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UBC Publications

UBC Reports Oct 26, 1972

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OCTOBER   26,  1972, VANCOUVER  8, B.C.
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Mrs. Eileen Daillv, B. C. 's animated Minister of Education, recently discussed her educational ideas with UBC Assistant Information Officer John Arnett.
By John Arnett
It's probably indicative of the real deep-down feelings
of British Columbia's new Minister of Education that
one of the first changes to occur within the Legislature
under the New Democratic Party government was a
small victory for the cause of equal rights for women.
Mrs. Eileen Dailly has long been an advocate of page
girls to join the dark-uniformed young boys who scurry
back and forth across the floor of the Legislative
Chamber carrying messages and glasses of water and
otherwise attending to the immediate wants of the
On Feb. 5, 1969, she made an impassioned plea in the
house for page girls stating, at that time, that "in this
province and elsewhere in Canada women are not being
given equal opportunities to men."
It took a change in government to do it, but on Oct.
12, 1972, Mrs. Dailly's request was granted as the then
speaker-designate, Mr. Gordon Dowding, swore in seven
page girls for duties during the special October session of
the Legislature.
One gets the feeling, in conversation with Mrs. Dailly,
that her interest in education is matched only by her
concern for women's rights.
"When I talk about women's rights, I don't say give
women equal opportunities or put them in high
positions just because they are women. They have to
prove themselves first, just the same as a man."
She leans forward in her chair and continues,
earnestly: "But I do say that women should be given the
same opportunities as men to advance to the highest
positions in whatever field of endeavor they choose."
Warming to her subject, she singles out higher
education as an area in which she believes there is
distinct discrimination against women.
"I recall when we had the briefs presented to us on
tenure (she was a member of the Legislature's Standing
Committee on Social Welfare and Education, which was
asked to review tenure at B.C.'s three public universities
during the last session), one excellent brief came from a
women's group at UBC.
"It pointed out how few women there are in
positions of authority and responsibility at the
University, positions such as heads of Faculties and so
on. I would like to discuss this with University
"I don't intend to interfere with the autonomy of
universities, but I would like to find out why there are
so few women in these positions of authority and what,
if anything, is being done about it.
"It's not only in universities where this occurs. Take
government. How many women are deputy ministers?
Overriding all of this is an attitude that must be broken
down. In the search for a new head of a Faculty or a
deputy minister there seems to be a tendency to look at
the men first. We have to get this attitude changed and
look at the women too."
Hon. Eileen Elizabeth Dailly, Minister of Education,
Deputy President of the Executive Countil and Deputy
Premier of British Columbia, knows whereof she speaks.
She has proven herself in the traditionally male
world of politics and she sees no reason why other
women can't do likewise.
"l think that I have probably earned the position,"
she says with an almost mischievous smile. The fact is
that as a former school teacher, school trustee and
Opposition education critic (and a parent to boot) she is
without a doubt one of the best qualified persons ever to
assume the post of Education Minister in this province.
Not the first woman, mind you. The late Mrs. Tilly
Rolston achieved that milestone in the history of women
in politics in British Columbia in August, 1952.
But veteran Victoria observers are quick to point out
that, with the possible exception of the Attorney-
General, Mr. Alex MacDonald, Mrs. Dailly has the best
qualifications of any cabinet minister for her post.
Those qualifications enabled her to move quickly on
future policy pronouncements that have teachers and
trustees excited about the future for education in this
Item: B.C. School Trustees' Association President
Jack Smedley (after meeting with new minister): "I'm
very heartened. (This meeting) heralds a situation that
hasn't been in evidence for quite a few years. It is
possible to think a consensus will develop, with teachers,
as to the direction of education in B.C.''
Item: B.C. Teachers' Federation President Adam
Robertson (after the same meeting): "I think we are on
the threshold of an area of opportunity to provide a
truly worthwhile school system for our children. I see no
reason why teachers and trustees can't work in
partnership with the Department of Education and its
Mrs. Dailly has also met with the Presidents of B.C.'s
three public universities, but has delayed further
pronouncements on higher education policies until after
the special session of the Legislature.
First priority: release of the long-secret Perry Report
on High Education, completed in 1969 by Dr. G. Neil
Perry, then Deputy Minister of Education and a former
Deputy President of UBC.
Mrs.   Dailly had only been in office for three short
Please turn to Page Two
Continued from Page One
weeks when she consented to sit down in her office in
the Douglas building in Victoria for a short interview
with UBC Reports.
Short because, at this stage of the game Mrs. Dailly
has too many things on her mind to get into a detailed
discussion of her educational philosophies.
There are more important things to be done than just
sitting talking.
Her king-sized desk is covered with correspondence,
files and reports. A dainty china rose-patterned teacup
and saucer, half filled with cold tea, rests somewhat
precariously on a sheaf of papers.
The late afternoon sun, more golden than usual on
this autumn day, slants across the roof of the venerable
Parliament Buildings across the street and illuminates a
picture of the B.C. Institute of Technology. It is the
only picture, other than a rather stern portrait of the
Queen, that the former occupant of this somewhat
austere office chose to leave behind.
The walls, in need of a paint job, are dotted with fade
marks where pictures used to hang. "I have been just too
busy to even think about redecorating," Mrs. Dailly says,
half apologetically. "I just moved in, sat down and
started work and I have hardly looked up since."
It's still too early, after only three weeks in office, to
leave the visitor with the impression that it's her office.
There are none of the feminine touches that will
inevitably appear because the occupant, who will no
doubt criticize the writer as a male chauvinist for saying
so, is a very feminine person. Maybe the transition from
so long in Opposition has been too fast to be really
On the other end of that black desk telephone are
deputy ministers, superintendents of education, fellow
cabinet ministers and even the Premier himself. Instant
contact at the whirl of a dial. A far cry from Opposition
days and busy signals.
But if Mrs. Dailly appears to be uncertain about her
new surroundings, there's nothing uncertain about her
plans for the future.
She has, as Mr. A.C. Durkin, secretary-treasurer of the
Burnaby School Board, where she served as a trustee for
10 years says, "been where it's at."
"She's battled away on behalf of the kids of this
province for more than a quarter of a century - 10 years
as an elementary teacher; 10 years as a trustee and six
years as Opposition education critic. And now she's in
the driver's seat."
From the driver's seat the immediate problems, after
consultations with departmental officials and heads of
the teachers' and trustees' organizations, sounded
depressingly familiar.
More money was urgently needed to get some boards
out of a serious financial hole and permit them to get on
with the job of educating children.
Step on the gas, get moving!
Announcement: $633,870 in emergency financial aid
to 28 school districts to enable them to, among other
things, hire 18 teachers, 74 teachers' aides, an unspecified number of substitute teachers and purchase
some resource materials. That flow of emergency money
will continue as more emergencies arise.
Mrs. Dailly is the first to admit that, because of her
background in the public school system, she has a far
better knowledge of elementary and secondary schools
than higher education.
2/UBC Reports/Oct. 26, 1972
But she has had two years' exposure to post-
secondary school education through Grade XIII at John
Oliver high school and a year of teacher training at the
old Provincial Normal School in Vancouver before it
became the Faculty of Education at UBC in 1956.
She's kept in close touch with university problems as
MRS. EILEEN DAILY: "The universities must
have an opportunity to talk to this department
about their needs .... there will be consultation
with everyone involved — university presidents,
faculty members and students."
a member of the Opposition and had no shortage of
university contacts to keep her informed on problems
faced by the universities.
She says examination of the records shows that the
Social Credit government didn't seem to have any
policies on higher education at all. The Perry Report was
supposed to set up guidelines but was never released.
She shakes her head in wonderment. "It just doesn't
make sense. If they thought there was a need to
commission the report, why on earth didn't they release
The new NDP government has, on the other hand,
some very definite policies with regard to higher
education, she adds.
Universities and regional colleges will be governed
under a new "Higher Education Act." Under new
financing arrangements colleges will probably be
financed on the same basis as universities, transferring
college costs from local ratepayers to provincial coffers.
There will be a broader community spectrum on the
CJOR's Jack Webster was hot after the facts
during a recent radio interview with Mrs. Dailly. She
kept her cool. Some of the questions to do with
higher education sounded like this:
MR. JACK WEBSTER: What plans do you have
for the Board of Governors at UBC?
MRS. EILEEN DAILLY: We have gone on record
as saying that we should change the representation on
the boards of governors because we don't feel the
spectrum is right.
MR. WEBSTER: Listen, weren't there some
orders-in-council slipped through putting people on
the Board of Governors after the Social Credit was
MRS. DAILLY: That's correct Jack.
MR. WEBSTEFI: We should name some of them ,
... no I won't name them because they might be
perfectly good people whom you  might choose to .
boards of governors of universities, with details yet to be
spelled out.
A committee on post-secondary education is to be
established to set guidelines and discuss policies. "Before
we start making changes which I feel are badly needed,   .
we have to know where we are going. That's why we
need a committee," she says.
She's; anxious to take a long, hard look at university
financing. "There has to be some basis for the financing
of universities.   I  don't  know what present grants are
based on. I couldn't find out in Opposition, maybe I can   -
find out now."
The Ontario system of making grants to universities
has impressed her. "I have talked about that system in
the House. They have a weighted formula, so that at
least the universities have guidelines in drawing up their
Mrs. Dailly has noted a levelling-off in university
enrolments and speculates that community colleges
could be the reason for this. "This could take financial
pressures off the universities, I don't know. But I am
sure that the universities will be able to make a case for
more money."
Mrs. Dailly is looking forward to frequent communication with university officials. "The universities must
have an opportunity to talk to this department about
their needs. This was greatly lacking in the past.
"Before any changes are made in higher education
legislation, there will be consultation with everyone
involved — university presidents, faculty members and
"I'm not sure how this will be achieved but I am
determined to get as much feedback as possible from the
people who are most affected. r
"I definitely think that students should be consulted.
After all, they are the users of the product, the ones in
the system. If we are going to bring in changes, certainly
the students cannot be ignored."
She's a firm believer in the independence of
universities, particularly in fiscal matters and, as a
member of that select legislative committee on tenure *-
she agrees wholeheartedly with one of the main
conclusions which recommended, in effect, that
universities work together to solve tenure problems.
As toi the committee itself: "The final report was
innocuous and, f'ankly, I don't know why the
committee was called together in the first place."
On money matters, Mrs. Dailly believes that she will
get a good hearing from a friendly Minister of Finance.
But she's going to have to make a case for more cash
for education just as her fellow ministers will no doubt
be in there pitching for increased budgets.
