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UBC Reports Oct 29, 1970

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 REPORTS
VOLUME SIXTEEN, NUMBER TWENTY-ONE
OCTOBER   29,  1970, VANCOUVER  8, B.C.
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D COMPUTER MODEL WILL EXPLORE
Polluted air, streets and highways clotted with cars,
slums, overcrowding, garbage, de-personalization, sprawl.
This is the face of many North American cities today.
From a planner's point of view these cities in the past
were divided by local and often very different needs,
quarantined into sections by individual urban problems.
But today many urban problems are common to all
areas of a city. One area may have a higher air pollution
index but others suffer from dirty air too. Smog, which
used to return each year with the regularity of baseball,
is now never out of season.
Cities have historically drawn people to them from
the land. Federal housing minister Robert Andras said
recently that Canada's population will double to more
than 40 million by the year 2000 and will be
concentrated in about a dozen cities.
Yet a small but persistent counter-movement is
developing against the cities' magnetic attraction. People
who are middle-class and middle-aged as well as the
young are moving from the larger cities to smaller
communities.
All this is prologue to one of the most critical
projects undertaken so far for the survival of our society,
a project initiated by a group at the University of B.C.
Recognizing the threat some time ago, members of the
group began working to solve some of the problems by
organizing scientific and technological resources in a way
that has never been done before. One person involved,
Prof. C.S. Holling, director of the Institute of Animal
Resource Ecology, became so concerned that he
redirected his career four years ago. Trained as a
biologist with a special interest in population dynamics,
2/UBC Reports/Oct. 29, 1970
UBC is about to become the focal point for development of a unique
computer model that will allow city and regional planners to test the effect
of policy ideas on the Vancouver region. In future, the lessons learned in the
project may be applied to other North American cities where urban
problems are more urgent. UBC will cooperate with the City of Vancouver
and the Greater Vancouver Regional District to develop the computer
model, which will explore the future consequences of changes in population,
land use, industry, recreation and other factors on the region as a whole.
Some of the key figures in the project, seen against the background of
downtown Vancouver, are pictured at right. At left rear is Mr. Drew
Thorburn, senior associate in planning for the Greater Vancouver Regional
District. At left front is Mr. William Curtis, assistant city engineer in the
engineering planning and control division of the department of engineering
of the City of Vancouver, and at center is Mr. Peter Leckie, deputy director
of the finance department of the City of Vancouver. At right are two UBC
researchers associated with the project — Dr. Michael Goldberg, front, and
Prof. Crawford Holling, rear.
BY PETER THOMPSON
ASSISTANT INFORMATION OFFICER, UBC
he was so terrified of the ecological course of the world
that he reoriented the work he was doing. He was
involved in mathematical models of the relationship
between predators and their prey when he realized that
many of the patterns of this relationship can also be
applied to man.
The project launched by Prof. Holling and Dr.
Michael A. Goldberg, assistant professor in the Faculty
of Commerce and Business Administration, is to build a
computer model, a mastermind of the entire Vancouver
region. Its purpose will be to allow city and regional
planners to systematically test the most likely social,
economic, environmental and physical effect of policy
ideas on the Vancouver region. It will explore future
consequences of changes in population, transportation,
land use, industry, recreation and other factors on the
region as a whole. The model won't formulate policy. It
will give the likely effect of policies submitted to it.
MISTAKES INEVITABLE
Until now planners could not evaluate the results of,
say, a new expressway or a new industrial area on the
entire region. Nor could they predict the future
consequences on the region with any great accuracy. So
cities were obliged to grow almost blindly. Changes were
made because they had to be made. Their immediate and
local effect may have been known but the larger
consequences often weren't. Mistakes were inevitable.
One of the important reasons why the Ford
Foundation approved the grant application for the
project by Dr. Goldberg and Prof, Holling is that few
major mistakes have been made in Vancouver because of
the city's relatively small population and young age.
Vancouver still has many of its development options
open and planning doesn't have to take into account
major blunders committed in the past. This makes
Vancouver an ideal city for the Foundation's purposes,
because it wants the lessons learnt in the Vancouver
project to be applied to other North American cities.
The Foundation is putting up $371,000, more than
half of the financing for the project. Working closely
with the UBC group will be officials from the City of
Vancouver and the Greater Vancouver Regional District.
The City is contributing $167,000 and the Regional
District $49,500. UBC is contributing $120,000 for a
total of $709,300. Most of the money from the City,
Regional District and UBC will cover the salaries of
existing staff who will be working on the project.
Dr. Goldberg stressed that the co-operation of groups
at UBC and public organizations in the region is needed
if the model is to be built. And once built, it will only be
successful if individuals all over the region participate in
the choices it makes.
Ideally, he said, the type of information to be coded
and taped into the computer would include population
statistics, family size, age structure, sex, labor force
participation rate, occupation, net immigration,
birth-death ratios, quality and quantity and location of
sewage flow, parks and open space data, location and
quantity of industrial pollution, regional climate data,
miles of street by capacity, transportation flow
characteristics, airport and railway and deepwater
locations, land and water use data, total land available, VANCOUVER REGION'S FUTURE
total   vacant   land,  total   shore   line,   water  use  and
recreation data.
He said the simulator, when completed, won't be able
to decide for itself" how the city should be planned. It
won't even outline major areas of difficulty or point to
planning problems. It will supply projections only when
qualitative information is fed into it.
SIMULATOR PREDICTS
For instance, if you want to see what Vancouver
could look like in five or ten years if you opted for a
city with low pollution, greater use of mass transit and
industry concentrated along the western part of the
Fraser River, you would feed these choices into the
simulator and it would give you your answer in the form
of graph or chart print-outs or as a projection on a
television monitor.
If you don't like the profile predicted by the
simulator — say a low income level for the general
population or a greater commuting distance from home
to work — you could rearrange your priorities ancl try
again.
A major problem facing the people involved in the
project is making sure that the simulator will be used
democratically when completed. It should be the
population of the Vancouver region generally that
decides what priorities are eventually used rather than
-■certain regions or groups with perhaps easier access to
the model.
To ensure that the model isn't abused, the general
population must become as familiar with the project as
possible
"This is a people project," Dr. Goldberg said. "It's
exciting and new. Just getting groups in the area working
together on something like this, apart from whatever the
simulator will allow us to do, is a big step forward.
"But we want to make the project as close to the
citizenry as possible and we want to make
communication between the people involved as
uncomplicated as we can. Without good communication
the public won't know what we're doing and the chances
of them participating in the planning choices will fall
off."
Formally involved among the Vancouver groups
financing the project are the Departments of
Engineering, Social Planning/Community Development,
Finance and Planning of the City of Vancouver and the
Planning Department of the Greater Vancouver Regional
District, and UBC's Faculties of Forestry, Commerce
and Business Administration, Agricultural Sciences, the
Schools of Architecture and Community and Regional
Planning, the Institute of Animal Resource Ecology and
the Department of Geography.
Also interested in the project are the Economic
Council of Canada, the Central Mortgage and Housing
Corporation, the Science Council of Canada and the
Canadian Council on Urban and Regional Research.
Both Prof. Holling and Dr. Goldberg have had
previous experience with computer models. While at the
University of California at Berkeley Dr. Goldberg was a
management committee member of the San Francisco
Bay Area Simulation Study (BASS). The BASS model
took 3V4 years to build and has been used for a variety of
planning decisions including open space planning, land
use, transportation, water quality and urban renewal.
Prof. Holling was in charge of the building of the Gulf
Island Recreational Land Simulator (GIRLS), a
computer simulator of recreational land use in the Gulf
of Georgia from the year 1900 to 2000. GIRLS used
information on population and economic growth to
simulate public demand for recreational land, the
dynamics of the land market, the behavior of large and
small land developers and their ecological consequences.
It was a project of UBC's Resources Sciences Center,
set up two years ago as a committee of the Faculty of
Graduate Studies with the help of a $518,000 grant
from the Ford Foundation. Major aim of the Center is to
use computer methods and train a new breed of
interdisciplinary scientists to manage natural resources.
Prof. Holling is director of the Center.
FIVE -YEAR PROJECT
Dr. Goldberg said it is essential that the Vancouver
project continue for five years. Much of the first year
will be devoted to getting the project underway. The
second and third years will probably be the busiest. This
is when the bulk of programming will be done.
