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UBC Reports Feb 11, 1971

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 No Shortage of Jobs
For Education Grads
UBC    REPORTS   CAMPUS    EDITION
Act Change
Proposed
A committee representing four B.C.
universities has proposed an amendment to the
British North America Act, the major
document of the Canadian constitution.
The proposed amendment would make it
clear that the federal government has the
authority to allocate grants for higher
education to provincial governments for current
and. capital grants to public and private
universities, make direct grants for research and
provide, scholarships, bursaries and loans to
students atall post-secondary institutions.
*'• The amendment was contained in a brief
presented to the Special Joint Committee of'
the. Senate and House -at Q^0om on the
. Constitution o# Canada fatty ^i^mv by
4JBC*s AcademtePtanner; 'frvftotipirS*i©lark.
' WJC's Board of Governors accepted the
brief as' offictoMUniversity poJ|cy at its Feb. 2
.^.meeting. Excerpts from the brief appear on
Pageifoutand Five of this issue.
By DORIS HOPPER
Assistant Information Officer, UBC
How real is the problem of unemployment for
UBC graduates? Is it fact or fiction?
The UBC Office of Student Services has conducted
surveys of 1970 UBC graduates holding bachelor
degrees in an effort to determine the extent of the
employment problems facing UBC students.
The most intensive survey was conducted by Mrs.
D. Claire Hurley in co-operation with the Faculty of
Education among those students graduating in 1970
with a bachelor of education degree. There has
recently been much discussion of unemployment
among teachers in British Columbia.
As a result of the survey the Office of Student
Services has concluded that "There would seem to be
little justification for students being discouraged from
entering the Faculty of Education because of a lack
of available positions."
The wider survey of UBC graduates holding other
types of bachelor's degrees indicates that somewhat
less than four per cent of 1970 graduates are still
without work, which compares with the current
general unemployment rate of about 8.6 per cent.
STUDENT SURVEY
A total of 1,175 education students were
surveyed, including all students who took the
one-year teacher training program in secondary or
elementary education.
Of the graduates surveyed, 1,005 are employed as
teachers or are otherwise employed. Only 40 can be
considered as unemployed teachers, and of these 25
have restricted themselves to a particular geographical
area (most frequently the Lower Mainland).
Of the students surveyed, 130 were "unaccounted
for." Many of these  were women students who may
have married since June, 1970, and whose new names
have not yet been discovered.
Student Services is continuing efforts to contact
these 130 students by letter and will tabulate the
results in a follow-up study.
The survey showed no significant difference in
employment opportunities at the elementary school
and secondary school levels. Two out of 120 B.Ed,
secondary spring graduates were unemployed and 16
could not be located. One out of 108 fall secondary
graduates were unemployed and four could not be
located.
SECOND ASPECT
Eight out of 255 B.Ed, elementary spring
graduates were unemployed and 29 could not be
located. Of 272 fall B.Ed, elementary graduates, 249
were employed and 23 could not be located.
Another aspect of the survey examined the extent
to which individuals are still permitted to teach in
B.C. on a letter of permission issued by the
Department of Education.
As of December 22, 1970, there had been 288
letters of permission issued, as compared with 300 in
1969 and 448 in 1968. Of the 288 letters issued, 132
were to individuals with degrees and 115 to persons
who had some teacher education.
An analysis of the 288 letters indicated that home
economics accounted for 65, music (chiefly
instrumental) 37, elementary education 29,
commerce 27, French 20, industrial education 15,
mass cooking (chefs) 13, secondary school subjects
49, and special classes 15. There were 18
unaccounted for.
Student Services has concluded that "it appears to
Please turn to Page Eight
See EMPLOYMENT
UBC's ENGINEERS appeared to have run amok Feb.
3 when they cut down four entrance and intersection
pillars recently erected as part of a campus graphics
program. The phony entrance pillar shown tumbling
above is located at the corner of University Boulevard
and Wesbrook Crescent. It was later burned by the
students. The real pillars were removed and stored in
the dead of the previous night by the students and
will be re-erected this week. Current hoax recalls a
similar incident a number of years ago when engineers
removed and carefully stored a number of
modernistic campus sculptures at night and then
smashed replacement phony sculptures the following
day with sledge hammers. Photo by Dan Scott,
Vancouver Sun. Changes Underway in
UBC's Medical School
Sweeping changes in the administrative structure
of UBC's Faculty of Medicine are underway. The
changes aim at up-dating government and
administration of the Faculty after more than two
decades of growth.
After some 10 months of study and review,
faculty members in the Faculty of Medicine have
decided to:
• Revise the make-up of the key administrative
body of the Faculty.
• Review the administrative tenure of the dean
and department heads every five years.
• Periodically review all teaching staff.
• Open up more positions for students on
administrative committees.
• Re-examine staff promotion and admission
guide-lines.
• Give full faculty status to part-time teachers
who meet required academic standards.
Behind the moves are the tremendous changes that
have taken place in the school since it began in 1950.
It had a handful of staff when it opened its doors.
Today there are roughly 160 full-time faculty
members and about 400 part-time staff.
"In 1950 there was a group of full-time
department heads and that was essentially all," said
Dean John F. McCreary. "We had to build up quickly
the departmental staff in anatomy, biochemistry and
physiology because these departments had to begin
teaching students coming into our first year.
"Departments responsible for teaching the second
year — pathology, pharmacology and others —
expanded quickly as well. Clinical departments such
as medicine and surgery which receive students in
their final years of study were manned in the main by
full-time department heads for the first couple of
years and then gradually began to build up with
part-time people and then, as time went on, with
full-time staff.
"It was quite reasonable then that the executive
committee of the Faculty be made up of department
heads only, because they were close to the
administration of the school and it was necessary for
them to be involved in virtually all decisions."
Dean McCreary said it is not impossible for heads
to represent the Faculty as a whole because of its size
and diversity. Junior and part-time and other staff
members not close to department heads have not
been getting the opportunity to have a say in
decisions.
POSTS ROTATE
As a result the Faculty decided to re-examine the
old administrative structure and change it if
necessary.
Another factor behind the changes was a
recommendation by the accreditation team that
periodically examines every medical school in North
America. After scrutinizing UBC's Faculty of
Medicine in March, 1970, the team recommended
that a system be set up for reviewing administrative
posts at regular intervals.
"The accreditation team pointed out that because
of our age we had a number of administrative staff
who have been in their positions for a longer period
than usual," the Dean said.
"In fact some of our administrative staff have been
in their present positions for the full 21 years the
medical school has been in operation. Usually
administrative posts rotate much more rapidly."
The faculty of the school elected a committee on
Faculty organization in February, 1970, to "study
arrangements of government of other Faculties and
recommend as to what changes, if any, are necessary
in the organization of government of the Faculty of
Medicine which would be in the best interests of the
medical school."
The committee studied the way other Canadian
and U.S. medical schools are run and a letter was sent
to every teacher and student in the UBC school
asking for comments on government of the Faculty.
The committee also interviewed Dean McCreary,
UBC President Walter H. Gage, two basic medical
science department heads, two clinical science
department heads and the head of a non-medical
2/UBC Reports/Feb. 11,1971
department on campus.