She's realistic enough to recognize that the provincial
treasury is no bottomless well and that sne can't give -
everybody everything that they ask for. But through
careful assessment of the need, based on two-way
communication, she believes that she can put up a pretty
strong case for increases where they are needed.
"There is one thing about the New Democratic Party.
We do have a philosophy and when it comes to •
education it is a consistent philosophy. No matter
whether it be Premier, cabinet minister or MLA, we give
education priority. Education of all of our citizens. I
know that I speak for Premier Barrett and all other
members of our party when I say that."
Future discussions of that philosophy will no doubt "" CONVERSATION WITH  WEBSTER
leave there. But Social Credit slipped these names in
when they should have left them for you to approve.
Didn't they?
MRS. DAILLY: Very unethical, right. There we
' were, with the people already appointed. However in
the spring legislation I'm hoping to present
amendments to the Universities Act which will
restructure, to some degree, the whole setup of the
Board of Governors, so that there is a broader
representation. It has been weighted with a certain
r group from society.
MR. WEBSTER: You know perfectly well that it
has been representative entirely of the establishment.
MRS. DAILLY: Exactly, and this is wrong.
MR. WEBSTER: You are going to have to get
some good left-wing trade unionists on there, aren't
- you?
MRS. DAILLY: We are going to have to get a
spectrum of society.
MR. WEBSTER: You mean good left-wing trade
unionists. And that applies to Simon Fraser too,
doesn't it, Mrs. Dailly?
MRS. DAILLY: It applies to all of the Boards of
Governors. There has been, as you say, a certain
elitist group on the Board of Governors. We don't
agree with that.
MR. WEBSTER: How do you feel about
Canadianism. Are you anti-American?
MRS. DAILLY: No, I'm not anti-American.
MR. WEBSTER: Not even a wee bit?
MRS. DAILLY: Well, if you want to get me
started on Viet Nam and their policies, yes, I would
say I am against that, but anti-American, I don't
know what you mean, I'm not against the Americans
MR. WEBSTER: Well, hypothetically speaking, we
will say that 40 per cent of the faculty at UBC and
Simon Fraser are non-Canadian. Are you for that?
MRS. DAILLY: No, I frankly think that is
something that has been wrong, arid I think naturally
what happened in the past, Jack. I guess you think I
am being too national about it, but we didn't have
enough post-graduate people to fill these posts. But
now we do and now we had better start looking at it.
Very quickly.
MR. WEBSTER: I think that you are going to have
to chop off the old boy network which is still hiring
Americans who up till now had this fantastic tax
MRS. DAILLY: That's right.
MR. WEBSTER: The scoundrels. I don't really
mean scoundrels. But at least tha feds have closed
that door now.
revolve around some separation of the ministerial duties
in the education field.
The time's not too far off, she believes, when there
will be a separate Ministry of Higher Education in B.C.
r Ontario has made the separation and when time permits
Mrs. Dailly plans to head east to see how it works.
And that philosophy will no doubt expound ways
and means of making higher education available to more
students, particularly those who have trouble finding the
cash to go to university.
"There should be some form of aid to every student
who has the ability to go to university, regardless of
economic circumstances," she says.
She rules out free tuition as the solution, preferring,
perhaps, some kind of expanded bursary program, bcised
on need.
Mrs. Dailly is anxious to get around the province to
" see for herself what makes things tick. "I don't want to
get bogged down behind this desk. I want to get out to
the schools and the colleges and the universities to meet
Meeting people, making people feel at ease. Being a
good listener.
Those who are closest to Eileen Deiilly, daughter of an
" Irish sea captain father and a Scottish mother, say that
she is a people person.
Not  the  outgoing  hand-shaking  politician   type  of
person, but quiet and sincere. "She isn't what you would
call a politician type at all," says brother Jack Gilmore, a
Burnaby school  principal  and  himself an innovator in
„  education.
"In any group of half a dozen you would never pick
her out as the politician. She would probably be the
quietest of all.
"She's always been that way," adds Mr. Gilmore,
whose interest in CCF politics in the late '30s and early
.   '40s got her interested too.
"She was never self-asserting. She was always a nice
kid. I don't recall her ever being mean or anything like
that. She was pleasant and easy-going and has retained
that temperament over the years."
Mr. Gilmore, a politician in his own right, as a
municipal councillor in Coquitlam, says that events of
the Depression had a great influence on both his and
Eileen's political thinking.
Their father, Paddy Gilmore, one of the best-known
captains of the Vancouver waterfront, lost his job as
captain of a harbor narcotics patrol boat in the mid-30s,
when the RCMP took over the patrol duties.
"That was our first exposure to the economic
problems of the Depression. Dad used to walk all the
way from our home in the Dunbar area to the
~ waterfront each day looking for a job, but he couldn't
get one. He was an experienced master mariner but he
would have taken a job sweeping decks."
The Dailly family moved to a lower rent district in
the East End   of Vancouver. "Seeing dad having to go
out every day looking for work, witnessing the tremen-
-  dous blow to his pride, left a lasting impression on us,"
Mr. Gilmore recalls.
It was to be three years and a variety of temporary
jobs before Paddy  Gilmore was to stand again at the
helm of his own vessel. "We realized, during these hard
years   that   surely   someone   could   do   something   to
""  prevent a recurrence of the Depression," says his son.
For Eileen it was on to General Brock elementary and
John Oliver high school and increasing involvement in
CCF student politics.
As British Columbia's future Minister of Education
was getting her first taste of the politics that would
propel her towards a job at the top, she was also
encountering some of the rigidity in the education
system that she is so determined to get rid of now that
she has the job.
("It seems that we are still bogged down in a system
that really hasn't changed much since I went to school"
she was to say, 30 years later.)
"In those days," recalls Mr. Gilmore, "the brightest
students sat at the front of the class. The lower you
ranked, the closer you were towards the back.
"Eileen sat near the back for two or three years
before anyone realized that her eyesight was poor. They
weren't very strong on school medicals in those days.
Once she got glasses she started moving toward the front
John Oliver's principal, J.T.E. Palmer, had a
reputation as a stern disciplinarian who ran a tight,
academically-oriented school.
Eileen, and her occasional date, young Ray Perrault,
who was later to carve his own niche in politics as a
Liberal, knuckled under to the system and did pretty
well in all of their subjects except mathematics.
It wasn't that she couldn't do math (she was to write
the government exam at the end of Grade XII and get an
85 per cent mark). It was the system that turned her off.
The theatre was another of Eileen Dailly's interests at
high school. Along with Joy Coghill, who was later to
become well-known in Vancouver theatrical circles, she
performed in plays and radio programs. She took courses
in drama from Bill Buckingham. A theatrical career
beckoned. She had the looks, the personality, the stage
bearing, the voice, and most of all, the talent.
But teaching seemed a more challenging vocation for
a young woman with a lively interest in politics and a
growing concern for people.
After a year at Vancouver Normal School, 1945, off
to a school on Denman Island. Jobs were scarce in the
Lower Mainland for young teachers those days and they
had to go out into the country to find one.
Denman Island she remembers fondly. A one-room
school, pot-bellied stove and Grades I to VIII, with time
out of a hectic schedule to do Little Theatre at
Courtenay. A year later, a move to Kitchener Elementary in Burnaby and an eight-year stay before moving to
Inman Ave. Elementary, in 1954, for two years.
In 1951 she married James Dailly, a Vancouver
fireman and former professional boxer who, like her
mother, was born in Dundee. Husband Jim was later to
enter politics as a Burnaby alderman, only to resign
when his wife became Education Minister to move to
Victoria. The Daillys have one son, Robert John, born in
Eileen Dailly ran for the Burnaby School Board in
1956 because she was frustrated with her experiences in
the classroom and wanted to work for change.
"One of my Grade XII classes at Kitchener had 50
students. It was impossible for a teacher to work under
those conditions. There were many other things that
bothered me about the system too."
She worked so hard and well :hat she was re-elected
for four successive terms and sen/ed as board chairman
on three different occasions.
She gave up the job of schcol trustee to run for
provincial office for much the seme reasons as she had
left teaching. "The school board was just another level
of frustration. I discovered that tne school board was in
a straitjacket because of government education policies."
She was elected as NDP MLA in the newly-created
Burnaby North riding in 1966 and has held the riding
through two elections.
As NDP education critic through her years in the
House she was the automatic choice as Education
Minister. Her years in a decision-making role as a school
trustee give her excellent background for the job.
"The diplomatic thing for me to say is that as a
trustee she was as good as any ancl better than most, so I
will say it," says Mr. A.C. Durkin, veteran secretary-
treasurer of the Burnaby School Board.
"But she was much more than that. Over the years
she fought consistently for improvements in the learning
situation in the district and was particularly concerned
with the needs of students and teachers."
In the 10 years that Mrs. Dailly was on the Burnaby
board the budget jumped from $4.3 million to $11.7
million and the school population rose from 17,500 to
29,900 students.
"The board faced problems that at times seemed
insurmountable. In those days we were a relatively poor
district, with limited resources and a booming
"On top of that we had traditionally elected NDP
MLAs to the legislature so we didn't have much pull in
Victoria. The going was rough, but we made it, thanks to
trustees such as Eileen," recalls Mr. Durkin.
Mrs. Dailly knows that she is going to have to draw
heavily on her long experience as a school trustee in her
work as Education Minister.
Aware of the difficulties that school boards have
experienced in the past in trying to get their views across
in Victoria she has already made things a lot easier.
Words like communication and feedback and cooperation have reappeared around the Department of
The shadows playing on her office wall get longer and
the intercom buzzes impatiently to remind the Minister
that her next appointments are building up in a holding
pattern outside and there is some correspondence to be
completed and phone calls to be answered.
Time for a firm handshake, a word of goodbye.
A parting comment: "Everyone, you know, is an
expert on education. People are inundating me with
ideas. The volume of mail, I am told, is greater than ever
before. I want to hear from people.
"If you have any ideas yourself, let me know." A
chuckle: "But write, don't call."
People, meeting people, making people feel at ease.
Mr. Durkin, of the Burnaby School Board summed it
up: "She always made people feel at ease. She was
always interested in people."
And her brother, Jack: "People warm up to her."
And you reflect, as you tread the polished corridors
of the Douglas Building and st;p out into the crisp
autumn air, that Eileen Dailly is a people person.
UBC Reports/Oct. 26, 1972/3 A Witty Book
By a
Witty Man
DANCE   TO   THE   ANTHILL,   by   Geoffrey   B.
