treatment in the past was the little
help doctors could give the sick. One of the first
examples of medical statistics is a report of an experiment carried out in a European hospital before the
arrival of modern medicine. Patients entering the hospital with pneumonia — then a common cause of death —
were divided into three groups. The first group received
phlebotomy or were bled, the second were given emetics
to make them vomit and the third weren't treated at all.
Phlebotomy and emetics were common treatments.
About 20 per cent of the phlebotomy and 21 per cent of
emetic patients died compared with seven per cent of
the pneumonia victims who were left alone.
The tremendous power of modern medicine is relatively recent. Up until the beginning of this century
medicine could do very little for the sick. People went to
doctors when they were acutely ill and seldom before.
Hospitals were places where people died.
Today we all know how effective modern health
treatment can be for many ailments, including some of
the most complicated. Technological advances have
placed some of the most stubborn diseases within the
grasp of treatment, though sometimes at staggering
costs. Heart transplants are just one dramatic example of
the technological and expensive feats of modern medicine.
Through prepaid insurance programs and government
financing of hospitals, health care is available to virtually
everyone. Money, the old crude regulator of who gets
system. Among the attacks and defences of the system
that have splashed across newspapers in recent years, a
number of themes recur, some of them accurate, some
of them unfair.
I
T'S OFTEN pointed out
that the infant mortality rate in Canada and the United
States is worse than in about a dozen other industrialized countries. And the death rate of adults from some
diseases is also higher than in some other parts of the
world. But those who defend the present system say that
some of the statistics are misleading. It's wrong, for t
example, to compare Canada or the U.S. to Holland or
Sweden, they say. Each uses different statistical
methods.  Besides,  North Americans are heterogeneous
f,      f\
V-   '1\    '/        /'/
• I k^f
By Peter Thompson,
UBC Reports Staff Writer
In an era of escalating health costs and the
emergence of new patterns of health care,
UBC has pioneered the concept of the health
team, in which health professionals work
together in a co-ordinated and efficient division of labor. And to meet the demands of
the future, a team of academics and health
professionals is working to anticipate the
health needs of the community. The work of
three members of this team is described in the
article on these pages.
UBC's Role in the
Health Care Crisis
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treatment, is no Jonger a factor controlling individual
demand, though it now may be placing constraints on
the supply of health care.
The result is a literally inexhaustible demand for
health care. People no longer see a doctor when acutely
ill. They want treatment when slightly indisposed or a
check-up when well. This burden of demand has been
thrown on a health care system that has seen little
change recently. At the heart of the system are doctors
— expensive to train and pay and in short supply as they
have always been — and hospitals, which are costly to
operate.
The demand for health care has sent health costs
through the roof. As a result governments, which control
health care financing in Canada in the public's name, are
beginning to demand a halt to escalating costs. In the
years between 1955 and 1968 the cost of providing
health care to Canadians increased at an average rate of
about 11 per cent a year. In 1968 the money spent on
health care in Canada was 6.6 per cent of the gross
national product. Almost 70 per cent of that money
came from government sources. Last year the increase in
health costs was estimated at close to 13 per cent over
the previous year.
A report issued in 1971 said that if the annual rate of
increase for health services remained at 10 per cent,
health spending would account for 7.4 per cent of the
gross national product by 1981. More than 90 per cent
of the money would come from government. The
Economic Council of Canada has gone as far as to
predict that if present rates of increase continue, health
care and education will consume the entire gross
national product by the turn of the century.
The blame for this falls on everyone's shoulders. On
government's for encouraging the public to think of
health care as "free." On the public's for irresponsibly
demanding elaborate, expensive attention for sometimes
trivial complaints. And on health professionals and
others in the health industry for tolerating an inefficient
system. Some doctors, for example, group many of their
patients together in a hospital so that they can easily
treat as many as possible in the same building, an
efficiency to their practice but an inefficiency to the
health system and an expense to the taxpayer.
A tremendous amount of confusion surrounds
growing public interest in what's wrong with our health
and dispersed across a vast area. Many European
countries are compact and their populations tightly
organized so that it is easier to provide good health care
on a large scale.
Others point out that North Americans probably care
less about their health than some other people. We tend
to lead indulgent, passive lives and suffer the results. It
simply isn't true that we value health above everything
else. We smoke, over-eat, eat the wrong foods. We trade
off health against other things all the time.
Our health system is often compared with a business
to dramatize its shortcomings, again unfairly. Businesses,
it's argued, are organized to give maximum service to the
consumer in the most efficient way. There's feedback
from consumers that affects the location of outlets, the
services offered and the hours of business. But the health
industry is little regulated by consumer preferences. In
the U.S. about 10 years ago 80 per cent of cardiac
operations were done in less than 100 hospitals, though
about 800 hospitals were staffed and equipped to
perform them. As a result, the expensive equipment
went to waste and so did the staff since a cardiac team
must work to keep up to the mark. It's also been
pointed out that the toy and baby wear industries pay
more attention to and respond more quickly to predictions of future births than the health system.
c
COMPARING our health
system to a business is misleading. In the classical free
enterprise system that businesses are supposed to
operate under, the consumer knows what he is buying
and how much he's paying, and the producer tries to
maximize his profits in competition with other suppliers.
This situation doesn't apply to our health system.
Most of us, as consumers, know virtually nothing
about medicine. We just don't know whether we're
getting our money's worth or not. We don't
comparison-shop for an appendectomy. And once
you've had an appendectomy the experience can't be
used as a guide for judging a second. Apart from not
knowing what we're getting, we don't even know how much we're paying. How many of us know the cost of a
routine visit to a doctor, let alone an operation?
A monumental difference between our health system
and a business is a lack of incentives. In fact, a case
might be made that there are incentives in our health
system to become inefficient.
What's the incentive to the public not to pick up the
phone and demand health service on a Saturday evening?
*• What's the incentive to a doctor to prescribe a drug by
its generic rather than brand name? Or to combine with
other doctors into a clinic which could use less highly-
paid health professionals, such as nurses and dietitians,
who could take over some of the doctors' work? Does
the patient or the doctor suffer — financially — if the
.>» patient stays in hospital seven days when he could have
gone home after four? Does a hospital administrator get
a raise or hospital trustees more prestige by running a
smaller,   efficient   hospital   than   a   large   one?  Which
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government is so idealistic that it would refuse the
political mileage that comes from misguided voters when
an elaborate hospital is built? (Some of these ideas have
been expressed by Dr. Robert Evans, assistant professor
**   in UBC's Department of Economics).
For the past few years concern about the cost and
efficiency of our health system has been limited to a
small circle of health professionals. But recently it has
bubbled over into the public. At the beginning of this
year Dr. Richard Foulkes, head of a special commission
•*-   set up by provincial Health Minister Dennis Cocke, asked
v for public submissions on B.C.'s health system. The
commission has been swamped with more than 1,000
letters and briefs, most of them critical.