The committee's report was circulated early in
October, 1970, and virtually all of its
recommendations were accepted at two Faculty
meetings in October and November.
Probably the most important recommendation of
the committee was to replace the existing Faculty
Council, made up exclusively of department heads,
with a new Faculty Executive.
The Faculty Executive would be made up of a
dean, five department heads elected among
themselves, six representatives elected by faculty
members, and two undergraduates elected by
undergraduates. Ex-officio members are the associate
deans of the Faculty and the dean of Graduate
Studies.
ELECTIONS HELD
Elections for the Faculty Executive were held over
the Christmas period under the Registrar's
supervision.
The dean's administrative tenure will be reviewed
every five years by a committee reporting to the
President and made up of two senior educational
administrators — one selected by the dean and one by
the Faculty Executive — and three senior UBC
faculty members appointed by the President. At least
one of these should be from the Faculty of Medicine.
Review of departments and their heads will be
done every five years by a committee of five. Three
members will be appointed by the dean in
consultation with the Faculty Executive. The three
should be senior faculty and have been at UBC for at
least five years.
The remaining two members should be from
outside the University but from the disciplines under
review. One of them should have had substantial
administrative experience at some other university.
One of the two will be chosen by the department
head and one by voting members of the department
under review. Make-up of the review committee must
be endorsed by faculty of the school.
In view of the accreditation team report, at least
one-fifth of the school's departments will be reviewed
in the first year. Departments whose heads have had
the longest administrative tenure or where need for
review has been clearly identified will be reviewed
first.
Recommendations have also been made to
President Gage that faculty members should be
involved in the search for new deans and department
heads and the make-up of these search committees
has been suggested to him for his consideration.
The faculty organization committee also
recommended that the Faculty Executive:
Create four associate deanships for the clinical
sciences, basic medical sciences, research and student
affairs. The committee's report also said that the dean
should appoint "such assistants to the dean as are
required to handle special problems as continuing
medical education and other matters."
Review divisions within each department to clarify
their status in the medical school;
Form a budget and agenda committee. The budget
committee would meet regularly with the dean to
review the financial position of the medical school.
The agenda committee will be responsible for the
agenda of Faculty and Faculty Executive meetings;
ALREADY FORMED
Establish with faculty membership standing
committees on admissions policy, student evaluation
and promotion, long-range planning, UBC—teaching
hospitals, graduate clinical training, the library, and
research co-ordination.
In line with a recommendation of the faculty
organization committee, faculty members have
already formed nominating, curriculum and teaching
evaluation committees which will report to faculty, as
well as an admission selection committee and
committees on faculty appointments,
re-appointments, promotions and tenure.
TUTORIAL
MR. JEFF WATTS
More Help
There is more help offered than help wanted so far
at UBC's new Tutoring Centre, located in the Student
Union Building.
After four weeks of operation in the pre-Christmas
term the Tutoring Centre received applications
from 106 people offering their services as tutors, but
only 58 students approached the Centre for help with
their studies.
The results of the Centre's first month of4
operation can be interpreted two ways. Either UBC's
students are doing well with their studies and don't
need extra help, or, UBC students do need tutoring
help but haven't yet discovered that the new Tutoring
Centre is the place to go for it.
The aim of the new Centre is to ensure thai
students who have problems with courses,
particularly first- and second-year courses, have a
place to turn for help.
The   Centre  works  to co-ordinate tutoring  for SCHEME NO REFLECTION ON FACULTY
Jeff Watts, an Australian-born, fifth-year
Education student at UBC, is the man who started a
tutorial scheme for students in the Place Vanier
Residences in 1969. The scheme, which has now been
expanded to Include the Totem Park residences,
earned Mr. Watts the 1970 award for outstanding
contribution to residence life. The success of the
residence scheme has also led to a similar service for
non-residence students, organized by the UBC
Alumni Association in cooperation with the Alma
Mater Society, which operates in the Student Union
Building. For a report on the operations of the
SUB-based scheme, see the article at the bottom of
this page. In the article which follows, UBC Reports
discusses the background and beginnings of the
tutorial scheme with Mr. Watts.
UBC REPORTS: Jeff, can we begin by discussing
the need for a campus tutorial scheme. What was it
♦that led you to decide to concentrate on developing
this area?
MR. JEFF WATTS: I think it is safe to say that a
tutorial scheme reflects the increasing size of the
University. The large classes in some courses, the
increasing amount of work which students have to
do, and a number of other factors often result in a
•growing sense of isolation in students. First-year
students, in particular, who are getting their first taste
of University life, are often reluctant to take
advantage of the offers of help from faculty members
who are themselves often over-worked. What students
need is a person-to-person relationship with a senior
'S^Bfet who has already successfully completed work
irWRie area.
I hope that no one regards the tutorial scheme as
any reflection on the faculty of the University. The
scheme has nothing to do with the competence or the
ability of the faculty. It is a comment on the
.depersonalization of the society we live in. The
tutorial scheme is meant to supplement the work in
the classroom, to fill in gaps for those students who
have a heavy course load and who often find they
simply don't have enough time to do all the things
that are required of them at a university.
' Another thing which this scheme does is to utilize
student power. On the one hand you have students
who need assistance, while on the other you have a
huge, untapped potential of senior students who are
able^p communicate knowledge to students in the
bdflwig years at the University. So I think a tutorial
^scheme is an extremely relevant kind of thing for
students to be involved in because it means that
students are helping students.
UBC REPORTS: What was it led you to begin the
tutorial scheme in the Place Vanier residences?
MR. WATTS: As a matter of fact, it began as an
election pledge which I made when I was running for
the vice-presidency of the Place Vanier residences. I
said in my election speech that I would like to see a
tutorial scheme in the residences. After my election,
and as the year advanced, I thought I had better start
implementing the promise I had made with regard to
the scheme. The initial efforts to get it started were
not successful because the system which we began
with proved to be too cumbersome. Early in 1970,
however, we ironed out moist of the kinks and the
scheme began functioning.
We sent an individually addressed form to all
students in the Place Vanier residences asking if they
needed help or if they were prepared to give help to
students who needed it. In asking for volunteers to
give help we made a distinction between a tutor and
an advisor. We regarded a tutor as a person who
would give regular lessons to a limited number of
people who needed help. An advisor, on the other
hand, was a student who would not give regular
lessons, but would see students by appointment or
arrangement and would give help when asked to. The
third category of persons involved in the scheme were
designated members, or students who were actually
seeking help or advice.
UBC REPORTS: What sort of response did you
get to this?
MR. WATTS: It was really quite extraordinary. At
least 70 per cent of the forms which were distributed
were handed back in again from a total of 960
persons in residence in Place Vanier. Then, of course,
we had to involve ourselves in a sort of giant
matchmaking process in which those who offered to
give help were coupled with people who needed help.
I won't go into detail here about how we did this but
it did involve a considerable amount of work. We
found, however, that after this tremendous initial
effort in matching people up the scheme literally ran
itself and about all I had to do was handle complaints
as they arose.
There were some curious side effects to the
scheme as well which I hadn't bargained on when I
was setting it up. For instance, it had a socializing
effect. Boys were often matched with girls and vice
versa and as a result people had an opportunity to
meet other people. I found that a male student who
found himself in a situation where he was tutoring
two or three girls would be more enthusiastic about
the whole idea of tutoring than he would if he was
tutoring only male students.