114 pages. $5 95
When Prof. Geoffrey B. Riddehough retired
two years ago from the UBC Department of
Classics, his colleagues in the Buchanan Building
lost one of their wittiest and most learned
companions. Prof. Riddehough still visits the
campus, of course, but the almost daily supply of
anecdotes, puns, rhymes, and mordant observations that only he could supply has necessarily
As if to compensate for this deprivation, and to
make his wit known to an even wider public.
Discovery Press has now published a selection of
Prof. Riddebough's verse, DANCE TO THE
ANTHILL. The volume contains nearly 200 sharp
and sometimes biting bits of verse, a generous
sample of their author's unique view of life.
Epigrams may seem to be the easiest kind of
verse to produce. But the ultimate standard of
success is ruthless. If the verse does not delight
immediately and stick to the mind long afterward,
then it is a failed epigram, one of the most dismal
objects in the literary universe. DANCE TO THE
ANTHILL contains a high percentage of successful
epigrams, although not all readers will necessarily
point to the same successes.
A restricted number of targets have always
attracted the shots of satirists. Academics, for
example, are a veritable zoo of odd specimens.
This is how Prof. Riddehough spears the dull
After Listening to a Learned Paper
The part is numb
On which I sit.
The rest of me
Now envies it.
Physicians and clergymen, those who tend the
body and the soul, have also been immemorial
objects of satirists and Prof. Riddehough finds
gold in these classic veins. Fads and fashions, the
strange aberrations that occasionally stampede
segments of society, always invite satiric darts.
The supreme subject, however, which the male
satirist could never resist, at least as a subject of
verse, is women. Prof. Riddehough has studied
them sharply:
Her hair, right to the present day,
Retains its golden hue.
It hasn't shown a trace of grey
Since 1962. '
Prof. Riddehough's barbed verses on women might
be called, in these days of Female Liberation,
refreshingly retrograde. The ladies will perhaps
find other phrases.
A selection of limericks, as might be anticipated, crowns the volume. This was once an
underground form of verse, in the older sense of
"underground". Most of the classics have now
been collected and printed. Prof. Riddehough's
examples hardly challenge the censor, but will
nevertheless delight the collector. Such fine
Canadian names as Bloor, Namu, and Lillooet have
been      dealt      with      authoritatively,      perhaps
decisively. It is surprising to see Cheyenne made to
rhyme with "again" and "Ben." This would puzzle
John Wayne. An unmistakable clue to the ordinary
pronunciation can be found in the classic that
There once was a cowboy of Cheyenne
Who said to his girl, "Don't be shy, Anne."
Prof. Riddehough published a small volume of
poetry in 1927 and a number of his more formal
poems have appeared from time to time in various
periodicals. The present volume includes several of
these, particularly a final sequence about
communications with witches, a subject that will
not surprise the poet's acquaintances. — Harry
Edtnger, Associate Professor of Classics, UBC.
The recently-established University of
British Columbia Press is continuingt to
expand its active publishing program. Here
are some brief descriptions of recently-
issued and forthcoming books.
A      REFERENCE      GUIDE      TO     ENGLISH,
by  I.F.  Bell, Associate  Librarian,  UBC, and J.J.
Gallup, Reference Librarian, UBC.
151 pages. Hard cover $7; paper cover $3.50.
This guide has been specifically planned and
structured to inform the undergraduate student of
research methods and materials useful to him. The
book includes a "how to use" section not usually
included in a publication of this type and notes
within each section refer the student to other
pertinent entries. A steady seller, this book is
currently being reprinted, and will be featured in
the Press's fall Canadian Literature campaign.
WORK edited by George Woodcock, Lecturer,
UBC Department of English, and Editor, Canadian
184 pages. $4.50. First edition 1971.
A multi-faceted collection of essays presents
Malcolm Lowry — the man, his works, and the
sources in himself and his world from which he
constructed what many critics regard as the finest
writing to come out of Canada. The book gives
considerable insight into the challenge Lowry set
for himself as an artist.
Reprinted ten months after the first printing,
this publication appears to have been well timed in
view of the growing interest in Malcolm Lowry. It
was accepted, along with THE ROYAL NAVY
AMERICA 1810 TO 1914- the first UBC Press
book - as an entry in the 1972 Quill and Quire
Christmas catalogue, which contains books "carefully chosen for their broad and continuing
appeal." In addition, the Malcolm Lowry book
was recently adopted as a text by a college in New
York State, and in the near future the Press hopes
to extend significant sales of the title in the United
POLICY IN CANADA, by H.L. Purdy, Lecturer,
Faculty  of Commerce and Business Administration.
344 pages. $10.50.
This is the first book to examine contemporary
forces of inter-modal competition as they relate to
the Canadian inter-city transport picture. It
includes an incisive discussion of how the National
Transportation Act of 1967 has opened the door
to the achievement of the optimum balance
between statutory regulation and regulation by
competition. The thorough survey includes tables
and charts.
FROM THE WEST COAST, edited by Anthony D.
Scott, Professor of Economics, UBC.
148 pages. $4.
This special publication by the journal, B.C.
Studies, reproduces 14 papers by economists at
the University of British Columbia, in which
current economic trends and pressures are
examined. Federal and provincial government
policies are treated in terms of their general effect
on the national economic health and particularly
on that of British Columbia. This publication has
attracted considerable attention from persons
interested in such issues as foreign ownership.
Right  and   Left  Subcastes   in   South   India,  by
Brenda E.F. Beck.
354 pages. $16.50.
This book is the result of highly original
investigation into the variety of internal social
organization among the subcastes of Konku Natu,
one of five traditional regions in Tamilnadu
(formerly Madras State) — an area where the caste
structure has not yet broken down. Complete with
numerous tables, diagrams and photographs, the
book is seen as an outstanding presentation of
detailed data within a clear general outline — a
work that contributes greatly to the ethnographic
knowledge of India.
NINETEENTH   CENTURY,  by Peter Harnetty,
Professor of History, UBC.
147 pages. $7.
This scholarly reappraisal of mid-Victorian
attitudes to Empire, as typified by the Lancashire
cotton manufacturers and their influence on
British policy in India, is a succinct historical
study which should be of value to those interested
in Indian economic history and British imperial
edited by William H. New, Associate Professor of
English, UBC.
200 pages approx. $5.50. Available: November,
The fourth volume of the Canadian Literature
Series, this collection of selected essays on plays
and playwrights surveys the development of
Canadian drama from its beginnings to the present
day. A number of the essays were written
especially for the publication; the remainder have
appeared over the past decade in Canadian
Literature, and thus form an evolving commentary
on Canadian drama.
Professor of French, UBC.
250 pages approx. $9.50. Available: December,
This second, enlarged edition of the checklist is
essentially a primary bibliography of French-
Canadian literature from the early 19th century to
1968. The more than 2,800 titles listed represent
the holdings of the University of British Columbia
Library, being a substantial portion of the total
body of work published in this field. In this
bibliography, the term "literature" has been
interpreted to include separately-published novels,
poetry, drama and short stories.
Following are brief descriptions of
books written by members of the UBC
teaching staff and published elsewhere.
Dr. Michael Goldberg, an associate professor of
English at the University of B.C. is the author of
CARLYLE AND DICKENS - an examination of
the influence of Thomas Carlyle on Charles
The book, published by the University of
Georgia Press, traces the intellectual relationship
of the Victorian era's most influential teacher and
its most popular and successful novelist. Dr.
Goldberg suggests that the changes which dramatically transformed Dicken's view of art and society
in the 1840s are directly attributable to his
response to Carlyle.
Dr. Goldberg, a native of South Africa and a
member of the UBC faculty since 1966, has
written a number of articles on Dickens.
A revised edition of Dr. K.J. Holsti's INTERNATIONAL POLITICS: A FRAMEWORK FOR
ANALYSIS has been published by Prentice-Hall
Inc., of New Jersey.
Dr. Holsti, who is Professor of Political Science
at UBC, is acknowledged as a leading authority in
the field of international relations.
The revised edition assesses the progress that
has taken place, since the first edition was
published in 1967, in such areas of research as
political science, international relations and social
Almost three-quarters of the globe is covered by it.
About two-thirds of your body is made of it. Its
presence is one of the critical factors making life possible
on this planet. Without water, life as we know it can't
exist anywhere in the universe.
Water is part of the fundamental mythology of man.
Rivers nurtured the first civilizations; the Mesopotamian
on the Tigris and Euphrates in what is today Iraq, and
the Egyptian on the Nile. Many of the Utopias man has
dreamed of throughout history have been located in
idyllic valleys and each valley has been nourished by a
Water for man has a spiritual, sexual and a religious
symbolism. Water is cleansing, purifying. Rain is a divine
fertility. Rivers, fountains, springs and wells are symbolic archetypes that are common to many cultures
around the world. The river of life is a common theme
to some Eastern religions. Juan Ponce de Leon, who
reached the New World with Columbus in 1493 and
discovered Florida in 1513, was motivated by a search
for the legendary Fountain of Youth. Water is used in
baptismal and religious rites of religions the world over.
Granted the central role of water in man's life, the
attitude of Canadians toward water is nevertheless
mysterious.   Canada   willingly   pumps   into   the  United
States some 600,000 barrels of oil each day and about
700,000 million cubic feet of natural gas a year. These
are non-renewable resources. Once depleted they are
gone forever. Water is renewable. But any suggestion
that we sell a drop of water brings vehement opposition.
More intriguing, considering the changing social profile of Canada, is that opposition seems to be increasing.
Canadians are becoming more urbanized and less rural
every year. Canadians continue to leave farm districts to
gather in cities. Urbanites would be expected to have less
of a proprietory attitude toward water than a farming
population, whose existence is more fundamentally
touched by the coming of rain. But as Canada becomes
more urbanized, Canadians seem to be becoming, paradoxically, more possessive of their water.
If Canadian urbanites are losing touch with wilderness
and rural areas, what accounts for our emotional
reaction, our irrational attitude, to the idea of selling
Is it because, while Canadians are migrating from the
rural and wilderness areas to the cities, an opposite shift
in attitudes is taking place, a return to what Canadians
dimly consider to be the spiritual home of Canada?
A few decades ago, the "heart" of developing
countries was identified as the new cities that had arisen
on the frontier. Railroad junctions, ports, the confluence
of rivers spawned towns that grew into cities where a
few generations before there had been only wilderness.
Prof. Irving Fox, left, is the director of Westwater, an
interdisciplinary water research organization currently conducting a study of the lower Fraser River.
The estuary of the river is seen in the background. In
the articles on this page and continuing on Pages Six,
Seven and Eight, other UBC research in the field of
water resources is described.
