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Array THE  UNIVERSITY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
VOL   54   I   NO   6   I   JUNE   5,   2008
^*2ot
UBC
A
O
A
UBC REPORTS
4   Nutrition advice
11 Haida Gwaii
12Cultural evolution
13Eco community
14 Map project
A digital mind-body mapping expedition
Prof. Dinesh Pai is reverse engineering the brain to model mind-body interactions.
BY BASIL WAUGH
When you grab a cold beer out
of the cooler this summer, what
is really going on between your
brain, your eyes and your hands?
"It is still a mystery, really,"
says UBC computer science
professor Prof. Dinesh Pai. "No
one has ever completely mapped
out the processes at the level of
specific neurons, muscles and
tendons."
Pai is part of a UBC team
leading an international initiative
to do just that. "Essentially, we
are reverse engineering the brain
to produce the first working
computational model of the
complex interplay between our
minds and our bodies."
The project could produce
great leaps forward in many
areas, including medicine,
industry and robotics. Although
the project is just ramping
up, the team's mapping and
modeling expedition is already
producing some of the world's
most realistic computer
simulations of the human body.
"Our research is really
guided by a desire to determine
and model exactly what is
happening under our skin, first
and foremost," says Pai, who
recently received $500,000 from
UBC's Peter Wall Institute for
the project. "There will be many
exciting outcomes from this
project, but it really falls under
the category of pure research."
"Current robots have as
much in common with human
movements as helicopters do
with seagulls," Pai adds. "The
challenges are similar, but
they use completely different
solutions."
Pai's five UBC co-investigators
include Prof. John Steeves,
Director of International
Collaboration on Repair
Discoveries (ICORD); Prof.
Martin McKeown of the
Pacific Parkinson's Research
Centre; Prof. Alan Mackworth,
Computer Science; Prof.
Tony Hodgson, Mechanical
Engineering, and Prof. Tim
Ingliss, School of Human
Kinetics.
To make the project a reality,
they have brought together a
multidisciplinary dream team
from Canada (UBC, McGill),
the U.S. (UCLA, University of
Washington, Northwestern
University, Smith Kettlewell
Eye Research Institute), Japan
(Digital Human Research
Centre) and Italy (Santa Lucia
Foundation.)
Using magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI), the team is
cataloging body parts and
functions and tracing their
interactions with the brain.
This information is being used
to create a working three-
dimensional computer model of
all these functions.
"We are in uncharted territory,
in terms of computing," says
Pai. "It's not like you can find
software like this at your local
Future Shop or Best Buy. So we
have been creating our own as
we go along.
Down the road, the team's
findings will enable doctors to
test surgical outcomes before
picking up a scalpel, Pai says.
"There is an amazing amount
continued on page 4
Copyright in the digital era
BY LORRAINE CHAN
If copyright law is to survive in
the digital age, it will have to
emerge as a cooperative process
between creator and public, says
Mira Sundara Rajan.
Sundara Rajan is the Canada
Research Chair in Intellectual
Property Law and an Associate
Professor at UBC's Faculty of
Law.
"Copyright law doesn't work
anymore in practice," observes
Sundara Rajan. "Once a work
is in digital form, people can do
whatever they want with it."
In fact, she says the evergrowing frequency of file sharing
has put great pressure on
traditional copyright industries,
including music, and change is
bitterly resented by powerful
corporations. Their efforts to
protect their interests have
polarized opinions on copyright.
"People see
corporations
making money
in the name of
artists," Sundara Rajan points
out. "The only way for copyright
to work is to restore its moral
credibility. People need to feel it's
important to respect the rights
of authors and artists, and to
protect their work."
These pressures may ultimately
end up democratizing copyright.
Sundara Rajan says that there's
an opportunity to re-examine
the purpose of the law, and
in particular, to affirm
human creativity in
an environment that
seems increasingly
corporate and
'   technological.
She argues that
copyright should
focus on the moral and
creative rights of authors, while
also responding to the public
need for access to knowledge.
continued on page 3 2     |     UBC    REPORTS     |    JUNE    5,    200!
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INTHE NEWS
Highlights of UBC media coverage in May 2008.  compiled by meg walker
Children find out early whom to
believe
The New York Times reported
on a study by Susan Birch
examining how young children
evaluate trustworthiness.
The assistant professor in
the Psychology Department's
research showed that the
challenge for the child is figuring
out whom to believe.
Largest skeleton in the world
to grace UBC biodiversity
collection
In mid-May, Andrew Trites of
UBC's Biodiversity Research
Centre led a team of biologists to
dig up the 25-metre-long carcass
of a blue whale in rural Prince
Edward Island.
By late 2009, the skeleton will
be the centrepiece at UBC's new
Beaty Biodiversity Museum.
The story was covered by
The Boston Globe, The Globe
and Mail, Global National,
CTV National and numerous
Canadian and US daily papers.
TB cure closer with protein
discovery
Researchers from UBC and
the Vancouver Coastal Health
Research Institute have made a
landmark discovery that could
lead to a cure for tuberculosis,
a disease that kills two million
people every year.
The team, led by UBC's Dr.
Yossi Av-Gay, identified a link
between a TB protein and a
newly discovered protein in the
human body's white blood cells.
The Av-Gay lab has already
engineered a specific antibody
that blocks this newly discovered
TB protein.
The Globe and Mail wrote
about the discovery.
UBC students first ever to reach
Featured Article status on
Wikipedia a challenge
Last January, UBC's Jon
Beasley-Murray challenged his
students to get their projects for
his Latin American literature
course accepted as a Wikipedia
Featured Article.
Agence Trance Presse reported
that in May, three entries
created by 33 students in the
course became the first student
works to reach the free online
encyclopedia's top rank.
Of more than 10 million
articles in 253 languages, only
about 2,000 have reached
Featured Article status.
Climate change expert wins
prize
John Robinson of UBC's
Institute for Resources,
Environment and Sustainability,
has been awarded one of
five Pierre Elliott Trudeau
Foundation Fellowship prizes.
Robinson, who wrote parts
of the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change reports that
shared the 2007 Nobel peace
prize with AI Gore, will receive
a $150,000 award and $75,000
for travel and research over
three years, The Vancouver Sun
reported.
War-torn novel captures
international attention
Steven Galloway has sold
foreign rights for his just-
released third novel, The Cellist
of Sarajevo, in 18 countries for
an advance of almost $1 million.
The Globe and Mail, The
Vancouver Sun, CBC.ca and
local daily papers across Canada
reviewed the novel or interviewed
Galloway, who teaches creative
writing part time at UBC.
Artist's rendering of UBC's Beaty Biodiversity Museum.
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I     3
Bringing theses to the Web
BY MEG WALKER
The internet has been a blessing for researchers in many
ways, providing access to electronic journals, papers from
international symposia and more. And now the list includes
UBC PhD and Masters theses.
In early summer the 500th title will be added to the
UBC Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) initiative,
a program co-created by the Faculty of Graduate Studies
(FoGS) and the Library.
University Archivist Chris Hives is excited about the
dramatic increase in audience that the ETDs will allow. The
electronic theses are fully text-searchable and will show up on
internet engine searches for anyone to stumble across.
Hives expects digitization will promote interdisciplinarity.
Researchers are well aware of what is happening in their
particular field. Putting theses on the Internet and making
them searchable "will allow researchers to access material
easily in allied fields," Hives says.
UBC theses typically were submitted in paper form and
then sent periodically for microfilming and, more recently,
digitization. It could easily take up to a year before a graduate
student's work would be accessible.
"Because of the time lag, PhD students used to have quite
a hard time finding topics," says Max Read, Communications
and Thesis Coordinator at FoGS. But if theses are Google-
searchable on the internet within weeks, "it gives students a
chance to track what's absolutely current in their field."
Practicality also played a role in the decision. In 2005,
Hives, Read and Digital Initiatives Librarian Bronwen Sprout
began to ask: why move all that paper around - especially
if no paper was involved in the first place, since students are
writing theses on computers?
Sustainability issues like
saving paper - and reducing
storage space - are side
benefits that the Library and
FoGS are happy to embrace.
John Willinsky, a leading
advocate for open access
dissemination of publicly
funded research, agrees
that it is time for theses to
be circulated as widely as
possible.
"UBC's initiative in
making its students' theses
and dissertations publicly
available represents a tremendous contribution to the growing
world of learning to be found online," says the Stanford
professor, who has a continuing appointment at UBC.
"It puts to bed the tired cliche of the thesis collecting dust
on a shelf, which has been the bane of many a graduate
student determined to otherwise discover something that will
make a difference," he says.
Work by Master's students will undergo the largest change.
Until now, their theses have simply been microfiched and
archived. PhD theses, on the other hand, have been both
microfilmed and digitized - and users have generally had to
pay to access the information.
Read points to studies that show how scholarly articles and
theses distributed online are cited much more frequently than
those that aren't. If the thesis is a graduate student's calling
card, online dissemination will make a positive difference.
But for some disciplines, such as the creative arts of
film, creative writing and music, there are concerns that
dissemination will have a negative effect. If a student's thesis
is a novel, for example, what rights can a publisher buy if it
can already be read online?
"We are a university and the thesis is part of the education
process," says Bryan Wade, acting Chair of the Creative
Writing Program. "All knowledge should be available - I
agree with that philosophically. But if artists are going to
make a living out of their work, where do you draw the line?"
Wade, who teaches writing for stage play and radio drama,
says the dilemma came to a head with the thesis deadline for
Spring graduation.
Students were not happy to learn their work would be
available online before publishers had a chance to see it.
Through discussions with FoGS, a solution has been found
for now. The title and abstract of creative writing theses will
be cited online, but the work itself will remain exclusively
available on microfiche at the Library.
"When I first started teaching, who had heard of the World
Wide Web?" Wade asks. "Things may change over the years;
but for now we have to be really conservative."
To provide access to research in older UBC theses created
prior to the ETD project, the Library is currently undertaking
a pilot project to assess the feasibility of digitizing more than
33,000 theses submitted between 1919 and 2007.
"All knowledge
should be available
- I agree with that
philosophically.
But for artists, if
they're going to
make a living out of
their work, where do
you draw the line?"
Copyright law expert Mira Sundara Rajan is also an accomplished concert pianist.
COPYRIGHT
continued from page 1
"It's an issue of human rights."
Sundara Rajan's interest in
protecting artists' rights is not
solely legal. An accomplished
musician, Sundara Rajan
tours about six times a year,
performing internationally as
a concert pianist. Her family
enjoys a storied cultural past.
Her late great-grandfather,
C. Subramania Bharati is the
National Poet of India. Sundara
Rajan's interest in copyright
was sparked when she learned
of the injustices that occurred
after Bharati's premature death
in 1921, largely
due to the Indian   	
government's
controversial
decision to give
his copyright as a
gift to the people
of India.
Sundara Rajan studies
intellectual property issues in
Canada, the U.S., the U.K.,
Western and Eastern Europe,
Russia, and India. She predicts
that "funky and interesting"
developments will continue to
force the entertainment industry,
record companies and publishers
to adapt to the Bittorrent reality.
Ideally, people would be able
to do most of what they do
now, but it would be accepted as
perfectly legal, she says.
"The iTunes model seems
to be working really well and
appeals to people because of its
ease and reasonableness."
As well, consumers seem to
like the pricing and the flexibility
of being able to purchase one
song versus an entire album, she
says.
Sundara Rajan points
out that copyright reform is
overdue given that our current
legal framework stems from
legislation that was first passed
in the 1700s.