There were a couple of other funny wrinkles as
well. One lad from Guatemala found himself tutoring
a Ph.D. student in Spanish, or advising him anyway.
On another occasion a girl approached me and
complained that I had given her only girls to tutor.
She wanted more male students to tutor.
I suppose a measure of the success of the scheme is
the fact that we were approached by Fort Camp with
a suggestion that we should integrate the tutoring
scheme in the two residence areas. We accomplished
this later in the same year.
UBC REPORTS: You must have noticed some
areas of weakness in the operations of the scheme.
Could you describe these for us?
MR. WATTS: One weak area seemed to be simply
getting people together. We would inform a tutor or a
student who needed help that such and such a person
had been assigned to assist him and then for some
strange reason neither party heard from the other
again. I really didn't have time to track down the
cause of this lack of contact. Another weakness
seemed to be that girls were a bit shy about going
Is Offered Than Wanted
courses given at UBC and brings together students
and tutors. It is a new project organized on the
campus by the Alumni Association in cooperation
.with the AMS (Academics).
So far the Centre has had a high degree of success
in placing students under the guiding hand of
appropriate tutors. In the pre-Christmas period only
two students who applied for tutoring help had not
been   placed   with   a   suitable   tutor.   Both   were
* third-year students, one in  economics and one in
political science.
More mathematics students than any others have
sought tutoring help so far, with computer science
running a close second. Languages rank next in
numbers of students needing aid, with French holding
"a slight edge over English.
Miss Susan Westren, tutorial scheme co-ordinator
for the Centre, said that all comments she has
received so far indicate that the students are pleased
with the tutoring service.
"Several people have stopped in at the Centre just
to say that the tutoring scheme is a good idea," she
said.
She said, however, that in terms of the total
student population, the Tutorial Centre has not been
doing very well. She thinks that usage of the Centre
will increase once its existence becomes more widely
known.
A registration fee of $1 is charged in an effort to
maintain the Centre as a self-supporting entity. Where
the Centre is unable to find either students for tutors
or tutors for students, the registration fee is refunded.
All students desiring extra help with specific
subjects, and all qualified people who wish to give
such help (including graduate students and senior
honors students) can be registered with the Centre.
The Centre is located in Room 100B in SUB and is
open from 12-2 p.m. weekdays. Telephone 228-4583.
over to meet male advisors or tutors. If I ran the
scheme again I would arrange some kind of situation
where the girls could actually be introduced to their
male tutors or advisors. Another area of weakness
seems to be that anything which is free tends to be
regarded with suspicion. I think if there was a small
charge — say a dollar — to join the scheme there
would be greater utilization of it.
UBC REPORTS: How many people were involved
— tutors, advisors and students who needed help — in
the scheme in its first year of operations?
MR. WATTS: We had 129 tutors and advisors,
most of them advisors because there was less of a
continuing commitment in being an advisor. Advisors
simply waited for students to come to them. The
total number of students who asked for help was
approximately 150. There were only about ten
students whom we were unable to find advisors or
tutors for.
One other possible weakness of the scheme was
the fact that I was not able to follow up and ask
students how they had benefitted from the scheme or
if they were satisfied with the way it had operated. I
think the fact that the scheme largely ran itself after
our initial effort at organization is at least a partial
indicator that it was operating successfully.
UBC REPORTS: Are you involved in any way
with the residence tutorial scheme which has
continued to operate or with the scheme which is
operating in the Student Union Building under the
sponsorship of the Alumni Association and the Alma
Mater Society?
MR. WATTS: No, I am not. The scheme is
operating successfully in Totem Park and Place
Vanier and I am acting as an advisor to the campus
tutorial scheme in SUB. But I am not involved with
the day-to-day operations this year. I am devoting
most of my time to writing a report detailing a more
efficient scheme for a campus tutorial program, a
resident tutorial program and a format for a scheme
to be operated during the summer session.
UBC REPORTS: What additional things would
you like to see included in a future tutorial scheme?
MR. WATTS: I think there is something to be said
for providing potential tutors and advisors with some
coaching on methods of instruction. Many senior
students have had no teaching experience and I think
they would benefit from a seminar on methods of
instruction at the beginning of the tutoring year.
I think also that there should be some form of
payment by the student to the tutor. I think this
would have the effect of making both parties to the
experience feel that they had obligations; the tutor
for getting his lessons ready for the student and not
re-teaching material that the student already knows
and the student for letting the tutor know instantly
when he is going off the track and therefore saving
the tutor's time by not making frivolous demands on
it. I think also that the student who needs help
should go to the tutor rather than the tutor having to
go to the student.
There are some special problems involved in a
tutoring scheme for the summer session. It would
have to begin operating at the outset of summer
session because of the time element involved. I should
say here that the campus tutorial system does not
start operating until the latter portion of the first
term since it takes students some time to discover
what areas they are having problems in.
There are all sorts of other wrinkles that could be
worked into a more comprehensive scheme. For
instance, it might be possible to extend the tutoring
service into the evening period to handle emergency
service for students who find themselves stuck for
answers late at night. And,of course,there are special
problems associated with foreign students who
require coaching in English. International House is
already involved in this kind of scheme and it could
be incorporated into a larger campus tutorial scheme
in the future.
One potential problem of any campus-wide
scheme is that one will have a great many tutors and
advisors in one area and an insufficient number in
another area. This might be overcome by having
counsellors in the undergraduate societies of the
various faculties co-ordinate their subjects and the
tutors within their area.
UBC Reports/Feb. 11,1971/3 AMENDMENT WOULD REMOVE Dl
Early in January, Prof. Robert M. Clark, UBC's
academic planner, presented in Vancouver to the Special
Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of
Commons on the Constitution of Canada a brief
prepared by a committee selected by the presidents or
the Boards of Governors' of UBC, Simon Fraser
University, the University of Victoria and Notre Dame
University in Nelson. Prof. Clark, in his presentation to
the Special Joint Committee, said the brief could not
claim to speak officially for the four universities of B.C.
What follows is most of the text of the brief which was
approved as official University policy by UBC's Board of
Governors at its meeting on Feb. 2.
The British North America Act is and has been one of
the most successful constitutional documents ever
written. Yet it has received more public criticism than
popular acclaim. This is partly because it is as pragmatic
as any part of our Canadian heritage. Unlike the
American, French or Russian constitutions, or the
United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, it contains
no lofty assertions of human rights. It includes no
appeals to an idealism that would make people proud to
be Canadians. It has been condemned by some who fail
to recognize it as a highly flexible framework for a living
constitution that has been in the process of continuing
transformation ever since it was enacted in 1867.
STILL EVOLVING
Some aspects of federal influence, such as the power
of disallowance by the Governor-General-in-Council or
reservation by the Lieutenant-Governors, have largely
fallen into desuetude. Other aspects are still evolving
with far reaching effects upon the quality of Canadian
life. One example of this is the use of conditional grants
to the provincial governments. Another illustration is the
development of federal-provincial conferences to resolve
major inter-governmental controversies. This is a
remarkable form of inter-governmental bargaining, for
which there has been no direct counterpart in the United
States.
We   believe  that  the  constitution   in   Canada   has
worked sufficiently well that any attempt to replace it
with an elaborate new written constitution would be
most unlikely to gain the degree of acceptance necessary
for its practical implementation. In all probability it
would lack the necessary flexibility, which is so essential
in a living constitution. We also are very mindful of the
limitations of what can be achieved by less ambitious
changes in the British North America Act. We have no
desire  to  advocate  constitutional  amendments in the
place  of what  should   be  more  appropriately  sought
through other aspects of the ongoing political process.
At its best the constitution is not a panacea for political
problems: rather it is a framework within which the
partly  conflicting objectives of people  in society can
most readily be achieved, insofar, indeed, as they can be
accomplished through government action.
PROBLEMS OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION UNDER
THE CONSTITUTION. The only reference to education
in  the  British   North   America  Act    is   in section 93,
subsection (1) of which states:
In and for each Province the Legislature may exclusively
make laws in relation to education subject to the
following provisions:
Clearly there are divergent interpretations of these
words. In the past fifteen years successive federal
governments have provided increasing grants for
vocational training and for research at Canadian
universities. On the one hand it can be argued that both
vocational training and research are aspects of education
and therefore under section 93 should fall exclusively
within provincial jurisdiction. From this viewpoint the
only role which the Federal Government should have
would be to leave sufficient income in the pockets of the
taxpayers and to provide sufficient unconditional
equalization grants to less affluent provincial
governments to enable them to discharge their
responsibilities efficiently.
On the other hand, with former Principal J.A. Corry
of Queen's University, one of Canada's most
distinguished political scientists, we can emphasize the
words "In and for each Province ..." It is by no means
self-evident that all of the needs of the nation in
education will  be met if each  province discharges its
TABLE I. RESEARCH FUND ALLOCATIONS BY THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
TO THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1966-67 AND 1969-70
1966-67 1969-70
FACULTY GRANT GRANT
Science       $2,399,036 $ 4,645,490
Medicine 1,525,711 2,360,210
Applied Science       917,051 1,338,809
Arts       250,499 1,134,016
Agricultural Sciences       158,767 437,886
Forestry         98,271 213,500
Dentistry         22,605 194,030
Commerce and Business Administration   .   .   .        12,000 115,880
Pharmaceutical Sciences              24,400 103,380
Education         27,730 31,750
Law  400 -
Totals       $5,436,470 $10,574,951
Source: Office of Research Administration — University of British Columbia
responsibilities as it sees fit. Principal Corry has written:
If there are national needs and objectives that require
concerted educational policy in two, several, or all
provinces, no provincial legislature is by itself competent
in the matter, and judicial interpretation on other
comparable aspects of the distribution of powers under
the British North America Act makes it clear that
Parliament is competent, under the "peace, order and
good government" clause.
The problems we wish to consider may be
summarized under the headings of support for research,
mobility and equity.
I. SUPPORT OF RESEARCH AT UNIVERSITIES. Two
issues concern us here. Research conducted by university
scholars provides new insights into human and natural
phenomena. Some carefully focussed research is directed
to the solution of problems of a local or provincial
nature. The benefits, however, of most university
research are not confined to the province in which it is
conducted. The spillover effects of successful research,
for example, on cancer, air pollution, or unemployment
can be enormous.
Table 1 ... shows the amount of federal grants for
research awarded to the University of British Columbia,
including those to individual faculty members, by
Faculty, for the years 1966-67 and 1969-70. We believe
that the distribution of these grants is fairly typical for
large Canadian universities. The increase of over
$5,000,000 in the total grants in a period of three years
is encouraging. But the important fields of education,
commerce and business administration, and law received
meagre support or none at all. Considering the major
issues challenging society in these areas, this neglect
seems to us to be indefensible.
The substantial differences in costs of research in
various fields accounts for much of the difference in
amounts of research money allocated to them by federal
agencies and departments. The lack of a well-defined,
overall policy in research allocations at the federal level
no doubt has accentuated variations in the extent of
support of various fields. If, however, it has been
difficult to achieve a national policy on research
allocations that is adequate to reflect the total range and
direction of Canadian needs, we are convinced that ten
provincial governments, each proceeding under its own
local pressures, would never develop a policy to meet
national needs.
GREAT BENEFIT
The second issue arises from recent criticism in a
retrospective study of research priorities followed by
federal agencies and departments in allocating grants. We
agree that there is justification for some of this criticism.
We must emphasize, however, that no action of the
Government of Canada over the past 30 years has been
of greater benefit to research and graduate training in
Canadian universities than the policy of awarding
research grants. It is largely as a result of this research
support that Canada today has strong and healthy
graduate schools, providing, for the first time in our
history, a large proportion of our needs for university
and college faculty members, as well as scientific and
other professional personnel for industry and
government. If it had not been for federal contributions
to university research, we as a nation still would be
dependent on foreign universities to supply most of our
research manpower.
The principle of nation-wide competition for research*
awards, and the refereeing system involving scholars
from all parts of Canada, have been of inestimable value
in improving the quality of Canadian research
production and the quality of our graduate schools. We
believe it is the opinion of most university research
workers that the continuation of this principle ao*Ato&
extension of this practice is a sine qua non folSne
achievement and the maintenance of excellence in
research in universities of the nation.
MEET NEEDS
Only if these broad national aspects of research are
recognized and supported can research activities most
fully meet Canadian needs. We therefore are strongly of
the opinion that the British North America Act should
be amended to make it entirely clear that the Federah
Government has the authority to allocate operating and
capital funds for research to universities and other
post-secondary educational institutions, as well as to
individuals associated with them.
II. TREND TO RESTRICT MOBILITY OF STU^LTS
FROM OTHER PROVINCES AND COUNTRlE^Tees,
at Canadian universities cover a small fraction of
university operating costs — about 20 per cent or less at
most universities at the undergraduate level and about
10 per cent or less at the graduate level. Individual
taxpayers in Canada pay most of the rest, directly or
indirectly. Even if enrolment were unrestricted at
Canadian universities except by minimum academic1
qualifications, provincial governments naturally would
feel that preference should be given to residents of their
province.
Notwithstanding rapidly growing federal and
provincial support for higher education in Canada in the
last 15 years, universities have felt it necessary to restrict
enrolment, especially in certain professional programs,
to the point of excluding some who have the academic
qualifications for them. This has occurred in many
instances because of lack of facilities in such fields as
medicine and dentistry. In other cases, especially within
the last two years, restriction has taken place because a
faculty has felt, and the Board of Governors accepts its
view, that it is academically undesirable for its program
to expand further.
Whatever the cause of restriction of enrolment in a
particular university, the very existence of the restriction
tends to increase the pressure to give preference to
residents of the province. For example, at the University
of British Columbia we discourage undergraduates
coming from other provinces to study in the Faculties of
Arts, Education and Science, since such faculties are to
be found in the universities of their own provinces.
Universities encounter an added argument in favor of
discrimination at the graduate level. This argument
begins with the generalized finding that in every
province a student with a bachelor's degree is more
likely to remain in the province in which he obtajned his
4/UBC Reports/Feb. 11, 1971 UBTS ABOUT FEDERAL POSITION
degree than a student who gets a master's degree or a
doctor's degree. To this consideration is added another
fact, namely that it costs the taxpayers much more per
student per year to pay for their share of the costs of a
graduate student than for an undergraduate student.
Thus it is understandable that some provincial
governments would look with less enthusiasm on the
need to provide money for graduate programs than may
seem desirable in the interests of the nation.
Survey results
We can appreciate the concern of the Federal
Government in that under existing financial
arrangements it has been paying half of the rapidly
mounting costs of post-secondary education in Canada
without having effective control over these costs. We are
concerned that in the forthcoming federal-provincial
financial negotiations to modify these arrangements, the
Federal Government may seek to withdraw partially
from its present role in higher education. We are
apprehensive that if this occurs, the pressure to
discriminate in each province against out-of-province
undergraduate and graduate students will continue to
grow . . .
It is much easier for the individual taxpayers in a
province to imagine in general terms the costs to them of
educating university students who subsequently leave
the province than it is for the same taxpayers to
apd^Kte the benefits to the province from persons
whose university education took place outside the
province, but who now work in it.
We are convinced that pressures to discriminate
against students from other provinces are contrary to the
public interest. Students and faculty in the first instance,
and the Canadian public in the. long run, benefit by
having students from a variety of provincial
backgrounds. It is impossible to put a precise value on
such benefits, but they are none the less real. Having
students from a diversity of geographic backgrounds
means that a greater variety of viewpoints are likely to
be considered in many subjects. A richer range of
experience is likely to be brought to bear on important
issues.
For example, a course on federal-provincial relations
or og^anadian literature at any Canadian university is
likelyW^be more effective if it contains students from
each of the major regions of Canada than if all the
students come from any one of these regions. Quite
apart from these academic advantages are the cultural
benefits which are likely to ensue from bringing together
students from many parts of the country.
But there is a further point, and to some a more
important one. If there is a significant mobility of
students and faculty among Canadian universities, this
facilitates specialization by individual institutions. It can
be an increasingly significant factor in avoiding
unnecessary duplication of university facilities, both
within and among Canadian provinces.
Ideally we favor a system which embodies the
principle that a Canadian student seeking entry to a
college or university in Canada would be free to indicate
his preferences, and no university or college in any
province would discriminate against him because he
came from another province, the Yukon or the
Northwest Territories. Could such a system work in
theory? As far as the universities are concerned, it could
work in principle if each of three conditions were met in
selecting individual students:
(i) The universities would have to accept this
principle in spirit and not just give perfunctory
allegiance to it.
(ii) The universities individually would have to be
frge, within the limits of their financial resources, to
decide how many students they would take in each of
their faculties.
(iii) The universities individually would have to
decide upon the academic qualifications for each of their
programs.
"Could a system be developed in Canada under which
universities accepted academically qualified students as
readily from other provinces as from the one in which
they were located? It could be quite feasible, provided it
came to be acceptable to public opinion. It could be
developed by stages. We are much closer to having it
already at the graduate level than at the undergraduate
level across the country.
Considerations of the costs of transportation and of
living away from home, the desire to attend an
institution with one's high school friends, in many cases
a concern for one's parents, all suggest that only a
limited minority of undergraduates — possibly about 10
per cent — would attend university in a different
province from the one in which they were domiciled. At
the graduate level the proportion of students going to a
university in a province other than the one in which they
were undergraduates has been much higher. For all
Canadian university students the percentage who have
attended university outside their home province has
decreased from 10.9 per cent in 1955-56 to 7.5 percent
in 1969-70.
The Federal Government could contribute to the
development of such a plan. It could do so for a
relatively large number of students or on a limited basis
by providing national scholarships for very able students.
Such scholarships could be held at any Canadian
university or college willing to admit the scholarship
students. Such grants to individual students probably
would cover only a smal fraction of the costs of
instruction at universities and colleges across the
country.
The Federal Government could also provide a direct
grant to each institution for each student receiving a
federal scholarship. The amount of the grant to the
institutions should not be the same for all undergraduate
or for all graduate programs, since their costs will differ
widely at the same university or college, as well as
among these institutions. Alternatively, the Federal
Government could devise a simple system of grants to be
paid to each university and college for every
out-of-province Canadian student enrolled in its
programs.
It need scarcely be said that we do not envisage any
such plans as replacing federal grants for research or for
specific cultural objectives. If the Federal Government
continues to contribute substantially to the costs of
university and college education, this will increase the
probability that these institutions will have the facilities
to accommodate out-of-province students. If the sort of
proposals referred to here were unacceptable to the
government of any province, an alternative in terms of
abatement of personal income tax could in principle be
negotiated ....
UNDER PRESSURE
It is important to add that Canadian universities are
under pressure to discriminate against foreign students in
their admissions policies. A discriminatory admissions
policy is urged on the natural grounds that the interests
of Canadians should come first. It is also advocated
because most foreigners who come to Canada for
university education will leave the country afterward, so
that the taxpayers are put to expense with little
apparent long-run benefits in exchange. Few argue that
foreign students should have equal access with Canadian
students to universities and colleges in this country. The
admissions policy of the University of British Columbia
with regard to foreign students is fairly typical of such
policy in Canadian universities.
It is University policy to accept students from other
countries only after they have carried their undergraduate
studies to tfuJ highest reasonable level in their own
educational systems.
Students must not travel to Canada in the hope that they
will be admitted, either directly or following studies in a
secondary school, a college or another university, with
qualifications inferior to those specified in this calendar.
Just as there are advantages at each university in
having students from other provinces, so also there are
advantages to Canadian students and faculty members in
having a minority of students from other countries.
They bring knowledge, a diversity of viewpoints, and a
questioning of the comfortable assumption of the
inherent superiority of our familiar ways of teaching and
learning. Moreover, the acceptance of foreign students
from underdeveloped countries is one of several ways in
which we as one of the world's wealthiest countries can
give assistance, to nations with a lower material standard
of living.
We also are mindful of the great benefits that Canada
has received in past decades and continues to receive
from having Canadians attend foreign universities,
especially for graduate education. In view of these
considerations we believe there is a strong case for the
Federal Government to provide grants for foreign
students in such a way that universities and colleges do
not have a financial inducement to discriminate against
them.
III. ONE ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM OF EQUITY.
Equity in admissions policies has many aspects. But
most of them do not have implications that would
require an amendment to the British North America Act.
The Federal Government attempts to offset the
disadvantages of residents in lower income provinces by
providing equalization grants which can be used for
educational or other purposes. Some would argue that
the role of the Federal Government in higher education
should be much greater, and that an amendment is
essential to achieve equity among differing income
groups. We do not go this far, believing that the existing
constitution is more flexible than is often realized in
coping with such a difficult problem.
Here we are concerned with one limited aspect of
equity — the degree to which private universities and
colleges and their students have not been treated equally
in terms of access to government financial support.
When the Federal Government was providing grants on a
per capita basis to accredited universities and colleges, it
treated private institutions on the same basis as public.
We understand that some provincial governments have
been unwilling to do this.
Notre Dame University of Nelson, a private university
in British Columbia, is an example of a university that
has not received equal treatment in terms of grants with
the three public universities of the province. If federal
support for university and college education were
withdrawn or significantly curtailed, apart from research
grants, some' private universities and colleges and their
students might suffer.
We recognize that an amendment to the British North
America Act cannot ensure that accredited private
universities and colleges will be treated fairly in
comparison with public institutions. In recommending
an amendment to the Act on the grounds set out in
earlier parts of this brief, we do favor an amendment
that removes doubts about the validity of federal grants
to private universities and colleges, and to their students.
We agree with the position taken by the Board of
Directors of the Association of Universities and Colleges
of Canada in their endorsation of a policy of
non-discrimination against church-related colleges and
universities ....
We propose an amendment to section 93 of the
British North America Act. We do not wish to suggest a
precise wording, since this would be the task of a
legislative draftsman. Rather we affirm the following
basic principle upon which such an amendment should
be prepared.
Without derogating from the authority of
provincial governments under section 93, the
Federal Government has a constitutional
responsibility for the financing of Canadian
post-secondary education, including research. In
accordance with this provision, the Parliament
of Canada is authorized to:
(i) provide grants for higher education to
provincial governments;
(ii) enter into agreements with provincial
governments to provide current and capital
grants to public and private universities, colleges
and other post-secondary educational
institutions in Canada;
(iii) make current and capital grants directly
to public and private universities, colleges and
other post-secondary educational Institutions
and research projects in any field;
(iv) provide scholarships, bursaries and loans
to students at public and private post-secondary
educational institutions.
UBC Reports/Feb. 11, 1971/5 AFTER THE RADICALS-WHAT?
By DON PALMER
President, Arts Undergraduate Society, UBC
The election of Stan Persky as President of the
Arts Undergraduate Society in 1967-68 marked a
distinct break in thinking about how the affairs of the
AUS should be conducted. Under Stan* there was no
charge for any activities of the Society — lockers,
dances, speakers and meetings were open without
charge to all students. In addition, Stan tried to
cultivate the love culture.
This method of operation was not without its
problems. In the ensuing two years more than 600
lockers in the Buchanan Building became unusable
because students who were leaving Hd not remove
locks. And because everything was free the Arts
Undergraduate Society was happy but broke. Stan's
successors fell far short of his achievements.
RESPONSIBLE
STUDENT GOVERNMENT
This year a core of responsible and hard-working
Arts students took over the leadership of the AUS.
The following is a brief report on their
accomplishments.
1. ACADEMICS. During registration week in 1970
the AUS sponsored a tremendously successful
orientation program which involved more than 2,000
students. Tents, set up on the lawn in front of the
Library, provided information on University and
community services. Noon-hour bands were especially
appreciated.
During the year the AUS has attempted to foster
the establishment of course unions. We have found
this idea to be relatively new to most students and
further work needs to be done to consolidate unions
and to acquaint other students with the basic
philosophy of student participation on committees
dealing with curriculum, teaching evaluation and
tenure.
2. SERVICES. In this area we have achieved an
outstanding record. A locker fee was reinstated in the
current year because the demand for lockers far
exceeded the supply and it seemed the only way to
systematically keep the lockers clean and usable. In
the current year 1,100 lockers were available to
students, an increase of 600 over last year.
A bank of vending machines has been installed
outside the AUS offices in Room 107 of the
Buchanan Building. This is a new service which has
proved very popular, especially after the Food
Services Snack Bar in the Buchanan Lounge closes.
Another service now provided for students is a
copying machine in the Buchanan Building. We are
considering installing a better model as soon as it is
available.
Because of the increased involvement of the AUS
in the affairs of the Faculty, it was found necessary
to acquire more office space in the Buchanan
Building. We are grateful to Dean Douglas Kenny, the
head of the Faculty, who gave up rooms 163 and 164
in Brock Hall to the AUS. These added facilities have
enabled us to publish a newsletter. The Scroll and
Moon,  three  times  since  September,   1970.  Only
*  Stan   Persky   is  now a graduate student and  teaching
assistant in UBC's Philosophy Department.
limited man-power and finances have prevented us
from publishing more often.
We have also undertaken the publication of an
academic journal, Thursday's Child. The journal is the
work of a few dedicated students and it is our hope
that Arts students will support this venture.
The AUS program this year has not been a total
success. The Arts Festival was not the success we
would like it to have been, partly because we did not
have the guidance of written records from previous
executives and, in addition, a lack of financial
resources limited our efforts. Next year's executive
will have the benefit of our past experience and
should be able to do a far better job.
While we have accomplished quite a bit, I do not
feel that the services mentioned above are the total
contribution that a student government can make. In
accepting the responsibility for improving services
and participating in academic decisions we feel that
there is another aspect to student government, an
aspect which I will call the radical perspective.
RADICAL STUDENT
POWER REDEFINED
The way to be truly radical is to work the system
and beat it. In the University we have two gigantic
bureaucratic systems — the University administration
and student government. To be truly radical we must
make the system work for us as students.
The first thing we must do is to set our own house
in order at which point we can make the University
administration work for us. In order for student
government to be effective the undergraduate
societies must be strong. Small changes make big ones
possible.
In the same way that Canada has one federal
government and 10 provincial governments, UBC has
a central government in the Alma Mater Society and
20 local governments — the undergraduate societies
and student associations. The local governments at
UBC must be financially independent so that they are
free to initiate programs which are meaningful to
their memberships. Meanwhile, the central
government can concentrate on campus-wide issues
and the provision of leadership and co-ordination of
activities whenever necessary. As things stand now
the AMS controls all student funds and, to a large
extent, programs.
GUARANTEED INCOME -
A RADICAL IMPROVEMENT
I have proposed to the Students' Council a
guaranteed income for the local governments. Each
undergraduate society would receive a basic grant of
$200 plus 40 cents for every registered student who is
a member of the undergraduate society (the table
below shows the grant that each undergraduate
society would receive based on last year's enrolment.)
The money will come out of the general student fee
levy collected each September.
The proposal also entails a shift of responsibilities
to the undergraduate societies. It is time that the
local governments on the UBC campus ran their own
affairs.
It is my feeling that most undergraduate societies
on the campus have come of age and those that are
still struggling to become strong must be encouraged
to stand on their own feet. I am convinced that the
financial proposal that I have made to the Students'
Council will not only provide financial security but a
moral stimulus to the undergraduate societies to be
both responsible and radical. The amount reallocated
to the undergraduate societies is relatively small in
terms of the overall AMS budget. The dividends will
be enormous.
PROPOSED FUND ALLOCATION 1971-72
The table shows the allocation of funds to the nearest dollar
under proposed By-law 11 for the academic year 1971—72
AMOUNT
NUMBER OF
CONTRIBUTED
UNDERGRADUATE
ALLOCATION
PROPOSAL -
STUDENTS
TO AMS @ $9
SOCIETY
1970-71
$200 plus $.40
IN SOCIETY
PER STUDENT
Agriculture
$   150
$     284
210
$    1,890
Architecture
Nil
256
139
1,215
Arts
750
2,445
5,613
50,517
Commerce
Nil
614
1,036
9,354
Dentistry
Nil
264
161
1,449
Education
865
1,470
3,175
28,575
Engineering
Nil
658
1,144
10,296
Forestry
Nil
293
233
2,097
Graduate Students Association
Nil
520
800
7,200
Home Economics
Nil
303
258
2,322
Law
Nil
446
614
5,526
Librarianship
50
235
88
792
Medicine
60
301
252
2,268
Nursing
Nil
292
230
2,070
Pharmacology
Nil
290
226
2,034
Physical Education
Nil
375
438
3,942
Recreation
Nil
247
118
'     1,062
Rehabilitation Medicine
Nil
250
124
1,116
Science
500
1,624
3,560
32,040
Social Work
125
263
157
1,413
TOTALS
$2,500
$11,430
18,576
$166,977
Theological Colleges to Combine
A new ecumenical theological centre will come
into existence at the University of B.C. in 1971
providing a private member's bill is approved at the
current session of the provincial legislature.
The new institution, to be known as the
Vancouver School of Theology, will include both
Anglican and Union College of B.C., two of the main
centres in Canada training men and women for
careers in the Anglican and United Churches.
The constitution of the new School, which has
been approved by the Boards of both Colleges, has
only one additional hurdle to clear, approval by the
B.C. Legislature through the Private Bills Committee.
It is expected that the new School will come into
existence when the bill receives Royal assent in the
spring. At that time, both Anglican and Union
Colleges will will be combined in the new School.
The move to create a single centre for theological
education in B.C. is the result of a policy adopted by
6/UBC Reports/Fob. 11,1971
the American Association of Theological Schools of
favoring the concentration of theological education in
18 major institutions in the United States and
Canada. The only centre favored in the Pacific
northwest and western Canada is Vancouver.
UBC's Senate and Board of Governors have
approved a proposal that the new School be affiliated
with the University, in the same way that Anglican
and Union Colleges have been affiliated with UBC in
the past.
Under the terms of the Universities Act, Anglican
and Union Colleges each appoint one member to the
UBC Senate. The new ecumenical school, because it
will combine the two Colleges, ultimately will
appoint two members to the UBC Senate.
However, until the Universities Act is amended at
some future date the new School will be represented
on Senate by one voting member and one observer.
The University Senate will name two of its members
to sit on the Senate of the new School when it comes
into existence.
The continued affiliation of the new School with
UBC points up another increasingly important facet
of theological education, the marked trend of such
education to become more closely related to
university training.
The new Centre will provide facilities for training
men and women for the professional ministry,
advanced study of theology and research, instruction
in theology for laymen, and would serve as an
ecumenical centre for theological dialogue among
persons of different disciplines and theological
viewpoints.
Both Anglican and United College occupy land
rented from the University on 999-year leases. The
financing of both colleges is entirely independent of
the University, as will be the financing of the new
School. TWO MEMBERS of UBC's Faculty of
Education, Dr. Reid Mitchell, left, and Mr.
Ben Whitinger, discuss a previously-recorded
micro-teaching performance by a student
teacher. Dr. Mitchell believes the
micro-teaching technique could  be used to
improve the quality of teaching by UBC
professors. For details of the micro-teaching
technique, see story below.
TV AIDS STUDENTS IN EDUCATION
By DORIS HOPPER
Assistant I nformation Officer, UBC
UBC's Faculty of Education is using television as a
technique for improving teaching.
The technique could be used to improve the
quality of teaching at the university level and to
improve the performance of teachers already
practising in schools, according to Dr. J. Reid
Mitchell, the man who oversees the innovative
program within the Faculty of Education.
The technique is called micro-teaching and
includes videotaping of a teaching experience in
miniature.
TEACHES LESSON
During in-class practice teaching sessions, a student
teaches a lesson of five or six minutes to a group of
his peers. The fledgling teacher's performance is
videotaped and is later replayed. The camera never
lies, and during the playback process the prospective
teacher is brought face to face with his own teaching
performance.
Dr. Mitchell believes, however, that the technique
of videotaping teaching performances has possibilities
for much wider application within a variety of
different settings.
At the university level, for example, larger
faculties could acquire their own videotaping
equipment and use the technique to record a faculty
member's teaching performance during a lecture for
later evaluation by himself or by a committee of his
peers.
Dr. Mitchell points out that in some areas of the
United States teachers are submitting videotaped
recordings of their teaching performance as part of
their application for teaching positions in U.S. school
districts.
"Learning to see yourself as others see you" can
be a powerful incentive toward improving teaching
skills.
"My own feeling is that teachers are
actor-entertainers," says Dr. Mitchell, who believes
that in order to hold the attention of a classroom a
teacher must be a "salesman as well as an educator."
Dr. Mitchell acknowledges that the videotaped
micro-teaching sessions do have their drawbacks.
Some students, for example, knowing that they are
"on camera," are overcome with self-consciousness.
"You get some people who almost freeze when
they start. They know they are being taped and these
people often have a basic nervousness," he said.
He argues, however, that even people who
experience this problem are learning something
valuable about their own reactions. Once such a
problem has been identified, he said, it can more
easily be overcome.
Dr. Mitchell said that the real handicap to the
micro-teaching sessions is that teaching a small group
of peers is not the same as the real live experience of
teaching in a classroom. "In a sense there is a bit of
role-playing," he said.
Dr. Mitchell believes, however, that the method's
advantages far outweigh its disadvantages and that its
real value lies in allowing evaluation of performances
when the videotapes are rerun.
Dr. Mitchell believes that teachers should be
encouraged to learn now to project their own
personalities in a way that will command attention
and that in order to do this they need to acquire
many of the same techniques that are used by
polished stage performers.
MOVE AROUND
"Varying the visual stimulus" is one technique
which Dr. Mitchell described. More simply stated,
that means "move around."
"A     little    dynamism    in    yourself    generates
enthusiasm," he explained.
"Non-verbal cuing," or the use of facial or hand
expressions as a means of enhancing communication,
is another useful technique.
"Sometimes body movement or facial changes can
be upsetting. Sometimes they are very effective.
Often we are unaware of our own ideosyncrasies,"
said Dr. Mitchell, "but the videotape recordings help
reveal us to ourselves.
"A smile on your face is the most important visual
cue you can give, but some of our students never
knew what it was to smile," Dr. Reid pointed out.
"Maybe they are a little tight and afraid to relax, but
we try to convince them that it is easier to smile than
it is to frown because it involves fewer muscles," he
said.
RESEARCH TOOL
The micro-teaching technique is being used by
several other Canadian universities as well as
universities in the United States.
The concept is based on some research work done
at Stanford University by Dr. Dwight Allan who used
the micro-teaching method as a research tool for
identifying basic technical teaching skills such as
verbal cuing, questioning skills and so on.
The method has been adapted by UBC faculty
members as a reinforcement for teacher training and
is also used here for evaluating method courses.
The treatment of subject material through the use
of particular procedures is emphasized in methods
courses and during playback it can be determined
how effective certain materials such as graphs and
charts are in reinforcing a lesson.
Micro-teaching experiences are occasionally taped
in the Faculty of Education's educational television
studios, but most often the seminars and methods
courses are taped in the classroom using one of two
portable videotape units supplied through the ETV
studios.
UBC Reports/Feb. 11, 1971/7 New Media Centre Will
Help Enliven Lectures
A new centre has been created on the campus
which should help faculty members liven up lectures.
The Instructional Media Centre has been created
through the amalgamation of previously existing
audio-visual, photographic and printing facilities on
the campus.