By  Peter  Thompson
■ 's  v
Pollution is more complex than the industrial
chemicals, sewage, poisonous heavy metals such as lead
and mercury, old cars, herbicides and pesticides and
garbage that we consecrate our national waters with. The
first link in the chain of all aquatic life is plants — algae,
moss, weeds and phytoplankton, small plant organisms.
Essential to plant growth are nutrients such as carbon,
sulphur, sodium, chlorine and calcium. But the most
essential, because they are usually in shorl supply, are
nitrogen and phosphorus.
All other aquatic life depends on this primary plant
production through photosynthesis. Small fish and other
animals living in rivers and lakes eat the plants and are in
turn eaten by larger animals.
Under natural conditions, nutrients are added to
water from decaying vegetation and animal matter
washed into the rivers and lakes from the surrounding
land. But man can add substantially to the supply of
nutrients, especially nitrates and phosphates, which can
drain into a water system from fertilized fields or lawns,
cattle feed lots where large amounts of manure piles up,
grazing land, garbage dumps or septic tanks. Nutrients
can also be added directly to the water by municipal
sewage systems.
Large quantities of nutrients that can be used
immediately for plant production often cause "blooms"
of algae, which float on the top of the water during the
summer, or heavy weed growth along the shallow
shoreline. In advanced cases the water can look like a
primordial soup.
Most nutrients entering a lake or river aren't in a
chemical form that can be used immediately for plant
life production and simply sink to the bottom. In
summer these nutrients decay by combining with
oxygen dissolved in the water. The more nutrients
involved, the larger the amount of oxygen consumed.
When winter ice prevents oxygen in the air from
dissolving into the water, the fish population may be
"asphyxiated" in the oxygen-depleted water.
Water that is rich in nutrients and that produces large
Please turn to Page Six
Today these new cities are more than ever before the
economic centres of their nations. But perhaps fewer
people in them now think of them as the heart or soul of
their nations.
Perhaps the same is true of Canadians. How many of
us today believe that the spiritual centre of Canada is the
corner of Georgia and Granville, or Portage and Main, or
Peel and St. Catherine's?
Canadians are haunted by a mythology of the
wilderness. Almost every Canadian carries with him in
his subconscious the outlines of a solitary northern lake,
coastal forest or conifers painted by Emily Carr or one
of the Group of Seven. More reproductions of more
forestscapes hang in Canadian living rooms, bars, courthouses, post off ices, recreation room, libraries and banks
than perhaps anywhere else in the world.
Historically, Canada is the product of her rivers. For
at least two centuries the canoe was the economic
pipeline of Canada linking fur trappers in almost every
region of the nation with trading centres. In its crudest
terms, the history of Canada is the history of the Fraser
River on the west coast and cf the St. Lawrence and
Great Lakes in central and eastern Canada. If the horse
and covered wagon are central :o the mythology of the
United States, the canoe is the vehicle of Canadian
The first white man to travel overland to the Pacific
was Alexander Mackenzie who reached salt water in
1793. Mackenzie travelled by canoe. Mackenzie's canoe
was more than 25 feet long, carried two Indian guides,
six French-Canadian voyageurs and a Scots fur-trader,
besides Mackenzie himself, as well as three thousand
pounds of supplies and equipment, yet was so light that
it could be carried by two men.
The canoe is a far more appropriate symbol of
Canada than the beaver or the maple leaf. A product of
Indian ingenuity, the canoe is consumately beautiful.
Rather than a symbol of nature itself, the canoe is a
work of art, an ideal accomrrodation of man to his
environment. Its lines are clean and lithe, light and
animated. And perhaps most evocative of all, the motion
it suggests is silent.
As urban Canadians lose touch with wilderness and
rural Canada some of them idealize their heritage. The
impression of wilderness and rural Canada that many of
us share is a mixture of Disney films, magazine photos,
cigarette commercials and an endless assortment of
picture calendars.
We tend to romanticize our heritage and one of the
most powerful components of it is water, intensely
visible almost everywhere in Cainada and which united
Canada long before Confederation. Some of us think of
Canadian water in a mood of pantheistic nationalism.
Water flows constantly, pristine and virginal, through the
turbid depths of the Canadian psyche. Many Canadians
cherish a common nostalgia, dormant and unarticulated,
smoldering, of gliding across fresh water, silent, graceful
and lonely.
Water is part of our national self-image and in our
imagination our lakes and rivers nave until recently, until
the interference of man, been pristine. Perhaps not now,
but once, our waters were pure. And perhaps not now,
but once, our waters abounded with fish.
It comes as something of ar annoyance to some of
us to learn that pure water doesn't produce fish. The fish
that we remember as once having existed grow not only
in our imagination but on a diet derived from "natural"
Two years ago, while many waterways across North
America were being blighted with nitrates and phosphates from industrial and domestic polluters, Prof.
Timothy Parson, then with the federal Fisheries
Research Board before coming ta the University of B.C.,
began a program of dumping about 100 tons of nitrates
and phosphates a year into Great Central Lake on
Vancouver Island. The water of the lake was among the
purest in the world. About four million sockeye salmon
leave the lake annually for the sea. But they didn't thrive
in the pure lake water. In the first year of dumping, the
fish increased their size by one-third.
UBC Reports/Oct. 26, 1972/5 WATER
Continued from Page Five
quantities of plant life is said to be eutrophic. Osoyoos
and Wood Lakes in the Okanagan basin are eutrophic.
Kalamalka and Okanagan Lakes in the basin are oligo-
trophic; they have a low nutrient level. Vaseux and
Skaha Lakes are closer to moderate nutrient levels and
are mesotrophic.
The natural life cycle of a lake is to pass from the
oligotrophic to the eutrophic stage over a period of tens
of thousands of years. Eventually the lake fills up with
sediments, gradually changing into a marsh and eventually dry land. Man's massive addition of nutrients to
some lakes and rivers has greatly speeded up this natural
Of the many water research projects now underway
at the University of B.C., two are massive and concerned
with some of the most important water areas of Canada.
One deals with the water quality of the Lower Fraser
River and is being done by UBC's Westwater Research
Centre. The other is work done under a $234,000
contract by members of the Faculty of Applied Science
headed by Dean W.D. Liam Finn. The contract was let
by the federal-provincial Okanagan Basin Study. Purpose
of the study is to suggest alternative policies for
managing the water resources of the basin from now
until 2020.
"The University and particularly the Faculty of
Applied Science has a real responsibility to respond to
the needs of the public," said Dean Finn. "The public
has made a large investment in the University and the
University in turn has an obligation to the community.
"The result is that our faculty and students — and
many students are involved in the Okanagan work —
have benefited and the public has had the opportunity
to call on the facilities and skills of a concentrated
research group.
"The public.has also benefited because the University
is as neutral as possible, an important consideration since
some water research can be in controversial areas, for
example, if it involves the transfer of water from one
area to another or bestows privileges on one group over
Dean Finn said the University should always be
involved in basic research, which may only result in
benefits in the distant future, but it should also apply its
capabilities to mission-oriented research to solve pressing
social and economic problems.
"The Okanagan Basin Study is a prime example of
this," he said, "it involves research done by government
departments and universities. And a conscious attempt
has been made to involve the people of the Okanagan in
the project.
"The Science Council of Canada has pointed to the
Okanagan project as the example to be followed for
other studies needed on waterways across Canada."
He said the research laboratories for water resources
and sanitary engineering work built in the Faculty of
Applied Science were made possible through direct
grants to faculty members for non-mission-oriented
research and through research contracts for specific
projects from the B.C. Department of Lands, Forests
and Water Resources.
"The result of the Faculty's long association with the
provincial department is a strong base which the public
can use to receive some return especially in matters of
the environment, for the heavy investment it has made
in the University."
The Okanagan basin's setting and climate have made
one of the most attractive areas of Canada. It has a low
level of industrialization and urban development and an
economy based on tourism and fruit production. But it
is now under pressures which may change it utterly.
According to the B.C. Department of Trade and
Commerce, the population of the Okanagan-Shuswap
region could treble from 132,000 to 444,000 in 50
years. The average daily traffic over the pontoon bridge
over Okanagan Lake at Kelowna during July and August
will increase from about 13,000 to more than 96,000
vehicles by 2020.
If development of the Okanagan basin is allowed to
take place without planning, the results could remove
many of its attractions. Polluted, fishless waters could
replace features that now induce tourists to spend
between $25 and $30 million a year in the basin. A
survey done under the Okanagan Basin Study shows that
85 per cent of tourists visiting the Okanagan had been
there before. If the Okanagan lost its natural charm, how
many would return in future summers?
In   charge   of   water   pollution   research   under  the
6/UBC Reports/Oct. 26, 1972
agreement in UBC's Faculty of Applied of Applied
Science is Dr. William K. Oldham of the Department of
Civil Engineering. Three of his projects involve trying to
find methods of getting rid of nutrients in municipal
sewage. A fourth is to determine the amount of
nutrients draining off into basin lakes from septic tanks,
fertilized fields and other sources.
Part of the largest study involves participating in a
five-year pilot project to get rid of effluent from
Vernon's waste treatment plant. Besides getting rid of
the nutrients in the effluent, the project is making
money because nutrients are a valuable resource and
should be recycled.
"We're spray-irrigating effluent from the Vernon
plant on 120 acres about 200 feet above Okanagan Lake
southwest of Vernon," Dr. Oldham said. "Seventy acres
are in alfalfa and the remainder is native grass.
"The soil is only four to eight feet deep. Beneath the
soil is an underlay of impervious till so that excess
effluent not taken up by the soil and root system would
flow across the face of the till and down toward the
"We installed 13 monitoring wells around the 120
acres to see if any water was running off, and if so, what
level of nutrients were escaping with the water. Only
four wells showed any water and a minor amount at
that. The nutrient loss was negligible.
"The alfalfa has been analysed in the provincial
government's agricultural lab in Kelowna and the results
show that its components are completely normal. The
alfalfa's beautiful. We got four crops off the 70 acres this
year. We can spray-irrigate the entire effluent output of
the Vernon plant during the non-tourist season. But the
project isn't large enough to handle the output in the
summer when tourists arrive."
Meanwhile, Dr. Oldham said, Vernon has hired
consultants to look into the feasibility of installing a
full-scale spray irrigation system.
"One of the problems is, what do you do with the
effluent in winter? Do you store it in some natural
depression in the hills for summer irrigation? Or do you
dump it in the middle of the lake?"
A study in Penticton is allied to the Vernon project.
Thirty concrete soil columns three feet in diameter have
been filled with three different types of soil ranging
from a sandy loam to a tight silty clay common to the
Okanagan   basin.   One   of   the  three  types  of  soil   is
identical to soil found on the 120 acres that are being
spray irrigated at Vernon.
This summer alfalfa was grown in 15 of the soil ,
columns and reed canary grass, also used as a livestock
feed, in the remaining 15. Fifteen of the columns were
spray-irrigated with sewage effluent at a rate
recommended by agriculturalists. The other 15 were
spray-irrigated with about 2Y2 times the recommended
"We've added 2V4 times the recommended dose *
because we want to see if we can get rid of as much
effluent as possible. And we've used the same kind of
soil as at Vernon in one-third of the columns in the hope
that the results we get will be the same as at Vernon. If
they are," Dr. Oldham said, "we'll be in a better position
to estimate how much effluent we can spray-irrigate on t
the other two types of Okanagan basin soils on a large
We're running the same kind of analysis as at
Vernon. We've tested the soil before and after application of the effluent, what's in the water that percolates out of the soil at the bottom of the column, and
the chemical composition of the crops."
A study at Kelowna aims at getting rid of the
nutrients in municipal waste by another method.
"We've built a pilot plant to parallel the operation of
the municipal pollution control plant at Kelowna," Dr.
Oldham said. "We're adding lime to the raw sewage so T
that the phosphorus will settle out in the settling tank
along with the sewage solids. The resulting sludge is
burned in the plant's incinerator when enough has
accumulated. The residue is buried.
"Though it's known from work done elsewhere that
adding  lime will  remove phosphorus, we don't know *
what concentration of lime is needed in the Kelowna
situation, whether the resulting sludge will interfere with
the operation of the incinerator.
"If a lot of lime is needed to remove the phosphorus,
it may be worthwhile to alter the incinerator operation
so  that  the  sludge  can   be burned at a high enough »
temperature. This would allow us to reclaim most of the
lime for re-use in the process."
Pollution is a problem in the Okanagan basin, but the
basin faces an even larger problem, the scarcity of water
itself. Mr. Denis Russell, assistant professor in UBC's
Department of Civil Engineering, is directing research on
methods of controlling the volume of water that drains -
into the basin.
The basin is a series of interconnected lakes draining
south  into the Columbia  River system  in the United
Diver brings up crab from bottom of Fraser River for tissue analysis. States. Vernon Creek drains Ellison, Wood and
Kalamalka   Lakes at the north end of the basin  into
.Okanagan Lake, the largest and deepest of the seven
lakes in the basin. Okanagan drains into Skaha Lake and
Skaha into small Vaseux Lake. The Okanagan River
drains Vaseux into Osoyoos Lake, which flows into the
United States.
The water volume in the basin is controlled by four
dams:  one at the entrance to Okanagan Lake, and one
"each at the exits of Okanagan, Skaha and Vaseux Lakes.
"The snow pack and rains falling on the watershed
drained by the basin average a total of only 22 inches of
water a year," said Mr. Russell. "Yet of this only three
inches actually reaches the lakes of the basin. The rest is
lost through evaporation and transpiration through the
.leaves of vegetation into the atmosphere."
Each year the basin receives its allotment of water in
one payment during the spring runoff. The runoff
mustn't be allowed to flood the basin. But enough water
must be kept in the basin to meet the needs of users —
whose demands often conflict — during the parched
summer months and into the next winter.
By law dams can only regulate the level of the top
four feet of Okanagan Lake, the major reservoir of the
basin. This is about the average amount of water that is
added to the basin lakes each year.
While maintaining the four-foot limit in Okanagan
Lake, at least 300 cubic feet of water per second must
-be allowed to drain into Osoyoos Lake during the dry
summer months so that water intakes south of Okanagan
Lake can still function and so that sockeye salmon,
migrating up the Columbia River system, have enough
water to travel up the Okanagan River to their spawning
grounds south of Vaseux Lake.
More water must be released in winter to ensure that
salmon eggs remain covered and that the water level in
the basin is low enough to accommodate the next spring
"The system already sounds impossible to regulate
but it is even more complicated," Mr. Russell said. "First
of all, the amount of snow on the mountains must be
accurately estimated to get some idea of how much
water   will   be   added   to   the   basin   in   the   spring.
"Complicating the calculations is the speed at which
the runoff takes place. If the weather is abnormally
-warm the snow melts quickly and during a period of,
say, one day an abnormally large volume of water begins
to drain toward the lakes. But this also means that a
smaller percentage of that volume of water will be lost
to the atmosphere. On the other hand, if the melting is
abnormally slow there is more time for evaporation and
transpiration of the water to take place as it runs off the
"We must try to anticipate as many of these factors
as possible because it's impossible to pull the plug on
Okanagan Lake and drain a lot of water out at once. For
one thing, it would cause flooding in the southern part
of the basin. And the Similkameen River, which joins
the Columbia River just south of the Canada-U.S.
border, introduces another variable. When the
Similkameen is in flood, it can slow down and even
reverse the flow of water from the basin into the
Columbia, backing up the water in Osoyoos Lake.'"
Mr. Russell is building a computer model of the
Okanagan basin water system. Fifty years of records are
being fed into the model. The extent of the snow pack,
the rate of spring run off, how much water was in the
basin to begin with, how much was allowed to run out
of the basin and when, and what the resulting water
supply was during the critical summer months is just
some of the information being computerized.
"What we want to do is learn how to hedge our bets,"
Mr. Russell said. "The model will tell us which alternative is best within the limits of the manoeuvres we
Dr. T.G. Northcote, associate professor in UBC's
Institute of Animal Resource Ecology, Faculty of
Forestry and Westwater Research Centre, used the fish
of the Okanagan basin as a measure of lake pollution.
The work was done by Dr. Northcote and his associates
in 1971 and 1972.
Fish species such as salmonids — members of the
trout and salmon family — prefer clean, well-
oxygenated, cool water. Other "coarse" fish species
such as carp, suckers, squawfish, bass and bullheads
thrive in warm, nutrient-rich water. And within the
limits of their preferences, fish are fatter in water that
has more nutrients. Dr. Northcote and his staff gillnetted
fish on the main lakes of the basin to estimate relative
populations of different species in each lake as well as
differences in their size and growth rates. He also had
chemical analyses made on the flesh of the fish as
another indicator of the relative pollution of the basin's
Dr.   Northcote,   former   director   of   the   Fisheries
Research Section of the B.C. Fish and Wildlife Branch,
found that some fish were contaminated with DDT and
heavy   metal   residues.   The   flesh   of  more than  600
individual   fish,   mostly  species  likely to be eaten by
humans,  was pooled  into more than  100 samples and
Rainbow trout, kokanee, lake trout and mountain
whitefish taken from Kalamalka Lake had DDT residue
levels above standards set by the federal Food and Drug
Directorate. So did some rainbow trout in Okanagan
Lake and lake whitefish in Skaha Lake. In Okanagan
Lake some rainbow trout and squafish also had mercury
levels exceeding Food and Drug limits. DDT and
mercury residues were generally higher in large, older
fish. In Okanagan Lake, mercury limits weren't exceeded
among rainbow trout weighing less than 11 pounds or
DDT limits in rainbows less than seven pounds in weight.
"What is probably of most concern to the existence
of the salmonids in the basin," Dr. Northcote said, "is
destruction of their breeding grounds. Kokanee, and
especially rainbow trout, spawn in streams feeding the
lakes as well as in the Okanagan River. The area along
the tributaries has been logged in some places, water has
been diverted for irrigation, dam:; have been built, and
some of the water is polluted. Spawning area in the
tributaries probably has been cut down by between 70
and 80 per cent."
Dr. Northcote is doing similar work on the Lower
Fraser River project for UBC's Westwater Research
Centre. "A lot of work has already been done on the
salmon species in the lower Fraser that we don't intend
to duplicate. But almost nothing is known of the
non-migratory species, the fish that spend all of their
lives in the river and estuary and don't leave for the sea
as salmon do.
"The migratory species include sockeye, spring or
chinook, coho, pink and chum or dog salmon; the
migratory forms of steelhead, which is a sort of seagoing
rainbow trout; smelts or oolichan, which spawn as far up
the lower Fraser as Chilliwack; and sturgeon, whose
movements we know little of.
"But as far as the non-migratory species are concerned — the resident trout, carp, squawfish, redside
shiners, chub, bullheads, suckers, catfish and others —
we know almost nothing. And we should, because unlike
the migratory fish, the resident species have to sit there
and take whatever the river has to offer. They may be
good indicators of the extent of pollution in the river."
Apart from the fish species. Dr. Northcote will be
sampling small invertebrate animals such as worms and
other organisms living in the silt at the bottom of the
river, as well as the plants and animals drifting downstream in the river's current.
The Fraser is the most important body of water west
of the Great  Lakes.   It has the world's largest salmon
•"■ fishery, accounting for half the B.C. catch. According to
the Fraser River Harbor Development Study completed
six months ago by community and regional planner
Norman Pearson, the lower Fraser is critical to the
fishery because salmon spend about three months in the
estuary before moving out to sea. Their existence in the
,. estuary could be affected by thermal pollution from the
cooling operation of thermal power plants, log boom
storage in intertidal areas of the river, or dredging or
filling of tidal flats.
Mr. Pearson says raw sewage dumped into the river is
not yet a threat to the fishery but may become so.
Industrial   pollution   is the least critical danger facing
<■ salmon now but may become more important as
industrialization continues.
He says in the report, prepared for the Fraser River
Harbor Commission, that development will continue
around the deep-sea port at Roberts Bank.
Land near the Fraser River will support the major
share of the Lower Mainland's population increase
between now and the turn of the century. The number
of people living closest to the Fraser River will increase
31/2 times more than the population increase of those
living closest to Burrard Inlet, says the report. And
recreation demands on the lower Fraser will continue to
■ -  increase.
Dr.  Northcote's lower Fraser project is part of the
first major study undertaken  by Westwater, set up at
UBC two years ago under federal grants to investigate
local, regional and national water problems. Westwater is
examining factors affecting water quality from Hope to
the Gulf of Georgia. Hydrologists, hydraulic and sanitary
engineers,   biochemists,   soil  scientists, oceanographers,
zoologists, geographers, lawyers, economists, and other
social scientists are included in the project.
"Westwater is measuring existing water quality conditions in the lower Fraser, what they are likely to be in
the future, and what the effects of both existing and
prospective water quality conditions are upon the fishing
and other resources of the river," said Westwater
director Prof. Irving Fox. "It is also trying to gauge what
standard! of water quality the public wants and what it
will cost to achieve desired conditions.
"These physical, biological, and social science studies
will provide the basis for Westwater to assess the results
of existing legislation and the policies of public agencies
responsible for sewage disposal, pollution control, and
the use of the Fraser River for various purposes.
"If these studies indicate that changes are desirable,
Westwater research staff will evaluate alternative modifications in existing laws and agency authority and
responsibility. Since the choice of alternatives is up to
the general public and its governmental representatives,
the objective of Westwater is to provide the best
information it can for the public to use in deciding how
to solve its water pollution problems."
Westwater is involving people outside UBC in the
direction of Westwater and consults with representatives
of all interests concerned with water quality in the
Lower Fraser as work on the project proceeds.
New members recently appointed to the Westwater
Council, which directs all aspects of Westwater's work,
include CBC television producer Dick Booking; well-
known conservationist Roderick Haig-Brown, Chancellor
of  the   University   of   Victoria and  a provincial  court
magistrate; and Mr. Jack K. Sexton, senior vice-president
of Montreal Engineering Co. and engineering advisor to
the B.C. Energy Board on the recent provincial energy
"The Westwater Council has also set up a consultative
panel on the lower Fraser Rive' project," said Prof.
Fox. "Among the 22 members on the panel are
representatives of environmental groups, small boat
operators, harbor commissions, fish and game clubs,
federal and provincial departments and agencies, the
Greater Vancouver Regional District, the International
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, B.C. Research,
native Indians, farming, the United Fishermen and Allied
Workers' Union, the timber industry, the Fisheries
Association and industrial waste dischargers.
"The panel will make it possible for the Westwater
research staff to be exposed to the views of groups
knowledgeable about water quality in the lower
Fraser," Prof. Fox said, "and panel members will be able
to follow development of the project's conclusions. And
as work on the study proceeds, Westwater will report
periodically on progress being made at meetings to
which the general public will be invited."
The panel of consultants has already held its first
meeting. Westwater has begun a series of more than a
dozen public lectures and a two-day public seminar was
held last week.
"Dr. Northcote is doing part of the biological study
of the lower Fraser," Prof. Fox said. "Others are doing
physical and social science projects to gather more
information on the river."
Also doing biological work on the river for Westwater
Please turn to Page Eight
UBC Reports/Oct. 26, 1972/7 LOWER FRASER
Continued from Page Seven
is   Prof.   Timothy   R.   Parsons  of   UBC's   Institute  of
Divers worked throughout the summer gathering
animals from the bottom of the Gulf. Crabs, clams,
mussels, shrimps as well as smaller invertebrates were
collected at predetermined spots in a line across the
mouth of the Fraser from Sturgeon Bank to Roberts
Bank. The same kind of tests are being done on their
tissues as on the resident fish populations in the river
itself. And the populations and size of the species are
also being recorded so that if changes occur in the
future, data will be available for comparative purposes.
Prof. Parsons is also gathering information on the
vitally important "plume" at the mouth of the river
where it merges with the Gulf of Georgia, to find out
what factors make the area so productive to aquatic life
and how they interrelate.
"Fresh water is lighter than salt water so when the
river runs into the Gulf, the fresh water flows across the
top of the salt water, causing a drag which brings up the
salt water from underneath. The salt water beneath the
surface levels, which are penetrated by sunlight, is
naturally eutrophic. It is rich in nitrates and phosphates.
But because sunlight doesn't normally reach it, growth
can't take place through photosynthesis," Prof. Parsons
"But the effect of the drag of the fresh water is to
bring up the eutrophic salt water so photosynthesis can
take place. Phytoplankton are produced which are eaten
by zooplankton, small animal organisms, which are in
turn eaten by fish.
"Within the plume about one billion young salmon
live and thrive. Half of these salmon come from the
Fraser and half from surrounding rivers. Apart from
salmon, other species such as herring also benefit from
the high production of the area."
Prof. Parsons is building a computer model of the life
chain in the plume. He is measuring how much light gets
into the water, how much nitrate and phosphate is
available, how much food zooplankton need to grow,
and what affects phytoplankton production.
"Once the model is built, we should be able to know,
for example, what would happen to production in the
plume if less sunlight penetrates the water. Suppose a
layer of coal dust falls on the surface. We should be able
to estimate the end result on the amount of food
available to commercial fish species. Or we could knock
off half the zooplankton population on the computer,
simulating another natural or unnatural disaster, and
estimate how huge the bloom of phytoplankton that
results would be, since there would be half the amount
of zooplankton to feed off the phytoplankton."
Two physical studies of the lower Fraser are being
done in UBC's Department of Civil Engineering. Ur.
Michael C. Quick, an associate professor, and two
graduate students, Mr. Donald Hodgins and Mr.
Christopher Joy, are building a computer model of water
flow in the river. Once the complicated pattern of ebb
and flow can be simulated on a model, then it should be
possible to estimate what will happen to a pollutant
dropped into the river at a certain point, how it will
disperse and where it will go.
"There's an enormous fluctuation in the flow of
fresh water throughout the year," said Dr. Quick.
"During the winter the Fraser flow goes down to about
30,000 cubic feet of water per second. During the
freshet, flows can go up to an average of 300,000 cubic
feet per second and last spring they were up as high as
about 460,000.
"In the winter, salt water intrudes into the lower
reaches of the river, perhaps up to Annacis Island. The
mixing of fresh and salt water is important to the
biology of the estuary and also affects where silt is
deposited. During the freshet there is no intrusion at all.
On the contrary, a huge plume of fresh water spreads
across to the Gulf Islands."
Dr. Quick said Pitt Lake is a particularly interesting
feature of the system because it undergoes tidal variations of as much as four feet. This means that water
flows up and down Pitt River. These flows can be as
large as in the mainstream of the Fraser. The large
floodtide flows in Pitt Lake have built a reverse delta
which extends several miles into the southern end of the
Dr. Arthur H. Benedict, assistant professor in UBC's
Department of Civil Engineering, is working on ways of
predicting the  level  of various pollutants in the river.
8/UBC Reports/Oct. 26, 1972
Some of the methods he is using involve models. But
before model-building begins, he is gathering information from research done on the river in the past as well
as data collected from three months of water sampling
this summer.
Dr. Benedict needs the information to find out what
the pollution picture of the river looks like now, and
which pollutant levels should be predicted in the future.
His work complements Dr. Quick's. Their combined
research will show what pollutants are in the river, what
their concentrations are, where they are, what some of
the concentrations are likely to be in the future, and
where they end up as a result of water movement.
Dr. Olav Slaymaker, of UBC's Department of
Geography, and Dr. Leslie M. Lavkulich, of the Department of Soil Science, are putting together a land-use
map of the lower Fraser showing the source of
pollutants entering the river. The two associate
professors are using aerial photos of the river and its
tributaries. Information from the photos is being added
to the map in five-year time periods beginning in 1944.
The map will also include information on the quality of
the water in the river, and from readings taken from
monitoring devices placed at the mouths of 11 tributaries emptying into the lower Fraser.
The map will show nine major groups of pollution
sources: residential land; food, beverage and animal-feed
processing areas; chemical industries; light industry;
heavy industry; wood and wood-processing areas; agricultural and forest lands; transportation and energy corridors; and recreational land.
Dr. Timothy O'Riordan of the Department of
Geography at Simon Fraser University and Mr. Ken
Peterson, a research assistant with Westwater, surveyed
the attitude of the public towards the river and some of
those who use it for recreation.
About 750 households from Hope to Vancouver were
contacted this summer, as well as about 200 fishermen
on the sandbars of the Fraser and more than 300 visitors
to the Reifel Waterfowl Refuge at the mouth of the
"Our preliminary indications show that most householders don't think of the Fraser in terms of recreation.
It's a polluted, muddy river to them, with no recreation
potential," said Mr. Peterson.
"The responses we got from the Reifel Refuge
indicate that there's a tremendous latent demand for
that kind of intensively-managed waterfowl reserve.
They receive some 60,000 visitors a year. And many of
the people who visit it don't think of themselves as
birdwatchers. They've heard about the refuge through
word of mouth.
"Some of the people using the sandbars of the river
for fishing do it because they can't afford or don't have
the facilities to fish in the Interior or do salt water
fishing. Some are old-age pensioners. What alternative
outdoor recreation they would have if the sandbar
fishery were closed to them, we don't know."
Mr. Harry Campbell, an assistant professor in UBC's
Department of Economics, and Mr. Ken Peterson have
just begun work on analysis of the cost of pollution
control on the river. Using information gathered by
other Westwater researchers, they will estimate how
much different control techniques would cost.
Mr. Robert T. Franson, assistant professor in UBC's
Faculty of Law, is studying the laws governing water
quality in the Fraser and the organizations and agencies
that are responsible for applying them.
"First we're looking at the various pollution boards,
federal and provincial environment protection agencies,
harbor boards and other decision-making groups that
determine what the water quality of the river is going to
be," Mr. Franson said.
"We want to survey the policies these groups have
adopted to carry out the legislation. Perhaps the
legislation is badly written or is incomplete and leads to
administrative difficulties. We also want to examine the
informal policies of the regulating agencies that might
not necessarily be reflected in law but nevertheless
control what happens to the river."
"In the end we will be able to put forth the
advantages and disadvantages of different laws that
might be enacted and the different government organizations that might be chosen to administer the river's
water quality and iron out the conflicts between the
river's many users," Mr. Franson said.
Mr. Anthony Dorcey, assistant to the director of
Westwater, is interested in examining alternative policy
and financial arrangements that could be used in the
management of water quality in the Fraser.
He would like to examine who is paying for pollution
control now. For example, it's now possible for municipalities and industries to get what in effect are grants
from the federal government for installing waste treatment facilities. So the Canadian public in general pays
part of the cost of treatment plants that mainly benefit
local or regional areas.
Mr. Dorcey would also like to be involved in framing
alternative policies that could be used to manage water
quality. How well, for example, would an "effluent
charge" work? Under this policy, polluters would pay a
fee in proportion to the amount of effluent they pour
into the river. The fees or licences would be scaled so
that it would be cheaper in the long run for a polluter to
install anti-pollution devices than pay for the privilege of
polluting the river.
This research would be part of the final work on the
lower Fraser project which is only just beginning. It
would include, if research results indicate they are
necessary, the evaluation of a number of alternative laws
governing water quality, possible modifications in the
authority of agencies managing water quality and new
fiscal arrangements between municipal, regional, provincial and federal governments to finance the maintenance
of water quality.
"We will release interim reports as they are
completed," Prof. Fox said, "and by early 1975 we
should be able to present our final report to the public."
Decisions for the Future
Every second that you read this, 2.5 million cubic
feet of water flows across the face of Canada, more than
6 per cent of the flowing fresh water of the globe. Each
of us can claim some 65,000 gallons of flowing fresh
water each day, about 10 times the average for all the
other people of the world.
But perhaps this gives a false impression of the
availability of Canadian water. Though 90 per cent of
the population is huddled in cities within a few miles of
the Canada-U.S. border, 60 per cent of the flowing water
of Canada drains north. And much of our water flows
only during the summer. In winter it is accumulating as
snow across the frozen Canadian landscape.
This geographic mismatch of water and population
has led to major diversions of Canadian water by both
Canada and the U.S. At least five major river diversions
have been completed in Canada, as well as at least 14
minor diversions, and no less than one dozen major
diversions have been proposed, according to a 1967
publication by Mr. R.H. Clark, chief of the planning
division of Environment Canada's Inland Waters Branch.
Resistance to the manipulation of Canadian waterways is changing. Two decades ago Canadians looked
upon development of our waterways as a mark of
national and economic progress. Or they thought
development unfortunate but necessary or inevitable.
Since then opposition has sprung up, usually on the
grounds that some of the unanticipated effects of water
development have turned out to be bad. The advantages,
it's argued, aren't worth the disadvantages. "*
But recently a new theme of resistance has been
added. Some now feel that any large-scale development
of Canadian water is a desecration of Nature. Their
arguments combine two of the most powerful issues in
Canada today: nationalism and the environment.
Many of the traditional spiritual values of Western
society have eroded, and with them the basically
religious idea of unity, of oneness, that has permeated
the Western tradition, the idea of the universe as the
creation of one Supreme Being.
In the face of this some of us, consciously or
unconsciously, have rediscovered in ecology the unitism
that is central to the Judaeo-Christian tradition. Every
form of life is somehow linked to every other form of
life. A blink of an eyelid sets up a motion which,
however faint, is part of the total energy of the universe
and so affects the farthest star. Unity is restored and we
are no longer alone. Any emotional feeling towards the
physical unity of Canadian water from the Atlantic to •
the Pacific has part of its source in the unitism of the
Western heritage. Whatever the future of Canadian
water, whether decisions will be wise or foolish, the
consequences have the potential of affecting us profoundly, both materially and spiritually. As a result of
water research such as that being done at UBC, future
decisions are more likely to be beneficial. UBC NEWS
Two former presidents of the Alma Mater Society
and the current president of the UBC Alumni
Association have been elected to the UBC Board of
Governors by the University Senate.
Elected to three-year terms were:
Mrs. Beverly Field, a Vancouver housewife and
president of the Alumni Association.
Mr. Charles Connaghan, president of Construction
Labor Relations and AMS president in 1958-59.
Mr. Benjamin B. Trevino, a Vancouver lawyer and
AMS president in 1957-58.
Two Board members elected by Senate for the
1969-72 term, Mrs. John MacD. Lecky and Mr. Paul
Plant, have been given three-year appointments to the
Board by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council.
Eight candidates ran for the three Senate seats on
the Board. The other five nominated were Mr. Aaro
E. Aho, Mr. Frank C. Walden, Mr. David R. Williams,
Mr. Svend J. Robinson and Mr. Stanley J. Persky. The
last two candidates are students.
Other members of the Board are: Mr. Justice
Nathan T. Nemetz, Chancellor; Dr. Allan M.
McGavin, Chairman; Mr. Thomas Dohm, Mr. Richard
Bibbs, His Honor Judge Leslie A. Bewley and UBC
President Dr. Walter H. Gage.
* * *
UBC students are a good risk when it: comes to
borrowing money.
Figures compiled by the University's Finance
Department show that of a total of $1,657,874 in
loans made directly by the University to students
over the past five years only $5,520, or .33 per cent,
had to be written off.
Default rate on Canada Student Loans made
through the Campus branch of trie Bank of Montreal
is only 2.4 per cent, says loans officer Edward
A national survey a year ago showed a default rate
of 4 per cent, or $5.4 million on a total of $135
million in student loans due to be repaid at that time.
UBC plans to hire a consultant to carry our a
survey of all wastes and other by-products generated
on the campus. The object of the survey will be to
develop appropriate methods for recycling or
disposing of wastes of every kind, said Mr. Arthur
Slipper, assistant to the director-planning in UBC's
Department of Physical Plant.
The initial objective of the survey, which will cost
an estimated $25,000, will be to determine the
magnitude of the campus waste problem, Mr. Slipper
He cited waste paper, chemical, biological and
radioactive wastes from laboratories, manure disposal
and fertilizers as areas to be included in the survey.
UBC, Mr. Slipper said, should be a leader in the
field of ecology and in the development of
appropriate disposal methods.
The consultant, he said, will be asked to correlate
all information on wastes and make recommendations
for dealing with them. Mr. Slipper said it might be
possible to recycle paper for use again on the campus
or convert it for sale as a kind of fireplace log or as
It might also prove to be possible to convert
manure from campus animal barns into a marketable
form of fertilizer, he said.
He also pointed out that UBC now has under
construction at the extreme south end of the campus
a new unit for disposing of solid and chemical wastes.
* * *
The new Director of International House on
campus has set out to change the image of the
Mr. Colin Smith, a former teacher in B.C. schools
who has had seven years' experience as an educational
advisor to government ministries in Southeast Asia,
Africa and the West Indies, believes he can bring some
new insights to the job, which he assumed Sept. I.
"I would like to see UBC departments that are
concerned with international affairs make more use
of International House for seminars and classes," he
"I believe that International House should become
more firmly established as part of the community of
scholars on campus."
Increased academic involvement in International
House would, he feels, offset the misconception on
the part of many students that the House is for
foreign students only and that Canadians shouldn't
"Nothing, of course, could be further from the
truth," he says.
A native of Taber, Alberta, Mr. Smith has an M.A.
Two Canadians pre-eminent in the fields of
political science and geophysics will visit the
University of British Columbia in November as
Cecil H. and Ida Green Visiting Professors.
The visiting professors, who will give a total
of eight lectures for students, faculty members
and the general public, are:
Prof. C.B. Macpherson, probably Canada's
best-known political scientist and a teacher at
the University of Toronto; and
Dr. H.O. Seigel, an internationally-famous
Canadian geophysicist and president of Scintrex
Ltd., a wholly Canadian-owned company
which, among other things, manufactures geophysical instruments and environmental monitoring devices.
Prof. Macpherson will give a series of four
noon-hour lectures on the general topic "The
Life and Times of Liberal-Democracy" during
the period Nov. 2-9, and will also address the
Vancouver Institute on Nov. 4 at 8:15 p.m. in
Room 106 of UBC's Buchanan Building on the
topic "Can Property Survive Democracy?"
Prof. Macpherson's daytime talks will be
given in Room 104 of the Buchanan Building at
12:30 p.m. on the following dates:
Nov. 2: "The Sounding Model: Protective
Nov. 6: "The Moral Model: Developmental
Nov. 8: "The Mid-20th Century Model:
Equilibrium Democracy."
Nov. 9: "The Emergent Model: Participatory
Prof. Macpherson, who has taught at the
University of Toronto and is a former president
of the Canadian Association of University
Teachers, is internationally known for his
writings in the field of political science.
Two of his books, The Political Theory of
Possessive Individualism and The Real World of
Democracy, have been translated into seven
languages and reprinted in their English editions
ten times. A third volume entitled Political
Theory will be published by the Oxford
University Press in 1973.
Prof. Macpherson is also the author of
dozens of chapters in other books and encyclopedias and articles in popular and learned
Prof. Seigel, who will visit the campus Nov.
12-25, will give two daytime lectures on the
campus and will also speak to the Vancouver
Institute on Nov. 18 at 8:15 p.m. on the topic
'Playing the Odds in Scientific Prospecting."
He will speak on "Canadian Geophysics as
an Exportable Commodity" at 1:30 p.m. on
Nov. 16 in Room 106 of the Buchanan
Building. On Nov. 22 he will speak in Room
2000 of the Biological Sciences Building on
'Some Frontiers of Geophysical Exploration"
at 3:30 p.m.
The Scintrex Company was formed by Dr.
Seigel in 1967 as the result of the merger of
two companies — Seigel Associates and Sharpe
Instruments of Canada.
In addition to instrument manufacturing,
the company, which is based in Concord,
Ontario, supplies geophysical and consulting
services on a world-wide basis and is concerned
with the development of mineral and water
from   Dalhousie   University,   a   B.Ed,   and  an   M.A.
(adult education) from UBC.
Interspersed with his years as a teacher and
counsellor in B.C. secondary schools, Mr. Smith
served as principal of two government secondary
schools in Sarawak, as an adult education advisor in
Mid-Western Nigeria and as co-ordinator of a teaching
program for the Jamaican Ministry of Education.
* * *
Svend J. Robinson, 20, a third-year Arts student
and one of 12 student members of the Senate of the
University of B.C., has been named the 1972-73
winner of the Sherwood Lett Memorial scholarship.
The 31,500 scholarship is awarded annually to a
student who reflects the high standards of scholastic
achievement, sportsmanship ard the ability to serve
and lead others which characterized the late Chief
Justice Lett, who was Chancellor of the University
from 1951 to 1957.
Mr. Robinson, who now lives at 706 — 2725 Melfa
Road in Vancouver, is a graduate of Burnaby North
Senior Secondary School, where he edited the school
newspaper and yearbook, too< part in the school's
athletic program and received several awards for'
scholastic achievement.
In his high school graduating year, 1969, he
received the highest marks in B.C. in the French and
biology examinations and was awarded a B.C.
Government Scholarship and a Chris Spencer Foundation Entrance Scholarship to UBC.
At UBC he has been a member of the executive of
the Pre-Medical Society and hus served on Students'
Council as a representative of the Science Undergraduate Society.
He has also been active in a number of community
service organizations as a fund raiser and in 1970
established an emergency home placement program
for transient youth visiting the Vancouver area.
In 1970 Mr. Robinson withdrew from his studies
at UBC to become a laborer-teacher in northern
Ontario for Frontier College, an organization which
places students in isolated mining and logging
communities, where they work and teach basic
academic subjects.
He returned to UBC for the 1971-72 academic
year and in February, 1972, was elected by students
to serve on the Senate. He hopes to enter the Faculty
of Medicine in September, 1972.
The late Chief Justice Sherwood Lett, after whom
the award is named, was the first president of the
Alma Mater Society in 1915 and was awarded the
Rhodes Scholarship in 1919.
He was named Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
of B.C. in 1955 and in 1963, a year prior to his death,
became Chief Justice of the Court of Appeal, with
the title of Chief Justice of B.C
The selection committee which awards the
Scholarship includes representatives of the UBC
Alumni Association, the Alma Mater Society and
Graduate Students' Association.
The Vancouver Institute's 1972 73 lecture series
got under way in October with addresses by Dean
David Bates, of the Faculty of Medicine, Oct. 21 and
Mr. Justice Patrick Hartt, a judge of the Supreme
Court of Ontario and chairman of the Law Reform
Commission of Canada, Oct. 28.
The series continues through Dec. 2 with speakers
on the topics of political science, geological
prospecting, labor, and psychology.
The Institute's lectures are held at 8:15 p.m.
Saturdays in Room 106 of the Buchanan Building on
the UBC campus. There is no admission charge. A
brochure listing the lectures is available from the UBC
Department of Information Sen/ices, 228—3131.
■ IMA Vol. 18, No. 14- Oct. 26,
Ills I 1972< Published by the
U^^U   University cf British Columbia
^^mm^ ^^   and    distributed     free.     UBC
REPORTS   D        „ xu^
Reports appears on Thursdays
during   the   University's   winter   session.   J.A.
Banham,   Editor.   Louise   Hoskin  and  Wendy
Coffey, Production Supervisors. Letters to the
Editor should be sent to Information Services,
Main Mall North Administration Building, UBC,
Vancouver 8, B.C.
UBC Reports/Oct. 26, 1972/9 M
//; the last academic year UBC had a learning contact with
more than 43,700 "invisible" students, who were Involved
in programs that varied in length from a single day to an
entire year.
Most people are accustomed to thinking of UBC's
enrolment in terms of the 19,000-odd students who
register for the regular Winter Session from September
through April the following year.
The fact is that more than double that number — a
total of 43,712 — last year enrolled at the University,
many of them on a 12-month basis, for a wide variety of
credit and non-credit programs in the fields of general
and professional education.
UBC's "invisible students" are doctors, lawyers,
engineers, businessmen, housewives, school teachers,
policemen, dentists . . . the list is almost endless. Their
motives in taking UBC continuing education programs
vary but they all have in common a learning contact
with UBC during the course of the academic year.
The length of contact that each invisible student has
with the University varies enormously. Enrolment in a
continuing education program may mean attendance at a
one-day seminar on a high-specialized topic or a weekly
visit to the campus for a credit certificate program.
UBC's invisible students are by no means all located
in Vancouver. In 1971-72 the Centre for Continuing
Education staged 68 courses for 2,143 persons outside
the Lower Mainland.
The Division of Continuing Education in the Health
Sciences is by far the leader in reaching out to other
parts of the province. Something close to 100 programs
in the Health Sciences are given in centres throughout
B.C. by teams of doctors, nurses and allied professionals
with the aim of up-dating the skills of health
UBC Reports talked to a number of invisible students
about their courses and programs of study. Most of them
derived a good deal from the course content, but further
probing revealed another benefit.
Many mentioned the companionship that resulted
from meeting together regularly, while others emphasized the value of the informal discussions they had with
people who were facing similar problems.
The table on the page opposite shows in capsule form
the programs given by various continuing education
divisions within the University and the number of
participants in the 1971-72 academic year.
What follows are brief descriptions of some of UBC's
invisible students and their reactions to their programs
of study.
Sergeant E.W. "Ted" Lister, of the Vancouver Police
Department, has no regrets that he enrolled three years
ago in the Criminology Certificate Program offered
through the Centre for Continuing Education. This
despite the fact that the program really doesn't help him
10/UBC Reports/Oct. 26, 1972
"decide whether to throw someone in the bucket."
When they're dealing with the day-to-day problems of
law enforcement, he says, policemen haven't enough
time to put the law breaker on the couch and analyse
Sgt. Lister has something of a vested interest in
completing the six-course program, which he hopes to
do next year. When it was first suggested three years ago,
he was a corporal in the Police Training Academy and
was involved in originating the program. Today, he's a
member of the planning and research section of the
Vancouver force and is involved in the national
computerized police information system, which is
centred in the RCMP headquarters in Ottawa.
Why did he take the UBC program? A lot of police
officers "are looking for more sophisticated means of
dealing with the problems of law enforcement," he says.
"The course is interesting and gives us a lot to think
about, but how applicable the course concepts will be to
day-to-day police work is something that remains to be
seen." He admits that, on the whole, police work tends
to make officers too narrow in their outlook.
In addition to attending classes one night a week at
UBC, participants in the certificate program are required
to do a lot of home reading and carry out various
projects and write research papers. "Sometimes," says
Sgt. Lister, "the course work gets a bit heavy when
you've already had a full day of police duty."
Gerry Vernon, a UBC graduate (B.A.Sc. '57), was a
member of the first group of 12 practising engineers who
graduated this year in the diploma course in
Administration for Engineers, offered by the Centre for
Continuing Education in conjuction with the Faculty of
Applied Science.
A 15-year employee of the B.C. Telephone Company,
Mr. Vernon learned about the course through publicity
material issued by the Association of Professional
Engineers of B.C.
His motive, he says, in undertaking the four-year
diploma program, which involves night and weekend
lectures at UBC and home study, was
"self-improvement." He found the course work involved
was occasionally "burdensome," but he feels the program helped him in his position as the toll and
transmission engineer in B.C. Tel's coastal division.
His employer paid 75 per cent of his fees and the cost
of text books when he had successfully completed the
diploma program.
Mr. Vernon also has a deeper involvement with
Continuing Education programs at UBC. He's a member
of the Council on Continuing Education for Engineers,
which meets regularly to advise UBC's Centre for
Continuing Education on new programs and seminars.
One of the areas that the Council is having a close look
at is organizing courses in centres outside Vancouver for
practising engineers in all parts of B.C.
Mrs. Jean Martin, a North Vancouver housewife
whose two children are in school most of the day,
learned about the Daytime Program of the Centre for
Continuing Education by reading the annual calendar of
Centre-sponsored courses which had been sent by mail
to her husband, who has also taken UBC programs in hts
spare time.
She chose to enrol in a non-credit program, one of
191 offered in the fall of 1971 by the Centre, entitled
Options for Women. The course was designed to explore
"opportunities for personal growth, development and
"The course gave all the participants a great deal of
food for thought," Mrs. Martin says, "and the
companionship factor was important too. Some of the
participants have embarked on volunteer work and
others have decided to take up a specific course of
Mrs. Martin herself is planning to go back to school at
Capilano College in West Vancouver to take academic
subjects. She feels the University should work more
closely with regional colleges to offer university-level
courses for citizens in outlying areas of the province.
Mr. John McOrmond saw an advertisement in a
Vancouver newspaper for the three-day retail location
residential seminar sponsored by the Continuing
Education Division of the Faculty of Commerce and
Business Administration. He found the seminar, held in
the Totem Park Conference Centre May 24-26,
"inspiring" and says the course gave him "exactly what
he wanted to know."
Mr. McOrmond works as a project development
officer for Canada Permanent Trust, carrying out
feasibility studies and financial analyses for clients who
are thinking of establishing everything from shopping
centres to hotels. If the project looks interesting he'll
recommend it to his company, which may arrange part
or all of the financing for it.
Mr. McOrmond says that one of the real benefits of
the program, quite apart from the course content, was
the opportunity to meet other businessmen in the same Students
field and to exchange views and discuss common
problems. Informal discussion, he says, "gives you a new
outlook on your own work."
Miss Trudie J. Cole, an elementary school teacher in
the Delta School District, began her association with
UBC last January when she enrolled for a Psychology
100 correspondence course offered by the Centre for
Continuing Education.
She was one of the 3,737 students who attended
UBC's   1972   Summer   Session   and   this  fall   she  has
- enrolled for another psychology course by
correspondence and is also taking English 200 by coming
to the campus one night a week for a credit lecture
Her goal is to obtain a Bachelor of Education degree,
and she estimates that she can achieve her objective in
two or three years by attending Summer Sessions and by
taking correspondence programs.
She chose to take Psychology 100 by correspondence
because she wanted to start her studies in January of this
year, instead of beginning at the commencement of the
academic year, in September, 1971. Her only contact
with a faculty member while taking the Psychology 100
- course was a telephone conversation with Prof Edro
Signori, a long-time member of the department.
"I thoroughly enjoyed talking to Dr. Signori,' she
said, "even if it was by telephone. He has the kind of
attitude that makes you want to work."
Miss   Cole,   who  was  born   in   Australia,   finds   her
,   studies in the current year more onerous, largely because
she's taking two courses instead of one. As she puts it:
"It's a matter of making time to do all the reading and
study that the courses demand."
Allen C. Sewell, a 1962 Faculty of Commerce and
Business Administration graduate, is employed by the
real estate division of Canada Permanent Trust in
Vancouver. Through the Commerce Alumni Association
he received a brochure outlining a series of seminars
offered by the executive development section of the
Commerce Faculty's Continuing Education division.
He was particularly interested in a one-day seminar,
held on Nov. 19, 1971, at the Hotel Vancouver on the
impact of the federal government's proposed
Competition Act on business, because some sections of
the Act were related to the real estate industry.
The keynote speaker at the seminar was the Hon.
Ron Basford, Minister of Consumer and Corporate
Affairs, under whose ministry the Act would be
"It was a very useful seminar," Mr. Sewell said, "not
just because it gave me an opportunity to meet the
minister but because it enabled those participating to let
Mr. Basford know the feelings of the business
community about the Act," which has now been
withdrawn for redrafting. He feels that the informal
discussions that are often an outgrowth of such seminars
are more valuable than the formal seminar sessions.
Mr. Sewell, who has also attended other continuing
education programs sponsored by the Faculty, feels that
the conference organizers should make an effort to
provide some sort of a summary of the proceedings of
seminars for the participants. "We usually get advance
material on seminars and courses " ie said "but never a
summary, winch would be useful."
Philip Steel, the owner of the Cookie Jar Ltd., a
bakery enterprise with seven outlets in the Lower
Mainland, decided to take part in a three-day seminar on
retail location offered by the Continuing Education
Division of the Faculty of Commerce and Business
Administration because he thought it might give him a
formula for determining the best locations for outlets
for his products
He says he found the course "very interesting, but
not very useful" for his purposes. The course did deal
with a method of determining good retail locations, he
says, but it involved extensive market research studies
which he feels are too expensve for the small
The real value of the course for him, he says, was the
opportunity to talk to other businessmen who face
problems similar to his and to learn how other small
companies are dealing with them. He's taken other
courses through the Commerce Faculty's Continuing
Education Division, which he says were "very useful and
Participation in Summer Session and
Continuing Education Programs at
UBC 1971-72
Students attending UBC's 1972 Summer Session had 258 courses to choose
from. They were taught by 250 instructors. Faculty enrolments were as
follows: Arts - 684; Commerce - 138; