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 UBC
3p
a place of mind
THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
R E PO RTS
Novel summer
camps at UBC
2010 Discrimination
and Harassment report
Tree migrations:
the root problem
Alexis Kho is one of
500 students employed
through Work Study am
Work Learn Programs 4|
By Heather Amos
merican
By Basil Waugh How to grow the perfect tomato
By Lorraine Chan
In the news
Andrew Riseman (left) and Greg Rekkan tested local and farm-derived fertilizers.
UBC REPORTS
volume fifty seven : number seven
www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/ubc-reports
Executive Director
scott macrae  scott.macrae@ubc.ca
Editor
randy schmidt randy.schmidt@ubc.ca
Design Manager
arlene cotter arlene.cotter@ubc.ca
Public Affairs Studio
ping ki chan  ping.chan@ubc.ca
amanda fetterly amanda.fetterly@ubc.ca
Photographer
martin dee  martin.dee@ubc.ca
Web Designer
tony chu tony.chu@ubc.ca
Communications Coordinators
heather amos heather.amos@ubc.ca
Lorraine chan  lorraine.chan@ubc.ca
darren handschuh darren.handschuh@ubcca
brian kladko brian.kladko@ubcca
brian lin  brian.Iin@ubcca
basil waugh  basil.waugh@ubc.ca
Advertising
pearlie davison  pearlie.davison@ubc.ca
Circulation
beverly galbraith  beverly.galbraith@ubcca
Printer
TELDON PRINT MEDIA
Publisher
UBC Reports is published monthly by:
The University of British Columbia
Public Affairs Office
310-6251 Cecil Green Park Road
Vancouver BC Canada V6T1Z1
Next issue: 1 September 2011
Submissions
UBC Reports welcomes submissions.
For upcoming UBC Reports submission guidelines:
www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/ubcreports/about.html.
Opinions and advertising published in UBC Reports
do not necessarily reflect official university policy.
Material may be reprinted in whole or in part with
appropriate credit to UBC Reports. Letters (300 words
or less) must be signed and include an address and
phone number for verification.
Submit letters to:
The Editor, UBC Reports
E-mail to publicaffairs@ubcca or
Mail to UBC Public Affairs Office (address above)
UBC NEWS ROOM
www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/news
Visit our online UBC News Room for the latest
updates on research and learning. On this site you'll
find our news releases, advisories, news extras, as
well as a daily media summary and a real-time
UBCNEWS twitter feed. You can also find resources
including access to more than 500 faculty experts
and information about UBC's radio and TV studios.
Website: www.ubcca/news
Tel: 604.822.NEWS (6397)
E-mail: public.affairs@ubcca
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Return adian addresses to circulation department.
310-6251 Cecil Green Park Road, Vancouver, BC Canada V6T1Z1
Email: public.affairs@ubc.ca
fa place of mind
THE  UNIVERSITYOF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Public Affairs Office
Highlights of UBC media coverage
in June 2011
Compiled by Heather Amos
UBC EXPERTS COMMENT
Vancouver Canucks,
Stanley Cup Final and riots
As the Vancouver Canucks tried
to win their first Stanley Cup title,
UBC researchers provided expert
commentary for the New York Times,
Globe and Mail, Vancouver Sun and
others.
Professors Christopher Schneider,
Toni Schmader, Andrew Irvine, Rima
Wilkes, Peter Crocker, Rick White,
Ann Stone, Paul Cubbon, Aziz Rajwani,
Kerry Jang and others commented
on the riots, marketing and branding
issues, the use of social media by fans,
sport psychology and more.
"The big thing is to enjoy the event
and see the positives ofthe event, no
matter what the outcome is. This has
been a great run for the Canucks, it's
been exciting for everyone," said
Crocker to the Globe and Mail.
During the playoffs, UBC's Doug
Mitchell Thunderbird Sports Centre
hosted the Canucks and Boston Bruins
for team practices and media events.
Richard Lam, alumnus and official
photographer for UBC Athletics, took
the most talked about photo ofthe
Stanley Cup Final, the "Riot Kiss" - an
image of a couple lying on the street
kissing as the riot ensues around them.
The photo attracted extensive media
attention and was featured on CNN,
ABC, the BBC, NPR, the New York Daily
News, the Vancouver Sun and many
others.
UBC RESEARCH
Women, doctors misinformed
about childbirth tools
A trio of studies led by Dr. Michael
Klein, professor emeritus in family
practice and pediatrics and senior
scientist emeritus at the Child &
Family Research Institute, shows many
women seem unprepared to make their
own decisions regarding childbirth
options, such as whether to have
natural childbirth or Cesarean sections,
reported the Los Angeles Times, Toronto
Sun and others.
"Even late in pregnancy, many women
reported uncertainty about benefits
and risks of common procedures used
in childbirth," said Dr. Klein. "This is
worrisome because a lack of knowledge
affects their ability to engage in
informed discussions with their
caregivers.
UBC OPINION
Op/Eds by UBC Profs
Several professors published
commentaries last month. Here is a
sample of what some UBC professors
had to say:
Doug Owram argues that there
needs to be more debate about
tuition fees in University Affairs.
"The relative absence of contention
masks unresolved issues that require
discussion, including accessibility, debt
and adequate funding for universities."
Paul Evans's op/ed in the Globe and
Mail explained the importance of
China to the global economy. "With
continued weakness in Europe and the
U.S., sustaining even a mild recovery is
inconceivable without it."
Mark Schaller described his research
on the behavioural immune system in
Scientific American. "The behavioral
immune system is our brain's way of
engaging in a kind of preventative
medicine."
Gavin Stuart wrote about the largest
graduating class in B.C.'s history in
the Vancouver Sun. "That milestone
resulted from years of painstaking
planning, intense teamwork, attentive
relationship building and significant
funding, all of it with one goal:
improving the health of British
Columbia."
Michael Byers suggested Canada
stop exporting subsidized bitumen
in an effort to speed the transition to
alternative energies in the Globe and
Mail. "It would also place Canada on
the right side of history."
Maxwell Cameron provided context
and background about the presidential
election in Peru to the Financial Times.
"Peru has a long way to go before it
becomes a stable democracy with good
governance and laws."
Jon Beasley-Murray wrote an
eye-witness account ofthe Stanley
Cup riot for The Tyee. "It's easier to
grab this moral high ground... than to
stop and consider the ways in which
violence is engrained in this sport on
whose bandwagon they are hitched,
or the conditions that gave rise to the
post-game disturbances."
UBC Reports will be on
hiatus in August. We will
publish our next edition
in September.
Hairy vetch hardly sounds like
something that will help tomatoes
taste more like summer and sunshine.
Yet, researchers at the Faculty of Land
and Food Systems (LFS) are discovering
that a green manure like hairy vetch
- a cover crop which enriches the soil
- along with other organic fertilizers
can substantially boost tomato plant
performance. And when coupled
with hoop house production, local
tomato growers may have a winning
combination for commercial production.
LFS graduate student Greg Rekken
and Assoc. Prof. Andrew Riseman aim
to support the groundswell of interest
in family and small-scale farming.
"However, the high price of land and
equipment present substantial barriers
to entry," says Rekken, who is earning a
master's degree in plant science.
But the answer may lie in hoop houses,
which are fairly simple and cheap to
build, Rekken says. "Basically, it's a
frame made from metal or PVC piping
bent into semi circles that's covered
with plastic."
The protected environment of a
hoop house would maintain ideal
tomato-growing temperatures of
around 17 degrees Celsius overnight and
23-27 degrees Celsius during the day.
The other part ofthe equation is a
nutrient management system using
a range of local and farm-derived
fertilizers compatible with organic
standards, explains Riseman, who
studies plant genetics and efficient use
of nutrients and intercrop interaction
for sustainable production.
Along with hairy vetch, the study is
evaluating composted poultry manure
and a kelp-based liquid fertilizer.
"Our preliminary results show that
"Bigger leaves mean
more photosynthesis
which in turn diverts
more energy and
sugar into the
tomatoes."
these sustainable fertilizers can
produce high-quality tomatoes in
sufficient quantities to be economically
viable," says Riseman.
He points out that tomatoes are a
high-value crop in great demand, "but
tastes best when grown close to where
it's consumed."
But that is not always possible.
Tomato plants need hot, sunny weather.
Given the months of damp and rain
along B.C.'s coast and other regions,
tomatoes are often vulnerable to blight.
And while vine-ripened tomatoes are
readily available in most supermarkets, most are produced in hothouses,
which commonly use a sawdust growing
medium rather than soil.
"To many consumers," says
Riseman, "the tomato has become the
embodiment of a food system that has
lost its flavour."
Some blame the widespread use of
conventional fertilizers, he says, for
today's pallid, pulpy tomatoes. "As well,
if tomatoes are being shipped a long
distance, say from California, they're
picked green and treated with ethylene
gas to hasten ripening."
In addition, modern agriculture often
seeks answers in genetic engineering.
The bio-tech solution for enhancing
crops is to insert a gene that changes
the tomato plants' metabolic pathways.
However, low-tech works equally well
if not better, argues Riseman. "What
the green manure does is give you a
tomato that has the same qualities
of an engineered plant without the
engineering."
Organic fertilizers enrich the soil with
nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus,
potassium and calcium, promoting
strong healthy growth and larger leaves
that last longer.
"Bigger leaves mean more photosynthesis which in turn diverts more
energy and sugar into the tomatoes,"
explains Riseman.
The study's next steps will be to
conduct additional analyses on fruit
traits including sugar and protein
content as well as total soluble solids. •
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia   July 2011 Putting students
to work
Close to 500 students get summer jobs
at UBC through Work Study and Work
Learn Programs
By Heather Amos
Last year UBC student Alexis Kho spent her summer working at a Dairy Queen and
Orange Julius shop in Vancouver. Although she learned a lot from her customer
service role, the work wasn't all that related to her degree or future career plans.
Kho, a student in the Natural Resources Conservation program in the Faculty of
Forestry, hopes to help plan environmental reclamation projects when she graduates.
"Finding work relevant to what you're studying is hard without experience or
personal connections," says Kho.
This summer Kho is the Online Education Assistant at UBC's Botanical Garden, a
job she landed through the Work Study program offered by UBC's Career Services. In
this role Kho will use her background in biology and ecology and will learn how to
explain complex information about plants and gardening to the public.
"This job will give me some experience that I think will really help later on," she
says.
Kho is one of about 500 students at UBC who will spend their summer working
at the university through the Work Study and Work Learn programs. The programs
create jobs on campus by subsidizing the wages of students. Departments or
professors hiring students receive $9 an hour to put towards the student's salary.
"The programs were developed to provide students with some much needed
income while they are in school but it also means students are getting involved
and contributing to the university's programs and research," says Tahirih Walsh,
coordinator for the Work Learn program at UBC Career Services.
Work Study and Work Learn are among the largest wage subsidy programs for
students in Canada.
"We get to employ enthusiastic students who
bring energy, skills and fresh perspectives..."
"By giving students the option of working at the university, we're ensuring that
their jobs are contributing to their learning experience at UBC," says Walsh.
Between the Vancouver and Okanagan campuses, more than 3,000 students
participate in UBC's Work Study and Work Learn programs during the summer and
school year. Work Study was developed in the 1990s for Canadian or permanent
resident students and Work Learn was launched in 2006 to provide additional
employment opportunities for international undergraduate students - without the
extra hassel of applying for an off-campus work permit.
"Work Study students have to be taking classes to take part in the program but
there is a cap on the number of hours students can work each week and many jobs
offer flexible work schedules," says Walsh. "We want students to have a positive
experience and we don't want them sacrificing school for work."
Kho had hoped to find a co-op position this summer but unfortunately had no luck.
She enrolled in two elective classes and looked for other job opportunities.
"I really wanted to spend this summer doing something relevant to what I'm
studying," says Kho, who was impressed by the broad range of positions available
through Work Study.
"The programs are a real win-win for the Botanical Garden," says Daniel Mosquin,
research manager at UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research and Kho's
supervisor. "We get to employ enthusiastic students who bring energy, skills and
fresh perspectives to the Garden and they get an opportunity to work toward their
goals and learn from the experience and knowledge of our staff."
One of Kho's favourite tasks at the Botanical Gardens is to select a plant to
highlight for the Botany Photo of the Day blog. She takes or finds a photo of an
interesting plant, researches it and then blogs about it. Kho also manages an online
forum where she answers questions from the public about plants and gardening.
"I have to respond right away but I also have to make things simple," says Kho. "I've
never been in this type of position and I'm learning new skills and working in a new
environment. Without this opportunity I would feel pretty lost." •
Summer camps:
offerings include
novel options like
health and technology
summer
By Brian Kladko
The lazy days of summer - time for selling lemonade on the sidewalk, watching
Canadians games at Nat Bailey Stadium, hanging around the pool, and... learning
about health technology?
Yes, that's right - "eHealth" is on the agenda for 50 curious teens this summer,
thanks to a new UBC summer camp that will showcase how information technology
is transforming health care and will encourage participants to become part of that
transformation.
The eHealth Young Innovators Summer Camp will take place mostly on UBC's
Vancouver campus in two week-long sessions, one in July and the other in August,
organized by the eHealth Strategy Office ofthe Faculty of Medicine.
The camp was the brainchild of Kendall Ho, Director ofthe eHealth Strategy Office
and an associate professor of emergency medicine. He noticed that young people
have been conspicuously absent from public forums organized by his group over the
past two years on subjects such as diabetes and heart disease.
"When you don't need health services, and you're not sick, you don't think about
it," Dr. Ho says. "But we know kids like technology. And they have the ideas about the
next generation of technology that might elude their elders - including me."
Thanks to financial support from Telus, the summer camp became a reality, with
three core goals: introducing young people to various health career tracks, eliciting
ideas from them about new eHealth applications, and encouraging healthy practices
- especially diet and exercise - by the participants.
"This really made sense for us," says Preet Dhillon, marketing director for Telus'
if
consumer health division, which is piloting a couple of
products in the eHealth realm, including online personal
health records and an iPhone app that helps people with
diabetes manage their condition. "We want to make sure that
there is a pipeline of bright, motivated young teens who can
make the most ofthe technological revolution in health care."
I'm hoping to get a behind-the-
scenes look at the health care
field" said Bavenjit Cheema.
Registration opened April 20, and filled up by early June,
with some teens coming from as far away as Smithers and Pitt
Meadows.
"I'm hoping to get a behind-the-scenes look at the health
care field, something you can't usually get as a 16- or
17-year-old," says Bavenjit Cheema, who is entering her final
year at Crofton House School in Vancouver, and is thinking of
becoming a pediatrician.
Activities during the week include: career discussions with
professionals working in the health field; touring a virtual
hospital and escorting a patient to an MRI in the multi-user
online platform "Second Life;" and field trips to the Telus
Innovation Centre in downtown Vancouver and the Centre of
Excellence for Simulation Education and Innovation (CESEI),
a high-tech classroom for health professions students at
Vancouver General Hospital.
Campers will also team up to create a health-related
smartphone application. On the final afternoon of each camp,
students will demonstrate their programs.
But, like any camp, there will also be time for outdoor play -
but even then, technological components, including heart rate
monitors and pedometers, will be integrated with the activity.
One ofthe camp instructors, Francisco Grajales, a UBC
graduate student in eHealth and health services research,
gained his appreciation for eHealth while learning to use
simulation technology as an Army medic.
"I wish I could have had an opportunity like this in
high school," Grajales says. "And seeing how quickly the
registration filled up makes me even more passionate about
the future of eHealth." •
When summer hits UBC's Vancouver
and Okanagan campuses a much
younger crowd takes over. Youth of all
ages come to UBC to take part in
summer camps of all kinds from sport
camps to farm camp to physics camp:
VANCOUVER CAMPUS
UBC Camps offers youth aged 2 to 18
programs in sport, adventure, leadership,
music, art, theatre and more. New this
year: Nature Studio, a camp where
participants will get creative outside and
explore the wonderful world of natural
a rts. www. camps, ubc.ca/index-camps.php
Young Explorer Summer Camps is a
weeklong environmental and recreational
adventure camp for children aged 7-11
at Canada's oldest continually operating
university botanical garden.www.
botanicalgarden.ubc.ca/summer-camps
Farm Wonders summer camps offer an
innovative, educational program that
allows children to explore the wonders of
science at the farm and discover the
mysteries of the food they eat.
farmwonders.ca/
UBC Physics Outreach Summer Camps
are for children in Grades 2-10 who
enjoy building things and learning new
cool science stuff! Come build planes, go
SCUBA diving, learn the physics of
sound, or build a Martian habitat.
outreach.phas.ubc.ca/SummerCamps/
GEERing Up! offers week-long
engineering, science and technology
themed camps for children in Grades 2 -
10. For one week this summer, GEERing
Up! is offering Girls Only! camps, www.
geeringup.apsc. ubc. ca
TechTrek Summer Camps - Campers will
take computers to a whole new level,
learning how to create cell phone apps,
design games, program robots and more.
www.techtrek.ca
Gymnastics Camp - Children aged 4-12
will enjoy a week filled with gymnastics
activities and games, arts and crafts,
water fun, and special events such as
swimming, www.hkin.educ.ubc.ca/
gymnastics/UBC_Gymnastics/gymnastics_
camps, htm
CampOUT! is an empowering outdoor
summer camp for queer, trans,
two-spirit, questioning, and allied youth
aged 14-21 from across British Columbia
and the Yukon, campout.ubc.ca
Emerging Scholars summer camp Pacific
Institute for the Mathematical Sciences
and the UBC Longhouse are collaborating
to run a five-week camp for 24 First
Nations students aged 16 to 18, who will
take English and math courses and work
with members of the university,
community, www.pims.math.ca/
educational-event/110705-eassc
okanagan campus
U Camp offers themed week-long activity
camps at UBC's Okanagan campus.