"Our major effort will be to work with faculty
members to encourage the use of sophisticated
instructional aids to help enhance lectures," said Mr.
T.G.J. Whitehead, director of the new centre. He said
that faculty members who have become aware of the
new service have responded enthusiastically.
The President's Committee on Campus
Communications Media has recommended that a
major responsibility of the new centre should be the
co-ordination of all existing audio-visual and video
OPINION
The following editorial, entitled "Citizenship
Hysteria," appeared in Incubus, a publication of
the Education Undergraduate Society. It was
signed by Miss Janet McGregor, a fifth-year
Education student and one of the newsletters
editors
Many campus voices have expressed concern
about the citizenship of university professors and
the loss of our "Canadian identity." As a result, a
wave of paranoia has swept through faculty circles
when hiring, promotion and committee
appointments arise. Worried that immigrant status
will jeopardize their chances for advancement,
professors often look for jobs elsewhere, or failing
this, succumb to the pressure to become Canadian
citizens.
The majority of non-Canadian faculty members
are well aware of the cultural differences between
their country and ours and take pains to ensure
that their course material, references, etc. are
Canadian oriented, thus preserving whatever
Canadian identity we may have.
However, a popular notion has developed in the
high levels of university administration that
administrators should give preference to Canadian
profs - then look for good Americans, providing,
of course, they are willing to take out Canadian
citizenship!
Since when is citizenship a criteria of teaching
ability? I am certain that if a survey were taken
among Education students to evaluate the teaching
competency of our professors, the Canadians
overall would come out no better than American
ones — indeed they might be rated considerably
lower. Unquestionably the most popular
professors in this faculty are non-Canadian.
Campus-wide, non-Canadians seem to be more
vital, enthusiastic people — and this is reflected in
the courses they teach. I would suggest that they
are an outgrowth of a more imaginative, innovative
school system — particularly that of the United
States.
In Canada, on the other hand, we emerge
complacently from a system that discourages and
eventually sqeulches any spark of creative,
independent thinking which may dare to shine
through the sterile environment in which our
minds are locked. Unfortunately, complacent
children become teachers and professors, only to
perpetuate this state of mind — stagnation.
We are doing a serious injustice to many
valuable people by barring their admittance merely
on the basis of citizenship.
■ ■■A4fc Volume 17, No. 4 - Feb. 11,
I III I" 1971. Published by the
IIBBIB University of British Columbia
MaymaW^ay and distributed free. UBC
REPORTS Reports appears on Thursdays
during the University's winter session. J.A.
Banham, Editor. Ruby Eastwood, Production
Supervisor. Letters to the Editor should be sent
to Information Services, Main Mall North
Administration Building, UBC, Vancouver 8,
B.C.
equipment on campus.
"Such equipment has been acquired on an ad hoc
basis by various faculties and frequently sits idle,"
Mr. Whitehead explained. "Once the equipment has
been co-ordinated, it can be put to better use by all
faculties. Also, some of the equipment now in
existence is not compatible and we hope through
co-ordination to ensure compatibility in the future."
The centre's own portable videotape equipment is
available for microteaching encounters both on and
off campus. One imaginative use to which the
equipment has already been put is the videotaping of
a simulated earthquake. The quake was a graduate
student research project in civil engineering.
The centre also has a variety of audio-visual
equipment available for loan to faculty, including 16
mm. and 8 mm. film projectors, tape recorders, slide
projectors and overhead projectors.
In addition the centre maintains a catalogued
collection of approximately 2,000 instructional films
which can be used to supplement lectures. Qualified
librarians are available to assist in obtaining any other
film that a faculty member may want for temporary
use. A further 200 films can be made available by the
centre for use by off-campus community
organizations and schools.
The photographic section of the new centre
includes a graphic arts department which can produce
printing plates for offset presses. The department can
reproduce any kind of copy that a faculty member
may wish to use in illustrating a lecture, including
photographs, line cuts, graphs and charts.
In addition, the photographic section can assist
faculty in the production of color or black-and-white
slides and of overhead transparencies.
A  further responsibility  is maintaining progress
MR. TOM WHITEHEAD
shots of all buildings under construction on the
campus for the Special Collections Division of the
Library.
Two professional photographers are available on
an assignment basis for photographs of a public
relations nature and are responsible for free
photographic portraits of all faculty members. The
department will also supply passport photos at a
minimum charge. Faculty members are reminded that
faculty portraits should be updated every two or
three years.
Last but not least among the new centre's services
is a small duplicating section which consists of an
offset press and a highly sophisticated Xerox. The
Xerox can produce quality theses which will be
accepted by all University libraries and the centre
expects to be able to provide virtually same-day
service.
The Instructional Media Centre is located in the
old   Extension  Department huts on the East Mall
opposite   the   Cunningham   Building   and   can   be
reached at 228-4771.
CANADA'S Minister of Communications, Hon. Eric
Kierans, speaks today at 12:30 p.m. in the Hebb
Theatre on UBC's East Mall on Canada's
communications satellite program. Talk is sponsored
by UBC's lectures committee.
Bus Routes Alter
B.C. Hydro will make some changes in existing
campus  bus routes  Friday  (Feb.   12)  designed toj^^
improve   connections   to   Vancouver   and   relieve^"^
congestion at intersections on Wesbrook Crescent and
University Boulevard.
Bus route A from Hastings St. in downtown
Vancouver will approach UBC via University
Boulevard and return via the same route after
terminating at the East Mall loop.
Presently the A bus returns to the city via
University Boulevard only after travelling to the loop
at the north end of the Main Mall via Wesbrook
Crescent, Chancellor Boulevard and Crescent Road.
Bus route B, which approaches UBC via Chancellor
and returns to the city via University Boulevard after
stops at the Main and East Mall loops, will follow the
same route as in the past. Service, however, will
originate at Broadway and Granville St. on a regul
basis instead of from the Blanca and Chancellor lo
on a random basis, as in the past.
Bus route C, which approaches UBC via Marine
Drive from 41st and Granville, will follow the same
route as in the past but service will originate at 41st
and Oak St. on a continuing basis.
EMPLOYMENT
Continued from Page One
be possible for many students to be still able to teach
in B.C. on a letter of permission."
In addition to the intensive survey of students
graduating from the Faculty of Education, Student
Services has compiled information on students who
received other types of bachelor's degrees in 1970.
The following list shows the number of 1970 UBC
graduates currently registered for employment with
the Office of Student Services as compared with the
total number of 1970 graduates in each discipline (in
brackets). Students Services notes that while
probably not all graduates seeking employment are
registered with the placement office, the number
registered represents a reasonable index.
•
Engineering Physics
2
(
14)
Chemical Engineering
2
(
39)
Civil Engineering
1
(
44)
Electrical Engineering
4
(
57)
Geological Engineering
0
(
17)
Mechanical Engineering
2
(
43)
Metallurgical Engineering
0
(
7)
Mineral Engineering
0
(
8)
Commerce
5
(
199)
Agriculture
2
(
50)
Home Economics
0
(
78)
Law
1
(
140)
Physical Education
2
(
59)
Forestry
1
(
51)
Nursing
0
(
49)
Arts
45
(1,011)
Science
27
(
513)
8/UBC Reports/Feb. 11,1971

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