This turmoil and self-examination was predicted more
than   a  decade  ago   by  the   University   of   B.C.'s  Co-
*k ordinator of Health Sciences, Dr. John F. McCreary. In
what must have seemed a terrible gamble at the time, he
committed health sciences education at UBC to an idea
that was then revolutionary but is now received as a
conventional wisdom.
He foresaw that whatever changes would be made to
» the old health care model, at least one theme would be
constant. Any new health system would demand a more
efficient sharing of work between health professionals.
The mushrooming technology thai has marked the
success of modern medicine has also introduced more
than two dozen new health professions. Lab technicians,
t physiotherapists, nutritionists and a host of others. Their
training has often been far removed from the schools of
nursing and medicine and the result is that many of
today's health professionals are unfamiliar with each
other's abilities and background, and apprehensive about
delegating responsibility to a member of another group
___, whose strengths and weaknesses they don't know. At
UBC, for example, the School of Nursing is in the
Faculty of Applied Science and nutrition is taught in the
School of Home Economics in the Faculty of Arts.
Dr. McCreary began pioneering the idea of the health
team   —   health   professionals  working   together   in  a
_- co-ordinated and efficient division of labor. To do this
the mutual suspicions of different professional groups
had to be broken down. The best place to do this was
during the training of health professionals before the
rigor mortis of professional loyalties had a chance to set
in.    Up   until   then   UBC's   new   medical   school   was
committed to building a teaching and research hospital
on campus as part of the complex of buildings dedicated
to training medical students as many other medical
schools had done. Dr. McCreary transformed the plans
for the teaching and research hospital and its associated
buildings to the integrated teaching of students in
nursing, rehabilitation medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy as well as medicine so students could function
more easily as a team in professional life. In this way
UBC would be in a position to supply health professionals who would meet the demands of the new health
care system, whichever model was eventually adopted.
The term given to this new kind of teaching centre
was the Health Sciences Centre. The idea has since
spread across North America and to other parts of the
world. Plans for UBC's Health Sciences Centre were the
major topic of the first meeting of the teaching hospital
study group of the International Hospital Federation
Congress held in Stockholm in 1966. The same plans had
been presented to the Board of Governors of the
University of Western Ontario in London two years
before. Ironically, that University's health sciences
centre opened last year. Construction of the core unit of
UBC's teaching and research hospital, the final unit in
UBC's Health Sciences Centre, has yet to begin.
So convinced were Canadian authorities of the
soundness of Dr. McCreary's plan that the Pearson
government agreed to set up a special fund in conjunction with UBC to help finance construction of
UBC's Health Sciences Centre. The fund eventually grew
to half a billion dollars and included assistance to
universities in other provinces wanting to set up similar
health sciences centres.
Dr. McCreary has gathered around him a team of
people who like himself are trying to anticipate the
health demands of the community. The work of two
members of the team is described in the balance of this
article.
One team member is Dr. John Milsum, who came to
UBC in 1972 to assume the new Imperial Oil Chair of
General Systems, the only chair of its kind in North
America.
The chair was set up through the combined efforts of
UBC, Dr. Milsum, and a senior vice-president of Imperial
Oil, Mr. Ronald S. Ritchie, who is a member of the
prestigious Club of Rome which received wide public
attention for its prediction, using general systems
theory, of the collapse of industrialized society in the
next century if present rates of growth continue.
Dr. Milsum, who is also a professor in UBC's
Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, is one of
the few "general systems" experts working in the health
area in Canada and the only one in B.C. General systems
is something most of us know nothing of and even after
long explanations many of us are still bewildered.
Though general systems is an idea easy enough to
understand, it takes much longer to feel comfortable
about it, to feel familiar with it.
It doesn't help to be told that general systems or
cybernetics is the science of control and communication
in man and machine. To most of us such a statement
reeks of 1984. Perhaps the best way of describing
general systems is to trace Dr. Milsum's association with
it. He did all of his post-graduate education at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the then
budding area of control engineering. A simple example
of control engineering is power steering in a car. A little
bit of force by the driver is magnified so that the car
wheels turn with ease. More typical examples would be
the "steering" of a 300,000-ton supertanker by the
helmsman who communicates with the massive rudder
via a computer, or of an unmanned moon vehicle, where
the "driver" in mission control centre on earth controls
the vehicle through a computer and radio communication between the earth and the moon.
This type of control is always of the "closed-loop"
type. There is always a device which measures the actual
performance of the vehicle and compares it to what
performance should be, so corrections can be made. This
feedback is continuous. The more complicated the
system to be controlled, the greater the use of computers.
Control systems can also be applied to the human
body. All our movements can theoretically be described
in terms of control engineering. Picking up a telephone
receiver and putting it to your ear is a closed-loop
action. But some body activities are "open-loop." A
dramatic example of this is expert piano playing Often a
pianist will realize he is about to play a wrong note a
note or so in advance. But there is nothing he can do
about it. He is playing so fast that his brain has
programmed his fingers and although he has received
feedback information that a wrong note is about to be
struck, he doesn't have time to send out a correction.
Dr. Milsum worked for the National Research Council
in Ottawa from 1950 to 1961. He took a study leave
from the NRC between 1954 and 1957 to attend MIT.
After returning from MIT in 1957 he became head of
the NRC's analysis section in the Division of Mechanical
Engineering, which is concerned with developing applications of various types of computers. In 1961 he went to
McGill University as the first Abitibi professor of control
engineering in the Department of Electrical Engineering
and in 1966 became the first director of McGill's
BioMedical Engineering Unit.
Control theory and general systems can be applied to
many other areas — the operation of a company,
performance of a government, organization of an ecological system. By voting a party into power, for example,
the public chooses a policy or program by which it
wants to be governed. The government tries to implement that program and gets feedback through editorials,
by-elections and whatnot on how it's doing, and tries to
make corrections if necessary. If the ship of state is
steered incorrectly, the public chooses another party and
program at the next election.
General systems has become an important management tool. Dr. Milsum's first priority will be to apply
systems techniques to the planning and operation of the
teaching and research hospital the University plans to
build on campus as part of the Health Sciences Centre.