"By the end of the third year the simulator should be
programmed and debugged," he said. "But the next two
years will be the most critical. We will have to spend a
lot of time refining it and applying it for the first time to
actual problems before it is eventually turned over to
public officials."
UBC Reports/Oct. 29, 1970/3 THE WAR MEASURES
ACT-WHAT DOES
IT MEAN?
ACT DISCUSSED BY PANEL
A panel discussion on the implications of the
invocation of the War Measures Act originated live
on the UBC NOW television series of Tuesday,
October 20, over Channel 10, available to
subscribers to Vancouver Cablevision.
The participants in the panel discussion were:
Dr. R.A.H. Robson, professor of Anthropology
and Sociology at UBC and executive secretary of
the B.C. Civil Liberties Association; Mr. James G.
Matkin, assistant professor of Law at UBC; Mr.
Paul R. Tennant, assistant professor of political
science at UBC, and Miss D.J. O'Donnell, a
third-year history student at UBC. The panel was
moderated   by  Mr.   Fred  Cawsey,  a  graduate
student in creative writing at UBC and a free-lance
journalist.
The following is an edited version of the
panelists' comments on the invocation of the War
Measures Act. UBC Reports' readers are invited to
submit comments on the content of the program
by addressing letters to: The Editor, UBC Reports,
Information Services Department, UBC.
UBC NOW is a series of weekly, half-hour
television programs produced by UBC's
Information Services Department and aired on
Tuesdays at 7=30 p.m. on Channel 10, which is
available to subscribers to Vancouver Cablevision
and affiliates. Readers are also invited to submit
program ideas for future UBC NOW programs.
MR. MATKIN: I think it is important to
understand that the War Measures Act is only an
empowering act. It gives authority to the
governor-in-council, or cabinet, to pass special
regulations. It is the regulations that are the meat of
the authority now exercised under the act. I think
that it is important to realize just where we are in
terms of the regulations as they change the present
laws. The regulations make the FLQ an illegal
organization and anyone who is a member of that
organization or advocates or promotes its unlawful
purposes commits a indictable offense for which he
can be punished by five years imprisonment. It
increases the powers of arrest which are given to
police in order to determine people who have
committed this offense. It gives the police the power
to detain people for longer than under the normal
criminal law, seven days without a special order from
the attorney-general, and 21 days with a special
order. And it does suspend the Canadian Bill of
Rights in regard to the interpretation of these
regulations. However, that is as far as the Canadian
Bill of Rights is suspended. I wish to emphasize that
we are now not in a situation where all the law in
Canada is not subject to the Bill of Rights. It is only
the regulations passed pursuant to the act that are no
longer subject to the Canadian Bill of Rights.
MR. CAWSEY: I would like to ask Reg Robson if
there is, in his opinion, any situation which would
warrant suspension of civil rights?
DR. ROBSON: Yes, so far as our association is
concerned, I think we would agree that one could
conceive circumstances where it would be necessary
for a limited time to suspend some of our civil
liberties. But since suspension of our civil liberties is
an extremely dangerous measure we do think that the
situation in which these powers are invoked should be
sufficiently grave as to warrant such an action. And in
our judgment the present situation, so far as we've
been given information about it by the Prime
Minister, is not sufficiently serious to warrant the
invocation of the emergency War Measures Act. We
4/UBC Reports/Oct. 29, 1970
think, as has been stated by other groups in Canada,
that the powers that have been invoked by the
government are far too broad and sweeping. We think
that there are grave dangers in their being applied
against groups other than the FLQ. For example, our
own heroic mayor has already suggested that it
should be used against hippies and youth and draft
dodgers and a few other categories of people with
whom he does not agree. We think also that the
invocation of this particular measure is likely to
create a disrespect for civil liberties, or lowering of
the concern about civil liberties. It certainly, I think,
creates a precedent for the invocation of this measure
or similar measures in the future. It makes it much
easier to do this. And, in our opinion, even terrorists
have certain civil rights which are in danger of being
overlooked in the psychology that is created by the
invocation of this particular act. I do want to say, in
case we are misunderstood, that we do not support in
any way the terrorists' activities or organizations like
the FLQ. Just in case there is any misunderstanding,
we are certainly not supporting the kinds of activities
that the FLQ have been accused of. But we do think
it is necessary to deal hastily with the present
situation and for the government at least to bring in
legislation which provides that government with
opportunities to acquire powers of a less sweeping
nature to deal with crises of this kind. I would want
to say finally that even this, however, is something
that one should realize includes various dangers
because if there is legislation which enables the
government to acquire less sweeping powers, then
there is the danger that they will be more inclined to
invoke that more frequently than is the case with the
emergency War Measures Act.
PROTEST ACT
MR. CAWSEY: Civil liberties groups all across the
country have sent telegrams to the prime minister
protesting the act but the prime minister's office says
that 90 per cent of the incoming mail has been in
PROF. REG ROBSON
support of the move and in general public opinion
seems to support the action by the government. Is it
not possible then that you are fighting a losing battle,
or one for which you have no support?
DR. ROBSON: I think that we don't fight battles
only because we have support of other people. We
fight battles for principles that we think are very
important. I don't know how one can estimate how
the population divides for or against the various
actions that the government have taken. I would
guess it to be true that probably the majority of
people support the government in this. But then,
people are, I think, in general, very prone to be
willing for governments and other authorities to crack
down on people with whom they disagree.
Unfortunately, that is a sad thing to relate because of
course once one group in the community is cracked
down on by authorities I think it encourages them to
do it to other groups. But I don't think that our
association would not fight a battle because it was a
minority view within the Canadian population.
CONTRADICTION
MR. CAWSEY: There has also been the
suggestion that this invocation of an anti-democratic
act to support a democracy is a contradiction in
terms. I was wondering if Paul could answer that?
MR. TENNANT: I don't think it is a
contradiction. In a literal sense democracy is simply
rule by the majority of the people and as is quite
clear in this particular case, the majority does approve
of this. Now we have to introduce notions of the
quality of the democracy. Is it a liberal democracy or
people's democracy, whatever term we wish to use?
Here we are in the much more abstract field of moral
judgments. I would claim that as one looks around
the world one can find a number of governments
which are engaging in activities to protect their own
existence which most people would consider
immoral. Maybe that is a very biased judgment. I
think there are other governments, other societies, in
which there is sufficient justice, sufficient chance for
peaceful social change that it is justified for the
government or the authorities of the day to invoke
measures such as.we see here in Canada today.
MR. CAWSEY: For most people, I suppose, the
invocation of the War Measures Act doesn't mean
much, but for some people who are in a different
position, it means a lot more. D.J., perhaps you could
talk on this matter as your situation is different from
everyone else's.
MISS O'DONNELL: That is definitely true. I am
committed to a fundamental transformation in
society, to complete economic, political and social
liberation of the people in Vancouver, the people in
British Columbia, Quebec and of the world.... I
believe that Quebec is a colony of English Canada and MR. JAMES MATKIN
MISS D.J. O'DONNELL
MR. PAUL TENNANT
has been oppressed for hundreds of years - for
specifically a hundred years, under Confederation —
and is dominated by the Canadian state and American
economic, control. On the other hand, I am involved
in day-to-day political activity in Vancouver eigainst
certain repressive aspects of the system here. Against
abortion, women's health questions, against
Campbell's incredible anti-youth hysteria that he is
building in this city. It seems very clear that there is a
.real possibility that the act can be used and I think
the intention of the act in fact is to b^e used against
groups other than the FLQ. Specifically, if not to
throw them in jail then to intimidate them from
taking a stand against their own oppression. Of the
300 people that were arrested in Quebec many, many
of them had no association at all with the FLQ and
didn't even particularly agree with its politics. But
they were involved -vvith militant activity in trade
unions, student groups, in different areas of the
community.
MR. CAWSEY:   Has this had any effect here in
(Vancouver?
MISS O'DONNELL: I think people are aware of
Tom Campbell's statement about the possibility of
using that act against American draft dodgers and
deserters. . .
MR. MATKIN: But isn't that statement sheer
nonsense in terms of what the act really does? And
how do you explain the fact that the act wasn't used
against the 1,000 VLF who demonstrated in favor of
the FLQ if really the intent of the act is as you say.
MISS O'DONNELL: I believe the intent of the act
is primarily to intimidate dissent, to intimidate
people who are struggling against their own
oppression and .. . whether or not I am ever
incarcerated for six months without trial, whether or
not that repression comes to that level, the effect of
the act in Vancouver has already been to intimidate
the hell out of people, to scare people from taking
independent political action, specifically for instance
militant trade unionists who don't even have the
protection of a political organization as people, as I,
do.
MR. CAWSEY: Is there not, Jim, the way it is set
out specifically by Ottawa, a clause in which you
have to be a member of the FLQ in order to come
under this act?
MR. MATKIN: You have to either be a member of
the FLQ or do some very overt thing in support of
the FLQ. It does state, however, that if you speak
publicly in favor of the F LQ that this will be evidence
that you are a member; however, you may rebut this.
This is a rebuttable presumption in law and I think
that the courts will be very lenient in this regard.
MR. CAWSEY: To your knowledge, does this act
give powers to the police that they already did not
have?
MR. MATKIN: Certainly it does that. As I
explained, the power that they had to arrest without
warrant before the act was on reasonable belief that
an indictable offense had been committed. The law
now is they merely have to have reason to suspect, so
it has changed from belief to suspect. I am not sure
whether that is much more than semantics but it does
somewhat indicate that the power is broadened. And
then, of course, the power of detention is increased
from 24 hours to seven days or 21 days which gives
the police an opportunity to ensure that evidence is
able to be brought forward and to prevent the
arrested person in a time of insurrection, which is
what has been proclaimed, from making threats and
continuing the insurrection.
DR. ROBSON: I think there is no doubt that the
emergency War Measures Act does give the
government and police considerably more power than
they had before its passage. However, I think it is
interesting to note that in terms of the behavior of
the police and the government they have done very
few things up to the moment which they could not
have done before passage of the act. It is true I think
that it has made the things they have done, like the
arrest of a large number of people without warrants,
easier than it would have been had the act not been
passed but I think that one has to distinguish between
what the act does enable the government to do if it
wants to and what, in fact, it has done.
MR. CAWSEY: What do you see as the function of
the act then? Are they just trying to make a
grandstand play? Are they trying to scare people? Are
they trying to suppress ideas as well as actions? What
do you see it as?
DR. ROBSON: I think it is very difficult to be
sure about motivation of a complex group of
politicians but it is a matter of concern to me that the
behavior of the government does not seem to be
sufficiently different before the act was passed to
justify the passage of the act. And I suspect that in
part the prime minister is a little up-tight about the
FLQ. He is, after all, a French-Canadian. He has very
strong views, I think, about the place of Quebec in
the federal Canada and so on. I think also that he is
using it for psychological reasons, to create a certain
atmosphere in the country which will be more
conducive to the downfall of that organization.
SEEK LIBERTY
MISS O'DONNELL: I think that is definitely true.
The War Measures Act specifically within Quebec is
directed primarily against people who maybe think
the FLQ is not such a bad idea, they want to fight for
their own liberation. They are not sure in exactly
what direction to go. They are not sure whether the
Parti Quebecois and the electoral process will give
them genuine human liberation. They are not sure
whether it is necessary to take more militant steps
Continued on Page Ten
See ACT
FACULTY
ASSOCIATION
STATEMENT
The following statement was issued
Saturday, Oct. 24, by Dr. Peter Pearse,
associate professor of Economics and president
of the UBC Faculty Association. The statement
was prepared by the executive of the
Association.
"A recent Order-in-Council of the provincial
government calls for dismissal of teachers and
professors who support the FLQ or the violent
overthrow of democratically-elected
governments.
"The Order is unnecessary and unjustified in
view of the emergency War Measures Act, and
is an example of over-reaction of a kind that
federal spokesmen and others have warned
against.
"Our objection to this provincial order
should not be construed as a criticism of the
emergency measures taken by the Government
of Canada nor as implying in any way support
of the FLQ.
"The order has the effect of putting teachers
and professors under double jeopardy. It singles
out teachers and implies that they should be
subject not only to the special restraints placed
on all Canadians, but also, apparently, to
summary dismissal. If instructors transgress the
emergency legislation by supporting the F LQ or
violent overthrow, they should be tried under a
court of law like anyone else. There is no
justification for making this group of people,
who are particularly vulnerable to
misrepresentation and unfounded allegation,
subject to penalties which do not apply to
others and which carry none of the guarantees
of court justice.
"The legal status of the Order-in-Council is
unclear. Obviously, the Universities Act cannot
be altered in this way, and that Act clearly vests
responsibility for hiring and dismissal in the
University's Board of Governors, acting on the
advice of the president and according to
procedures concurred in by the Board and the
faculty.
"These structures and procedures already
provide for dismissal in appropriate
circumstances   and   have  been   developed  to
Continued on Page Ten
See STATEMENT
UBC Reports/Oct. 29, 1970/5 THE DIATOM pictured above, magnified 5,500
times by UBC's scanning electron microscope,
might be mistaken for an inflatable life raft.
Diatoms are microscopic, unicellular plants
which abound in both salt and fresh water.
When  the  plants die  they form deposits of
diatomaceous earth which is extremely porous
and absorbent. The earth is used for a wide
variety of industrial purposes. The photograph
above and those on the page opposite were
taken by Mr. Leslie Veto, senior techniciarwn
UBC's electron microscope laboratories.       ^P
Many Groups
Use Scanning
Microscope
By PETER THOMPSON
Assistant Information Officer, UBC
Research at UBC which could lead to better
jet engines and a cure for leukemia is possible
through the use of electron microscopes, large
and costly instruments which give man an awing
glimpse into the sub-molecular landscape.
About three decades ago microscopic research
ran into an impenetrable barrier: light.
Paradoxically, light isn't so good for seeing with,
at least at close range. Since optical microscopes
use light as a source of illumination, they can't
be used to study details shorter than the wave
length of light no matter what magnification is
used. The image blurs.
Science, it seemed, wa§ limited by an
insuperable fact of nature and the relatively new
science of cytology — the study of cells —
appeared severely hampered.
The only solution was to use a source of
illumination with a shorter wave length than
light. Thus the electron microscope, invented in
Germany in the late 20s and put into
wide-spread use after the Second World War.
Electrons have- a wave length about one
twenty-five-thousandths of light and electron
microscopes are now commonly used to study
molecules less than one billionth of a centimeter
apart.
Electron microscopes work on the same
principle as ordinary optical microscopes except
that they use an electron gun as a source of
illumination. Instead of light shining on the
specimen, a beam of electrons is shot through
and around it. The beam is deflected by the
specimen's magnetic field, focused and
magnified by electromagnetic lenses.
Five of the University of B.C.'s 20 or so
electron microscopes are located in the,
basement of the old Biological Sciences building
and include the only scanning electron
microscope on campus. Scanning EMs show the
surface detail of specimens while transmission
EMs, the other type of electron microscope,
reveals their inner structure. A difference in the
design of the two types of EMs is the voltage
level of the electron gun. At higher voltages
electrons will penetrate through the specimen
and show details of the inner structure.
Three of the transmission EMs and the
scanning EM were supplied by the National
Research Council for research purposes. The
other transmission EM was bought by UBC for
teaching purposes. Total value of the-.*
instruments is about $235,000.
The EM lab is used by many groups on
campus, including forestry, agriculture, zoology,
botany, metallurgy, geology, medicine, mineral
engineering, civil engineering and food science,
as well as by other universities in Western
Canada and the U.S. North West. UBC groups*,
account for approximately 75 per cent of the
lab's use.
6/UBC Reports/Oct. 29, 1970 fv.
* .    i    a«■ ■■ v   ■.. 'j   t     i i -        •* •:    *
77ze sequence of photographs from left to right
at top shows, at extreme left, part of the head of
a wasp magnified 62 times by the scanning
electron microscope. The central picture shows
the sensory hairs on the wasp's antenna, which
can be seen at extreme upper right of the first
photograph. Central photo is magnified 5,500
times.     At    top    right    is    a    1,450-times
magnification of part of the eye of the wasp,
which is just below the antenna in the picture at
far left. The wasp's eye contains many simple
eyes, and each facet appears to have a
sub-structure consisting of small ripples
distributed over the surface. The lower sequence
of photographs shows, at left, the poisonous
tooth of a  cone shell, found in tropical and
sub-tropical waters. The shell buries itself in
sand and, when a victim passes over, injects the
tooth into its prey. A toxin coating the tooth
kills the victim. The two photographs to the
right show detail at the top of the tooth,
particularly the barbed tip that holds the tooth
in the flesh of the victim. The magnifications,
from left to right, are 150, 312 and 1,560.
UBC Reports/Oct. 29, 1970/7 COMMUNITY COLLEGE
IDEA CATCHES FIRE
Eight years ago there wasn't a single community college operating in
British Columbia. Today, eight such institutions are giving both terminal
and university entrance courses to nearly 10,000 students in
widely-scattered parts of the province. Dr. John Dennison, associate
professor of Education at UBC, has followed closely the development of
community colleges and in a series of studies has demolished a number of
misconceptions concerning them, including the idea that they are
second-class institutions. Free-lance writer Rosemary Neering describes
Dr. Dennison's studies and summarizes his ideas about community
colleges in the article that begins below.
By Rosemary Neering
In 1962, the entire higher education system of
B.C. consisted of one major university, UBC, its
affiliated college in Victoria and Notre Dame
University, a small, liberal arts institution sponsored
by the Roman Catholic Church in the Kootenay town
of Nelson.
The great leap forward which started in 1962
resulted from the report entitled Higher Education in
B.C. and a Plan for the Future, written by UBC's then
president. Dr. John B. Macdonald, and a UBC
research team.
In addition to recommending a new university for
the lower mainland and offering Victoria College the
option of establishing itself as a separate institution,
the report called for a network of regional colleges
throughout the province giving the first two years of
University-level work as well as technical and adult
education programs.
In the ensuing years most public attention has
focused on the province's new universities, Simon
Fraser in Burnaby and the University of Victoria,
which opted to sever its ties with UBC. During the
same period, however, the regional college idea has
caught fire throughout the province to the point
where there are now eight colleges in full operation
with an enrolment of nearly 10,000 students.
But the establishment of these regional colleges
hasn't meant their acceptance. Dr. John Dennison,
associate professor of education at UBC, explains the
problem:
"All kinds of rumors spread very quickly. As soon
as you begin to talk about regional colleges as an
alternative to the universities, the immediate
assumption is that they will be second-class
institutions, that they can't possibly be as good as the
universities."
Dr. Dennison and Gordon Jones, an instructor at
Vancouver City College, have spent the last three
years taking a long, hard look at that assumption.
They have published a series of studies outlining
the performance of regional college students who
have transferred to UBC and Simon Fraser University
after one or two years at the regional colleges.
DOING GOOD JOB
Their results suggest that the colleges are doing as
good a job — and perhaps a better one — for their
students as are the universities. They also found that:
Regional college students transferring to a
university for second or third year do almost as well
as students who came directly to university following
high school, although nearly half could not have
entered first-year university originally because of
poor marks or course deficiencies.
* Althpugh there were fewer first-class marks
among the transfer students, the proportion of
students passing all their courses at university was
higher among regional college transfer students than
among regular university students in the same year.
Students who stayed two years at regional
college before transfer did better than students who
transferred to university after one year.
Mature students (those over 25), originally
8/UBC Reports/Oct 29, 1970
thought of as a burden to the regional colleges, did
significantly better than college-age students after
transfer.
"The studies gave the colleges the boost they
required," says Dr. Dennison. "They are now able to
say that students do not suffer academically by
coming to college, and that's all they needed."
In fact, says Dr. Dennison, "if someone said to me
now, 'If your child were old enough to go to
university, where would you encourage him to go?' I
would have to think about that very seriously. I
should think about how mature he is, irrespective of
his grades, what his study habits were like, and so on.
I might easily advise him to go to a regional college."
Dr. Dennison, an Australian who came to UBC in
1957 to take a master's degree in physical education,
now teaches undergraduate educational psychology
and a graduate program in higher education. He
became interested in regional colleges while doing
doctorate research on colleges in the State of
Washington, and began his study on B.C. colleges
after his return to B.C.
His main interest is in the broad role of the
regional college as a comprehensive institution
offering at a local level a variety of educational
opportunities to high school graduates and adults,
including academic and technical programs, with both
diploma programs and short courses.
"I suppose you have to accept the fact that they
are a feeder institution to the universities, but I hope
they won't be looked on as purely this kind of
institution. Unfortunately, many people do this,
including the universities.
"UBC's Senate this year imposed enrolment
restrictions at Point Grey by limiting intake to the
first year for the first time to 3,400 students, and one
of the pivotal arguments made for this restriction was
the capacity of the regional colleges to absorb those
who couldn't get into UBC.
"What I think should be emphasized is that this is
not the chief responsibility of the regional college,
but because the universities keep underlining this
aspect, people tend to think this is their only role."
Far more important, he suggests, is the number of
alternatives to the university that the regional college
offers.
"Until recently, we've had just the universities. If
you didn't make the university, the only alternative
was vocational school. Either you were the academic
type, or you weren't.
"But the comprehensive program of the regional
colleges is one of their strongest recommendations.
You can take the academic program, of course, but
you can also take some kind of career program. Or
you can take a full general education, shop around in
the college, or take some kind of a remedial
program."
Although the colleges have this potential. Dr.
Dennison recognizes that they are not yet operating
as a full alternative to the universities.
"They have been looked on as junior colleges in
the sense of academic junior universities. I think the
population at large and the government look on them
this way; the idea of going to university has been
DR. JOHN DENNISON
oversold. Kids are making decisions to. go to „
university at the end of the second or third grade.
And many students are going to university although
the chance of employment after graduation is
minimal. The banks are full of tellers with B.A.'s in
sociology.
"It's a question of status. The regional colleges are
trying to  get students to accept the idea that an
academic goal  is not the only goal, that there a^fc
many very highly-paid alternatives. Maybe not \n\v^
the same status, but then status is not a very viable
sort of thing."
Dr. Dennison cites the success of career programs
at the B.C. Institute of Technology, usually full to
bursting, as evidence that technicians are in demand.
BCIT students, he notes, are frequently hired before
graduation. Publicity that shows the need for such
people could,, he suggests, bring the technology
programs at the regional colleges into a more
prominent position.
SUMMER COURSE
Faculty  members  at  regional  colleges  can   help
engender this acceptance. To aid them, the Faculty o^
Education at UBC offered a summer course entitl^B
Introduction    to   the   Community   College,   which
enrolled 32 students this year. The Faculty also offers
a course during the winter session outlining current    .
developments in higher education. College presidents,
says Dr.  Dennison,  report that faculty who have a
strong  orientation  to  the  regional college idea do
better at their jobs.
"You need in regional colleges faculty members
who are committed to the comprehensive kind of
program, who can tolerate the fact that first-year
philosophy is being taught in one room, while right
next door there's a six-week program for bus drivers
in progress. If there's a need for a six-week program
for bus drivers, why shouldn't there be a course and
why shouldn't it be taught in a regional college?
"Certainly the vocational programs don't carry the
same status, but this is just another aspect of the
college program, this wonderful comprehensive
concept that has to be sold to the public, to the
government, to college students and to college
faculty."
There is another barrier to the colleges progress —
finances.
At present the total capital and operating costs are
shared, the provincial government paying 60 per cent
and the local school districts participating in the
college paying the remaining 40 per cent. So far, local
districts have resisted the capital costs, turning down
referendums for permanent campuses. And some
districts get upset over operating costs and attempt to
pull out when they feel the bill is running too high.
It's not the actual dollar cost to "the local taxpayer
that is disturbing the taxpayer. Dr. Dennison suggests.
"The cost per year for the regional college works out
to about one mill on the local tax rate, about $9.50
for a person with a $30,000 home, which is minimal. ^
But no matter how small the cost, people resist.
They're always in favor of it philosophically — they VANCOUVER CITY COLLEGE AT LANGARA
, think the college is a great idea. But when it comes
time to pay for it, they don't think of how small the
cost is. They think that this is something extra on
their already overloaded tax bill."
Dr. Dennison doesn't recommend complete
provincial financing of the colleges. The provincial
government is committed both philosophically and
through the Public Schools Act to having local
^pWicial involvement in the regional colleges, and Dr.
^Winision says this ensures the co leges will reflect
local needs. But he would prefer a 75-25 per cent
split on operating costs, and provincial underwriting
of capital costs.
The rejection of a capital referendum can even
have a beneficial effect. Dr. Dennison points out. The
Okanagan district turned down such a referendum,
"but you could take the view that this was the best
thing that could have happened." Now there are three
sites, albeit temporary ones, in Salmon Arm, Vernon
- and Kelowna and students can take courses with a
minimum of travel.
"They've come to the realization there that they
need the multi-campus idea. They're going to need it
at Douglas (Fraser Valley West), and I think they're
going to need the same thing at Malaspina (Nanaimo,
^■n't think that big capital costs for one building
are going to be the answer."
Part of the answer may be forthcoming in the
^recent order by Minister of Education Donald
Brothers that regional colleges amalgamate with
vocational schools in their area. Dr. Dennison says
this move will mean more use can be made of the
vocational schools' often idle facilities, and will result
in less duplication.
"I think the regional colleges, vocational schools,
and adult education should be under one
administration. It's cheaper, it's better co-ordinateid
and better use can be made of staff."
Dr. Dennison is convinced that despite their
problems, the regional colleges will prosper and grow.
He bases his prediction partly on doctorate research
he did on regional colleges in Washington State,
which have taken 45 years to reach their present state
of development. B.C. colleges can learn from them,
he suggests.
In B.C. we tend to compare ourselves with
California. When the minister of education goes
"anywhere, he goes to California to look at the
regional colleges. The State of Washington is much
more comparable. It has a comparable economy,
population distribution and so on.
"The Washington State colleges are very much like
the B.C. colleges, with one major exception. The
Washington colleges have gone to total state financing
~"in the last five years. There are advantages and
disadvantages to this. A lot of major decisions that
used to be made at the local level are now made in
Olympia (the state capital). But they're not living
from year to year as they were before. They now
have some sort of prediction on how they will be
financially supported, and this is most important.
"I think it's important here in B.C. to get the
regional colleges on the right track early. If changes
have to be effected, they can be made now. We must
SELKIRK COLLEGE AT CASTLEGAR
be able to learn from 45 years of Washington
experience. If we can't, it's a great pity."
There are signs that the regional colleges have
started a fair distance up the ladder to success. Dr.
Dennison suggests that in some aspects of their
operations, primarily teaching, the colleges are more
competent than the universities.
The colleges are teaching-oriented, with research
taking a back seat. And their small size makes
possible small classes, none larger than 40 and some
first-year classes as small as 12. Compare this, Dr.
Dennison suggests, with some first-year university
courses, 300 or 400 strong, taught by a professor who
may be equally concerned with research and
publication.
"Essentially, the colleges are staffed by people
whose first commitment is to teaching. Therefore,
first-year students are in most cases getting a better
kind of education from the college.
"And the students are saying this. Those I've
spoken to who have transferred to universities almost
without exception speak very highly of the quality of
teaching at the colleges. Certainly the universities are
a great place for the intellectually mature. But for the
intellectually immature, and this has nothing to do
with ability, they're much better off at a regional
college."
FURTHER STUDY
The next study by Dr. Dennison and Mr. Jones
will attempt to discover just who does go to the
colleges and who to the universities. They will
investigate the academic achievement of students, the
educational level and profession of their parents, the
students' place of residence and so forth. They are
trying to discover whether the regional colleges
broaden the base of higher education, whether more
first generation college-going students are attracted to
the regional colleges and whether students have a
better chance of survival at these colleges. They
expect results some time in 1971.
They also plan to touch on some of the differences
among the regional colleges. "This is the most
attractive side of the colleges as far as I'm
concerned," says Dr. Dennison, "The fact that every
college is different. They all have different roles and
they offer different courses, particularly in the
technology programs. For example, Kamloops is
offering a course in beef technology, while Selkirk (in
Castlegar) goes in for mining and lumber technology.
"They're doing all kinds of interesting things at
the colleges. You could go into detail about projects
like the study skills center at Malaspina, which is a
true study skills center, where a student with trouble
in physics can sit down and actually get some
coaching. "This is the wonderfully exciting thing
about the colleges — they can offer the kind of
programs that are needed in the local community.
They are not hidebound by the traditions of the
universities. They have a unique flexibility and they
will retain it, and that's why they're exciting
institutions."
Regional
Colleges
Listed
B.C.'S EIGHT REGIONAL COLLEGES
ARE LISTED BELOW TOGETHER WITH
THEIR STARTING DATES, LOCATIONS
AND THE SCHOOL DISTRICTS
INVOLVED. ALL COLLEGES OFFER
ACADEMIC PROGRAMS, WHICH
PREPARE STUDENTS FOR TRANSFER
TO UNIVERSITIES, AND TECHNICAL
PROGRAMS AS WELL AS SPECIAL
COURSES SUITED TO LOCAL NEEDS.
CAPILANO COLLEGE - opened September,
1968, located in high schools in North Vancouver,
West Vancouver and Squamish, for the school
districts of North Vancouver, West Vancouver and
Howe Sound. Some specialties are programs in art,
audio-visual techniques and methods and retail
fashion. Projected enrolment 1970-71 — 800.
CARIBOO COLLEGE - opened September,
1970, in temporary quarters in Kamloops, for the
school districts of Kamloops, Barriere, Birch
Island, Williams Lake, Lillooet, South Cariboo.
Some specialties are beef production, commercial
art and recreation leadership. Projected enrolment
1970-71 -450.
DOUGLAS COLLEGE - opened September,
1970, in temporary quarters in Richmond, New
Westminster and Surrey, for the school districts of
Burnaby, New Westminster, Coquitlam, Langley,
Delta, Surrey and Richmond. Some specialties are
law enforcement, fire science, cartography and
mortuary science programs. Projected enrolment
1970-71 -2,000.
MALASPINA COLLEGE - opened September,
1969, in temporary quarters in Nanaimo, for the
school districts of Cowichan, Lake Cowichan,
Ladysmith, Nanaimo, and Qualicum. Some
specialties are marketing and financial
management, forest products technology and a
program for welfare case aides. Projected
enrolment 1970-71 - 800.
COLLEGE OF NEW CALEDONIA - opened
September, 1969, in temporary quarters in Prince
George, for school districts Smithers, Burns Lake,
Vanderhoof, McBride, Prince George and Quesnel.
Some specialties are programs in data processing,
early childhood education and music. Projected
enrolment 1970-71 - 400.
OKANAGAN COLLEGE - opened September,
1968, in temporary quarters in Salmon Arm,
Vernon, Kelowna and Osoyoos, for the school
districts of South Okanagan, Keremeos,
Revelstoke, Armstrong-Spallumcheen, Vernon,
Kelowna, Summerland and Shuswap. One
specialty is business administration. Projected
enrolment 1970-71 -700.
SELKIRK COLLEGE - opened September,
1966, now in permanent quarters in Castlegar, for
the school districts of Nelson, Slocan, Castlegar,
Arrow Lakes, Trail and Grand Forks. Specialties
include aviation technology and regional and
community planning. Projected enrolment
1970-71 -700.
VANCOUVER CITY COLLEGE - opened
September, 1965. Has now moved to the $5.5
million Langara campus. Serves Vancouver school
district. Some specialties are accounting, food
services, library, teaching assistant and journalism
programs. Projected enrolment 1970-71 - 4,000.
UBC Reports/Oct 29, 1970/9 ACT
Continued from Page Five
and proceed to non-parliamentary activity. These
people may not be involved in any explicit political
behavior to date that the War Measures Act is
directed against but the effect of the act and the
intention of the act, I believe, is to say to these
people, if you act on your principles, if you allow a
whole range of possible political activity to be open
to you, you will end up like the FLQ. And the
effect of it is in fact to intimidate ideas, to scare
people. If in fact the possibility of advocating the
unlawful purposes of the FLQ is abrogated it is
impossible to explain and articulate the reasons why
the FLQ has kidnapped those two men. Then the
propaganda that has been put consistently through
the censored press to the people of this city and of
this country has no rebuttal. It is illegal to rebut the
arguments presented in The Vancouver Sun about
Laporte and Cross.
PRESS HYSTERIA
MR. CAWSEY: There is a question about the press
there, that perhaps the press is responsible for any
hysteria that is coming out of this as much as the act
itself. In fact they ran a story in The Vancouver Sun
on Saturday with a headline "Women and Children
Next," and the next day they had a retraction saying
the story was not true. And on Saturday night for
just about an hour the CBC was saying that James
Cross and Laporte were dead. Now I think that
perhaps Reg could talk about this. He had an
experience today much the same.
DR. ROBSON: Yes. It might seem trivial in
comparison to the issues that you have raised. But I
issued a press release on behalf of the B.C. Civil
Liberties Association a couple of days ago and to my
consternation I see in tonight's Sun the headline to
the effect that "Trudeau gets support from civil
liberties groups." It is rather interesting to note that
the press release that I gave out was about 56 lines, of
which 44% were unfavorable to the government and
only 11% were favorable. The Sun printed the entire
11% lines favorable to the government and just four
of the 44% that were unfavorable, with a banner
headline, as I say, that we supported Trudeau. It was
a gross distortion, in my view; of our press release.
MR. TENNANT: There has been another, more
subtle action going on, I think, and that is the failure
of the press to make the distinction — and this applies
to the other media too — the distinction that Jim
mentioned earlier between regulations passed under
the act and the act itself. A lot of attention has been
given to the very sweeping powers that the act would
seem to confer yet as one reads the regulations it is
quite clear that the regulation is directed very
specifically to a certain group which is undergoing
certain activities, and I think that had this distinction
been much more clear there would not have been the
legitimate worry in the minds of many people about
just what this is all about. I know that among my
own students there is considerable concern which I
think would be allayed to some extent were these
regulations better known. I think that is a most
important point.
MR. CAWSEY: Historically, haven't we been
under some sort of emergency powers much of the
time since the beginning of the Second World War?
The invocation of the War Act came in 1939 and I
understand it wasn't revoked for several years after
the war and it was followed by the Emergency
Powers Act which lasted until 1959.
MR. TENNANT: The War Measures Act which was
invoked in the beginning of the Second World War
was not withdrawn until 1954, I believe the date was,
and I think it is a fact that in those years following
the Second World War until 1954 we Canadians did
not suffer from any withdrawal of civil liberties. Now
I would certainly argue that they should not have
10/UBC Reports/Oct 29, 1970
kept it on that long. Then during the Korean War
another act was passed. Jim knows more about this
than I. But it is interesting that that particular policy
of declaring the Emergency Powers Act was
accompanied by a statement that it was not wise to
use the War Measures Act in that circumstance. It
seems a bit paradoxical that they proceeded to use
the War Measures Act now and I think the major
question is, what precedent does this establish. If we
should get men whom I think might be less
responsible than the present government, what sort of
ideas would they have to suppress dissent which they
see coming at them? Locally I think it is regrettable
that our mayor has made this statement he has made.
I think they are based as much on ignorance as on
bad faith. But perhaps ignorance is worse than bad
faith in some cases.
MR. CAWSEY: Could this be brought into effect
in labor strife or things which are deemed to be of
national importance? Bill 33 was brought in because
of that. Is it possible that in a general strike situation
they could introduce the War Measures Act to stop
it?
STATEMENT
Continued'from PageFive
ensure that governments do not interfere with
the internal affairs of the University and that
professors are free to discuss ideas, without
threat of government reprisal. These principles
of academic freedom have long been
recognized.
"But while the Order-in-Council cannot
supersede the Universities Act, it nevertheless
puts pressure on University faculty and
administrators. Instructors of courses dealing
with French Canada, particularly, find
themselves constrained in classroom discussion
for fear of arbitrary dismissal procedures. The
Order invites suspicion, intolerance and fear
among teachers and professors which is
repugnant and quite inconsistent with the
federal policy of restrained application of the
emergency War Measures Act.
"We appeal to the Provincial Government to
rescind its order immediately."
MR. TENNANT: It's certainly possible. But let's
not forget that in any country the basis for law, the
basis for civil liberties, is the understanding, the
training, the conscience of the politicians. This is
what the real basis of liberty is anywhere. It is within
the actions of the politicians. And I certainly feel that
in Canada we have attained a greater degree of justice
and fairness than in most other countries. With all
respect to D.J., the FLQ and the VLF are very small
groups. They have not succeeded through public
persuasion to sway the majority. Now this leaves
them in an awful dilemma. If they can't persuade the
majority through peaceful means they are tempted to
turn to other means. And surely this is where the
government has to act. I would argue very strongly
that in this case it is certainly very justified. I would
like to see a more specific measure, as Reg has said, to
allow a more specific action here and not to panic
members of the majority into thinking there has been
a greater threat than there has been, but given the
present circumstances I think that fair enough has
been done.
MISS O'DONNELL: I think it is important that
we realize that what the War Measures Act has done is
to say to people that the civil rights and civil liberties
that a lot of people believed were basic and human
rights, in fact are only concessions of the government
and are given by the state when it is in its interests to
give those concessions in order that people identify
their interests more with the community. That when
a crisis comes, when the crunch comes, and there is
some sort of real possibility of a restructuring of the
society, that those civil rights and civil liberties fall by
the wayside.
MR. MATKIN: I think the act says just the
opposite, D.J. I think that the act says that in our
society we believe in rule by law, not rule by terror,
and that we, as armchair generals, criticise the
justification of employing such an emergency
provision. But we have to remember the context in
which it was employed. I think if society is going to
be a free society we have to protect that freedom and
this is what was attempted, and I think in terms of
the bona fide-ness of the government, one has to
comment about their promise to enact specific
legislation within the next month. This legislation, as
I understand it, will be similar to the War Measures
Act, and will be suspended for the ordinary occasion
but will be brought into power only in an emergency,
only when society, in order to protect its very being,
asks for this help.
DR. ROBSON: I feel that the members of the
opposition deserve some credit for the government's
somewhat tardy recognition of the need for
somewhat more restricted legislation. It is only very
recently, after the act was invoked, that Mr. Trudeau
indicated his agreement for passing more restricted
legislation. I would like to ask Paul, and perhaps Jim
too, what in the present situation they see as so dire
as to warrant these particular emergency powers?
MR. TENNANT: I think it goes wider than the
immediate legal question. I would agree with D.J.
that one purpose of invoking the War Measures Act
was to make people who were potential sympathizers
with the FLQ think twice about what they were
doing. In think in addition the invocation of the act
was designed to reassure the majority in this country
that the government was going to act with some
firmness and consistency in this matter. I would hope
that one of the purposes was to prevent fringe groups
within the majority from taking the law in their own
hands because any group that attempts to take the
law into its own hands is very dangerous, whether it is
the FLQ or some group in Vancouver. Both are
equally to be feared and any evidence that I have seen
so far suggests this has been most successful. There is
no sign of an increasing support for the FLQ, nor
with some very minor exceptions — and let's keep our
own local situation in Vancouver in perspective —
have there been indications of members of the
majority going off half-cocked, so I would think that
these are the wider reasons for the invocation of this^
act. If you want to be very blunt about it, it has been
psychological politics which has been used.
Psychology in politics is just as important as the law,
in fact it is the psychological attitudes of people that
makes the law what it is.
MR. MATKIN: I think there is more than just a
psychological danger present here. I think there was a
real danger. I think the dastardly murder by these
bandits of a politician is one of the saddest travesties
in the history of Canadian politics and the North
American society, the western hemisphere. I think
that this act alone causes us to hesitate before we too
quickly see no justification and I think finally that
you have to have some respect for the authorities
who govern you. You have to rely on their good faith
and in the end this is, as Paul has said, our only(
protection.
TELL SOMETHING
MR. CAWSEY: We are coming to the end of our
time now. Earlier this afternoon, Jim, you were
wondering why the prime minster invoked the act
and you were thinking out loud that perhaps he is
trying to tell us something. Maybe you could go into
that.
MR. MATKIN: I don't know about the validity of
this. This is very speculative. Isn't it rather interesting
that we have in the present political climate
juxtaposition of a war measures act with a concept of
separatism and maybe really that the subconscious or
unconscious message for us is that this is the way of
separatism.
MISS O'DONNELL: Yes, I think there may be
some basis to that and a lot of the activity, for
instance of the Vancouver Liberation Front in the
demonstration on Saturday, was precisely to say to
English-Canadians, now, we shall not fight a war
against our brothers and sisters in Quebec, we must
respect the right of political and economic
independence for those people, that we cannot wait
until the government actually declares war and sends
troops in to kill our brothers and sisters in Quebec
before we come out in support. I think the
government is moving towards a war of the Canadian
state against the people of Quebec and I think our job
as English-Canadians has to be to oppose that war and
to support the right of the people of Quebec to
economic and political independence.
MR. CAWSEY: We have come to the end of our
time. I would like to thank the panel. I just hope that
something good can come out of this. LETTERS
Dear Sir:
Although my daughter is now in her 4th
year at the University of British Columbia I
have not until now taker* the trouble to
compliment you "on UBC Reports, which my
wife and I both enjoy very much as a means of
keeping up to date with what is going on at the
University. We also feel that the publication
attempts to show both sides of sorrie of the
controversial issues which are bound to arise on
campus.
In reading the issue (of Oct. 1) I note that
approximately 44.86 million dollars of the
University's income comes from the Provincial
Government and it is indicated elsewhere that a
major share of this is recovered from the
Federal Government. As a matter of interest I
would appreciate information, if it is available,
as to what portion of this is contributed by the
Federal Government.
Yours truly,
C.I.Maxted,
Courtenay, B.C.
The following reply to Mr. Maxted's letter
was prepared for UBC Reports by Mr. William
White, UBC's Deputy President and Bursar:
The grant from the Government of the
Province of British Columbia totalling
$44,868,554 is made up of an operating grant
of $38,868,554 arid the capital grant of
$6,000,000.
Under Section 13 of the Federal-Provincial
Fiscal Arrangements Act 1967, the Government
of the Province of B.C. receives from the
Federal Government for each fiscal year
commencing on April 1, 1967, an amount as
determined by the Secretary of State equal to
SO per cent of the operating expenditures for
post-secondary education in the Province for
the fiscal year. In determining the .operating
expenditures Section 14 of the
Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act
1967 excludes certain items such as student
financial aid, capital cost of lands and buildings,
amortization of capital debt, depreciation of
buildings, ancillary enterprises, etc.
We estimate that in the fiscal year 196Si-70
the Government of the Province of B.C. would
receive approximately $26,200,000 in respect
to the operations of The University of British
Columbia. It should be noted that this figure is
an approximation. The University of British
Columbia has no hand in the preparation of the
claim made on the Federal Government. This is
handled directly between the Provincial and
Federal Governments.
Dear Sir:
May   I   comment, on   the   article   which
appeared in  UBC Reports on Oct.  15 which
stated that two Commerce students and a
Commerce graduate were to be granted full
voting rights on the Faculty caucus. I wish to
point   out  that  Commerce  is not  the  first
Faculty to have student participation at this
level. For well over a year now students and
faculty   in   Education  have  cooperated  very
successfully in the decision'making process. In
this respect, Education is well ahead of other
faculties. For the second year now the Faculty
of Education has had student representation at
General Staff meetings, which are very closely
related to the Faculty Caucus in Commerce. A
total of 15 students, with voting privileges, take
part in the Education general staff meetings. As
in CommetCte, the final decision-making body is
the Faculty Council, which neither we nor the
Commerce students have representation on.
Yours truly,
Kerry BySouth,
Internal Affairs Officer,
Education Undergraduate
Society.
UBC NEWS
BRIEF
HHH  Volume 16, No. 21 - Oct. 29,
IIHI       1970.     Published    by    the
llllll  University of British Columbia
^^^^^^  and    distributed    free.    UBC
REPORTS
Reports appears on Thursdays
during   the   University's  winter   session.   J.A.
Banham, Editor. Ruby Eastwood, Production
Supervisor. Letters to the Editor should be sent
to    Information   Services,    Main    Mall    North
Administration   Building,   UBC,   Vancouver 8,
B.C.
A COLUMN FOR UBC GRADUATES
ROUNDING UP THE TOP NEWS ITEMS OF
RECENT WEEKS. THE MATERIAL BELOW
APPEARED IN MORE EXTENDED FORM IN
CAMPUS EDITIONS OF 'UBC REPORTS.'
READERS WHO WISH COPIES OF CAMPUS
EDITIONS CAN OBTAIN THEM BY WRITING TO
THE INFORMATION OFFICE, UBC, VANCOUVER
8, B.C.
Readers may note a change in the quality of the
paper on which this edition of UBC Reports is
printed. For reasons of economy, we have switched
from the medium-grade offset paper used for the last
two years to a lower grade and cheaper newsprint
For 16 hours on Thursday and Friday, Oct. 15 and
16, UBC's Student Union Building was occupied by
approximately 150 transient youths — both male and
female — who had been evicted from temporary
quarters at Jericho army base near the UBC campus.
The transients, a rootless group of young people
who came to Vancouver during the summer,
inhabited the Beatty Street Armoury in downtown
Vancouver until early September when they were
moved to Jericho.
The cause of the transients, and particularly their
request for a permanent hostel in Vancouver,"became
an issue at UBC Sept. 23 when Students' Council, by
a narrow 9 to 7 margin, voted to open the SUB
temporarily to the transients if the Jericho hostel
closed.
When students voiced opposition to this plan.
Council called a special general meeting at which
students voted to deny the transients the use of the
SUB. On Oct. 15 the hostelers were evicted from
Jericho and after a bruising collision with the
Vancouver police riot squad marched to the SUB,
which they occupied from 6:30 p.m. on Oct. 15 until
8 a.m. the next morning.
Overnight, many members of Students' Council,
aided by students who volunteered their services,
worked furiously to contain the occupation, prevent
a confrontation between the hostelers and angry
students and find alternate accommodation for the
transients.
The hostelers departed the next morning at 8 a.m.,
but by noon many had returned to the campus. To
prevent the possiblity of the transients reoccupying
the building and a possible confrontation with
engineers who planned to use the SUB that night for
a mixer, a decision was made to limit entry to the
building to those who could produce Alma Mater
Society identification cards.
The result of this move was to intensify efforts to
find accommodation for the transients, who have a
strong sense of solidarity and view any attempt to
billet them in individual homes as a threat to the
group.
By 5 p.m. on Oct. 16, overnight accommodation
was found for the hostelers at the YWCA. By 5:30
p.m. the SUB at UBC was virtually deserted and the
crisis had passed. (Edition of Oct. 22).
* *       *
UBC students may be going to lectures at 8 a.m. in
the 1971-72 session. UBC's registrar, Mr. J.E.A.
Parnall, brought such a proposal to the Senate of Oct.
14, but it was referred to a faculty-student committee
for further study. The aim of the proposal is to
provide additional classroom space through more
extensive use of existing facilities. The proposal
assumes the continuation of a two-hour lunch period
on Thursday and no Saturday lectures.  (Edition of
Oct. 22).
* *       #
A transportation studies center has been formed at
UBC to encourage and organize inter-disciplinary
studies in transportation. It will be supported by a
four-year grant totalling $360,000 from the federal
Canadian Transport Commission.
Eight research projects have already begun with
funds from the Transport Commission grant. (Edition
of Oct. 22).
* *      *
The report of the Commission on the Future of
the Faculty of Education, described as "a pioneering
attempt to bring a faculty at a Canadian University
up-to-date" when it was released by Dean of
Education Neville Scarfe in November, 1969, is still
alive and well.
The Faculty of Education has already adopted
some of the 39 recommendations made in the report,
chiefly those dealing with the Faculty's
administrative structure.
Many of the major recommendations are still being
discussed and will ultimately have to be approved by
UBC's Board of Governors and Senate.
As a result of these discussions the faculty has
rejected a proposed master of pedagogy degree to be
awarded without research and the introduction of a
"teaching associate" concept, which grew out of
another recommendation calling for adoption of a
single, five-year bachelor of education degree
program, still under debate.
Included in the requirements for the new
degree would be time spent in a teaching
associateship in a school district under the close
supervision of a faculty member.  (Edition of Oct.
22).
#       *       *
Construction of stage one of a new Botanical
Garden development is scheduled to begin on a
20-acre site to the west of Thunderbird Stadium on
UBC's south campus in the spring of 1971.
The development is part of a 77-acre Botanical
Garden which UBC plans to create during the
ten-year period 1971-81 provided funds become
available, mainly from private, trust and
governmental sources. The total estimated cost of the
development is $5,058,974.
The development to the west of Thunderbird
Stadium will include a research-administration center,
greenhouses and the main gardens consisting of a
wide variety of plant material from a variety of
climates. At a future stage UBC will develop a 30-acre
site on Southwest Marine Drive.
The main emphasis in the Garden project will be in
the area of teaching and research, according to Dr.
Roy Taylor, director of the Botanical Garden. One of
its most important functions will be the accumulation
of a plant bank from which courses will be developed.
The Garden will also be an important link between
UBC and the community. Dr. Taylor said. (Edition of
Oct. 15).
LECTURE FOR NURSES
"Alternatives for Nursing," an examination
of the possible directions that nursing may take
in the future, will be the topic of this year's
Marion Woodward Lectureship sponsored by
the UBC School of Nursing.
Guest lecturer this year is Dean Dorothy
Smith, College of Nursing, and Chief of Nursing
Practice, The H. Hillis Miller Health Center,
University of Florida, Gainsville.
The lecture will be held at 8 p.m. on Friday,
Nov. 13, in the auditorium of the Old Arts
Building, UBC. The lecture is open to members
of all the health professions and to the public
and is made possible through the generous
support of Mr. and Mrs. P.A. Woodward's
foundation. Admission is free.
The lecture is part of a continuing education
program for nurses sponsored by the School of
Nursing through the Division of Continuing
Education in the Health Sciences.
The program consists of courses designed to
help B.C. nurses keep up-to-date. They are open
to all practising nurses in British Columbia and
to any non-practising nurse who may wish to
keep up-to-date on changes within the
profession.
Coinciding with the Marion Woodward
Lecture is a course on psychiatric nursing, Nov.
12-13. Other up-coming nursing continuing
education courses include: general practice,
Feb. 10-12; maternal health nursing, March
10-12; psychiatric nursing, March 24-26; acute
illness, April 14-16; nursing service
administration. May 31-June 2 and nursing
education, June 8-11.
B.C. nurses are also encouraged to
participate in interprofessional continuing
education courses which include a course on
pain offered in early February and courses on
rehabilitation and mental retardation to be held
in the spring of 197W
Further information on nursing and
interprofessional continuing education courses
can be obtained by requesting a copy of the
1970-71 calendar from: Continuing Education
in the Health Sciences, UBC.
Two members of the UBC faculty - Prof. Kenneth
B. Harvey of the Department of Chemistry and Dr.
John N. Sandness of the Faculty of Agricultural
Sciences — died in late September.
Prof. Harvey, who was also assistant dean of the
Faculty of Science, died suddenly on Sept. 27 at the
age of 42. Dr. Sandness, an entomologist and
pesticides expert, died after a lengthy illness on Sept.
27 at the age of 30. (Edition of Oct. 8).
UBC Reports/Oct. 29, W70/11 A^m^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
Contact
ALUMNI phones in the Lower Mainland will be
ringing Nov. 9 and 16 in the annual "Phonathon,"
part  of this  year's  Alumni   Fund   program  being
mapped out by campaign chairman, George Morfitt,
BCom'58 (left) and Ian "Scotty" Malcolm, director
of the Fund. See story at right. Bill Loiselle photo.
AN INFO 70 FEATURE
Alumni Fund
Plans Phonathon
About 100 persons will stage a "sit-in" at the UBC
General Services Administration Building on Nov. 9
and 16. But it will be a sit-in with a difference.
They're a group of UBC Alumni Fund volunteers
who will be sitting-in to conduct a two-evening
telephone canvass of UBC graduates who have not yet
given to the fund this year. And the volunteers,
including 12 students, have been kindly offered use
of the facilities by the UBC administration. It's all
part of the annual Phonathon and they'll be keeping
the phone lines buzzing from 7 to 9 p.m. on Nov. 9
and 16.
"It's been a good year for alumni giving and we're
hoping the Phonathon will give us the spurt we need
to put our 1970 campaign into the home stretch,"
said Frank Dembicki, coordinator of the Phonathon.
"Last year we raised about $11,000 through the
Phonathon and this year we've set our target at
$12,000."
UBC alumni have been canvassed prior to this by a
massive mail campaign. They have donated so far
$115,000 compared to $104,000 for the same period
in 1969.
The main disbursements of Alumni Fund proceeds
~~are directed towards support of scholarships,
athletics, library, the President's Fund and various
student cultural and intellectual activities. This year a
record $48,000 is being provided to support 146
bursaries and scholarships.
UBC Helps The Mentally Retarded
By ALEX VOLKOFF
Before 1967, UBC didn't offer much work in the
field of mental retardation. Then the BCMRI came
along.
The British Columbia Mental Retardation Institute
is not a building or a place. It is a concept in the
minds of eight faculty members in as many
departments at the University. These eight are paid
by the Institute with funds provided by both the
federal and provincial governments, and their job is to
develop training programs in the field of mental
retardation in their own departments.
The whole idea began at a federal-provincial
conference on mental retardation when it became
apparent that the needs of the retarded were not
being met anywhere in Canada.
RESEARCH PROJECTS
"As a result of this conference, and utilizing the
notion of Centennial year, it was decided by the
Canadian Association for the Mentally Retarded to
institute a series of Centennial demonstration and
research projects in each province," Institute
co-ordinator Dr. Charlotte David said. "The B.C.
association met and came to the consensus that the
major problem in B.C. is that professional people
have not in the past provided the kind of services
they should have been able to provide to the retarded
and their families. We would certainly prefer to
believe that this was because they didn't know how
rather than they didn't want to."
To help correct this, it was decided something
should be done at the level of university training for
professional students and the BCMRI was born.
The Institute plays no direct role in determining
how a faculty member functions and it does not
choose the people; the University does this. Once the
faculty member is chosen, all the BCMRI does is pay
his salary. The eight departments at UBC involved in
the program are Special Education, Recreation, Social
Work, Nursing, Physical Education, Home
12/UBC, Reports/Oct 29, 1970
Economics, Paediatrics and, for the first time this
year. Psychiatry.
The eight faculty members in these departments
are expected to provide training in the care of the
mentally retarded either by introducing material into
the existing curriculum or by setting up new
programs. But the Institute has a greater purpose in
mind - the development of an inter-disciplinary
approach to mental retardation at the training level.
"Because of the nature of mental retardation, no
one professional group can take sole responsibility
and, in fact, no one particular protession does," said
Dr. David. "So in order to give good service it remains
paramount that people from different professional
groups should be able to communicate with each
other to provide good continuity in the treatment.
"Therefore, it was felt every effort should be
made, while people are in training, to provide
opportunities for inter-disciplinary communication to
develop some understanding for the roles other
people play."
This Dr. David does by scheduling classes in
different departments at the same time, providing
practicum experiences for students of one
professional school under the direct supervision of a
person from another, and planning clinical
demonstrations which students from all disciplines
can attend.
The most recent inter-disciplinary program to have
been set up in the University is a pilot project located
in the Psychiatry Department under the co-direction
of Dr. Roger Freeman and Mrs. Joyce Preston of the
School of Social Work. This program, involving two
senior social work students and two residents in child
psychiatry based at the new Health Science Center,
only started at the beginning of October. These
students have started by working with three cases
from the Special Education Department's pre-school
for retarded children.
"At this time it is not a large-volume service
program, but ah inter-disciplinary training program
which is incidentally providing service," said Dr.
Freeman. "At times in the past, families of the
mentally retarded have suffered from a stereotyped
approach. Our pilot project is training students to
deal with such families on a more individual and
flexible level."
The BCMRI has also established a one-year
diploma program in the Department of Special _
Education, under the direction of Prof. Robert Poutt ^Lw
Now in its second year, the program can only handle
12 students, although over 60 applied this year. It is
open to anyone with a B.A. from a recognized
university, and offers a professional teacher's
certificate at the end.
"The emphasis on practicum is very heavy," said
Prof. Poutt. "Each student spends his mornings,
Monday through Friday for seven months, in seven of
12 different settings." These can range from an adult
workshop or Woodlands School to a public school,
diagnostic center or the home of a family with a
mentally retarded child.
"In the afternoons, the students take 15 units of
courses, although not necessarily all the same courses,
and attend fire-side seminars with special lecturers at
my home," he said.
FUNDS DECLINE
The concept of the BCMRI did not come from the
universities, but it is hoped that when governmental
funding ends in April, 1972, the University will take
it over and develop it further. "On $140,000 or less a
year, we could further the multi-disciplinary
approach in mental retardation," said Dr. David.
Right now the Institute is operating on the
premise that there will be no funds when the five-year
term is up.
"With the absence of both a permanent
co-ordinator and a permanent building I have great
doubts as to the possibility of continuing the
multi-professional approach to training of the
mentally retarded," said Dr. David.
"We have demonstrated this can be done without
threatening the existence of individual departments
and the specific contributions they have to make. On ^
the contrary, in this case the whole becomes greater
than the sum of its parts."

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