To illustrate her point,
Sundara Rajan asks students
about their favourite music
downloads. She gets a few raised
eyebrows and questions about
the aggressive lawsuits that
U.S. corporations have brought
against individuals south of the
border.
Sundara Rajan says there's
nothing in the history of
copyright law that forces us to
assume that downloading is
illegal.
"In fact, copyright has
"In fact, copyright has always been about
controlling commercial use of works."
always been about controlling
commercial use of works. For the
past 300 years, there has been
nothing in the law that prohibits
private and non-commercial use."
Sundara Rajan says that
litigation before Canada's
Federal and Supreme courts,
in contrast to the U.S.
situation, indicates that music
downloading is not yet illegal
in this country. However, the
Canadian government is looking
at copyright reform that will
meet international obligations,
and which will make it illegal to
upload files.
Internationally, the
World Trade Organization
(WTO) works with the
World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO), a
specialist agency of the United
Nations, to regulate the use of
copyright-protected material
in most countries, including
Canada.
"Because of Hollywood and
the music industry, the United
States has put pressure on the
WTO and WIPO to increase
copyright standards," says
Sundara Rajan.
As a result, there is a "strident
debate" between business
interests and those like Lawrence
Lessig, a Stanford law professor
who initiated an open access
movement known as "Creative
Commons," which encourages
people to share their work for
free.
"Corporations want to
maintain and even improve
upon their situation, by taking
advantage of dramatically
stronger
copyright
protection, and
they have been
diametrically
opposed to open
access."
Sundara Rajan says, however,
the Creative Commons fails to
address important issues such as
ensuring that creators are paid
and recognized for their work,
and preserving the integrity of
cultural heritage in a digital
context.
In her view, companies should
be open to adapting, rather
than holding onto their past
privileges. Sundara Rajan says
the reality is that traditional
ways of making money may
no longer work. Creators are
no longer dependent on the
middleman, the most current
example being new bands that
release their work independently
on YouTube.
"Music companies will
have new roles to play. They
could become networks for
distributing music, or platforms
for launching new bands.
Facilitating, not owning." 13 4     I     UBC    REPORTS     |    JUNE    5,    200!
Nutrition advice good enough to eat
By choosing packaged foods over fresh ingredients, consumers relinquish control overwhat they eat, says Gerry Kasten.
Pumpkin Pie recipe
14 oz can pumpkin
1 Vi cups evaporated milk
2 large eggs
% cup packed brown sugar
1 tsp ground cinnamon
1 tsp ground ginger
Vi tsp ground nutmeg
pinch ground cloves
Vi tsp salt
9 inch uncooked pastry
(chilled)
1. Preheat oven to 425° F
(220° C)
2. Whisk together all
ingredients then pour into
shell.
3. Bake pie for 15 minutes at
425° F (220 ° C) then reduce
heat to 350° F (175° C)
and bake a further 45 to 50
minutes, or until filling is set
until knife inserted in centre
of pie comes out clean. To
prevent overbaking custard,
you should start checking the
pie's doneness at 40 minutes,
as ovens vary.
4. Transfer to rack and cool
completely. Pie may be made
one day ahead and chilled,
covered, but crust will not
be as crisp as if made day of
serving.
BY BRIAN LIN
We're all capable of cooking a
delicious meal with fresh and
nutritious ingredients in just
minutes, but that's not what the
packaged foods industry would
have you believe, according to
UBC dietetics instructor Gerry
Kasten.
"We are told over and over
by advertising campaigns
that we're too busy to cook
for ourselves, that frozen or
packaged meals are fast and
convenient," says Kasten, a
Registered Dietitian and Master's
candidate in the Faculty of Land
and Food System. "They are also
increasingly being claimed to be
equally nutritious - good enough
to serve to your family."
But a home-cooked meal is
invariably better for you and
those you love, says Kasten, who
notes that packaged food will
have been cooked at least twice
by the time it enters your mouth.
"That destroys nutrients and
flavour. And there are additives
that keep the packaged food
looking good and tasting like it
'should.' "
What Kasten calls the "de-
skilling" of consumers when
it comes to cooking is part
of an overall relinquishing of
control by consumers over
their food choices. "We've
become accustomed to external
influences to tell us what - and
how much - to eat," he says.
"Then we decide we're too fat
and go on a diet and give up
even more control."
Kasten says people generally
know what healthy food is,
but lack the know-how to
incorporate that knowledge into
their lives. To address that, he
and co-instructor Joanne Rankin
more iron than beef - that gives
you nutritional advice that's also
delicious."
A professionally trained chef
who's worked in five-star hotel
kitchens, Kasten challenges
students to blend raw nutritional
knowledge in recipes and prepare
them in a kitchen classroom. The
course's manual is an extensive
cookbook of everything from
low-fat desserts to entrees with
specific nutrients for patients or
the elderly.
"Dietitians work with a wide
range of clients, from individuals
"Eating isn't just about
counting calories."
have incorporated "food-based
knowledge" in an undergraduate
course for third-year Dietetics
majors.
"It concerns me when I hear
nutritional advice dispensed
without food advice to go with
it," says Kasten. "If I tell you to
take more iron, that's not giving
you much information. But if
I tell you to eat clam chowder
with an extra can of clams in it
- clams have almost nine times
seeking better control of their
weight to hospitals planning
nutritious meals for patients,"
says Kasten. "We feel it's vital
that our students can use their
expertise to help clients choose
everyday grocery items and show
them how to prepare them."
"The number one comment
we get from students, many of
whom have never cooked in
their lifetime, is how easy it was
to make seemingly complicated
dishes like pumpkin pie or
Bouillabase - and how cheap
they are," says Kasten.
The hands-on experience is
building the students' confidence
and whetting their appetite for
the joys of cooking and eating,
concepts that have nearly been
"dieted out" of the public
consciousness.
"We as a society have this idea
that the value of food lies solely
in is its nutrition," says Kasten.
"What that neglects is all of
the things that food does for us
which contributes to our health
that has nothing to do with
nutrition.
"Let's say you enjoy eating
ice cream, and it makes you feel
happy. I think that feeling good
is an important contributor to
health so arguably that ice cream
is an important contributor
to your health, even though
nutritionally it might not be
the most optimal choice," says
Kasten.
"Eating isn't just about
counting calories. Cooking for
yourself and enjoying the fruits
of your labour should evoke as
much satisfaction as choosing
nutritious foods." 13
MIND-BODY
continued from page 1
of variance between humans
- skeletons, organs, muscles can
all differ in size from person to
person," says Pai. "That means
there is always some guesswork
involved in surgery."
"But if you can give someone
an MRI and create a personalized
computer model, suddenly a
doctor has more information to
work with," he says. "They can
say, 'If I cut this tendon, what
exactly is going to happen, given
this patient's unique body.'"
Advances in the field of
neuroprosthetics - devices that
replace or improve the function
of an impaired nervous system
- is another desired research
outcome, Pai says.
"With a better understanding
of mind-body connections, we
hope to be able to use electrodes
in the brain or spinal cord to
restore some functions in people
who have experienced strokes or
some other disability."
While these applications are
still years away, the field of
digital animation is taking note
of their research. The upcoming
prestigious computer science
conference SIGGRAPH will
publish research by Pai and PhD
candidate Shinjiro Sueda that
outlines how the team's modeling
of body movements can help
to make digital animations of
humans more realistic.
For more information, visit
www.cs.ubc.ca/~pai. 13 UBC    REPORTS     |    JUNE    5,    2008     |    5
THE   UNIVERSITY OF      £33       BRITISH   COLUMBIA
Equity Office and Human Rights and Equity Services
Discrimination and Harassment Report 2007
The Equity Office envisions a community in which human rights are
respected and equity is embedded in all areas of academic, work and
campus life. Through its leadership, vision and collaborative action, the
Equity Office will further UBC's commitment to excellence, equity and
mutual respect.
Human Rights & Equity Services (HES) works to ensure UBC Okanagan is
a welcoming and respectful learning and work community for everyone;
one that respects differences, champions fair treatment and embraces
diversity.
OVERVIEW
The University of British Columbia's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment (Policy
#3, hereinafter referred to in this report as the "Policy") was adopted and implemented
in 1995 and revised to its current form in 2001. It is currently under review for possible
further revision. The Policy protects all members of the UBC community - students,
staff and faculty - from discrimination and harassment on actual or perceived personal
characteristics related to 13 human rights grounds and, likewise, prohibits UBC
community members from engaging in such discriminatory or harassing actions against
other UBC students, staff and faculty. The 13 grounds of prohibited discrimination are
based on those outlined in the BC Human Rights Code. Specifically, these are:
• Age (applies to those older than 19 and less than 65)1
• Ancestry
• Colour
• Family status
• Marital status
• Physical or mental disability
• Place of origin
• Political belief (in the context of employment only)
• Race
• Religion
• Sex (which includes sexual harassment, gender identity/expression and pregnancy)
• Sexual orientation
• Unrelated criminal conviction (in the context of employment only)
The BC Human Rights Code, and likewise, UBC's Policy, provides protection from
discrimination and harassment in the areas of housing, employment and service
provision. At UBC, this provision of service includes academics, athletics and residential
life. The obligation to adhere to the Policy and maintain a discrimination- and
harassment-free work, study and campus environment falls upon all students, faculty,
and staff, especially those in a position to supervise the work or conduct of others.
THE EQUITY OFFICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS AND EQUITY SERVICES
The mandates of the Equity Office (UBC-V) and Human Rights and Equity Services
(UBC-O) are to ensure that the rights and responsibilities provided for by the Policy
on Discrimination and Harassment are fulfilled by the UBC community. We offer
procedures to address discrimination and harassment complaints. These mechanisms
offer a clear, equitable approach to problem resolution. These procedures supplement
other University and extra-University mechanisms, such as those of employee
associations and unions, the courts, the BC Human Rights Tribunal and the Office of
the BC Ombudsman. In addition, the Equity Office conducts educational programs
and events to heighten awareness of human rights, and thereby minimize incidents of
discrimination and harassment.
In 2007, the Equity Office at UBC-Vancouver underwent some staffing changes. We had
2 Equity Advisors in January (1.8 FTE). From February until mid-May we had 3 Equity
Advisors (3.0 FTE) and then had 2 Equity Advisors from mid-May until December (1.8
FTE until August 1; 2.0 FTE from August 1 - December 31). Additionally, we had 2
administrative staff and one Associate Vice President, Equity.
At UBC-Okanagan, the Human Rights and Equity Services (HES) office was staffed
by one full-time advisor and this office is also under the jurisdiction of the same AVP
Equity. Both campuses utilize the same Policy and both offer complaint management
services and educational/preventative programming on a range of equity issues.
The purpose of this report is to share the data collected by the Equity Office and
Human Rights and Equity Services on their handling of discrimination and harassment
incidents in 2007. Each campus will report on their statistics separately.
In 2007, Bill 3 1, a measure to eliminate mandatory retirement at age 65, was passed by the BC legislature.
Effective January 1, 2008, this bill revises age provisions in the BC Human Rights Code to extend protection
from age discrimination to people over 19, including those age 65 and older. This legislation is not retroactive.
Hence we continue to use the provisions of "age" as applicable to those over 19 and under 65 in the 2007 annual
report, to be consistent with the law in effect at that time.
DISCRIMINATION AND HARASSMENT DEFINED
According to the BC Human Rights Code and the UBC Policy, discrimination is
defined as the denial of an opportunity to, or a biased decision against, an individual
or a group because of some actual or perceived personal attribute, such as sexual
orientation or religion (or any of the 13 grounds listed above). Discrimination also
occurs when individuals are judged on the basis of their group membership, rather than
their individual capabilities or merit. For example, to exclude a female applicant from a
manually intensive job because "women are not strong" is an unfounded, unjustifiable
denial of an opportunity. Similarly, it is discriminatory to deny employment to an
otherwise qualified woman who appears to be pregnant because it is assumed that she
will leave the position in short order. In some situations, however, different treatment
can be justified, perhaps because of a reasonable occupational requirement. To reject
a blind applicant for a job as a pilot, for example, is a justifiable reason for different
treatment and denial of the position. A decision or conduct based on a bona fide
occupational requirement does not violate the BC Human Rights Code or UBC Policy.
However, the legal test that must be applied to determine whether differential treatment
is based on a bona fide occupational requirement is difficult to meet. Most complaints
of differential treatment based on any of the 13 grounds cannot be justified and thus are
prohibited at UBC.
Harassment is a form of discrimination, which entails offensive or insulting treatment
of individuals or groups, again, because of their actual or perceived personal
characteristics relating to one or more of the 13 grounds of prohibited discrimination.
The harassing behaviour is unwelcome to the recipient and the behaviour is assessed
as harassment based on the impact of the behaviour on the recipient (subject to the
reasonable person test), rather than the intent of the alleged harasser. Discrimination
and harassment, whether intentional or unintentional, are unlawful and in violation of
the UBC Policy.
UBC's Policy also includes provisions to protect against retaliation for persons who
bring forward complaints of discrimination or harassment.
COMPLAINT MANAGEMENT
In 2007, the Equity Office (UBC-V) and Human Rights and Equity Services (UBC-O)
provided consultation and case management assistance to students, faculty, and staff,
including administrative heads of unit, executive members of employee associations and
members of departmental equity committees. Complaints accepted by the Equity Office/
HES were resolved by complainants themselves, by Equity Advisors, by administrative
heads or by a collaborative process involving Equity Advisors, administrative heads,
complainants and/or respondents.
According to the Policy, Administrative Heads of Units are responsible for addressing
discrimination and harassment in their units. Administrative Heads are the top
administrators in a given unit - institutes, faculties, departments and the like; and may
include, for example, Directors, Academic Heads, Deans, Associate Vice Presidents,
and Vice Presidents. Administrative Heads and Equity Advisors jointly share the
responsibility for enforcing the Policy. Individuals who believe they have a human rights
complaint may take their concerns to their Administrative Head or to an Equity Advisor
in the Equity Office or HES; the option is theirs. In many cases, the Equity Advisors
and Administrative Heads work in tandem to address complaints and concerns brought
forth. Equity Advisors do not advocate for any one group on campus (faculty, staff or
students) or individuals to a complaint (complainants or respondents), but rather serve
as advocates for the Policy - to ensure a discrimination- and harassment-free campus.
Concerns brought directly to Administrative Heads of Unit which did not involve the
Equity Office or HES are not reflected in this annual report.
Concerns may also be brought directly to the Equity Office at UBC-V or the Human
Rights and Equity Services (HES) office at UBC-O. These concerns are classified either
as consultations or cases. "Cases" involve the Equity Advisor in direct intervention
in a mandate situation. In other words, they are cases that meet the burden of proof
established by the Policy and upon which the Equity Advisor acts to remedy the
concern. "Consultations" usually take one of three forms: 1. concerns which are
preventative in nature, 2. those which do not fall under the mandate of the Policy, or 3.
concerns which would fall under the mandate of the policy but we do not have consent
to proceed with the concern as a case. Some consultations involve significant amounts
of work on the part of the Equity Advisor, even though they do not proceed through the
complaint resolution procedures provided for in the Policy.
1. Preventative consultations are ones in which a breach of the Policy has not yet
been made, but where a potential complainant or Administrative Head of Unit has
good reason to believe that a breach of Policy may occur if intervention does not first
take place. With concerns such as these, the Equity Advisor, in consultation with the
department, acts to provide preventative education or programming, develop action
plans and/or offers other intervention services to prevent discrimination or harassment
before it occurs.
[1] I     UBC    REPORTS     |
2. Consultations which involve concerns that do not fall under the mandate of the
Policy include, for example, allegations which fall outside the one year time limit for
reporting incidents, involve non-UBC parties or a non-UBC context, do not meet the
burden of proof for a human-rights based complaint of discrimination or harassment,
or fall under the mandate of another UBC policy or procedure. Concerns of personal
harassment and interpersonal conflict which do not contain a human rights element are
treated as consultations.
3. Lastly, consultations can involve concerns which would meet the burden of proof
under the policy, but for which the Equity Advisor has not been given consent to
proceed with the concern as a case. The procedures provided for in the Policy are
complaint-driven. Unless the allegations of discrimination or harassment are very
serious in nature - for example, ones with potential consequences that threaten the
safety or lives of individuals, units or the University - the complainant has the right to
withhold consent to proceed with an allegation through case management procedures.
This provision, consistent with the BC Human Rights Code, is in place to allow
members of the University community to consult with the Equity Office before they
make an informed decision to proceed, or not, with a case under the Policy.
In consultations, Equity Advisors may provide information and advice to complainants
or administrators who visit the Equity Office/HES but do not request Equity Office/HES
intervention. Some of these individuals want information and advice on how to address
problems themselves. Others are too fearful of retaliation to confront respondents or
to inform administrative heads, and therefore, insist the Office not intervene on their
behalf. Since discrimination or harassment complaints cannot be pursued anonymously,
as stated above, Advisors approach these incidents in a consultative manner unless the
concern is of such an egregious nature (i.e. it seriously threatens the health and safety
of UBC community members) that they warrant action even without the complainant's
consent. The limits on confidentiality in the Equity Office and HES are such that it
is only in very rare, exceptional circumstances that an Equity Advisor would choose
to pursue a complaint without consent to pursue from the presenting party. Other
consultations can involve the provision of assistance to people whose concerns do not
fall under the mandate of the policy (such as concerns of personal harassment or serious
concerns of discrimination and harassment that involve a complainant or respondent
who is outside UBC jurisdiction). Consultations may take the form of answering
questions about the Policy, bridging communication gaps between parties, or referring
individuals to other UBC offices or external community services to find appropriate
redress for their concerns. This report refers to both "cases" and "consultations" as
"complaints."
who work to sort out the issues and facts, and find workable solutions. Each mandate
case is unique - with different issues, players, contexts, and severity - and, therefore the
approach taken and resolutions brokered are tailored to the parties' needs. Sometimes
complainants have a particular resolution in mind, (e.g., an apology, a change in policy,
or the removal of offensive materials or conduct from a work station). Other times,
appropriate resolutions materialize through dialogue among the parties.
In rare situations, mandate complaints are addressed through formal, rather than
informal, proceedings. Complainants who experience severe infringement of their
human rights may apply for a formal investigation by submitting a written request to
the Equity Office or HES. Upon considering the complainant's request and initial factfinding on the matter, the Associate Vice President, Equity may grant the request and
order an independent investigation and panel. Two cases were forwarded to the formal
process in 2007, but the parties chose to proceed under other procedures provided for
by the Policy.
Following is a summary of complaints and consultations received and handled by the
Equity Office at UBC's Vancouver campus and Human Rights & Equity Services at
UBC's Okanagan campus in 2007. We are providing the complaint statistics for UBC
Vancouver and UBC Okanagan separately. This data reflect only those situations in
which the Equity Office or HES were specifically contacted, and does not include
the many other incidents in which Administrative Heads of Units or others managed
incidents independently.
UBC VANCOUVER - COMPLAINTS RECEIVED IN 2007
In both 2006 and 2007, changes were made to the tracking forms on which we record
complaint summary data at UBC-V, and from which these annual report statistics are
generated. These new forms offer an expanded range of options for more detailed
reporting. However, since new forms were introduced in both 2006 and 2007, the data
generated this year may not directly correspond to that from categories on the earlier
forms. Thus, in our 2007 charts and reporting, we have endeavoured to make the data
from the new and older categories fit and, where discrepancies occur, have detailed the
reason for such discrepancies. The main changes to the form reflect the reality of the
intersectionality of oppressions. Some concerns brought to the Equity Office involve
more than one ground of prohibited discrimination and/or more than one type of
behaviour. The forms now also offer a wider range of options for why the policy may
not be applicable in a given complaint and a more detailed range of human rights and
non-human rights behaviours as well.
Many of the incidents brought to the Equity Office and HES fall under the rubric
of personal harassment - situations in which parties are reportedly behaving badly
towards each other, but not on the basis of any of the 13 prohibited grounds set out
in the BC Human Rights Code. This broad category of personal harassment includes
such behaviour as bullying (also referred to as psychological harassment), mean-spirited
gossiping, interpersonal conflict and heated disagreements, to name a few. In 2007,
UBC did not have a policy or prescribed procedures to address such non-human rights
harassment or interpersonal conflicts. Although such interpersonal conflicts fall outside
the Discrimination and Harassment Policy, Advisors may attempt to assist clients in
finding the resources or assistance they need to remedy these situations. Clients may
include individuals or departments.
INFORMAL AND FORMAL COMPLAINT MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES
The Equity Office and HES employ both informal and formal resolution methods in
addressing human rights complaints. The vast majority of cases are handled under the
informal process by Equity Advisors, often in conjunction with Administrative Heads,
As shown in Figure 1 [Discrimination & Harassment Complaints: Cases and
Consultation], the Equity Office at UBC-V received 81 complaints from January-
December 2007. Of these, 14 (17%) were mandate cases which employed the complaint
resolution procedures provided for in the Policy and 67 (83%) were consultations.
(Please see the "Complaint Management" section above for an explanation of what is
meant by "case" and "consultation".)
In 2006/2007, with the change in tracking forms, the Equity Office started tracking
concerns which have multiple or intersecting grounds of discrimination and harassment.
There was 1 mandate complaint in 2007 (7%) which cited two grounds of prohibited
discrimination in the same case (Figure 1) and 10 consultations (24%) in which two
grounds were cited (Figure 2) per consultation. In order not to privilege or give more
weight to one ground over another in a complaint with intersecting grounds, we
have chosen to report the data in Figures 1 and 2 so that the number of times that all
the grounds were cited is listed and then the number of grounds from the concerns
which involved multiple grounds, minus the number of cases with multiple grounds, is
subtracted from this total.
Figure 1  Cases and Consultations
CASES
2005
N=29 of 111 (26%)      2006
N=21 of 97 (22%)
2007
N=14of 81 (17%)
Age
Disability
Ethnicity (ancestry, colour, race, place of origin)
Family Status
Marital Status
_0	
14%
10%
_0	
0
5%
5%
33%
5%
0
_0	
21%
29%
_0	
0
Political Belief
1
3%
0
0
0
0
Religion
1
3%
0
0
0
0
Sex/Gender
19
66%
14
67%
7
50%
Sexual Orientation
1
3%
1
5%
1
7%
Unrelated Criminal Offense
0
0
0
0
0
0
Multiple Grounds of Discrimination
n/a
n/a
-4 (included above)
-19%
-1 (included above)
-7%
TOTAL
29
99%
21
101%
14
100%
* In 2006,3 cases had multiple grounds: 7
grounds
over 3
cases so
deduct 3 to reach N=
=21 total
cases; in
2007 1
case
had 2 grounds so
deduct 1 to reach N=14
CONSULTATIONS
2005
N=71 of 111 (64%)
2006
N=76 of 97 (78%)
2007
N=67 of 81 (83%)
Proceeding in a different process
Outside Time Limit
Respondent/complainant and/or context not under UBC jurisdiction
NEW - Non-UBC complainant and/or respondent
NEW-Non UBC context	
No prohibited ground
Allegation does not meet burden of proof
Complainant does not wish to proceed
NEW- Preventative
* Multiple Reasons Cited
39
0
11
n/a
n/a
1/T
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
55%
_0	
15%
n/a
n/a
30%
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
10
13%
0
0
11
14%
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
43
57%
10
13%
13
17%
n/a
n/a
-11 (included above)
-14%
J4	
J	
n/a
J	
_4	
J3	
JJ	
J	
J	
-3 (included above)
21%
2%
n/a
9%
6%
34%
16%
12%
4%
-4%
TOTAL
71
100%
76
100%
67
100%
[2] UBC    REPORTS     |
I     7
The first chart of Figure 1 shows the grounds of discrimination and harassment that
were cited in the 14 cases handled by the Equity Office. As is consistent with previous
years, sex/gender was the most prevalent ground cited in cases (7 cases, or 50%),
followed by ethnicity (4 cases, or 29%) and disability (3 cases or 21%). There was also
one case which cited sexual orientation as the ground of prohibited discrimination
(7%). Complaints on the ground of sex, the most commonly reported concerns,
include concerns about unwanted sexual advances or contact, stalking, gender-based
discrimination, concerns about differential treatment due to pregnancy or breastfeeding
and concerns about discrimination and harassment due to gender identity or gender
expression. The proportion of complaints based on each ground cited does not change
when the total number of grounds cited over all of the complaints, and not just the
cases, are recorded (see Figure 2 and discussion).
The second chart of Figure 1 offers reasons why a complaint did not proceed to a case,
but rather was handled as a consultation. In 2007, as is consistent with 2006, the most
prevalent reason for this was that the allegation brought to the Equity Office did not
involve a prohibited ground of discrimination (23 consultations or 34%). These may
have been concerns of conduct such as personal harassment, bullying or interpersonal
conflict. Fourteen (or 21%) of consultations proceeded in a different process such as
a union grievance, Senate appeal process, external process or process within the unit
itself. Eleven concerns (16%) did not meet the burden of proof required by the Policy
to be a bona fide allegation of discrimination and harassment and, as such, did not
proceed to a case. Lastly, in 8 consultations, the complainant did not want to proceed
with complaint procedures provided for under the Policy. This may be because the
complainant was looking for advice on how to handle the concern themselves, or was
concerned about consequences they feared might arise if they made their allegation
known to the respondent or within the department. Consultations often required
considerable Advisor and staff time and resources on the part of the Equity Office.
As stated below, brief consultations which do not take a lot of time or resources from
the Equity Office (such as a telephone call or single email) are not recorded in the
database. Only those consultations where a greater investment is involved (such as the
participation in longer meetings where significant intake and exploration of options are
undertaken, the provision of advice and assistance and/or the preparation and delivery
of training or formulation of an action or safety plan outside of these procedures) are
now recorded as consultations.
By examining the longitudinal case data in Figure 1 from 2005-2007, one may note
the general decrease in annual totals, as well as variation within the various grounds
of discrimination and harassment. Although we cannot fully explain this year to
year fluctuation, we believe that certain factors play a determining role, firstly, as a
dynamic organization, the environmental milieu at UBC is in constant flux. The UBC
environment is subject to such factors as union bargaining, new construction, physical
and human reorganization of units, changes in leadership and expansion of programs.
These changes impact the one-to-one interactions of people that work, study and live at
UBC and, at times, these changes manifest into equity related complaints.
Secondly, this fluctuation of numbers may be attributed to changes in our methods of
record keeping. Brief consultations that only take a few minutes and do not require us
to act or advise on a complaint are no longer recorded in the computer database from
which these annual report numbers are generated. Thus, as stated above, the numbers
from this year reflect complaints in which the Equity Office played a more significant
role than that of quick sounding board.
Thirdly, we in the Equity Office are confident that the educational programs we offer
impact the community and are effective in raising discrimination and harassment
awareness, limiting inappropriate behaviour and promoting respectful interactions in
the workplace, classroom and residences. Participation in the many workshops offered
by the Equity Advisors varies from year to year, and thus the effects of awareness
education vary. Networking with other service organizations and effective training of
Administrative Heads of Unit about their roles and responsibilities under the Policy to
act on complaints of discrimination and harassment help ensure that local solutions
may be first sought without direct intervention from the Equity Office. Administrative
Heads are often the first line of redress for discrimination and harassment in their units.
Thus, the fluctuation in annual numbers may also relate to the variant awareness and
skill levels of these Managers, Deans and Department Heads. Some Administrative
Heads act quickly and astutely to address these situations, solving the problem locally.
Therefore, these situations never reach the Equity Office and are not recorded in our
records. Because unit leadership may change every three to five years (or more often is
some cases), the effectiveness with which Policy-related incidents are dealt with in the
unit, are likewise varying.
Figure 2 [Grounds of Discrimination Cited in 2007 Complaints] illustrates the
total number of concerns (cases and consultations) in which a prohibited ground of
discrimination and harassment was alleged. Of the 81 total complaints, 41 complaints
cited one (or, in 11 incidences, two) human rights grounds of discrimination or
harassment. Thus, 40 of the 67 consultations did not involve an alleged ground of
prohibited discrimination when the individual approached the Equity Office. These 40
consultations included the 23 (34%) where no ground was cited, 14 (21%) which were
proceeding in a different process and the 3 (4%) consultations which were preventative
in nature, as recorded in Figure 1.
Of the 41 consultations where a ground was cited, 14 were acted upon as a case (see
Figure 1) and the remaining 27 were treated as consultations (3 of which had two
reasons each regarding why they were consultations, not cases). In this latter group of
27 consultations (with 30 reasons cited), the individual who approached the Equity
Office felt that a ground (or two) of prohibited discrimination may have been involved
in their concern but the complaint remained at the consultation stage for the following
reasons: 11 concerns were outside of the jurisdiction of the policy (non-UBC context,
non-UBC parties or outside the time limit for making a complaint); 11 concerns did
not meet the burden of proof required by the policy; and 8 concerns were ones in
Figure 2 Grounds of Discrimination
GROUNDS OF DISCRIMINATION CITED IN 2007 COMPLAINTS (Cases and Consultations)
Ethnicity                                                                                         15
37%
Family Status                                                                                   3
7%
Marital Status                                                                                  1
2%
Disability
Religion
Sex/Gender
Sex. Orientation
Multiple Grounds of Discrimination
3
21
J	
-11
20%
7%
51%
2%
-27%
TOTAL
41
99%
Figure 3 Context of All Complaints
CONTEXT OF ALL COMPLAINTS
2005
N=111
2006
N=97
2007
N=81
Academic
57
51%
46
47%
44
54%
Employment
33
30%
33
34%
27
33%
Residence
8
7%
6
6%
3
4%
Clubs/ Athletics/Recreation
1
1%
2
2%
0
0
UBC Service
n/a
n/a
7
7%
3
4%
Non-UBC
12
11%
3
3%
4
5%
TOTAL:
111
100%
97
99%
81
100%
which the complainant did not give us permission to proceed and instead chose not to
proceed with the complaint as a case. For all of these concerns, the Equity Advisor or
Administrative Head of Unit did not provide case management assistance but provided
advice and assistance in other ways such as referrals to other departments, agencies or
procedures, training and education, safety planning and advice and assistance on how
to manage a concern on one's own.
Figure 2 tracks the number of cases and consultations in which a ground (or two) of
prohibited discrimination was cited. Of the 41 concerns, 21 (or 51%) cited sex/gender,
15 (or 37%) cited ethnicity (ancestry, colour, place of origin or race) and 8 (or 20%)
cited physical or mental disability. While the order of these concerns is consistent with
those handled as mandate cases in 2007 (see Figure 1), when the number of cases is
subtracted from this data, 14 concerns in which sex/gender were cited, 11 in which
ethnicity was a factor and 5 in which disability was cited did not proceed to a case.
In addition, none of the concerns which cited family status, marital status or religion
proceeded to a case. This data may reflect grounds upon which individuals may feel
more reluctant to proceed with a concern under procedures provided for by the Policy,
but further analysis would be required to determine how many of these consultations
would have been eligible to proceed to a case (i.e. met the burden of proof and fell
within the jurisdiction of the policy) and then which grounds were cited in those
concerns before such conclusions can be drawn.
Like the BC Human Rights Code, the Policy protects UBC students, staff and faculty
from discrimination and harassment in service, accommodation and employment. Thus,
this type of behaviour will not be tolerated in the various domains of the university - in
academics, employment, residences, clubs/athletics/recreation and UBC services.
Figure 3 illustrates the breakdown of incidents in these various university settings.
Employment and academic matters have consistently been the primary sources of
Equity complaints over the last three years. Of the 81 complaints handled by the
Equity Office in 2007, 44 (54%) fell within the context of academics; whereas 27
(33%) stemmed from the employment context. To look at the demographics of the
UBC community, one would expect that the majority of complaints raised with the
Equity Office would originate from students - who represent the largest population of
campus constituents - and that complaints from students would most likely arise in the
academic context (although students can also be employed by the university and may
engage with UBC Services, clubs, athletics and recreation).
According to statistics from UBC's Office of Planning and Institutional Research
(PAIR), there were a total of 43,579 undergraduate and graduate students at UBC-
Vancouver in the winter academic term of 2007 and a total of 10,655 staff and faculty.
Students comprise 80% of the UBC-V community population, while staff and faculty
represent 20% of the population. Based on these community demographics, the Equity
Office receives a proportionally high number of employment-related complaints. This
is true, even when combining the academic-related complaints with complaints arising
from the residence life, athletics/clubs and UBC Service.
Figure 4 illustrates the gender of parties involved in discrimination and harassment
complaints over the last three years. Consistently throughout this time period, women
have been more likely to bring matters to the Equity Office than have men. In 2007,
out of 81 complaints, 52 (64%) women sought assistance from the Equity Office as
complainants to a concern, as compared to 23 (28%) men who approached the Equity
Office as complainants.
The data in 2007 cites 5 complaints (6%) involving persons of an "unknown" gender.
This category includes both concerns where the identity and therefore gender of the
complainant are actually unknown (i.e. consultations with administrators looking for
advice on managing cases on their own where the identities of the parties have not
been divulged) and also concerns from individuals whose gender identity does not
correspond with either the female or male binary gender categories. Although the latter
concerns are recorded as coming from persons of an unknown gender, this obviously is
a limitation of the database. (Other transgender or gender variant people who do
[3] I     UBC    REPORTS     |    JUNE    5,    200!
Figure 4 Gender of All Complainants and Respondents
COMPLAINANTS
2005
N=111
2006
N=97
2007
N=81
Female
76
69%
72
74%
52
64%
Male
35
32%
24
25%
23
28%
Unknown
0
0
1
1%
5
6%
Both
0
0
0
0
1
1%
TOTAL
111
101%
97
100%
81
99%
RESPONDENTS
2005
N=111
2006
N=97
2007
N=81
Female
32
29%
17
18%
17
21%
Male
63
57%
40
41%
34
42%
Unknown
4
4%
5
5%
6
7%
Both
0
0
1
1%
6
7%
Department/U
niversity
12
11%
34
35%
18
22%
TOTAL
111
101%        97
100%
Figure 5 Complaints by Campus Groups
99%
CAMPUS GROUPS
2005
2006
2007
Students
65
59%
62
64%
38
47%
Faculty and Faculty Association
12
11%
8
8%
17
21%
Management and Professional
13
12%
10
10%
15
19%
Support, Clerical, Library, Trades,
Technical and Service Staff
14
13%
14
14%
6
7%
Non UBC
7
6%
3
3%
1
1%
Unknown
n/a
n/a
4
5%
TOTAL
111
100%
97
100%
81
100%
identify as female or male are included as such in the data in Figure 4.) The forms for
2008's annual report have included a transgender/gender-variant category to correct for
this error.
While women are more likely to initiate complaints with the Equity Office, men are
more likely to be named as the responding party - a trend that has been consistent over
the last several years. In 2007, men were named as respondents in 42% of complaints
(n=34), whereas women were named as respondents in 21% of complaints (n=17).
part, by internal changes made to data collection methods. In previous years, data was
reported on the forms in a manner that allowed a distinction between a faculty member
and an administrative head of unit. Although we are not able to capture this distinction
in 2007, we have made adjustments to allow for it in future years.
Staff brought 21 (26%) of the 81 complaints in 2007, which is consistent with the 25%
and 24% of complaints brought by staff in both 2006 and 2005. Management and
professional staff brought 15 (19%) of these 21 concerns which is up from the 10%
and 12% brought by this group in 2006 and 2005. All other staff brought 6 (7%) of
the 21 concerns forward which is lower than the 15% and 13% brought in 2006 and
2005. The forms which were revised for 2007 use did not employ categories which
allowed for a more specific breakdown of the broader category of "staff", but this has
been rectified for 2008 data.
As in previous years, a relatively small number of complaints in 2007 stemmed
from non-UBC complainants 1 (1%) and unknown complainants 4 (5%). Unknown
complainants include those who consult with the Equity Office but choose to remain
anonymous, consultations from a third party, such as an Administrative Head of Unit,
where the identity and affiliation of the complainant is not shared, or those who choose
not to disclose their affiliation for other reasons.
Overall, the breakdown of complaints by campus constituents appears to fluctuate
from year to year. Students continue to bring the largest number of complaints however,
which reflects the fact that they comprise roughly 80% of the population on the
UBC-Vancouver campus. However, although they bring the highest overall number
of complaints, proportionally staff and faculty (which comprise roughly 20% of the
population) bring a greater proportion of complaints. Due to the change in tracking
forms, we do not have a breakdown of respondents by campus group or the position of
complainants vis a vis respondents by campus group for 2007 but the forms have been
changed to correct for this omission in 2008.
In 2006 our tracking forms changed which allowed us to revise the type of data
collected about behavioural descriptions of complaints. Prior to this change, we
reported on behaviours that fell into one of 5 categories: poisoned environment,
assault, retaliation, other forms of discrimination, and allegations not covered by the
Policy. Behaviours in the first 4 categories were ones covered by the Policy and, as
such, contained a human rights ground of prohibited discrimination, whereas the last
category captured complaints without a human rights element that were still brought
to the Equity Office. In 2006, we were interested in further exploring the types of
behaviours that constituted allegations with a human rights element so removed the 5
broader categories and instead revised and devised new categories to better reflect the
range of behaviours people allege in their complaints.
In 2006 and 2007, the number of complaints against a department or the University
increased over 2005 data. In 2007, however, 18 complaints (22%) named the
department or University as the respondent, down from 34 (35%) of concerns about a
department or the University the previous year.
As mentioned above, currently, methods of recording the gender of parties to a
complaint only allow for categories of male, female, groups comprised of people of
more than one gender (categorized as "both"), department/University and unknown
gender. This binary conceptualization of gender does not allow for the accurate
recording of gender identities of individuals who do not identify as either male or
female. For example, this group may include some people who identify as transgender,
transsexual, genderqueer or gender variant. In these instances, we record the gender
of self-selection if one of the male or female labels fit, but we do not have an accurate
way to record gender expressions and identities outside of this binary conception of a
two-gender system. Similarly, the term "both" reinforces this notion of a binary gender
system. Our forms have been modified to better reflect a wider range of possible gender
identities and expressions in the future.
As previously explained, the Equity Office and the UBC Policy on Discrimination and
Harassment serve the students, faculty and staff of UBC-Vancouver. As with previous
years, students continue to be the campus group most likely to access the Equity Office.
In 2007, students brought 38 (47%) of the 81 complaints. This same group accessed the
Equity Office most often in 2006 and 2005 bringing 64% and 59% of all complaints
respectively.
Faculty complaints comprised 17 (21%) of the 81 complaints in 2007. This is more
than double the 8% brought by this group last year. This increase can be explained, in
We were also interested in learning more about the types of behaviours that were
alleged in non-human rights based concerns, rather than considering them all in a single
category which was not very descriptive. Thus, beginning in 2006, we began to report
separately on human-rights based behavioural descriptions of complaints (Figure 6) and
on the behavioural description of complaints without a human rights element (Figure
7). Continuing with this new reporting method, 2007 data is directly comparable to
2006 data and adjustments for 2005 data are noted as required.
In 2006, we recorded data on human rights complaints that were either interpersonal
or systemic in nature. However, the form in 2007 was revised in such a way that
this distinction was not made. The forms for 2008 data have been altered to capture
this distinction again. In 2006, there were 6 systemic complaints but, as we do not
have comparable data for either 2005 or 2007, these cases are not reflected in the
data for this report. Instead, we are making comparisons based on complaints of an
interpersonal nature only. In 2006, these constituted 46 of the 52 complaints, and only
these 46 concerns are reflected in figure 6.
Figure 6 illustrates the kinds of interpersonal human-rights based behaviour which
individuals complain about when they seek assistance from the Equity Office. In 2007,
the greatest number of these complaints involved allegations of unwelcome verbal or
non-verbal behaviour such as insults, slurs, jokes and innuendo (16 or 30%). The next
largest type of alleged behaviour involved biased academic decisions (13 or 24%),
followed closely by biased employment decisions (11 or 20%). The proportion of
complaints for each type of behaviour has changed from year to year so does not seem
to be following a consistent pattern.
Figure 7 shows behavioural descriptions for the 25 complaints which did not have
Figure 6 Human Rights Based Behavioural Descriptions of Complaints
INTERPERSONAL COMPLAINTS
2005
N=75
2006
N=46
2007
N=54
Unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviour (insults, slurs,
jokes, inneundo)
5
7%
15
33%
16
30%
Unwelcome written or visual behaviour (email
, graffiti, vid
leo, letter, etc)
10
13%
7
15%
8
15%
Unwelcome physical attention (touching, staring, following-
-behaviour that is not stalking
or assault) 11
15%
7
15%
7
13%
Stalking
0
0
4
9%
1
2%
Threats
18
24%
1
2%
0
0
Assaults
0
0
2
4%
0
0
Retaliation
1
1%
1
2%
3
6%
Biased Academic Decisions
6
8%
7
15%
13
24%
Biased Employment Decisions
11
15%
2
4%
11
20%
Exclusion or Denial of Access
13
17%
7
15%
6
11%
* Multiple behavioural descriptions cited
0
0
-7
-15%
-11
-20%
TOTALALL BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS
75
100%
46
100%
54
101%
* In 2006, 6 concerns cited multiple behaviours: 13 behaviours over 6 cases so subtract 7 from total to reach N=46
* In 2007,11 concerns cited multiple behaviours: 22 behaviours over 11 cases so subtract 11 from total to reach N=54
[4] UBC    REPORTS     |    JUNE    5,    2008     |     9
Figure 7 Non-Human Rights Based Behavourial Description of Complaints
NON-HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE
2005
N=32
2006
N=45
2007
N=25
Interpersonal Conflict
15
47%
15
33%
8
32%
Bullying/Personal Harassment
5
16%
18
40%
13
52%
Other
12
38%
12
27%
4
16%
TOTAL
32
101%
45
100%
25
100%
BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF NON-HUMAN RIGHTS COMPLAINTS
Unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviour
Unwelcome written or visual behaviour(insults, slurs, jokes, inneundo, etc)
Unwelcome physical attention (touching, staring, following—not stalking or assault)
Threats
Assault
Retaliation
Biased Academic Decisions
Biased Employment Decisions
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
23
2
1
1
1
0
11
6
51%
4%
2%
2%
2%
_0	
24%
13%
12
4
0
1
0
1
6
5
48%
16%
0%
4%
_0	
4%
24%
20%
Exclusion or Denial of Access
n/a
6
13%
2
8%
'Multiple behavioural descriptions cited
-6
-13%
-6
-24%
TOTAL
32
101%
45
100%
25
100%
* In 2006, 6 concerns cited 2 types of behaviours so subtract 6 from total to reach N=45
* In 2007, 6 concerns cited 2 types of behaviours so subtract 6 from total to reach N=25
a human-rights based element in 2007. The latter group involves allegations of
Interpersonal Conflict (8 complaints or 32%), Bullying and Personal Harassment (13
complaints or 52%) and Other Non-Human Rights Based Complaints (4 complaints or
16%), such as academic misconduct, contract or services issues, inappropriate remarks,
academic disputes and unfair dismissal. Although the 25 non-human-rights based
complaints brought in 2007 is lower than the 45 non-human-rights based complaints
brought in 2006, bullying and personal harassment allegations continue to represent the
largest number of non human-rights complaints for both 2007 (52%) and 2006 (40%).
This drop in the overall number of complaints without an allegation of human rights
based behaviour may be accounted for by the increased pre-consultation screening done
by our Administrative Assistant to ensure people have come to the right office before
she makes appointments for Equity Advisors.
Behavioural descriptions of 2007 non-human rights complaints most often cited
unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviours (12 complaints or 48%) and biased
academic decisions (6 complaints or 24%). These percentages are consistent with
the most often cited descriptions in 2006 (and, interestingly, also with the type of
behaviours with a human rights based element, as reported in figure 6).
UBC OKANAGAN - COMPLAINTS RECEIVED IN 2007
Human Rights & Equity Services (HES) at UBC Okanagan received 27 complaints
during 2007. With such a small number of complaints, there is a danger that providing
too much specific information might disclose personal or confidential information.
The information reported below covers all complaints brought forward and does not
differentiate between cases (where HES or the Administrative Head of Unit acted on a
concern) and consultations (where HES provided information and referral only and/or
where concerns did not fall under the mandate of the Policy). Grouping data in this way
allows the office to provide more details about the types of complaints, context, gender
breakdown of the parties and alleged behavioural descriptions brought to the HES
office in 2007.
Figure 8 [UBC Okanagan Complaints Covered vs. Not Covered Under UBC's Policy
on Discrimination and Harassment] illustrates the total number of concerns (cases and
consultations) brought to the HES office. Overall the number of allegations covered
under UBC's Policy decreased by 7 complaints from 20 in 2006 to 13 in 2007. Of the
thirteen allegations that fell within the jurisdiction of the Discrimination & Harassment
Policy, the prohibited grounds cited in these cases were: Age (1), Race (5), Sexual
Orientation (5), and Sex/Gender (5). Three complaints involved 2 grounds: age/race;
race/sexual orientation; and race/sex.
Complaints not covered under the jurisdiction of the UBC Policy increased from 10 in
2006 to 14 in 2007. Of these 14 non-mandate consultations, 1 involved interpersonal
conflict, 5 were covered under other UBC policy or procedures, 1 related to personal
harassment and 7 involved a respondent or context not under UBC-O jurisdiction.
The UBC Policy on Discrimination and Harassment protects UBC students, staff,
and faculty from discrimination and harassment in service, housing and employment.
Behaviours alleged to be discriminatory are not tolerated in any programs or services
offered at the institution.
Figure 9 [Context of All Complaints UBC-O] illustrates the breakdown of complaints
in the various university settings and accounts for situations that occurred outside of
UBC-O's jurisdiction. As 2007 is the first year of reporting the context of all complaints
at UBC-O, no comparatives can be made about previous year's data.
Of the 27 complaints handled by the HES Office in 2007, 11 (41%) fell within the
academic context, 6 (22%) within the employment context, 5 (19%) within the
residence context, and 3 (11%) within general UBC Services. The remaining 2 (7%)
complaints were of a non-UBC context.
Figure 9 UBC OKANAGAN Context of All Complaints
CONTEXT OF ALL COMPLAINTS
Academic
Employment
Residence
Clubs/ Athletics/Recreation
UBC Service
Non- UBC
TOTAL
2007 #
N=27
41%
22%
19%
_0	
11%
7%
27
100%
Figure 8 UBC OKANAGAN Complaints Covered vs. Not Covered Under UBC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment
COVERED UNDER UBC'S POLICY
2005   N=2 of 13 total complaints (15%)
#        %
2006   N=20 of 30 total complaints (67%)
#        %
2007   N=13 of 27 total complaints (48%)
#        %
Age	
Race
Sexual Orientation
Disability
Sex
Religion
* Multiple Grounds of Discrimination
* In 2007,3 cases had 2 grounds (therefore deduct 3 from total to reach N = 13 total cases)
0
0
0
0
0
0
1        50%
0
0
1        50%
n/a
n/a
0
0
9
45%
5
25%
3
15%
3
15%
0
0
n/a
n/a
1
8%
5
38%
5
38%
0
0
5
38%
0
0
-3       -23%
(included above)
TOTAL
2
100%
20
100%
13
99%
NOT COVERED UNDER UBC'S POLICY
2005
#
N=11 of 13 total
%
complaints (85%)
2006
#
N=1 Oof 30 total
%
complaints (67%)
2007
#
N=14 of 27 total complaints (52%)
%
Interpersonal Conflict
0
0
5
50%
1
7%
Behaviour covered under other UBC policy or procedures
8
73%
3
30%
5
36%
Personal Harassment
1
9%
1
10%
1
7%
Respondent and/or context not under UBCO jurisdiction
2
18%
1
10%
7
50%
TOTAL
11
100%
10
100%
14
100%
[5] io     I     UBC    REPORTS     |
Figure 10 [Gender of All Complainants and Respondents UBC-O] illustrates the gender
of parties involved in complaints at UBC-O in 2007. As this is the first year this data
is being reported, no comparatives or conclusions can be made to previous years'
complaints. This category includes both concerns where the identity and therefore
gender of the complainant are actually unknown (i.e. consultations with administrators
looking for advice on managing cases on their own where the identities of the parties
have not been divulged) and also concerns from individuals whose gender identity
does not correspond with either the female or male binary gender categories. Although
the latter concerns are recorded as coming from persons of an unknown gender, this
obviously is a limitation of the database. (Other transgender or gender variant people
who do identify as female or male are included as such in the data in Figure 10.) The
Figure 10 UBC OKANAGAN Gender of All Complainants and Respondents
COMPLAINANTS
2007
N=27
Female
21
78%
Male
6
22%
Unknown
0
0
Both
0
0
TOTAL
27
100%
RESPONDENTS
2007
N=27
Female
Male	
Unknown
Both	
Department/University
1
14
4
0
4%
52%
15%
_0	
29%
TOTAL
27
100%
Figure 11  UBC OKANAGAN Complaints by Campus Groups
CAMPUS GROUPS
2007
N=27
Students
15
56%
Faculty and Faculty Association
5
18.5%
Management and Professional
5
18.5%
Support, Clerical, Library, Trades, Technical and Service Staff
2
7%
Non UBC
0
0
Unknown
0
0
TOTAL
27
100%
Figure 12 UBC OKANAGAN Human Rights Based Behavourial Description of Complaints
BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS COMPLAINTS
2007
N=13
Unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviour
Unwelcome written or visual behaviour
(insults, slurs, jokes, inneundo, etc)
Unwelcome physical attention
(touching, staring, following—not stalking or assault)
Threats
Assault
Retaliation
62%
38%
23%
23%
_0	
0
Biased Academic Decisions
0
0
Biased Employment Decisions
0
0
Exclusion or Denial of Access
0
0
'Multiple behavioural descriptions cited
-6
-46%
TOTAL
13
100%
* In 2007, 6 concerns cited 2 types of behaviours so subtract 6 from total to reach N=13
Figure 13 UBC OKANAGAN Non-Human Rights Based Behavourial Description of Complaints
forms for 2008's annual report have included a transgender/gender-variant category to
correct for this error.
In 2007 out of 27 complaints, 21 (78%) females sought assistance from the HES
Office as complainants to a concern while 6 (22%) males approached HES Office as
complainants. In 2007, males were named as respondents in 14 (52%) of complaints,
a department or the university was cited as the respondent in 8 (29%) of complaints,
unknown respondents accounted for 4 (15%) complaints, and a female respondent was
cited in 1 (4%) complaint.
Figure 11 reports on the number of complaints made by campus group. As this is the
first year this data is being reported, no comparatives or conclusions can be made to
previous years' complaints. In 2007, students brought forward the most number of
complaints at 15 (56%) of the 27 complaints to the HES Office. Faculty complaints
and Management and Professional complaints each comprised 5 (19%) of the 27
complaints. The remaining complaints were brought forward by 2 (7%) members in the
Support, Clerical, Library, Trades, Technical and Services Staff group.
We do not have a breakdown of respondents by campus group or the position of
complainants vis a vis respondents by campus group for 2007 but, as appropriate, this
data will be provided about complaints brought to the HES Office in 2008.
While UBC-O data is not available for behavioural descriptions of human rights
complaints from 2005 or 2006, figure 12 provides the kinds of behaviours individuals
complain about when seeking assistance from the HES Office. In 2007, 8 (62%) of
the 13 human-rights based complaints described instances of unwelcome verbal or
non-verbal behaviour. The second most identified behaviour, cited 5 (38%) times, was
unwelcome written or visual behaviour. Unwelcome physical attention and threats
were each cited 3 times (23% each). Six (46%) concerns involved multiple behavioural
descriptions in human rights based complaints.
Figure 13 [Non-Human Rights Based Behavioural Description of Complaints UBC-O]
shows behavioural descriptions for the 14 complaints which did not have a human-
rights based element in 2007. Allegations of Interpersonal Conflict (1) or Personal
Harassment (1) account for 14% of complaints, while behaviour covered under other
UBC policy or procedures (e.g. academic misconduct, contract or services issues,
inappropriate remarks, academic disputes, and unfair dismissal) accounts for 5 (36%)
of non-human rights complaints. The remaining 7 (50%) complaints are concerns
where a respondent and/or context are not covered under UBC-O jurisdiction.
Behavioural descriptions of 2007 non-human rights complaints most often cited
unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviours (5 complaints or 36%), consistent with
the most often cited behaviour description in human rights complaints. The second
most often cited behavioural category of non-human rights complaints was biased
employment decisions (4 complaints or 28%).
Please note that the way in which data is interpreted and reported at UBC-O and UBC-V differs. The
emphasis of the data reported from UBC-O is on whether or not concerns met the jurisdictional and definitional
requirements for allegations of discrimination or harassment in the Policy (i.e. mandate or non-mandate), not
on whether they met the burden of proof or were handled under the procedures of the Policy. UBC-V reports on
concerns which proceeded through the procedures in the Policy (cases) and those that did not (consultations),
instead of whether or not concerns met the mandate and fell within the jurisdiction of the Policy. In UBC-V's
report, all cases also involve mandate concerns and consultations involve concerns that could either be mandate
or not. Thus the data reported in this Annual Report may not be directly comparable between the two campuses.
Equity Office, University of British Columbia
2306 Brock Hall, 1874 East Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T IZI
Telephone: 604-822-6353 Fax: 604-822-3260
Email: equity@equity.ubc.ca www.equity.ubc.ca
Human Rights & Equity Services (HES), UBC Okanagan
3333 University Way, Kelowna, B.C. VIV 1V7
Telephone: 250-807-9291  Email: marie.molloy@ubc.ca www.ubc.ca/okanagan/hes
NON-HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE
2005
N=11
2006
N=10
2007
N=14
Interpersonal Conflict
Behaviour covered under other UBC policy or procedures
Personal Harassment
Respondent and/or context not under UBCO jurisdiction
_0	
73%
9%
18%
50%
30%
10%
10%
7%
36%
7%
50%
TOTAL
11
100%
10
100%
14
100%
BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF NON-HUMAN RIGHTS COMPLAINTS
Unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviour
n/a
n/a
5
36%
Unwelcome written or visual behaviour (insults, slurs, jokes, inneundo, etc)
n/a
n/a
2
14%
Unwelcome physical attention (touching, staring, following—not stalking or assault)
n/a
n/a
0
0
Threats
n/a
n/a
1
7%
Assault
n/a
n/a
1
7%
Retaliation
n/a
n/a
0
0
Biased Academic Decisions
n/a
n/a
2
14%
Biased Employment Decisions
n/a
n/a
4
28%
Exclusion or Denial of Access
n/a
n/a
1
7%
'Multiple behavioural descriptions cited
-2
-14%
TOTAL
n/a
n/a
14
99%
* In 2007, 2 concerns cited 2 types of behaviours so subtract 2 from total to reach N=14
[6] UBC    REPORTS     |    JUNE    5,    2008     |     II
A plan to expand UBC's
pharmaceutical services to HAIDA GWAII
BY CATHERINE LOIACONO
Haida Gwaii, an archipelago
of more than 150 islands off
B.C.'s northern coast, is home
to 5,400 residents, but only
one pharmacist. Assistant
Professor of Pharmaceutical
Sciences Judith Soon and
fellow researchers in UBC's
Collaboration for Outcomes
Research and Evaluation
(CORE) group have a plan to
change this by establishing a
patient-centred pharmacy clinic.
The Government of British
Columbia is now considering the
CORE proposal, which would
see five to 10 UBC pharmacy
students per year, giving that sole
pharmacist - Daryl Regier who
resides in Queen Charlotte City
- some needed assistance. The
average pharmacist to patient
ratio in B.C. is one per 1,000.
At the same time, additional
hands-on health care services
would be designed to reflect
the cultural traditions and
sensitivities of the Haida people,
who have called these islands
home for more than 12,000
years. Known for its scenic
beauty, Haida Gwaii or Queen
Charlotte Islands, is rich in
Haida tradition and culture.
The two pharmacies which
operate on Haida Gwaii are
located on Graham Island
- in Queen Charlotte City and
in Masset. Both pharmacies
provide courier services to
deliver medications to residents
"A patient-centred pharmacy
clinic would incorporate beliefs
and cultural backgrounds into
the planning of the delivery of
care," says Soon. "In addition,
there is a focus on collaboration
between patients, families
and community health care
practitioners in the development
of programs and professional
education."
The proposed clinic's primary
goals are to improve health
care outcomes and to increase
the number of health care
professionals who practice
in rural settings. The patient-
centred pharmacy clinic would
be a collaboration between the
UBC Faculty of Pharmaceutical
Sciences and Regier's Queen
Charlotte Islands Pharmacy. A
community consultation process
will determine which additional
services would best meet the
needs of the community.