Camps include: Mini U, Kreative Kids,
Multi-Sports, UBC Survivor and The
Power of Being a Girl, www.ubc.ca/
okanagan/athletics/events/camps.html
Heat Athletics' sports camps at the
Okanagan campus gives campers the
opportunity to enhance their athletic
skills in a fun and exciting way. www.ubc.
ca/okanagan/athletics/events/camps.html
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia   July 2011 VANCOUVER SCHOOL OF THEOLOGY SUMMER PROGRAM 2011
rSUMMER PUBLIC LECTURES
Vancouver School of Theology
Join us for stimulating & thought-provoking conversations
with leading theologians & religious thinkers
Sunday, July 17, 7 pm
Dr. Thomas Long
PREACHING CHANGES ITS
MIND: THE SHIFT FROM
"NARRATIVE" TO "WISDOM"
Location: West Point Grey
Presbyterian Church
4397 West 12th Avenue
Sunday, July 21,7 pm
Dr. Kathleen Deignan, CDN
Co-sponsored with the Thomas
Merton Society of Canada
LOVE FORTHE PARADISE
MYSTERY: THOMAS MERTON,
CONTEMPLATIVE ECOLOGIST
Location: VST's Chapel ofthe Epiphany
6030 Chancellor Blvd [UBC campus)
Pre-lecture reception, 5:30 pm, VST Library
Making green roofs greener
Engineers at UBC's Okanagan campus develop
construction process with global potential
By Darren Handschuh
a place of mind
THE  UNIVERSITYOF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
THE EQUITY OFFICE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sage
Fine Dining on Campus
Sustainable menu featuring local and organic produce
from UBC Farm &[ Ocean Wise seafood.
www.sage.ubc.ca
the
A fully licensed restaurant with an upscale casual
dining atmosphere on the south side of campus.
Patio Season + Summer Menu = FUN!
HOURS:
Monday - Friday
To Co Counter: 9:30am - 10:00pm
Restaurant: 11:00am - 10:00pm
Located at 2205 Lower Mall, Marine Drive Residence, Building #4      {_)
For hours of operation visit www.food.ubc.ca services
0$C $Iaekercy Eest
July 19 - 23 I 9am - ipm
at the UBC Bookstore Plaza
(University Boulevard & East Mall)
f£KTpA*4-
Pancake Breakfast
Local Blueberries by the Case
UBC Farm Campus Market
Live Entertainment
Also featuring BC blueberry muffins &. scones from Swirls(baked on campus)
Blueberry Creme Brulee, Free recipes, and more...
Presented by UBC Food Services in partnership with UBC Bookstore
www.food.ubc.ca ,#==;.
o
UBC's Okanagan campus School of Engineering Assist. Prof. Kasum Hewage, left, and Civil Engineering MASc student
Fabricio Bianchini are conducting tests to see what discarded building materials are best suited to be used in green roofs
'     :>   .A
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Prof. Kasum Hewage and Civil Engineering MASc student
Fabricio Bianchini are taking a good idea and making it better,
perhaps spawning a new construction technology for use in
arid countries worldwide.
Since last fall, the assistant professor of Project and
Construction Management at UBC's Okanagan campus School
of Engineering has been looking at ways to make green roofs
even more environmentally friendly by using construction
waste.
Green roofs - where plants are grown on specially designed
matting - are no longer a novel idea. But there is room for
improvement, and Hewage and Bianchini are looking at
recycling waste building materials to form the base layers of a
green roof.
Currently, materials for the layers are made out of plastic.
While the lifespan of a manufactured green roof is about 50
years, it takes 25 years to compensate for the environmental
damage caused from making the plastics contained in the roof
layering material.
Hewage and Bianchini are searching for the best type of
construction waste to reduce the amount of plastic used in
green-roof material. Utilizing construction waste also reduces
the amount of material dumped in local landfills.
Green roofs act as an insulator, meaning less energy is
needed to heat a building in the winter and cool it in the
summer.
"Plants regulate temperatures on Earth, so we are trying to
apply that to buildings," said Bianchini.
But finding the best material is not the only challenge.
Hewage said the material must not be too heavy - plastic is
light, thus making it a popular material - and it must not be
too expensive to integrate into a building.
Construction projects produce many types of waste virtually
from day one. Hewage said once a type of waste is identified as
the optimum material, it can be stored and used at the end of
the construction project for green roof applications.
The project began last year, and Bianchini is monitoring
several green-roof plant beds on campus that were donated
by green-roof manufacturing company, Xeroflor, which has
taken an active interest in the project. Bianchini will compare
the results ofthe manufactured material against a green roof
he constructed using discarded, crushed concrete as drainage
material.
One ofthe key elements Bianchini will monitor is water
runoff to see if contamination occurs from the construction
waste.
"We want to use runoff water
for irrigation, but if the water is
contaminated, then it is no good," said
Bianchini, adding when a suitable
material is found, not only will that
mean less landfill waste, but water
consumption will also be reduced.
The Okanagan climate also plays a
role in the research. Research shows
what works in Vancouver or Toronto
may not necessarily work in more arid
climates, so areas with similar climates
around the world will benefit from the
research being conducted at UBC, says
Hewage.
Bianchini will monitor the progress
and results ofthe experiment for a
full year, but both he and Hewage see
possibilities for the research that could
last for eons.
"Down the road, in many places we
could install green roofs on buildings,"
said Hewage. "Think of all the energy
we are wasting. Ifyou have a green roof,
how much can you save?"
For instance, in another application,
Bianchini said there are schools in
the United States where students are
growing vegetables on green roofs.
"With the support ofthe AVP
Administration and Finance, the green
roof project is one ofthe many ways we
are enabling sustainability on campus,"
said Leanne Bilodeau, Director,
Sustainability Operations. She adds
that the new Engineering, Management
and Education Building and Health
Sciences Centre at UBC's Okanagan
campus both incorporate green-roof
technology and will be integrated into
the campus' district energy geothermal
system to reduce energy consumption
and greenhouse gas emissions. •
The Equity Office envisions a community in which human rights are respected and equity is embedded
in all areas of academic, work and campus life. Through its leadership, vision and collaborative action,
the Equity Office will further UBC's commitment to excellence, equity and mutual respect.
DISCRIMINATION AND HARASSMENT REPORT 2010
POLICY OVERVIEW
The fundamental objectives of UBC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment (Policy 3) are to
prevent discrimination and harassment on grounds protected by the BC Human Rights Code and
to provide procedures for handling complaints and remedying concerns when allegations of human
rights based discrimination and harassment arise. The Policy covers all members of the university
community (students, staff and faculty) in areas pertaining to University work, studies, service
provision or participation in campus life.  The 13 grounds of prohibited discrimination are:
Age (19 and older)
Ancestry
Colour
Family status
Marital status
Physical or mental disability
Place of origin
Political belief (in the context of employment only)
Race
Religion
Sex (which includes sexual harassment, pregnancy and gender identity/expression)
Sexual orientation
Unrelated criminal conviction (in the context of employment only)
The Policy identifies a primary role for Administrative Heads of Units in creating and maintaining
an environment free from discrimination and harassment and, as such, they have the authority and
responsibility to address such concerns. The responsibility to manage complaints of discrimination
and harassment is shared by UBC's Equity Office at UBC Vancouver and UBC Okanagan. Often
Administrative Heads of Units work in conjunction with our offices to address and remedy
concerns. The following data pertains only to concerns brought to the attention of the Equity
Office. Concerns brought directly to an Administrative Head of Unit or managed elsewhere
in the University without assistance from the Equity Office are not reflected in this annual report.
For more information about our offices, staffing, educational initiatives and the Policy itself,
please see our websites at www.equity.ubc.ca and http://web.ubc.ca/okanagan/equity.
COMPLAINTS RECEIVED IN 2009
In 2010, 87 concerns were brought to the Equity Office, Vancouver campus. Of these, 60 involved
a human rights related allegation and 27 involved an allegation in which no human rights based
element was cited. These figures are consistent with 2009 numbers1.
In 2010, 18 concerns were brought to the Equity Office on the Okanagan campus. Of these, 15
involved a human rights related allegation and 3 involved an allegation in which no human rights
based element was cited. This total figure is lower than 2009 numbers.
TABLE 1: TOTAL CONCERNS BROUGHT TO THE EQUITY OFFICE
VANCOUVER
OKANAGAN
Non Human Rights Related
27
3
Human Rights Related
60
15
TOTAL
87
18
Non human rights related concerns are those that do not involve any prohibited grounds of
discrimination or harassment, as defined by law. Instead the concerns may involve interpersonal
conflict, bullying or personal harassment, service-related complaints, perceived violations of
employment contracts, cyber-related conduct (cyber-bullying, unwanted emails etc) and concerns
in which an Equity Advisor has not been given enough information about the specific nature of
a concern to assess whether or not it could be human rights related. These concerns may involve
allegations of abuse of power, unethical behaviour, concerns about administrative or educational
fairness, interpersonal disputes, disruptive behaviour or issues of campus and personal safety.
Tables 2A and 2B outline the type of non human rights related concerns brought to both Equity
Offices in 2010 and the context in which these concerns arose. As with previous years, allegations
of bullying/personal harassment and interpersonal conflict made up the majority of the non human
rights based concerns on both campuses.
WHAT IS THE UBC RESPECTFUL ENVIRONMENT STATEMENT?
In July 2008, the UBC Executive approved the UBC Statement on Respectful Environment for Students, Staff
and Faculty. This document offers insight into what a respectful environment for working, living and learning
at UBC should-and should not-look like. It offers a description of appropriate conduct, of inappropriate
conduct (namely, personal harassment) and mechanisms for addressing respectful environment concerns at
UBC. Specifically, it identifies those who exercise supervisory responsibility or leadership roles on campus as
having the primary responsibility for remedying these concerns. Each Vice President, in cooperation with
Human Resources, is responsible for ensuring that those in supervisory or leadership roles have the training
and skill development to serve in this capacity.