He's leading a pilot project to tackle one of the most
serious problems of our health system — inefficient use
of information. It's been estimated that between 25 and
30 cents of every dollar spent in our hospitals is
swallowed up in paperwork. The pilot project would
involve installing computer terminals in UBC's Psychiatric Unit and the new Community Health Centre on
campus and possibly at VGH.
E
ACH TERMINAL
would be linked to a central computer and could be used
by health professionals who would be given instant
access to the latest details of the patient's record. When
a physician ordered a drug, for example, the computer
would automatically forewarn the nurse on the patient's
ward, print out the prescription in the hospital pharmacy, and charge it to the patient's account. The
computer could be programmed to feed back to physicians the latest information on drugs and could also
automatically forewarn of possible incompatibility of
one prescribed drug to another.
"Computers have been applied very effectively in
most large industries," Dr. Milsum said. "For example,
many airlines now have computerized reservation
systems so that every passenger agent works in front of
an individual computer terminal.
"There's a great difference, of course, in that health
care deals solely with human beings. Nevertheless, much
computer technology can be applied to health care,
providing the system is designed with care and sensitivity."
His broader goal will be to discover ways of getting
optimum performance out of the health care system. He
says researchers have already carried out some preliminary work on deciding where the health dollar
should be spent.
"One system worked out in the U.S. is called the
Seriousness of Illness Rating Scale," Dr. Milsum said. "A
number of doctors and members of the general public
were given a list of illnesses and asked to rate their
seriousness compared with a peptic ulcer which was
given a rating of 500. They had to choose a number for
each disease, a higher number for the more serious and a
lower number for the less serious.
"It turns out that the medical people and the
consumers both scored the ailments almost identically."
This type of information makes it easier to choose
priorities. For example, a high-number disease that costs
little to treat might be given priority over a less serious
illness that is expensive to treat.
Another system uses a scale between one and zero.
Zero is death and one is full health. Doctors and the
public were asked to rank a list of diseases between zero
and one, ignoring the fact that suffering from some
diseases could literally be worse than death. And they
were asked to rate how effective treatment would be.
"For example, suppose the disease is acute kidney
failure and it's been rated as .1, very serious. But with
renal dialysis — hooking the patient up to an artificial
kidney two or three times a week — the health rating by
Please turn to Page Eight
See HEALTH CARE CRISIS o
CD
Dr. John Milsum, who holds the Imperial Oil Chair
of General Systems at UBC, is applying general
systems techniques to the planned research and
teaching hospital in UBC's Health Sciences Centre.
Mr. Lloyd Detwiller, administrator of UBC's
Health Sciences Centre, is one of the best-known
authorities in North America on alternative ways
of providing and financing health care.
Dr. John F. McCreary, former Dean of Medicine
and now Co-ordinator of Health Sciences at UBC,
pioneered the concept of the health team that is
being developed in UBC's Health Sciences Centre.
HEALTH CARE CRISIS
Continued from Page Seven
physicians and consumers is .7. The treatment by renal
dialysis could be compared with transplanting an artificial kidney into the patient, which would bring him up
to, say, .9.
"You can quickly work out cost analysis to find out
which is the optimum treatment in terms of the amount
of money providing the most benefit."
Studies of this type can help bring about more
efficiency in our health system. But what about the
person who doesn't want to leave the responsibility for
his health in the hands of others? Suppose, for example,
that someone feels he runs a greater than normal chance
of inheriting a genetically-determined disease that is
given low treatment priority. Would he be able to buy
extra protection?
Or take the case of a person who's simply willing to
put aside more of his pay cheque for health care for
himself and his family than most people in the community. Would a health system, geared to the standards
of the community, be able to provide such a family with
a higher level of service?
After all, we don't all spend the same proportion of
our earnings on clothes or food or shelter. Some of us
prefer to drive an expensive car and live in an apartment,
rather than pay off a house mortgage and drive an
economy import. Similar individual fluctuations apply
to the small part of our earnings we devote to health
care. None of us plans to be sick and most of us tend to
spend as little as possible on health care. Treatment of a
chronically stiff shoulder would come second to a new
outboard motor with many of us. But should the person
wanting and willing to pay for better health care be
denied it because his demand doesn't fit the pattern of
the community?
This is a classic illustration of the conflict between
the freedom of the individual and the authority of the
community or state. It's questions like this that interest
Mr. Lloyd Detwiller, one of the best-known authorities
in North America on alternative ways of providing and
financing health care.
The Commission on Education for Health Administration recently established by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation of Battle Creek, Michigan, has only one non-
American as a member — Lloyd Detwiller, or "Det" as
he's known to his friends. The new commission has
begun an in-depth study of all education programs in
health care administration, the first such appraisal ever
undertaken.
The commission has been given $305,250 to finance
its work and is expected to release recommendations by
mid-1974. A major stimulus to setting up the commission is "the rapid evolution" of changes in the way the
public will receive health care in the future and the
impact this will have on administrators and planners, the
Foundation said. The Foundation wants to know how to
prepare health administrators for the changes that lie
ahead.
Mr.  Detwiller joined the McCreary team at UBC in
1962 from the provincial civil service, where he was
assistant deputy minister of hospital insurance. Other
positions he held in Victoria were assistant commissioner
and commissioner of the B.C. Hospital Insurance Service
and commissioner of sales tax.
He took over administration of the BCHIS at the
request of then premier Byron Johnson. He has also
acted as consultant to two provinces in setting up their
sales tax programs and to another province in establishing its hospital insurance scheme.
He is the administrator of UBC's Health Sciences
Centre. He and Dr. McCreary established Vancouver as
the world capital for health sciences centres. They have
been involved in the planning of health sciences centre
hospitals across Canada, in the U.S., and other parts of
the world. Mr. Detwiller is now participating in the
consulting work for a 1,400-bed health sciences centre
hospital in West Germany.
The headquarters of the teaching hospital study
group of the International Hospital Federation has been
located at UBC for years. Mr. Detwiller, who was asked
to join the Kellogg Foundation commission as much for
his experience in pioneering health sciences centres as his
ability as a health systems expert, has been chairman of
the teaching hospital study group since 1965.
H
E CAME to UBC as a
consultant to the building of the Health Sciences Centre
and will be administrator of the Centre's teaching and
research hospital, the only component of the Centre not
yet built. He is the administrator of UBC's 60-bed
psychiatric unit, which opened in 1969 and is the first
stage of the teaching and research hospital.