In September 2006, the
Government of B.C. launched
the Conversation on Health,
a public discussion to engage
British Columbians on health
related issues and the B.C. public
health care system.
"Based on some of the
recommendations from the
2006 Conversation on Health,
we were asked by the Ministry
of Health to submit a proposal
that could assist in decreasing
the gaps in Aboriginal health
- particularly on Haida Gwaii,"
says Soon. "First Nations
communities are concerned with
"A patient-centred pharmacy clinic
would incorporate beliefs and cultural
backgrounds into the planning ofthe
delivery of care"
of many of the villages located
outside these communities.
Regier provides services to the
local hospital and residents
in the surrounding southern
communities. Masset residents
and the surrounding northern
communities receive medications
through the Northern Health
Authority. The patient-centred
pharmacy practice clinic would
be established in the Haida
community of Skidegate, which
is located close to Queen
Charlotte City.
"The current system works
but there is a real need to
connect with the community
and provide additional hands-
on health care services to these
residents," says Soon. "There are
high rates of chronic diseases
and a patient-centred pharmacy
clinic can help improve quality
of life by optimizing the safe and
effective use of medications."
Patient-centered care directly
incorporates the perspectives of
patients and families into the
planning, delivery and evaluation
of the provision of health care.
overall poor health, higher rates
of diabetes, arthritis, HIV/AIDS
and tuberculosis as well as lower
life expectancy."
According to Soon, programs
delivered by the patient-centred
pharmacy clinic could include
counselling following discharge
from hospital, new medication
follow-up and self-management
counselling for chronic
diseases such as diabetes and
osteoarthritis.
"Some patients experience
adverse drug reactions," says
Soon. "We have noticed that if
patients do not respond well
to the prescribed medication
and they do not have
immediate access to a health
care professional, often times,
they will abruptly stop taking
the medication. This can lead
to potentially preventable
complications related to their
illnesses."
Soon's vision includes
emphasizing the role of the
pharmacist in monitoring
medication management,
and providing medication
Prof. Judith Soon plans to establish a patient-centred pharmacy clinic on Haida Gwaii to assist in decreasing the
gaps in Aboriginal health.
counselling.
"We want to be able to
integrate traditional methods
of healing with pharmaceutical
medicines. By implementing
culturally sensitive strategies, we
believe we can improve health
related outcomes," says Soon.
"Patients will be able to
discuss drug-related therapeutic
concerns, more specifically how
the medications are working for
them" says Soon. "If we know
how patients are reacting to
their medications, we can work
with them, family members and
other health care professionals to
optimize their health outcomes."
Soon believes a patient-centred
pharmacy clinic would provide a
valuable outreach opportunity to
promote learning in a rural and
northern setting, and potentially
encourage more pharmacy
undergraduate students and
community pharmacy residents
to practice in a rural setting in
the future. 13
CMS
•w*
MAKING YOUR WEBSITE
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(JUST DIG IN)
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initiative to roll out a feature-rich Web Content Management
System to the university community.
www.cms.ubc.ca/whatiscms
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Cultural evolution researcher Liane Gabora is developing software that will help identify the processes by which
human culture evolves.
Rethinking the evolution of
human culture and early life
Health Science
-Media
rroup	
One of Liane Gabora's next
projects will take her thousands
of years back in time.
An assistant professor of
cognitive psychology at UBC
Okanagan, Gabora is developing
computer software that will help
archaeologists piece together the
process by which human culture
evolves.
"I'm interested in what
sense culture constitutes an
evolutionary process," says
Gabora. "The computer models
of cultural evolution we have
underway here will not only
offer insight into the minds of
those who came before us, but
also make predictions about
what kinds of minds will follow
us, and the directions humanity
is evolving."
Archaeologists recently started
using computer programs to
record characteristics of the
data they collect, such as the
lengths of projectile points, or
whether they have fluted edges.
They borrow complex analytical
methods from biology - such
as cladistics, used to classify the
evolutionary ancestry of species
— to model how these artifacts
evolve. But Gabora argues these
methods are inappropriate for
culture.
"For one thing, artifacts
do not change solely through
random, 'mutation-like'
processes," she says. "Humans
innovate strategically and
intuitively, taking advantage of
the ability to group items that go
together, like mortar and pestle,
or use analogies."
If, for example, a certain
settlement acquired pots with
handles through trade, and soon
after started producing cups with
handles, her computer program
will be able to suggest that they
used analogical thinking to
abstract the concept 'handle'
from pots and applied it to cups.
Gabora's current direction
capitalizes on her early start in
theoretical biology; she earned a
master's degree and even began
a PhD in it before realizing that
what she was most interested in
was not how organisms evolve,
but rather how culture evolves.
"The underlying mechanisms
by which culture evolves
are superficially similar yet
profoundly different from those
through which living things
evolve," she says. "A symptom
of this profound difference
is that biological evolution
prohibits inheritance of acquired
characteristics."
If a rat loses its tail during
its lifetime, its offspring still
have tails of normal length
- the acquired change is not
transmitted. But that is not the
case with culture, Gabora points
out.
"If someone invents putting
a handle on a pot, then forever
after pots can be made with
handles - the acquired change is
transmitted," she says. "That is
another reason you have to take
cognition seriously in modeling
how culture evolves. The changes
that one mind makes to an
artifact are passed on to others
who in turn put their own spin
on it. Acquired change is not
lost, as it is in biology."
And unless this kind of
acquired change is negligible
compared to change due to
natural selection, or 'survival
of the fittest' (which involves
change from one generation
to the next due to heritable
differences amongst individuals
competing for scarce resources),
the process is not Darwinian.
To make her arguments
about culture evolving through
a non-Darwinian process more
convincing, in 2006 Gabora
published a paper in Journal
of Theoretical Biology arguing
that even the very earliest living
things did not evolve through a
Darwinian process.
Natural selection explains
evolution through most of
life's long history, but Gabora
showed that natural selection is
intimately tied to the existence
of a self-assembly code, such
as DNA or RNA, which came
into the picture only after self-
replicating structures - structures
that reproduced and exhibited
'descent with modification - had
already been around for some
time.
"They replicated and evolved
by generating, regenerating, and
exchanging webs of chemical
reactions," says Gabora. "It
was a sloppy way of going
about it, but it got the job done.
And interestingly, this kind of
evolution allowed for inheritance
of acquired characteristics, just
like we see in cultural evolution."
Just as early organisms
consisted of self-organizing
webs of chemical reactions that
evolved by 'trading chemical
secrets' with one another, minds
are self-organizing webs of
thoughts and feelings that evolve
by exchanging ideas.
Gabora believes the computer
models she is developing
will help us to gain a better
understanding and appreciation
of the role we play in this very
real second evolutionary process.
"Even if you don't bear
children and contribute to
biological evolution you
contribute to cultural evolution,"
she observes. "Everything you
do touches the world and can
have an impact on someone
else, potentially causing a chain
reaction of little cultural changes
that add up to something big." 13 UBC    REPORTS     |
I     '3
UBC urban planning students design
an eco community for proposed Burnaby site
BY LORRAINE CHAN
UBC students recently pushed
the envelope for mixed land use
and sustainable design with a
project that blends a residential
community for seniors with an
organic farm on the same site.
Last fall, Wayne Allen
Construction challenged students
at UBC's School of Community
and Regional Planning (SCARP)
to devise conceptual designs for
Willard Park Eco-Community,
a proposed 22-acre site in
Southeast Burnaby.
The invitation was perfect for
his urban design studio students,
says SCARP Asst. Prof. Maged
Senbel. "They explored the kind
of integrated thinking that urban
design has to achieve if it's to
tackle the enormous challenges
of peak oil, climate change and
declining resources."
Wayne Allen, a contractor,
developer and landowner,
directed the students to preserve
and enhance the agricultural
capacity of the flat land, while
transfering density to the slope.
He also wanted to see the latest
in sustainable technology.
The site is situated next to
Willard Park, bound by Marine
Drive to the north, Marine Way
to the south and is less than a
kilometer away from the Fraser
River.
About half the land is low-
lying flat ground within an
historical floodplain composed
of fertile peat soil. The other
half is a steep slope that's a
10-minute walk from the 22nd
Street Sky Train station.
Working in three teams of
Mixed land use includes agriculture, orchard, parks, a community square and an eco-village on the hillside.
three, the students proposed
different strategies, some
advocating a high-rise condo to
maximize density, while others
opted for a series of low-rise,
wood frame residences.
A farmer's market, restaurant,
public education centre for green
technology and a town square
numbered among the commercial
activities to engage the public
and make the community a
healthy, dynamic place to live.
While the organic farm
would be staffed by permanent
workers, the seniors could
choose to volunteer or work in
the community's commercial
enterprises.
The students integrated green
features in the construction and
heating of the buildings. Green
roofs, geothermal and solar
heating coupled with rainwater
collection would minimize
energy consumption.
Large "living machines," which
are biological filtration systems
composed of plants in huge vats,
would filter both human waste
and grey water. That recycled
water would irrigate farm crops
or flow through the town square
fountain.
At the end of term last winter,
the design studio culminated
in a presentation to Allen and
two planners from the City
of Burnaby. Allen says he was
blown away by the detail and
scope of the students' design
concepts, which he has been
using to interest potential
investors.
"There's not a person who's
looked at the beautiful and
thorough job the students have
done and not fallen in love with
it," says Allen.
The students' designs also
caught international attention.
SCARP was invited to present its
work at Ecocity World Summit
2008, a major conference on
sustainable cities held in San
Francisco during April.
"The conference was
wonderful," says SCARP student
Chani Joseph, who along with
Bronwyn Jarvis represented their
classmates Jennifer Fix, Brian
Gregg, Lang Lang, Sawngjai,
Manityakul, Jeff Deby, Kaitlin
Kazmierowski and Andrew
Merrill.
"We had great feedback on
our project," says Joseph. "And
it was really uplifting to see
what people are doing all over
the world with transportation,
housing, urban agriculture and
water resources to lessen the
ecological impacts of cities."
In Burnaby, Allen says he has
acquired half the acreage he needs
to develop Willard Park Eco
Community. He is working on
assembling the rest.
And while close to Burnaby's
Agricultural Land Reserve
(ALR), Allen's parcels are not
protected within the ALR. He
faces yet another hurdle in that
the site is currently zoned for
single-family development and
small hobby farms.
Despite these challenges, Allen
says the SCARP collaboration
was invaluable, helping him to
persevere "in doing something
very progressive, something that
would be a global model." 13
Green ideas - from Canada to Thailand
The Willard Park Eco Community project is exactly the
kind of holistic thinking that drew her to UBC's School of
Community and Regional Planning (SCARP), says Sawngjai
Dear Manityakul.
"I want to help create clean, liveable cities that use less
energy and generate less waste," says Manityakul, who aims
to apply what she learns in Canada to her native city of
Bangkok.
Manityakul holds a BSc in Environmental Sciences from
the University of Guelph where she focused on natural
resources management. She says the transition for her at
SCARP has been to apply the concepts of environmental
sustainability to a built community.
Manityakul describes the design process for the Willard
Park project as intense and exhilarating. Over a six-week
period, the students analyzed the site and created digital and
physical models representing aerial and cross-section views.
Manityakul along with other classmates were learning for
the first time how to convey complex ideas through images,
producing plans and detailed drawings both by hand and
with computer software.
"We had to balance key land uses," says Manityakul,
"including food production, public spaces, some commercial
activity and a diversity of housing options that would foster
a vital and active seniors community."
For Manityakul, the experience has shown her what's
possible when she returns to Thailand after she completes
her MSc at SCARP.
"The participatory planning process is sorely lacking
in Thailand," she says. "I would love to engage citizens in
shaping their communities and introducing green spaces
which Bangkok really needs." 14     I     UBC    REPORTS     |    JUNE    5,    200!
Map project definitely not another day
at the office
BY SARAH WALKER
Monday morning, first day of
Reading Week. Instead of sitting
at my usual desk on campus, I
found myself walking up to the
secured front door of a Kitsilano
transition house for women
who have experienced abuse
in their intimate relationship,
Munroe House. I was about
to meet up with four UBC
cartography students, Munroe
House residents and staff to
work on a mapping project for
a community service-learning
project (CSL).
CSL is a model of experiential
learning that combines voluntary
community service with
classroom learning. UBC's goal
is to engage 10 per cent of UBC
students in CSL each year. These
four, enroled in an advanced
cartography course, signed up to
create a set of maps for Munroe
House as their final course
project. They wanted practice
with a community group in the
mapping process, from needs
analysis to finished product.
The residents, who had
been using ad-hoc, hand-
drawn directions from the
front desk, have nine months
to find alternate housing and
register for appropriate support
- often with little knowledge of
Vancouver, its neighbourhoods,
amenities and services. Many
are new to Kitsilano or
Vancouver; some have language
issues or little experience
navigating transportation or
bureaucracy. The students, a
little nervous themselves, put
their creative mapping skills to
work to generate maps of the
surrounding area and other
neighbourhoods where the
women may find housing and
services to ease their transition
process.
My role as project leader was
through UBC's Community
Learning Initiative Leadership
Program, a professional
Have your say on UBC's Aboriginal Strategic Plan
BY BASIL WAUGH
Should UBC be helping Aboriginal elementary and high school students prepare for
university? How can UBC best recruit and support Aboriginal faculty and students? UBC is
developing an Aboriginal Strategic Plan and wants your input.
President Stephen Toope has created a broadly-based 15-person working group to
determine how UBC can better meet the needs of First Nations peoples.
Co-chaired by Anna Kindler, AVP Academic Programs, and Line Kesler, First Nations
Studies Program Director, the committee includes
UBC Vancouver and Okanagan students, faculty, staff,
administrators and community members, including UBC-O
provost Alaa Abd-El-Aziz and Darrel McLeod of Indian and
Northern Affairs Canda.
"Aboriginal education as a key UBC priority, as we identified
in Trek 2010," says Kindler. "The UBC Aboriginal Strategic
Plan will clearly articulate and prioritize expected outcomes,
set attainment targets, and guide a resource allocation process."
This summer, the committee will consult with several groups,
including Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal members of the UBC
community, alumni, and Aboriginal communities and organizations.
A new website - www.vpacademic.ubc.ca/Aboriginal - has been created to facilitate public
input and communicate the plan's progress. Updates will also be provided via outreach to
Aboriginal communities and organizations and broadcasts to the UBC community.
"Consultation with the campuses and communities will continue throughout the process,"
says Kesler. "Right now, we want to know what people think a draft plan should include. We
will then present a draft plan for additional public comment early in the fall before the plan is
finalized."
A new website
- www.vpacademic.
ubc.ca/Aboriginal
- has been created
to facilitate public
input
development opportunity offered
by Organizational Development
and Learning in Human
Resources to UBC staff, graduate
students and alumni. After five
days of leadership training
alongside 14 other leaders, my
job was to facilitate the planning
and logistics of the project as it
unfolded.
"I don't know what to
expect," wrote one of the
students in a journal entry on
the first day, "but I'm looking
forward to trying out my skills
outside of class." I didn't quite
know what to expect either,
but was already confident the
project would invite me out of
my comfort zone, as I was about
to meet a community that was
previously invisible to me.
The women who live here have
various levels of education and
literacy, from university degrees
to near map illiteracy. Many
transition houses accommodate
a high percentage of immigrant
women, as this population often
has little other recourse given
that their extended families
usually do not live in Canada - a
statistic that surprised me our
first day.
The emotional intensity that
surfaced after an introductory
session on the diverse faces of
abuse was also unexpected. We
viewed a film which depicted
various types of abuse: verbal,
financial and emotional, as well
as physical. Watching abuse
unfold was physically difficult,
and highlighted how subtle and
widespread it can be. Taken
aback by these ugly realities, we
debriefed through an analysis
of gender roles and pressures.
Uncomfortable, yes. Key in
getting us thinking about the
bigger issues behind the project?
I think so.
We met with residents and
the manager to brainstorm
what kind of information and
maps would be the most useful.
Maps can be a real tool of
empowerment: I watched that
process begin as the residents
grew confident in sharing their
needs and the students got
excited about transferring the
relevant information to map-
form. After the emotions of the
morning, it was very powerful
to be trusted to meet with
individuals and put faces to the
statistics.
After weeks of hard work,
the students ended the semester
with a presentation of a pile of
brightly coloured, photocopiable
maps complete with icons, bus
routes and more information
than the residents could have
dreamed. I sat back and let the
students run the show, watching
the faces of the residents as they
delightedly explored the wealth
of information now available
to them. "I didn't realize what
a difference the maps would
make," said one of the students.
For the students, the realization
that their work offers these
women new opportunities to
take control of their lives was
truly satisfying.
Back in the office, I have a
deeper understanding of my
city, society and university. I am
more aware of the students who
make this university tick, and the
impact of linking academic work
with relationship and concrete
outcomes. My eyes were opened
to realities I rarely make myself
see. This community let us into
their lives for a season, and I am
honoured by their trust.
Sarah Walker is an Executive
Assistant in UBC's Public Affairs
Office. She was released from her
work for the equivalent of two
weeks to participate in this CSL
opportunity. 13 UBC    REPORTS     |    JUNE    5,    2008     |     15
Diet doubles
pups' survival rate
BY BRI AN LIN
In a world obsessed with low-
calorie diets, Amelia MacRae
thinks that more fat may be the
key to survival - for seal pups,
that is.
MacRae, a graduate student
in the Faculty of Land and
Food Systems' Animal Welfare
Program, has been working
with the Vancouver Aquarium's
Marine Mammal Rehab Centre
to find the best diet for nursing
orphaned or abandoned harbour
seal pups to health before
releasing them back in the wild.
The rehab centre takes in more
than 100 harbour seal pups
every summer after responding
to public reporting of seal
strandings.
"Many pups arrive in terrible
condition," says MacRae, a
former marine mammal trainer
with the aquarium. "Some are
injured, some are emaciated and
appear to have been abandoned
by their mothers often because of
human interference."
Seal pups need to more than
double their natal weight by the
time they are weaned from their
moms. To achieve this, seal milk
contains more than 50 per cent
fat. In comparison, commercial
whole milk contains 3.5 per cent
fat.
"There are two widely-used
feeds for orphaned harbour
seals - an artificial milk formula
and ground-up fish gruel,"
says MacRae. "But there has
been little evaluation of their
nutritional values and how they
actually contribute to the growth
of seals pups."
MacRae began comparing the
two popular feeds last summer
and has found that while
neither led to weight gain, seal
pups on the milk formula had
almost double survival rate. She
hypothesizes this may have to
do with the milk's higher caloric
content.
This summer, MacRae plans
to take the study one step further
by introducing heating to the
seal nursery. "If the pups don't
have to expend energy to keep
warm, we hope they will grow
faster and have a better chance
of survival once released," says
MacRae. "By applying some
simple science we hope to give
these unfortunate animals a
second chance at life." 13
UBC students pose on the unfinished Chemistry Building during the 1922 Great Trek.
Early days of UBC
mirrored province's
boom and bust cycles
Amelia MacRae helps determine the best diet for orphaned or abandoned
seal pups
BY LORRAINE CHAN
The founding and early fortunes
of the University of British
Columbia closely mirrored those
of the province.
Boom times and a growing
population made it possible for
the B.C. government to pass the
University Act in 1908, says B.C.
historian Patricia Roy.
Yet, it would be seven years
later before UBC opened its
doors in 1915. In that interim,
the province had endured an
economic depression and saw the
start of the Great War.
"The world of 1915 was very
different from that of 1908,"
says Roy, a UBC alumna and
professor emerita of history at
the University of Victoria.
"There was unemployment.
Immigration fell off. The Grand
Trunk Pacific and Canadian
Northern Railways were
complete but bankrupt."
In great contrast to this grim
picture were the heady days
when B.C. residents felt flush
and exuberant over the idea of
a university they could call their
own.
In 1908, B.C.'s population
numbered approximately
250,000 and the province
enjoyed an annual output from
manufacturing, forestry, fishing,
mining, furs and farms totaling
$60 million.
The 37-year-old premier,
Richard McBride "was optimism
personified," says Roy.
"McBride and the Minister of
Education Henry Esson Young
had the will and wherewithal to
press ahead because they knew
the province needed skills to
develop its resources."
As well, says Roy, McBride
knew what it was like to leave
the province to earn a university
degree.
At age 16, McBride completed
his studies in a one-room high
school in New Westminster.
He decided to pursue law and
moved to Halifax where he
attended Dalhousie Law School,
Canada's only university-based
law school."
During 1908, B.C. had 16
high schools with about 1,400
students. Those who aspired to
post-secondary education had to
head south to the United States
or back east.
Or they could join 48 other
students at McGill University
College in Vancouver or at
its Victoria branch, or attend
Columbian College in New
Westminster, which was affiliated
with Victoria University of
Toronto.
^*2°o«
rx
UBC
»«*!*
»»*»•
o
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On March 7, 1908, the
legislature, with little debate,
passed the act incorporating the
University of British Columbia.
The Act declared that in order
to make higher education widely
available, tuition would be
free to all students in Arts, and
women students would "have
equality of privilege with men
students."
Mayors across the province
immediately lobbied to locate the
university in their community.
"They saw it as a surefire
way to raise real estate values,
promote trade, and draw
immigrants," says Roy.
Only one B.C. neighborhood
spurned the idea. "The reeve of
South Vancouver thought 'the
tendency of the students to tear
down fences and play similar
pranks' would lower property
values."
To head off any political
controversy, McBride set up a
University Site Commission.
The Commission conveniently
recommended a site at Point
Grey where the government
had a large block of unoccupied
land. The government organized
an architectural competition
to design the campus and its
buildings and put money in the
budget to build them.
However, UBC's budget was
continually cut and by 1913
building plans were cancelled.
Yet, in September 1915, 379
students started classes at UBC
in two shingled buildings on
the grounds of the Vancouver
General Hospital.
By 1917, returning soldiers
were beginning to swell the
ranks of the student body
but others were still enlisting.
Women students outnumbered
men in the Faculty of Arts.
Roy says that UBC was
very careful in its early years
to appeal to all interests in
the province. For example,
agriculture was one of the first
faculties established and once
classes were over in the spring,
the professors delivered short
courses at various points in the
province.
"At the time, farmers
were over-represented in the
legislature."
There was also a concentrated
effort to make scientific
knowledge relevant and available
throughout the province to
those who would benefit from
it. "So UBC focused on mining,
forestry, engineering and civil
engineering."
Construction at UBC
Vancouver finally began in 1923,
following the historic Great Trek
of 1922 when 1,200 students
marched from a temporary
campus near 12th and Cambie
to the Point Grey campus, urging
the provincial government to
continue building UBC. 13 16     |     UBC    REPORTS     |    JUNE    5,    200!
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