In the Equity Office, we are starting to see that the number of personal harassment concerns
brought to our office are decreasing as more people become aware of the UBC Statement on Respectful
Environment for Students, Staff and Faculty. To learn more about UBC's commitment to a Respectful
Environment for all its community members, please see http://www.hr.ubc.ca/respectful-environment/
files/2010/09/UBC_Respectful_Environment_Statement.pdf and http://www.hr.ubc.ca/respectful_enviro/
index.html.
TABtE 2A: DESCRIPTION OF TYPE AND CONTEXT OF NON HUMAN RIGHTS REtATED CONCERNS
- VANCOUVER (N =27)
VANCOUVER
Academics
Employment
Residence
Club
UBC Service
Non-UBC
TOTAL
Interpersonal Conflict
7
6
1
14
Bullying/Personal Harassment
2
4
1
7
Service Related Concern
5
5
Terms & Conditions of Employment
1
1
Cyber-Related Conduct
0
Not Specified
0
TOTAL
14
11
0
2
0
0
27
TABLE 2B: DESCRIPTION OF TYPE AND CONTEXT OF NON HUMAN RIGHTS RELATED CONCERNS
- OKANAGAN (N=3)
OKANAGAN
Academics
Employment
Residence
Club
UBC Service
Non-UBC
TOTAL
Interpersonal Conflict
1
1
Bullying/Personal Harassment
0
Service Related Concern
1
1
Terms & Conditions of Employment
0
Cyber-Related Conduct
0
Not Specified
1
1
TOTAL
0
1
1
0
0
1
3
As non human rights related concerns do not fall under the mandate of the Policy on
Discrimination and Harassment, we do not see these concerns through to resolution. However,
we do try to provide the parties who have approached the Equity Office with information and
guidance to help them find resolution to their concern through referrals to other departments or
non-university agencies and/or information about other university policies. We may also work
with other university departments to create plans or offer tips on safety-related issues. The most
common non human rights related concerns that come to our offices involve university policies
such as Student Non-Academic Misconduct, union or employee association grievances and the
UBC Statement on Respectful Environment for Students, Faculty and Staff.
1    For 2009 and earlier data for both campuses, please see the Reports section on our website, www.equity.ubc.ca.
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia   July 2011 Table 3 provides a broad look at the human rights related concerns that were brought to the
Equity Office in 2010. On both campuses, human rights related concerns are approached in one
of three ways; as a consultation from a third party (someone not directly involved as a party to the
concern); as a consultation from a person directly involved in the concern (direct consultation);
and as a case from parties directly involved or from Administrative Heads of Units where
permission to proceed with an informal or formal case management process has been granted. Of
course, sometimes a concern which started as a consultation turns into a case, or vice versa. The
data in this report reflects not in which stream (consultation or case) a concern started, but where
it concluded.
TABLE 3: HUMAN RIGHTS RELATED CONCERNS BY FILE TYPE
TYPE OF FILE
VANCOUVER (N =
=60)
OKANAGAN (N=15)
Third Party Consultation
11
6
Direct Consultation
38
9
Case
11
0
TOTAL
60
15
DIRECT CONSULTATION? WHAT'S THE BENEFIT TO ME? A COMPLAINANT'S PERSPECTIVE
Although both complainants and respondents are welcome to consult with an Equity Advisor, in the direct
consultation stage, it is usually the complainant who approaches our office. A direct consultation for a
complainant (or respondent) can be beneficial for many reasons. It can:
• Give you a place to talk in private about what you're experiencing
• Help you explore a range of options to address your concern. This may include self-advocacy tips,
advice on other university policies and procedures, options outside of the university and referrals to
community and campus resources for additional safety and support
• Help you understand if your concern is a human rights issue
• Help you learn about UBC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment anA its complaint resolution
procedures before you decide whether or not you wish to make an official complaint
• Let you know how much time you have to bring forward your concern, especially ifyou are not yet
ready to proceed
All members of the university community are free to consult with an Equity Advisor at any time.
Call 604-822-6353 (Vancouver) or 250.807.9291 (Okanagan) to set up an appointment.
The ability to consult before, or sometimes instead of, initiating the complaint procedures in the
Policy on Discrimination and Harassment is an important part of the work of Equity Advisors
on both campuses. People may consult with us for a variety of reasons. Third party consultations
or direct consultations may involve allegations which are premature in nature or are outside the
jurisdiction of the Policy because they involve non-UBC parties, contexts or are outside the twelve
month time limit for making a complaint. They may also involve concerns which would otherwise
fall under the Policy but for which the complainant has not given us permission to proceed1 with
case management procedures. Consultations may involve people who are looking for advice or
assistance in managing a concern on their own or in advocating for someone else. People who are
directly impacted by discrimination and harassment may also want to get a better sense of what to
expect in a case management process before they make the decision to pursue that path or not.
Consultations can also be preventative in scope. For example, these may include issues in which
someone would likely face a barrier to service or a harassing situation in the future, were a timely
accommodation not made or other preventative steps not taken. Assistance in getting the required
accommodation or in removing or overcoming this barrier before a denial of access or harassing
comment or conduct has been made may result from the consultation.
Lastly, Administrative Heads of Units (or others in a supervisory capacity) often call the Equity
Office for advice on how to address a situation in their unit. When no direct intervention is
required from our office, as the Administrative Head of Unit is prepared to handle the concern
directly, this is also counted as a third party consultation.  Although a direct or third party
consultation does not proceed through the case management procedures provided for in the policy,
assistance given at this stage may range from a single meeting up to months of time and effort on
the part of the Equity Office. We welcome consultations from all members of the UBC community.
CONSULTATION: WHAT'S THE BENEFIT TO ME? AN ADMINISTRATIVE HEAD'S PERSPECTIVE
Equity Advisors are available to consult with Administrative Heads, and others acting in a supervisory
capacity, at any stage of a complaint. We can offer advice on preventative approaches; how to address
a concern expeditiously to prevent escalation of issues; how to ensure fair process for all parties during a
complaint resolution process; tips for working with complainants and respondents; options for remedial
resolution and so on. What's the benefit to consultation? Equity Advisors can work with Heads in a
consultative capacity to:
• Co-manage a concern
• Help guide the complaint resolution process
• Facilitate or prepare for meetings with parties to a concern
• Avoid pitfalls and common mistakes
• Help find creative resolution options at the informal stage
• Ensure the process moves in a fair and timely manner
• Be a sounding board on which to bounce your ideas
• Further your knowledge of the University's and Heads' obligations under
U BC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment
Those who are concerned that they may have transgressed the Policy are welcome to consult with
an Equity Advisor. However, it tends to mainly be Administrative Heads, potential complainants,
those acting on another person's behalf and persons for whom the policy holds no jurisdiction (i.e.
non-UBC community members or non-UBC contexts) that consult with the Equity Office most often.
Tables 9A, 9B and 10 provide a more detailed profile of who approached the Equity Office in 2010.
UBC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment applies in most areas of university life. Exceptions
to this include incidents which involve someone who is not a member of the university community
(i.e. someone who is not a UBC student, staff or faculty member) or where the allegations occurred
outside of the university context. Tables 4A and 4B outline the employment, housing or service-
related context of the human rights based concerns brought to the Equity Office in 2010. These
allegations arose in academic, employment, residence, athletics/recreation/club, UBC service or non-
UBC environments. Again, academics and employment are the contexts in which most allegations
arise. This is consistent with data from previous years.
TABLE 4A: CONTEXT OF HUMAN RIGHTS RELATED CONCERNS - VANCOUVER
TABLE 7A: BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS - INTERPERSONAL
VANCOUVER
3rd Party
Direct Consi
jits
Cases
TOTAL
Academics
9
17
6
32
Employment
2
17
4
23
Residence
1
1
Ath/Rec/Club
1
1
UBC Service
0
Non-UBC
3
3
TOTAL
11
38
11
60
TABLE 4B: CONTEXT OF HUMAN RIGHTS RELATED CONCERNS - OKANAGAN
OKANAGAN
3 re
I Party
Direct Consults
Cases
TOTAL
Academics
3
4
7
Employment
1
3
4
Residence
0
Ath/Rec/Club
0
UBC Service
1
1
Non-UBC
1
2
3
TOTAL
6
9
0
15
When a complaint becomes a case in the Equity Office, the informal or formal process is initiated
and both complainants and respondents are engaged in the process. Equity Advisors play a
neutral role; that is they do not advocate for either party. All parties to a concern are given the
opportunity to share their concerns and to respond to the allegations raised by the other party.
There are 13 grounds of prohibited discrimination in the BC Human Rights Code and,
consequently, in UBC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment. Concerns brought to the Equity
Office must engage one or more of these grounds to be considered human rights related.
TABLE 5: GROUNDS OF PROHIBITED DISCRIMINATION: ALLEGED
VANCOUVER
VANCOUVER(N=
= 60)
OKANAGAN (N=15)
Age
Ancestry
2
1
Colour
1
1
Family Status
5
1
Marital Status
1
Physical or Mental Disability
18
3
Place of Origin
4
2
Political Belief
Race
10
Religion
5
1
Sex/Gender
34
7
Sexual Orientation
7
3
Unrelated Criminal Conviction
TOTAL
87
19
Table 5 displays the grounds of prohibited discrimination alleged in the human rights based
consultations and cases brought to the Equity Office in 2010. The total number of grounds is
greater than the total number of human rights based concerns because some of these concerns
allege a single ground, while others include multiple or intersectional grounds within a single
concern.
As with previous years, concerns which include a sex/gender allegation are most frequently
reported to the Equity Office on both campuses. This is followed by concerns related to physical or
mental disability and race on the Vancouver campus and physical or mental disability and sexual
orientation at UBC Okanagan.
2    Why do we needpermission to proceed'with a case}'The UBC Policy on Discrimination and Harassment, like the BC Human Rights Code, is a complaint-driven process. Unless the concern is of such a serious nature that it poses
a substantial threat to an individual, group or to the University (for example, serious allegations involving sexual or physical violence, or threats thereof), the Equity Office will not proceed with a case without permission from the
complainant to do so. This allows persons who have concerns about harassment to approach the Equity Office in confidence to discuss their concern and explore available options before they decide whether or not they wish to initiate
procedures under Policy 3. In this Policy, Administrative Heads of Unit have a responsibility to maintain a discrimination and harassment-free environment and can work to address concerns in their departments, even in the absence of a
specific complaint. Thus permission to proceed is not required by Administrative Heads of Unit in the same manner as it is by Equity Advisors.
DISCRIMINATION AND HARASSMENT: WHAT MIGHT THESE CONCERNS LOOK LIKE?
For reasons of confidentiality, we cannot discuss details of actual concerns brought to the Equity Office. The
examples below offer a summary illustration of the types of circumstances that may bring someone to our
office and the approach we could take to reach resolution.
Dr. A, a research associate, approaches the Equity Office with a concern about how he is treated in his
department. He says that he gets all the "difficult" studies to run in the lab, including those which require a
significant amount of time outside of normal working hours. Other people who work in the lab are not asked
to do the experiments which require overnight or round the clock observation. Dr A is not compensated
for the additional hours worked, which have been extraordinary. When he tried to address this with his
supervisor, the supervisor responded that "I hired you because you people are hard workers and don't
complain. I prefer to hire people from your home country because you're happy to have a job and will do
whatever I ask. Ifyou don't want to work for me, I can find someone else who will." The Equity Advisor
met with the complainant and respondent to hear all sides of the concern. The respondent acknowledged
differential assignment of duties across the staff and acknowledged making the above statements, but said
that they were meant to be encouraging, not disparaging. The Equity Advisor discussed how this concern
was in violation of the UBC Policy on Discrimination and Harassment on the grounds of place of origin and
race. Remedial options were explored. In addition, the Equity Advisor liaised with Human Resources who
addressed employment standards issues and compensation.
An Administrative Head of Unit from a small unit called to consult with an Equity Advisor about the
University's duty to accommodate a faculty member with a disability. The faculty member has disclosed that
she has diabetes and is losing her sight. The department wants to be able to help her, but is concerned about
the cost of accommodations. The nature of the accommodations sought includes restructured job duties
and adaptive computer software and hardware. The Equity Advisor discusses the duty to accommodate to
the point of undue hardship and the role of the employee, employer and faculty association in the process
of accommodation. The Equity Advisor also refers the Administrative Head of Unit to the Equipment
Accommodation Fund for Employees with Disabilities.
Two students approach the Equity Office with a concern about the way they are treated by a teaching
assistant. They report that the TA "yells and screams" at a handful of the students in tutorial, makes
disparaging comments about the quality of their work in front of others and mocks them when they get
an answer wrong. The two students also allege that the TA makes repeated disparaging comments about
women's role in their traditionally male dominated field of study. The Equity Advisor discusses their concerns
in depth and learns that they are the only two women in the tutorial. Comments about women's suitability
in the field tend to be voiced when these women speak up in tutorial. The Equity Advisor works with the
Administrative Head of Unit to address the concern. The students are moved to another tutorial section, at
their request, and the department head mandates coaching and reassigned duties for the TA. The students
are also informed ofthe UBC Respectful Environments Statement anA referred to the UBC Ombuds Office
(Vancouver) and Counselling Services for assistance.
As explained above, human rights related allegations cited in direct consultations do not engage the
Equity Office's case management procedures. Table 6 shows the reasons why a direct consultation
did not proceed to a case in 2010. With the smaller number of direct consults at UBC Okanagan,
there is a danger of over-interpreting the significance of the data. However, with most of these
direct consultations at UBC Vancouver's Equity Office, they did not proceed to a case because the
UBC Policy on Discrimination and Harassment did not apply to the situation. These may have
been concerns where the complaint was premature; where one or more of the parties were not
members of the University community; where the alleged discriminatory conduct happened outside
of the UBC context; or where the allegation brought to the Equity Office was past the time limits
for making a complaint. The time limit established in the Policy is twelve months from the incident
or last incident in a series of incidents. This is a departure from the BC Human Rights Code which
has a six month time limit. However, in the University setting where many courses are eight months
in duration and students may not feel safe or comfortable bringing forward a concern until the
course has finished and grades have been submitted, the twelve month time limit for the UBC
Policy is prudent.
In 26% of the concerns at UBC Vancouver, the complainant did not give us permission to proceed
with a case. Like the BC Human Rights Code, UBC's Policy is complaint-driven. Unless the
allegations of discrimination or harassment are very serious in nature - for example, ones with
potential consequences that threaten the safety or lives of individuals, units or the University -
the complainant has the right to withhold consent to proceed with an allegation through case
management procedures. This provision is in place to allow members of the University community
to consult with the Equity Office before they make an informed decision to proceed, or not,
with a case under the Policy,    (see footnote 2, "why do we need permission to proceed with a
complaint?"). Complaints also did not proceed to a case in 21% of the direct consults because the
concern was being managed in a different process.
TABLE 6: DIRECT CONSULTATIONS NOT PROCEEDING TO CASES
DIRECT CONSULT NOT PROCEEDING
VANCOUVER (N =
=38)
OKANAGAN(N=9)
Non UBC context/party/timeline
14
3
Complainant does not wish to proceed
10
1
Premature/Preventative
6
2
Proceeding in a different process
8
3
TOTAL
38
9
Table 7A offers a description of the interpersonal behaviours that were alleged in the 42 of 60
human rights related direct consultations and cases (excluding third party consultations) at
UBC Vancouver's Equity Office and 14 of 15 human rights related direct consultations at UBC
Okanagan. Some of these concerns involved a single type of behaviour, where others involved two
or more behaviours, and thus the total number of behaviours exceeds the number of human rights
related files included on this chart. Consistent with data from previous years, unwelcome verbal
behaviour (insults, slurs, inappropriate jokes or innuendo) was cited most often on both campuses.
Allegations of biased employment decisions and unwelcome written or visual behaviour (email,
graffiti, videos, letters etc) were also often cited.
TYPE OF INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR
ALLEGED
NUMBER OF CONCERNS IN WHICH BEHAVIOUR WAS CITED
VANCOUVER (N=42)                 OKANAGAN (N=14)
Unwelcome Verbal Behaviour
24
5
Unwelcome written or Visual Behaviour
9
5
Unwelcome Physical Attention
6
2
Stalking
2
Threats                                                                                           1                                                   1
Assault                                                                                                                                               1
Retaliation
2
Biased Academic Decisions
7
Biased Employment Decisions
11
1
Exclusion or Denial of Access
4
3
Fear of Future Behaviour
2
1
TOTAL
68
19
TABLE 7B: BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS - SYSTEMIC
TYPE OF SYSTEMIC
BEHAVIOUR ALLEGED
NUMBER OF CONCERNS IN WHICH BEHAVIOUR WAS CITED
VANCOUVER (N=18)                 OKANAGAN (N=1)
Policies and Practices
7
Curriculum
Environment
11                                                       1
TOTAL
18                                                      1
At UBC Vancouver's Equity Office, 18 of the 60 human rights related direct consultations and
cases involved alleged systemic barriers. There was one such concern at UBC Okanagan. Table 7B
shows the behavioural descriptions of these concerns. Environmental barriers were most often cited,
followed by systemic concerns with UBC or departmental policies and practices on the Vancouver
campus.
WHAT'S A SYSTEMIC BARRIER?
Again, for reasons of confidentiality, we cannot discuss details of actual concerns brought to the Equity
Office. However, for illustrative purposes, we offer these examples of types of systemic barriers.
POLICIES AND PRACTICES - Concerns about ways of doing things that intentionally or unintentionally
create a barrier for people on one of more grounds of prohibited discrimination. For example, using forced
choice (male/female) gender options on forms that do not allow for non-binary gender options is a systemic
barrier to gender variant people in policies and practices. Asking for "mother's and father's names" on
enrolment or financial aid documents would also be a systemic barrier as it denies the reality of same sex
headed families and single parent headed families.
CURRICULUM -Concerns about barriers to/in pedagogy, course content, course work, courses of study. An
omission, misrepresentation or suppression of avenues of scholarly inquiry that are related to human rights
related grounds. For example, a concern that the approach to teaching the history of a country excludes
the contributions of immigrants and indigenous persons could be a concern of systemic discrimination in
curriculum.
ENVIRONMENT - Concerns about aspects of the built, social or psychological environment, including
physical, communication or attitudinal barriers. For example, holding a lecture in a room that is not
wheelchair accessible or having an accessible washroom with a doorway that is not wide enough for most
wheelchairs would be environmental barriers.
Tables 8A and 8B outline the gender and position of complainants and respondents in non
human rights based consultations (n=27 Vancouver; n=2 Okanagan), human rights related direct
consultations (n=38 Vancouver; n=9 Okanagan) and human rights cases (n=ll Vancouver; n=0
Okanagan). When a person was acting in a supervisory role vis a vis the other party to a concern,
that person was counted in the administrative ("admin") category. People who are administrators
in the UBC context, but were not acting in a supervisory capacity within the concern would be
counted as staff or faculty, as applicable.
In 2010, more women at UBC Vancouver brought forward concerns as complainants than any
other group, where men and unknown respondents were cited as respondents most often. On the
Okanagan campus, women and men came in about equal numbers as complainants, though men
made up more of the respondents.
The highest proportion of complaints at UBC Vancouver was made by students (49%), although
students make up a much higher proportion of the UBC Vancouver community. Staff were
complainants in 26% of the concerns and faculty were complaints in 17% of the concerns.
Among respondents, 51%  were in the "other" category, which encompasses unknown and non-
UBC respondents, those for whom the complainant in a consultation did not know or did not
specify the respondent's position and systemic concerns that did not have a named individual as a
respondent.
At UBC Okanagan, in order of frequency, the respondents were "other" (non UBC, unknown or
not specified, as above), faculty, students and administration.
8
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia   July 2011 TABLE 8A: DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF VISITORS TO THE EQUITY OFFICE:
DIRECT CONTACT WITH PARTIES TO A CONCERN -VANCOUVER
(11 cases, 38 direct consults and 27 non human rights direct consults)
COMPLAINANT PROFILE (N=76)
GENDER:
Male
Female
Gend'
er Variant
Group
Unknown
Department
TOTAL
Case
3
7
1
11
Direct Consult
12
25
1
38
Non Human Rights Consult
10
14
3
27
TOTAL
25
46
2
0
3
0
76
COMPLAINANT PROFILE (N=76)
POSITION :
Student
Staff
Faculty
Admin
Other
TOTAL
Case
5
3
2
1
11
Direct Consult
20
12
5
1
38
Non Human Rights Consult
12
5
6
1
3
27
TOTAL
37
20
13
2
4
76
RESPONDENT PROFILE (N=76)
GENDER:
Male
Female
Gender Variant
Group
Ui
nknown
Department
TOTAL
Case
7
1
3
11
Direct Consult
13
9
1
9
6
38
Non Human Rights Consult
6
4
2
14
1
27
TOTAL
26
14
0
3
23
10
76
RESPONDENT PROFILE (N=76)
POSITION:
Student
Staff
Faculty
Admin
Other
TOTAL
Case
2
1
3
1
4
11
Direct Consult
6
5
7
1
19
38
Non Human Rights Consult
2
1
4
4
16
27
TOTAL
10
7
14
6
39
76
TABLE 8B: DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF VISITORS TO THE EQUITY OFFICE: DIRECT CONTACT WITH
PARTIES TO A CONCERN - OKANAGAN
(0 cases, 9 direct consults and 2 non human rights direct consults)
COMPLAINANT PROFILE (N=11)
GENDER:
Male
Female
Gender
Variant
Group
Unknown
Department
TOTAL
Case
0
Direct Consult
3
5
1
9
Non Human Rights Consult
1
1
2
TOTAL
4
5
0
2
0
0
11
COMPLAINANT PROFILE (N=11)
POSITION :
Student
Staff
Faculty
Admin
Other
TOTAL
Case
0
Direct Consult
5
2
2
9
Non Human Rights Consult
1
1
2
TOTAL
6
2
3
0
0
11
RESPONDENT PROFILE (N=11)
GENDER:
Male
Female
Gender
Variant
Group
Unknown
Department
TOTAL
Case
0
Direct Consult
4
2
2
1
9
Non Human Rights Consult
1
1
2
TOTAL
5
2
0
1
2
1
11
RESPONDENT PROFILE (N=11)
POSITION:
Student
Staff
Faculty
Admin
Other
TOTAL
Case
0
Direct Consult
1
3
2
3
9
Non Human Rights Consult
1
1
2
TOTAL
2
0
3
2
4
11
Table 9 illustrates the profile of people who approached the Equity Office with third party
consultations and the purpose of their contact. As the data shows, most people who approached
the Equity Office in a third party capacity were faculty members or people acting in an
administrative capacity (vis a vis one or more of the parties to a concern). These are often
Administrative Heads of Units who have been made aware of a concern in their unit and are
looking for advice about how to respond to the situation, but do not disclose much of the
detail of the concern itself. Equity Advisors are available to provide timely case management
assistance to Administrative Heads, as previously discussed. Concerns from third parties are
also often preventative in nature. That is, administrators, staff and faculty members may be
looking to address concerns in their department which are premature before they escalate into
discrimination or harassment. This category includes provision of advice on the department's duty
to accommodate its students, staff and faculty on human rights grounds.
WHAT IS THE DUTY TO ACCOMMODATE?
The Duty to Accommodate is a legal obligation to meaningfully incorporate diversity into the workforce.
Employers are expected to identify and remove barriers and eliminate or change policies and practices,
rules and behaviours that adversely impact people based on a prohibited ground of discrimination. If the
discriminatory barrier cannot be eliminated, the employer must provide accommodation, or provide alternate
arrangements to eliminate the effect of the discriminatory barrier, unless it would be an undue hardship
on the employer to do so based on factors such as health, safety or cost. The duty to accommodate is a
responsibility shared by the employee, employer and union or professional association. Although usually
referenced in regard to disability, the duty to accommodate applies to all human rights related prohibited
grounds of discrimination. Service providers have a similar duty to accommodate. For more information on
the duty to accommodate, see Creating a Respectful and Inclusive Workforce for Employers with Disabilities
at http://equity.ubc.ca/files/2010/06/creating_a_respectful_and_inclusive_workplace_for_employees_
with_disabilities.pdf.
TABLE 9: PROFILE OF VISITORS TO THE EQUITY OFFICE: THIRD PARTY CONSULTATIONS
(HUMAN RIGHTS AND NON HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS)
CONTACT INITIATED BY:
VANCOUVER(N=
=11)
OKANAGAN (N=7)
Female
6
4
Male
5
3
Gender Variant
Group
Department
TOTAL
11
7
CAPACITY:
VANCOUVER(N=
=11)
OKANAGAN (N=7)
Student                                                                                                                                           1
Staff
2
2
Faculty
5
1
Admin.
4
3
Other
TOTAL
11
7
PURPOSE:
VANCOUVER(N=
=11)
OKANAGAN (N=7)
Preventative
2
Response to allegation/incident
4
Advocacy for self/other
10
1
Discussion/information only                                                      1
TOTAL
11
7
Although no concerns at UBC Okanagan proceeded to a case through the Equity Office this year,
Table 10 outlines the outcome of the eleven cases that proceeded through the UBC Vancouver
office. As previously noted, the majority of cases proceed in the informal process and this year was
no exception. A number of the third party consultations may also have proceeded as cases under
the Policy on Discrimination and Harassment but were handled by the Administrative Heads of
Units so are not included in the data generated for this report.
TABLE 10: OUTCOME OF CASES
VANCOUVER (N=11)
OKANAGAN(N=0)
Informal Process: Resolved
8
Informal Process: Abandoned by Complainant                            1
Informal Process: Ongoing                                                       1
Formal Process: Ongoing
Formal Process: Resolved                                                         1
Action Taken Under Other University Policy
TOTAL
11
0
An increase in consultations, rather than cases, is a common trend across both campuses. The
complexity of the consultations has also increased proportionately. We are finding that more
Administrative Heads are consulting with us when they first hear of a concern. This allows us to
work to address and resolve a concern before it escalates into a more difficult situation. A remedial
approach at this early stage has proven successful at repairing relationships between the parties (or
unit) before parties become polarized. For years it has been the view of the Equity Office that the
best way to address and resolve issues is early prevention, and when possible and applicable, an
approach that finds local solutions to local concerns. ■
EQUITY OFFICE
UBC | VANCOUVER CAMPUS 2306 BROCK HALL, 1874 EAST MALL, VANCOUVER, B.C. V6T 1Z1  T 604.822.6353 F 604.822.3260 EQUITY@EQUITY.UBC.CA WWW.EQUITY.UBC.CA
UBC | OKANAGAN CAMPUS FIPKE 302, 3333 UNIVERSITY WAY, KELOWNA, B.C. V1V 1V7 T 250.807.9291  TOLL-FREE 1.866.596.0767 EXT. 2-6353 EQUITY.UBCO@UBC.CA WWW.UBC.CA/OKANAGAN/EQUITY
Canadians and Americans are
more similar than assumed
By Basil Waugh
For many Canadians, comparing
Canada and the U.S. is a national
pastime, right up there with hockey
and complaining about the weather.
But in a month with Canada Day and
the Fourth of July, an expert on North
American culture has news for anyone
who takes our cultural stereotypes at
face value. According to Ed Grabb, an
award-winning author, teacher and
researcher, Canadians and Americans
are more similar than most people
assume.
"Canadians and Americans are not
identical, but they are much more
alike than people think," says Grabb, a
professor and senior scholar in UBC's
Dept. of Sociology. "This is especially
true if we look at their general
populations, rather than each country's
elites, and especially if we focus on
English Canada and the U.S. North."
In his research, Grabb uses a variety
of approaches to study Canadians
and Americans, including analyzing
the World Values Survey, the most
comprehensive source for comparing
attitudes and behaviours in countries
around the world. Much of his work is
summarized in the 2010 book Regions
Apart.
"Research offers little evidence to
support many ofthe stereotypes about
cultural differences," says Grabb, who
is preparing a new course on Canadians
and Americans for the upcoming
academic year. "For most key measures,
including attitudes about health care,
religion, government, and individuality,
we are surprisingly similar."
Although people cite our different
health care systems as proof of deeper
differences, Grabb's research shows
that American support of national
health insurance funded by tax
dollars is actually quite close to that
of Canadians. "This is an area where
conservative politicians, right-wing
media and lobby groups have succeeded
in using misinformation and scare
tactics to undermine the will of most
Americans," says Grabb, noting that the
U.S. introduced social welfare programs
before Canada during Roosevelt's New
Deal.
Grabb's research also debunks the
popular notion that the U.S. is a much
more individualistic society that places
greater value on personal freedoms.
He finds that Canadians actually
are similar to Americans on various
measures of individualism and related
values, including the acceptance of
economic inequality if it is based on
individual merit or effort.
Despite Americans' reputation as
fierce anti-government libertarians,
Grabb's research suggests that people
in the U.S. exhibit more trust and
respect towards their government and
politicians than Canadians do.
While Canadians and Americans
do differ on religion, Grabb's findings
suggest that the differences are
shrinking as both societies become
UBC Sociology Prof. Ed Grabb's research debunks many cultural stereotypes of Canadians and Americans.
more secular. For example, in 1991, Americans were 16 per
cent more likely than Canadians to go to religious services
once a week or more, but by 2006 the difference had dropped
to 11 per cent.
Faulty cultural stereotypes arise when people try to draw
broad generalizations from specific personalities, such as
George Bush Jr., Lady Gaga, or Don Cherry, Grabb says. "The
cultural elites of a nation - politicians, thinkers, artists,
celebrities, athletes - often stand out because they represent
the extremes of a society," he says. "But that also makes them
poor stand-ins for the Average Joe on the street."
South pulling the rest ofthe U.S. to the right. Both Quebec
and the South are crucial for winning national elections. So,
whenever we compare our two countries, it is important to
account for these internal differences."
According to Grabb, Canada and the U.S. go through regular
periods of divergence and convergence on issues, depending
on the historical period and the issue being considered.
Examples include: the abolition of slavery (achieved in Canada
first), participation in both World Wars (Canada entered first),
the development of national social welfare policies (achieved
in the U.S. first), and military involvement in Iraq (Canada
"...you have Quebec pulling the rest of Canada to the left and the
South pulling the rest of the U.S. to the right."
Grabb says Canada and the U.S. are better understood as
four distinct regional societies: the politically and culturally
left-liberal Quebec, the conservative U.S. South, English
Canada and the U.S. North. According to his research, each
area is relatively distinct on a variety of topics, including levels
of government spending and taxation, unionization rates,
support for gay rights and interracial marriage, beliefs about
the death penalty and criminal justice, and support for the
military.
"English Canada and the U.S. North are very similar in their
attitudes and behaviours," says Grabb, who also studies social
structures, political sociology, and inequality. "But then you
have Quebec pulling the rest of Canada to the left and the
joined the U.S. in the first war, but not the second).
Grabb says his fascination with Canadian-American
relations began during his childhood in the 1960s, growing up
in the small town of Chatham, Ontario, an hour's drive from
Detroit. "Like many Canadians, my early sense ofthe world was
greatly influenced by American culture, music, sports, movies,
television and radio," he says. "The U.S. seemed so much more
exciting than what was happening in my sleepy little town.
So for the last 30 years, I have been working to advance our
understanding of what makes these two countries tick." •
Learn more about UBC's Department of Sociology
at www.soci.ubc.ca.
10
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia   July 2011
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UBC Dentistry team Serves
Penelakut First Nation
By Lorraine Chan
Dentistry student Cameron Garrett looks forward to seeing new and familiar faces.
Mention a small B.C. island during July
and most people assume sun, sand and
vacation.
For Cameron Garrett, the memorable
times on Penelakut Island will revolve
around patients. From July 7-10, the
UBC Dentistry student - along with
23 other volunteers - will be donating
his time and skills to the people ofthe
Penelakut First Nation.
Penelakut Island is the former site of
a residential school with a population of
350. To reach the nine-square kilometre
island, one must take a ferry from
Chemainus, a small town on the east
coast of Vancouver Island.
Garrett explains that he jumped at
the chance to volunteer again after
being a part ofthe inaugural volunteer
community clinic that took place last July.
"We were the first group of
non-natives to be invited to provide
healthcare on the island. We want to further develop that
trust," says Garrett, who is entering his fourth and final year in
the doctor of dental medicine program this fall.
Last year, the clinic treated close to 70 Penelakut First
Nation patients.
"One ofthe big things we wanted to do when we started this
project," says Garrett, "was to provide continuance of care. I'm
really excited about seeing the kind of impact we had from last
year."
Penelakut Island teacher Karen Milanese, a key organizer
for the clinics, says the community is keenly anticipating
the team's return - not only for dental work, but also for the
warmth and kindness ofthe volunteers. "What the community
really found impressive was how genuine and respectful the
students are. They're so welcoming."
Similar to last year, the volunteers will be transporting all the
necessary supplies and equipment to and from Penelakut Island.
They will then set up a triage-style clinic in the elementary
school gymnasium, using portable dental chairs, bottles of
sterile water and air compressors to power up equipment
such as dental drills. The volunteer team includes dental and
dental hygiene students, professors and alumni from the
Faculty of Dentistry.
If last summer is anything to go by,
says Garrett, the mood will be relaxed
and upbeat despite everyone working
flat out for long hours. "There tends to
be a good flow. Our mentors are jazzed
because they're sharing their knowledge
and see how excited the students are
about completing a procedure. And the
patients are getting treatment that they
wouldn't be able to access otherwise."
Of special value to the students are
the large numbers of mentors on hand,
adds Garrett. "There's a high ratio of
profs or dentists to students, so anytime
we're dealing with something new or
have questions, they're right there at
our side."
Part-time clinical instructor and UBC
alumnus Dr. Gary Sutton says these
experiences are vital for introducing
students "to the real world beyond
"Being invited back
into this community
builds on the trust in
the friendship and
it's a different kind
of dentistry.
fixing teeth."
"Amission like this bridges the
isolation felt by the First Nations
towards the profession," says Sutton,
who also volunteered last year. "Being
invited back into this community builds
on the trust in the friendship and it's
a different kind of dentistry. The whole
family is involved and present
during treatment."
Treating family groups also helped
students to understand more about
generational patterns of oral health
care or neglect, says Garrett.
"If the parents only have a few fillings
than the children generally have good
brushing habits."
However, bad habits would be
evidenced by rampant tooth decay
among the adults and children. "It was
the first time that I saw 'bottle mouth,'"
says Garrett, "which is the effect when
toddlers are left to nurse for really
long periods with a bottle filled with
milk, juice, or worse case, soda pop. The
sugars rot their baby teeth."
Garrett says the team hopes its efforts
will inspire greater numbers of dental
missions for under-served populations
in rural and remote communities
throughout B.C.
He says, "It's a brilliant idea because
volunteers can easily commit to a
four-day mission especially if the
location is close to where they live and
doesn't require much travel time."
The Penelakut Island community
dental clinic is the brainchild of UBC
alumnus Dr. Doug Nielsen. He brings
extensive experience as one ofthe
founders ofthe Vancouver-based
Dental Mission Project, which provides
portable supplies and equipment
to dental professionals who want to
organize volunteer clinics in Canadian
and international communities. •
To get involved or for more information
about the community volunteer
program, contact Dr. Bill Brymer,
UBC Faculty of Dentistry,
at: bbrymerainterchange.ubc.ca or
dentalumainterchange.ubc.ca
12
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia   July 2011
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Material Witness:
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At the root of the problem
Trees may have trouble growing in changing environments
By Heather Amos
Wood revival at CIRS
For the past two decades, forest scientists have been
predicting that trees will try to migrate to new regions as
climate change alters their environments. But forest ecologist
Suzanne Simard says it's not that simple; organisms living
below ground will play a large role in whether or not trees
can settle in new regions.
British Columbia's Interior Douglas fir forests are predicted
to move north, following the climate they thrive in. To do this,
trees will not only have to move at record-breaking rates to
keep up with an ever-changing climate, they will also have to
contend with foreign soils and plants competing for the same
space, says Simard.
"Predictions about where trees will grow in the future have
been based primarily on climate models," she says, "but there
are other factors, like the soil environment, that may limit
whether a tree species will be able to move into a new area."
Simard's research focuses on how organisms living in
soil - like fungi - help trees establish and grow. Some fungi
live inside the roots of trees and form mycorrhizas (literally
"fungus-roots"). These fungi help trees acquire nutrients and
water from the soil in exchange for carbon.
In 1997, Simard was part of a team of researchers that
discovered that trees were connected to one another through
an underground web of mycorrhizal fungi. This network
allows trees to communicate by transferring carbon, nutrients
and water to one another.