Mr. Detwiller helped Dr. Anne Crichton, associate
professor in UBC's Department of Health Care and
Epidemiology, put together UBC's new program in
health care administration which began last fall. Many
other universities, tied to old teaching and research and
referral hospitals, offer courses to train hospital administrators. UBC's program has been designed to go far
beyond hospitals. It will train people who can anticipate
and deal with the imminent changes in the delivery of
health care.  In effect, it will produce health statesmen.
"Suppose the new provincial government sets up
regional health districts in B.C. to try to rationalize our
health system," Mr. Detwiller said. "Who's going to run
them? Where are we going to get the people capable of
dealing not only with hospital adminstration but also
with private practitioners, clinics, public health organizations, community health centres and who have an
appreciation of various health professional associations?
"He'll have to satisfy patients, the community, health
professionals providing health care, the health civil
service in Victoria and the long-range goals of the
provincial government."
The UBC program emphasizes research and broad
general planning on a regional, provincial, national and
international basis.
Students are taught research methods and must
prepare an original thesis. To enter the course students
must have a degree in Commerce or in the health, life or
social sciences. Since their backgrounds are varied, and
since they will enter a variety of jobs in health care
administration and research, students are offered a wide
variety of courses in the program. The experiences of
health planners in other parts of the world will be
valuable examples to students in the program regardless
of what new model of health care we eventually adopt.
"In a few years we hope that the uniqueness of our
program will attract the second and third men in the
health administration hierarchy in Washington, and their
counterparts from other health agencies in other countries, to enrol as students. As authorities in the health
system of their own countries, they will be able to
explain how it works and perhaps how it differs from
others to their fellow students in seminar," he said.
A number of studies have been assigned to students in
the program this year. One student is investigating how
health professional groups in the province ensure that
the level of care given by their members is up to
standards. So far he is discovering that little assessment
of the quality of treatment is made of health professionals in private practice, although there is a mechanism
for assessing treatment given in hospitals.
Another student is finding out how much information is available in Victoria on the operation of our
health system. Preliminary study shows that there is a
lot of information but until now little has been done
with it.
Critical, in Mr. Detwiller's view, to the students'
success as health administrators will be an appreciation
of the profound moral and political questions involved
in their work, the deeper implications of choosing one
health care method over another.
For example, is health care a political right or a social
privilege? Many people are beginning to think of health
care as a political right. But if a person who is willing to
pay for extra health care is denied it, is that denying his
political "right"?
Another example of a political or moral issue is what
responsbilitiy a citizen has in health care. Should he be
able to demand service at all times for whatever he
thinks is wrong with him, however trivial? On the other
hand, should a man who has contributed heavily to
society be denied treatment for a trick knee in deference
to a drunk with cirrhosis of the liver?
What place should religious organizations have in the
health field? Many religions take it as their moral
obligation to attend the sick. How do they fit into a
government-financed health system, especially when the
policies of a goverment may be opposed to the moral
views of the religions in question?
Should religious sects be denied the opportunity to
practice their beliefs and care for the sick? Should
people living in an area, such as some parts of northern
B.C. and the Northwest Territories, where many hospitals are run by religious orders, be given the opportunity
of receiving the same treatment as people in other areas
if that treatment is contrary to the religious views of the
hospital administrators? General Education is Faculty Aim
Continued From Page Five
established.   The   courses   were   then   offered   in   the
Department of Economics in the Faculty of Arts and
«. Science.
Ten years later a separate Department of Commerce
was formed to serve 30 students out of a total University
enrolment of 2,476. The end of World War II brought a
huge increase in enrolment and in 1950 the Department's status was changed  to  that  of  School.   Post-
^> graduate courses were offered the following year ancl in
1956 the School was raised to full Faculty status under
*   Dean E.C. McPhee.
At a symposium in October, 1957, held to celebrate
the establishment of the new Faculty, Mr. Harold S.
Foley,  a well-known  Vancouver businessman,  demon-
>. strated a rare insight into the whole orocess of business
education.
Said Mr. Foley: "There is a common misconception
that business wants from the universities only technicians — engineers, scientists, economists or accountants. It wants these, yes, but business has an equal need
_4 for people of character, integrity and the balance,
wisdom and human understanding that comes from a
knowledge of the story of human progress and association with great minds."
WAR SERVICE
The head of the Faculty of Commerce and Business
Administration, Dean Philip White, is a native of
r Derbyshire, England, who served as a lieutenant on
torpedo boats during World War II. He came to UBC in
1958 from the College of Estate Management, University
of London, where he was head of the valuation
department.
He was professor and head of the Division of Urban
"    Land   Economics   in   the   Faculty   of  Commerce  and
Business   Administration   until    1966,   when   he   was
appointed Dean, succeeding Dr. G. Neil Perry.
He is careful to point out that increasing involvement
and interaction with the business community does not
mean that the Faculty is being diverted in any way from
its goals of academic excellence approved by the Faculty
___,.   in the spring of 1971.
The Faculty's "Statement of Goals, Objectives and
Policies" leads off:
"The general goal of tlrc Faculty of Commerce and
Business Administration is to strive for excellence and
►*■ relevance in teaching and scholarly investigations in the
H   areas of business and administration.
"To achieve this end, the Faculty must provide a
milieu within which students and faculty can grow and
develop their skills consistent with their own potential,
interests, abilities and responsibilities."
"* Dean White says that, contrary to the expectations of
y some businessmen. Commerce graduates are not provided with skills that enable them to be effective the day
they are hired.
"It would be quite easy to give courses, for example,
that   would   make   a   student   desiring   to   become   a
*••   professional accountant a skilled audit clerk from the
day that he entered an office and I have no doubt that
this would make some people very happy indeed.
"But a training course such as this would be at the
expense of the many other courses and experiences that
are designed to permit the individual student to show
**   leadership   qualities   and   administrative   abilities  after
seven, eight or nine years on the job.
"We try to give students analytical skills that: they can
apply to a variety of business problems for as long as
they are employed. Obviously there is a good deal of
institutional knowledge that is required for people going
*   into management and business careers and we also try to
provide this. But we are more concerned about giving
students attitudes of mind, along with abilities and skills,
that will be beneficial to them throughout their business
careers."
. GENERAL EDUCATION
Assistant Dean Colin Gourlay, who heads up the
undergraduate program in the Faculty, says the aim of
the B. Com. course is to give a student a broad general
education, with a certain degree of specialization.
"A man usually starts off in the business world as a
J specialist in marketing, production, personnel or some
other area. As he moves up in the hierarchy towards the
top he becomes more and more of a generalist.
"We believe that our undergraduate curriculum
should  include both of these concepts — a degree of
specialization   through   an   option   and   a   degree   of
generalization in terms of core courses and electives."
"We encourage students to take courses outside the
Faculty. In fact, a study of the last Commerce graduating class showed that more than 50 per cent of the
courses taken by individuals in that class were taken in
other Faculties — mainly Arts and Science."
Of the current Commerce enrolment of 1,318 students, 1,005 are undergraduates. Graduate degree enrolment is: Licentiate in Accounting, 61; M.B.A., 184;
M.Sc. 33 and Ph.D., 35.
The M.B.A. is a general degree while the M.Sc,
introduced three years ago, permits specialization in
areas such as accounting management, information
systems, finance, management science and so on.
The Ph.D. degree program, also started three years
ago, is offered at only two other Canadian universities —
the Universities of Western Ontario and Toronto. "The
doctoral program is fairly loosely structured, which
represents a philosophy of ours, and it is principally for
people who plan to teach or to do research in industry,"
Dean White says.
The Faculty also offers a Licentiate in Accounting,
which requires a baccaleaureate degree as prerequisite
for admission. The course covers accounting and
management information systems. "The majority of
people who take this course plan to become chartered
accountants, but as time goes on I expect to see the
course being taken by an increasing number of students
who want to go into the comptroller side of business,
but don't necessarily want to become chartered accountants," Dean White says.
Professional and diploma evening courses are offered
in accountancy, business management, banking, real
estate and appraisal, marketing and sales management
and management studies.
However it is in the area of executive programs that
Dean White sees perhaps the greatest potential for
expansion of the Faculty's offerings. At present the
program offers a series of workshops and seminars
designed to keep business men abreast of new developments in business theory and practice.
Courses are selected in response to the needs of the
business community and are offered by Faculty members and visiting lecturers. The offerings include one- and
two-day seminars, evening seminars and residential workshops.
PART-TIME STUDIES
"Executive programs extend to a whole variety of
activities such as our business luncheons and our
Distinguished Discussion Series."
While the Dean sees dangers in "being swept up in the
populist fervor for continuing education programs" he
does see a place for part-time studies leading to a degree.
It will require, however, a change from the traditional
approach to a university education.
"A full-time, five-year program suddenly becomes a
10- to 12-year part-time program and I suspect that few
people have the time, motivation or the patience to
continue on for that period of time. The next step is to
change our traditional ways of thinking and I think that
there is an argument in favor of this, but we must be
extremely careful to distinguish between a genuine
desire for change and change that would permit someone
to get a quick, cheap degree."
UBC NEWS ROUNDUP
RESIDENCE RATES
UBC's Board of Governors has assured resident
students that their voice will be heard before the
Board makes a decision on possible increases in rental
charges and room-and-board rates for campus residences.
At its regular meeting on Feb. 6 the Board heard
objections from married students living in Acadia
Camp and Acadia Park to a proposal made to
residents by Mr. Leslie Rohringer, Director of Residences, for a 9.75 per cent increase in their rents. Mr.
Rohringer has also proposed a similar increase for
single students living in the Totem Park, Place Vanier
and Walter H. Gage Residence complexes.
After hearing the Acadia students the Board was
unable to complete its agenda Feb. 6 and adjourned
its meeting until Feb. 12.
A body of students appeared outside the Board's
meeting room on Feb. 12 and asked to speak to the
Board. Eight students, drawn from all campus residences, were invited in to the meeting.
They were told by Mr. R.M. Bibbs, acting Chairman of the Board, that no recommendation for a rent
increase had yet been made to the Board by the
Administration.
Mr. Bibbs assured the students that if a rate
increase is recommended, information justifying the
recommendation will be made available to representatives of all the campus residences. The students
would have an opportunity to study this information
before the Administration's recommendation came
before the Board for action, probably at a special
meeting, Mr. Bibbs said.
He also assured the students that their representatives would be able to make further representations
to the Board at that meeting.
The date of the special meeting has not yet been
set.
SECOND COMMITTEE
A committee to consider non-academic staff
matters raised in the Report on the Status of Women
at UBC, which was released on Jan. 23, is being
struck by UBC's President, Dr. Walter H. Gage.
It will be the second committee established by
President Gage to consider various aspects of the
100-page report, prepared by the Women's Action
Group, an informal organization made up of UBC
faculty and staff members and students.
Sections of the report that deal with academic
matters and academic staff are currently being considered by a ten-member faculty committee established by President Gage on Jan. 26.
This committee, which is chaired by Prof. Robert
M. Clark, director of UBC's Office of Academic
Planning, has initially established task forces to
examine ten areas of concern identified in the report.
The committee will deal with academic matters as
they relate to students as well as teaching staff.
The report contends that women faculty and staff
members are discriminated against in terms of
appointments, promotions and salaries and that educational opportunities for women students are not
equal to those available to men.
President Gage, in a statement issued the day the
report was released, commended the Women's Action
Group for the report and added that "If there are
inequities in the University's treatment of its female
students, staff and faculty members, our aim will be
to eradicate them."
Copies of the full Report on the Status of Women
at UBC are available from the Information Desk and
the Women's Studies Office, both located in the
Student Union Building, at $1 a copy. An issue of
UBC Reports that appeared on campus on Feb. 8
reprinted two sections of the report setting out
recommendations and guidelines for achieving
equality between men and women at UBC. Copies of
the issue are available from the Department of
Information Services, UBC.
ORCHESTRA HERE
The National Youth Orchestra of Canada will hold
its 1973 Summer Training Session on the UBC
campus — for the first time ever in the West.
One hundred and ten of Canada's brightest young
orchestral musicians will arrive on the campus on July
20 and stay in residence until the end of August to
study up to nine hours a day.
The musical director for the season will be Mr.
Kazuyoshi Akiyama, musical director of the
Vancouver Symphony Orchestra. He will conduct the
National Youth Orchestra public performances.
UBC's  President,   Dr.  Walter  H.   Gage,   said  the
Please turn to Page Eleven
Sec NEWS ROUNDUP Science Fellow Develops Course
A high school course embodying a new approach
to the teaching of chemistry is being developed as a
result of a unique program organized by the University of B.C. Department of Chemistry and the science
department of the Faculty of Education.
The proposed high school course, which breaks
with the mathematical approach to chemistry, is
being put together by Mrs. Shirley Jackson, who was
the first Science Master Fellow appointed under the
new UBC in-service program.
Mrs. Jackson, a chemistry teacher at Centennial
Secondary School in Coquitlam, has just completed a
seven-month stint at UBC under this program. She
plans to present her new approach to chemistry
teaching to the provincial Department of Education
as a locally-developed course.
The proposed course, which will be anchored in
organic chemistry and biochemistry, will concentrate
on the ideas of chemistry by an appeal to intuition
rather than through a quantitative approach.
"The course could be an alternative or additional
course to the regular chemistry course now taught in
high schools," Mrs. Jackson said. "It will aim primarily at students in arts and biology who don't
intend to take any further chemistry."
She entered the new UBC program at the beginning of the 1972 Summer Session and spent much
of her time sitting in on chemistry courses and
supervising laboratory sessions at the first- and
second-year level.
Mrs. Jackson said there are a number of appealing
features built into the new UBC program.
She was given an opportunity to brush up on her
chemistry and to get an insight into the new
directions   and   emphases   that   have   developed   in
chemistry,    and    its   teaching   methods,   since   she
graduated from UBC in 1956.
An important advantage is that her renewed,
intensive contacts with the University will benefit her
high school students. "It will enable me to prepare
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MRS. SHIRLEY JACKSON
them   better  for the transition  to  University," she
said.
"One of the most attractive features of the
program is that there is no financial hardship for
those taking it," Mrs. Jackson said. "Sixty per cent of
my salary is paid by my school district and 40 per
cent by UBC."
One of the main objectives of the program is to
strengthen the bonds and widen the channels of
communication between UBC and high schools.
While inter-Faculty co-operation is well established
in cases; where teachers seek to obtain higher degrees,
this venture is believed to be unique in Canada in that
the program is particularly designed for teachers who
have committed themselves to the classroom.
At least ten years of teaching in the high school is
one of the prerequisites for admission to the program.
The assumption is that experienced teachers will
benefit more from a re-exposure to the university
atmosphere than teachers who graduated more recently.
The program, still in its pilot stage, clearly
illustrates the increased emphasis on the in-service
function of the Faculty of Education. In its pioneering effort the Chemistry Department allows for a
very flexible structure. Fellows may do original
research if they wish. The total program aims at
increasing the teachers knowledge of chemistry and
the methods of teaching it.
Participation of school boards involved is enthusiastic and competition for appointment as a Fellow
is keen, according to the initiators of the program.
Mrs. Jackson returned to Centennial Secondary at
the end of January and was succeeded on Feb. 1 by
another Coquitlam chemistry teacher, Mr. James
Law.
UBC to Honor Six at Spring C
Dr. Walter C. Koerner, former chairman of the Board
of Governors at the University of B.C., will be one of six
persons who will receive honorary degrees at UBC's
Spring Congregation on May 30 and 31 and June 1.
Others who will receive degrees at the three-day
ceremony are:
Mr. Harold E. Winch, leader of the CCF in the B.C.
Legislature from 1938 to 1953 and CCF and New
Democratic Party member of the House of Commons in
Ottawa from 1953 to 1972;
Dr. Maurice F. Strong, executive director of the
United Nations Environment Secretariat and secretary-
general of the UN Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in June, 1972;
Dr. Sylvia Ostry, chief statistician for Statistics
Canada and a noted Canadian Economist;
Dr. Vladimir J. Okulitch, Dean Emeritus of the
Faculty of Science at UBC and a noted Canadian
geologist; and
Dr. J. Larkin Kerwin, Rector (President) of Laval
University in Quebec City and a well-known Canadian
physicist.
The honorary degree of Doctor of Science (D.Sc.)
will be conferred on Dr. Kerwin and Dr. Okulitch. All
others will receive the degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.)
The award of the degrees has been approved by
UBC's Senate. UBC's Chancellor, Mr. Justice Nathan T.
Nemetz, will confer the degrees on the recipients during
the Congregation ceremonies.
Dr. Koerner, who is Chairman Emeritus of Rayonier
Canada Ltd., was a member of UBC's Board of Governors for 15 years from 1957 to 1972 and Board
chairman from 1968 to 1970.
Dr. Koerner played a significant role in the
development of plans for the Health Sciences Centre at
UBC while serving as chairman of the Health Sciences
Centre Management Committee.
A special gallery of UBC's new Museum of Man,
which is scheduled for completion in March, 1975, wiH
house the Walter and Marianne Koerner rowsterwork
collection of tribal art, largely made up of artifacts that
reflect the culture of the Indians of Canada's West Coast.
The generous offer of Dr. Koerner and his wife to
donate the collection to UBC was instrumental in the
federal government allocating $2.5 million to aid construction of the UBC Museum.
Born in Czechoslovakia, Dr. Koerner came to B.C. in
1939  following  the takeover of his country by  Nazi
Germany. With two brothers, the late Mr. Otto Koerner
and Dr. Leon Koerner, he founded Alaska Pine and
Cellulose Co., which was acquired by Rayonier in 1954.
Dr. Koerner became chairman of Rayonier of Canada
Ltd. in 1954 and retired from that post in 1972.
Mr. Harold Winch was a foundation member in th&
early 1930s of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and in 1961 of the New Democratic Party. An
electrician by trade, Mr. Winch was educated in
Vancouver and was first elected to the B.C. Legislature
in 1933. "r
He was parliamentary leader of the CCF in the B.Ci
Legislature from 1938 to 1953 and Leader of the
Opposition from 1941 to 1953.
Mr. Winch resigned his seat in the B.C. Legislature in
1953 and the same year was elected to the House of
Commons in Ottawa as the member for Vancouver East.
He was re-elected in five subsequent general elections
He retired in 1972.
Dr. Maurice F. Strong was well-known in the
Canadian business world before his appointment in 1966
as director-general of the federal government's External
Aid Office, which later became the Canadian International Development Agency.
DR. WALTER KOERNER
MR. HAROLD WINCH
DR. MAURICE STRONG
DR. SYLVIA OSTRY
DR. V.J. OKULITCH 4.
NEWS ROUNDUP
Continued from Page Nine
University is delighted that UBC has been selected as
the locale for 1973. "There is very great interest in
music on Western Canada, as reflected in our own
Department of Music in particular and the Vancouver
community in general, which will contribute to the
further development of the National Youth
Orchestra. The University of British Columbia will, I
am certain, co-operate fully in assuring that the
Orchestra will spend a worthwhile, enjoyable and
profitable month with us in study and rehearsal."
In previous years the NYO's training has taken
place in various locales, including Quebec City,
Toronto and Stratford, but its concert tours have
taken it across Canada many times. Eastern
supporters of the Orchestra will still be able to hear
the students rehearse, since the Session will
commence in Toronto on July 2.
At UBC the Orchestra will use the rehearsal
facilities of the Department of Music and the Old
Auditorium. Prof. Donald M. McCorkle, head of
UBC's Department of Music, said the presence of the
National Youth Orchestra on the campus this summer
should provide a great impetus for orchestral music in
the province.
"Our Department has excellent facilities for the
demanding rehearsal requirements of the Orchestra.
We are looking forward to our association with these
talented young people," he said.
The NYO is supported by grants from the British
Columbia Cultural Fund, other provincial
governments, the Canada Council, and by private and
corporate donations. It provides orchestral training to
young Canadian musicians between the ages of 14
and 24 years and serves as inspiration to music
students in schools across the country.
Internationally, it is generally considered to be the
world's leading youth orchestra organization and, in
performance, is frequently compared to the highest
of professional standards.
NYO President Mr. John Craig Eaton, of Toronto,
*A
eremony
Dr. Strong served as secretary-general of the United
Nations Conference on the Human Environment in June
of 1972 and was widely credited with ensuring the
success of the meetings as a result of his capacity for
■" compromise and leadership.
In December, 1972, he was named executive director
of the UN Environment program, which co-ordinates the
activities of the entire United Nations system dealing
with global environment problems.
Dr. Sylvia Ostry, one of Canada s best-known econo-
* mists, is chief statistician for the federal agency Statistics
Canada and is the former director of the Economic
Council of Canada.
A  graduate  of  McGill   University   in  Montreal and
*""Cambridge  University  in  England, Dr. Ostry taught at
» McGill and the University of Montreal before joining the
Economic Council of Canada in 1964. She is the author
of numerous studies on urban development, manpower,
labor and economic and technological change.
Dr. Vladimir Okulitch was Dean of UBC's Faculty of
**Science for seven years prior to his retirement in 1971.
, He was first appointed to the UBC faculty in 1944 and
became head of the division of geology, then a part of
the Department of Geology and Geography, in 1953. In
1959 he was named head of the Department of Geology
when it was separated from the Geography Department.
* Dean Okulitch was widely known for his work in the
, fields of geology and paleontology, the study of fossil
plants and animals. His geological work was concentrated in the structure and stratigraphy of the Rocky
and Selkirk Mountains.
^> Dr. J. Larkin Kerwin, Rector of Laval University and
former head of the Department of Physics of that
University, is noted for his research in the fields of
molecular and atomic physics.
He is a former president of the Canadian Association
of Physicists and  is currently secretary-general of the
^ International Union of Pure and Applied Physics.
Born in Quebec City, Dr. Kerwin was educated in
Canada and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was awarded the academic degree of Doctor
of Science by Laval University in 1949 and has been a
faculty member there since 1946.
in thanking UBC for its generous co-operation, sees
the 1973 Western season as an important milestone in
the NYO's constant progress towards serving the
whole country.
NEW  DEAN NAMED
Dr. John H.M. Andrews, a native of Kamloops,
B.C., and a UBC graduate has been named dean of
UBC's Faculty of Education.
Dr. Andrews, who is currently assistant director of
the Ontario Institute of Studies in Education, will
succeed Dean Neville Scarfe as head of the Faculty of
July 1.
Acknowledged as a leader in the study of educational administration in Canada, Dr. Andrews is a
well-known scholar in the field of organization theory
as applied to education.
He has held important academic posts in the
Departments of Educational Administration at the
University of Alberta and the Ontario Institute for
Studies in Education. He earned his Ph.D. degree in
educational administration from the University of
Chicago.
Dr. Andrews, 46, who holds B.A. and M.A. degrees
from UBC, says he believes that a faculty of
education should be an educational resource for the
entire school system rather than purely an institution
for teacher training.
"I see a faculty of education as a critically
important resource, occupying a strong leadership
role in educational matters, working co-operatively,
not only with teachers, but with trustees, school
superintendents, and other officials of the Department of Education," he sayd.
He also sees a faculty of education being deeply
involved in in-service and continuing education programs for teachers.
Described by his colleagues as an extremely
capable administrator able to make tough, hard-nosed
decisions when necessary, and a strong believer in
participatory administration, Dr. Andrews has been
on the staff of the OISE since 1965, when he was
appointed professor and chairman of the Department
of Educational Administration. He became coordinator of research in 1966 and two years later was
appointed assistant director.
Before moving to Ontario he was associate professor, and later professor, in the Department of
Educational Administration at the University of
Alberta, Edmonton, for eight years.
Dr. Andrews lived in British Columbia until he
went to the University of Chicago in 1955. He
received his primary and secondary education in
Kamloops and came to UBC in 1943. He graduated
four years later with a B.A. in honors physics and
worked for two years as an engineer with Britannia
■Mines in Britannia, returning to UBC in 1949 to take
a year of teacher training.
For the next five years he was a teacher and
principal in schools in Squamish, Salmon Arm and
Woodfibre. He also did graduate work at UBC during
the summer and in 1954 was among the first group of
students to receive M.A. degrees in education.
Married to the former Doris Payne, a UBC
graduate and former teacher, whom he met while
attending UBC, Dr. Andrews has a family of four.
AWARDS MADE
Canada Council fellowships valued at close to
$250,000 have been awarded to 32 members of the
UBC faculty.
The fellowships are intended to assist faculty
members to undertake up to a year's full-time
independent research.
Thirty-one leave fellowships, worth up to $8,000,
have been awarded to UBC teachers who will be on
leave at partial salary.
A single research fellowship, worth up to $9,000,
has been awarded to Dr. A.R. Killgallin, of UBC's
English Department, who will be on leave without
pay.
Travel and research expenses are provided with
either type of fellowship if needed.
The 31 faculty members who have been awarded
leave fellowships are:
Prof. D.F. Aberle, Anthropology and Sociology;
Mr. Keith Aldritt, English; Miss N.M. Ashworth,
Education; Dr. A.A. Barrett, Classics; Dr. Frederick
Bowers, English; Dr. D. Susan Butt, Psychology; Prof.
H.A.C.   Cairns,   Political  Science;  Dr.   L.B.  Daniels,
APPLICATIONS
AVAILABLE
Applications for the $200 Province of B.C.
Scholastic Awards are now available to UBC
students at the Scholarships, Bursaries and
Loans Office, Room 207 in the Buchanan
Building.