Simard also helped identify something called a hub tree, or
"Mother Tree." Mother trees are the largest trees in forests that
act as central hubs for vast below ground mycorrhizal networks.
They support young trees or seedlings by infecting them with
fungi and ferrying them the nutrients they need to grow.
Mother trees are the largest
trees in forests that act as
central hubs for vast below
ground mycorrhizal networks.
"We really haven't determined whether the mycorrhizal
fungi will migrate along with their tree hosts," says Simard.
"And without an appropriate web of fungi to help the
establishment of seedlings, forests may not migrate to new
locations where climate becomes hospitable for them."
Simard's now working with the BC Forest Service on a
new research project that spans from southern California to
northern British Columbia. They have planted 50 trees at 50
sites across that range. In two to three years, the team will
see whether mycorrhizal fungi have been able to infect the
seedling roots.
This will be among the first research to show how soil
organisms will affect the ability of forests to migrate with
changing climate.
"We are predicting massive changes in our ecosystems in
the next century and we don't know if trees will be able to
keep up," says Simard. "This research will help us understand
the changes and provide some tools on how to facilitate the
transitions."
As climate change causes greater catastrophic events, like
severe forest fires and insect outbreaks, existing forests will
die back and open up for new trees and plants to move in,
explains Simard. Her worry is that if trees can't move into
these new areas, weeds will instead.
Forest trees capture carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that
causes climate change. If forests are replaced with weeds,
more carbon dioxide will be released into the atmosphere and
the effects of climate change will be more pronounced. Species
that depend on forests for habitat will also disappear.
"It's critical that we figure this out," says Simard. "We need
to be able to facilitate change so we can keep forests in our
landscape. Conservation of forests will not only mitigate
climate change, it will also slow the loss of biodiversity." •
Trees are connected underground
through a web of fungi that live inside
the roots of trees. In forests, Mother
trees act as central hubs for this network
and support young trees by infecting
them with fungi and ferrying them
the nutrients they need to grow.
Visit UBC Reports online to watch a
video of prof. Suzanne Simard talk
about Mother trees at:
www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/ubc-reports
How important is fungus?
For some trees, the question of whether fungi can infect their roots
in a new location is more critical than for others.
Some trees, like red alder, have as few as one species of fungus living
in its roots. Others, like Douglas firs, are host to up to 2,000 fungal
species, where some are specialists and others are generalists. The
specialist fungi link together trees of the same species while
generalist fungi can link together trees of many different species and
even other plants like shrubs. Typically, the more specific the fungi,
the more specialized its role for the tree.
For trees depending on specific fungi, it is vital that the fungus can
grow in new environments. About 80 per cent of the roots of old
Douglas fir trees are colonized by a specific fungus that is especially
important in water uptake, but it only fruits and disperses its spores
below ground. If this fungus can't migrate, the trees won't either, and
Douglas fir forests could disappear. Otherwise, the tree will need to
find new fungi to fill this fairly specialized role through its life cycle.
By Lynn Warburton
CIRS' wood construction will provide many environmental benefits.
Lumber, rarely a structural material
in commercial buildings, is having a
21st-century revival at UBC's Centre for
Interactive Research on Sustainability.
It's in beams, columns and floors and
will help to make CIRS a regenerative
building that improves its environment.
When CIRS opens in November 2011,
it will contain approximately 940 cubic
meters of wood. More than one third
will come from forests affected by the
pine beetle infestation and 210 cubic
meters will be Forest Stewardship
Council-certified, the highest social and
environmental standard for commercial
wood in B.C.
CIRS designers have minimized the
use of concrete and steel, which have a
greater carbon footprint than wood. For
example, the concrete, glass, aluminum
and brick used in CIRS is estimated to
emit 525 tonnes of C02 equivalent (C02
e), while wood used in the project will
store an estimated 600 tonnes of C02
e. As a result, the four-storey project
will store 75 tonnes more C02 e than
is emitted during the production of its
building materials.
Beetle kill wood has accounted for
the largest amount of greenhouse
gas emissions (GHG) in the province,
more than all ofthe province's human
activity combined, more than motor
vehicle emissions, and nearly double
the output of Alberta's oil sands. Yet this
damaged wood is the same high quality
as other B.C. lumber if it's harvested
within a few years of being attacked.
Using it prevents carbon from escaping
decaying trees. It also clears space for
new growth.
CIRS, which is being built to meet
or exceed Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design (LEED ®)
Platinum certification standards, is
among a new trend in leading edge
commercial scale buildings in B.C. to use
wood in its structure. UBC's Okanagan
campus' Centre of Excellence, a recently
opened leading edge facility, also has a
wood structure.
While using wood this way may
seem new to some, wood was once
used for everything, including boats,
bridges, and airplanes as well as big
buildings. Vancouver has a 100-year-old
wood mid-rise building in its historic
Gastown, for example. Wood was passed
over for newer materials in bigger
buildings, leaving it with the small
buildings like homes, motels, condos,
low-rise offices. This trend maybe
reversing.
Vancouver has a
100-year-old wood
mid-rise building in
its historic Gastown.
Wood is also a sound choice for
emergencies. It's designed to meet
fire-resistance ratings. Heavy timber
is less heat conductive than steel or
concrete so it reduces heat transfer that
spreads fires. Its strength-to-weight
ratio is a good structural component for
seismic performance, and earthquake
research suggests that modern wood
structures absorb energy and seismic
forces better than other building
materials. •
Learn more about CIRS at:
www.sustain.ubc.ca.
14
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia   July 2011
15 Redrawing UBC
Research maps
knowledge
By Brian Lin
The need to navigate UBC's complex web of research partnerships has sprung a
first-of-its-kind project that could help a new UBC professor - and the rest of the
world - visualize the strengths of the university's enormous research enterprise
and identify new opportunities for collaboration.
"UBC is by far the largest institution I have ever been a part of," says Jinhua Zhao,
an assistant professor from Qingdao, China, who came to UBC last year after earning
his PhD in urban planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston
and working at Transport for London in the U.K.
With a joint appointment between the Department of Civil Engineering and the
School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP), Zhao asked colleagues to
explain the difference between a department and a school when he first arrived at
UBC. To help, they drew a tree-like diagram to articulate reporting structures. But
that only told part ofthe story.
"In reality, people interact with each other much more fluidly across departmental
boundaries," says Zhao. "In addition to research, scholars are also connected with
one another through brainstorming, co-teaching a course, or co-supervising students
- active agents who explore and broker connections among faculties," says Zhao.
"These relationships are rarely reflected on an org chart but they speak directly to
how knowledge is created and sustained."
While most recently popularized by Facebook and Twitter, the method of social
network analysis has been around for decades and is widely applied in sociology,
management, public health, geography and social psychology, says Zhao. "For
example, scholars once re-drew the regional map of Great Britain based on its
telecommunications records and the while the resulting 'map' coincided with some
regional boundaries, it also revealed strong cross-regional connections between
areas currently divided by administrative borders."
"Since knowledge creation is often at the intersections between disciplines,
re-drawing UBC along the lines of knowledge creation could help us understand the
core strengths of UBC - established clusters of researchers who are highly connected
'A university builds upon its scholars but
sparkles with the interactions among them/'
says Zhao. "And while the stars shine in
their own right, the constellations tell us
even more compelling stories."
and 'glue' the community together; the emerging clusters of researchers who
originate and spread new ideas across campus; and their collective local, national and
international connections," says SCARP Director Penny Gurstein, who has joined
forces with Zhao to launch a pilot project to do just that.
Zhao, Gurstein and fellow SCARP researcher Tony Dorcey came up with a survey
that, in 10 questions and requiring five minutes to complete, aims to elucidate
both research and teaching collaborations of UBC faculty members - how they
are initiated, the length and depth ofthe interactions, their geographic vicinity,
and respective expertise. The pilot project, called Mapping UBC's Collaborative
Knowledge Network, was launched in April at Civil Engineering and SCARP. Zhao
is also working with a team of planning and computer science students to create
interactive maps to visualize these relationships. When complete, the maps will be
made available to the public and serve as a tool for everyone to explore UBC and its
scholars.
"People change, and so do their networks," says Zhao. "With these interactive
maps, we can zoom in and trace the evolution of individual networks, project our
scholarship onto the globe, or search by expertise or geographic area.
"A university builds upon its scholars but sparkles with the interactions among
them," says Zhao. "And while the stars shine in their own right, the constellations tell
us even more compelling stories."
The project has received support from both John Hepburn, Vice President
Research and International and Stephen Owen, Vice President of External, Legal
and Community Relations, who agreed to invite UBC scholars to participate once the
project launches campus-wide this month.
"We already know from various independent indicators that our research is ofthe
highest caliber and one ofthe reasons for this research excellence is interdisciplinary
collaborations," says Hepburn. "This project will provide us with a clear and dynamic
road map for prioritizing and supporting excellence while pointing toward new
directions and opportunities." •
To learn more about the Collaborative Knowledge Network, examples of interactive
social network maps, or to fill out the survey, visit:
www.knowledgenetwork.ubc.ca.
Simulated interactive maps of
UBC's Knowledge Network
A tree or a net? A depiction of UBC's formal organizational structure
and researchers' interpersonal interactions.
Ego-centric net: How does each faculty member establish and impact
research collaborations?
UBC's footprint in the world - and how our research connects various regions.
16
UBC Reports The University of British Columbia   July 2011

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