The Scholastic Awards, which have replaced
the Government of B.C. Scholarships, will be
made to a maximum of 17 per cent of the total
full-time undergraduate enrolment by year and
Faculty.
The awards are not granted for averages
below 70 per cent, except in the Faculty of
Law, where averages are based on rank.
Awards are not open to students* in Graduate
Studies or those registered as "qualifying" or
"unclassified."
Completed applications must be submitted
by March 15.   «
Education; Dr. Martha S. Foschi, Anthropology and
Sociology; Prof. John F. Helliwell, Economics.
Prof. R.W. Ingram, English; Dr. J.E.M. Kew,
Anthropology and Sociology; Prof. J.A. Lavin,
English; Prof. A.E. Link, Religious Studies; Dr. Pierre
Maranda, Anthropology and Sociology; Dr. C.W.
Miller, English; Dr. Keizo Nagatani, Economics; Prof.
C.G.W. Nicholls, Religious Studies; Prof. P.H. Pearse,
Economics; Dr. Margaret E. Prang, History.
Dr. Robert Ratner, Anthropology and Sociology;
Prof. Peter Remnant, Philosophy; Prof. J.L.
Robinson, Geography; Prof. Gideon Rosenbluth, Economics; Dr. A.H. Siemens, Geography; Dr. A.C.L.
Smith, History; Dr. Marketa Stankiewicz, German;
Dr. H.A. Wallin, Education; Dr. J.W. Wisenthal,
English; Mr. W.E. Yeomans, English; Prof. Walter
Young, Political Science.
LECTURES SET
THURSDAY, MARCH 1 - Canadian novelist Prof.
Hugh MacLennan, of McGill University, will give the
first of two Sedgewick Lectures under the sponsorship of the English Department. His first lecture,
entitled "Literature and Technology," will take place
in Room 106 of the Buchanan Building at 8 p.m.
FRIDAY, MARCH 2 - Prof. MacLennan speaks
again at 12:30 p.m. in Room 106 of the Buchanan
Building on "Writing in Canada Over 30 Years."
FRIDAY, MARCH 2 - Dr. Donald Chant, of the
Department of Zoology at the University of Toronto
and founder of the Pollution Probe organization, will
speak at 3 p.m. in UBC's Instructional Resources
Centre, under the sponsorship of Westwater, UBC's
water resources research organization. His topic:
"The Role of Citizen Groups in Environmental
Decision-making."
THURSDAY, MARCH 8 - Dr. Andreas
Papandreou, professor of economics and director of
the graduate program in economics at York University, Toronto, gives the first of two E.S. Woodward
Lectures in Room 106 of the Buchanan Building at
12:30 p.m. His first lecture is entitled "The Ideology
of Development."
FRIDAY, MARCH 9 - Dr. Papandreou, who is a
former cabinet minister in the Greek government,
speaks again in Room 106 of the Buchanan Building
at 8 p.m. His topic: "Underdevelopment and Dependence."
HHH Vol. 19, No. 4 - Feb. 22,
11 111'' 1973- Published by the
I III I ■ University of British Columbia
MmMm^W and distributed free. UBC
REPORTS Reports appears on Thursdays
during the University's winter session. J.A.
Banham, Editor. Louise Hoskin and Wendy
Kalnin, Production Supervisors. Letters to the
Editor should be sent to Information Services,
Main Mall North Administration Building, UBC,
Vancouver 8, B.C. a0^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
Contact
PREPARED FOR UBC REPORTS BY THE UBC ALUMNI ASSOCIATION
Oxford-Style Debate Set
For Alumni Open House
It's nostalgia time again!
UBC's triennial Open House will be held on Friday, March 2, and Saturday, March 3, and
alumni are invited to come back and see how much or how little (depending on your age and
viewpoint) the campus has changed.
And to particularly revive your memories of academia, the UBC Alumni Association is
presenting an Oxford Union-style debate from 11 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. on Saturday, March 3, in
the Conversation Pit of the Student Union Building.
The topic: Resolved That Formal University Education Is Obsolete.
Chairman of the debate will be Prof. Malcolm McGregor, head of the Department of Classics,
and the debaters will be leading university educators.
You are invited to attend and listen, learn, question, argue, heckle and generally participate in
the debate — including voting yea or nay on the motion.
After lunch in SUB (try a Brockburger, a sticky cinnamon bun and a cup of distinctive SUB
coffee), take a leisurely stroll down to Cecil Green Park for a reception to meet UBC's President,
Dr. Walter Gage, at 2 p.m.... And don't forget to visit the University Model Centre in the Coach
House of Cecil Green Park to see a scaled-down view of UBC's growing campus.
And while you're in the area, you could take a walk to the end of the garden and see how close
Cecil Green Park is getting to the edge of the eroding (soon to be stopped, we hope) Point Grey
cliffs. But don't get too close to the edge.
MR. ROBERT BONNER
BonnerSpeaks to
CommerceDinner
Mr. Robert Bonner, president and chief executive
officer of MacMillan Bloedel Ltd., will be the guest
speaker at the annual Faculty of Commerce dinner to
be held in the UBC Faculty Club on Thursday, March
8.
The topic of his address will be "The Business of
Business."
The annual dinner provides an opportunity for
businessmen, Commerce faculty, alumni and students
to meet and discuss business developments. The
function gets underway March 8 with a reception at 6
p.m., followed by dinner at 7 p.m.
Mr. Bonner, B.A.'42, LL.B/48, practised law in
Vancouver until 1952 when he joined the provincial
government as attorney-general. He retired from
political life in 1968 to become senior vice-president,
administration, of MacMillan Bloedel Ltd. Three
years later he became vice-chairman of the company
and in the spring of 1972 was appointed to his
present position.
Tickets for the dinner are $6.75 per person. For
information and reservations call 228—3313.
Special Appeal
The UBC Alumni Fund is conducting a special
appeal for donations to help meet the transportation
costs of two UBC sports teams which have been
honored with invitations to tour Britain this year.
The UBC field hockey team recently received an
invitation to tour England this spring. And the
Thunderbird rugby team has been invited to tour
Wales this September. Both teams have excelled in
local, national and international competition and the
tours present an opportunity for further development.
Each team member is contributing toward the cost
of his tour, but more money is needed to meet the
total cost. The field hockey team needs a further
$4,750 and the rugby team needs $4,100.
Donations will be gratefully received by the UBC
Alumni Fund, 6251 N.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver 8,
a n
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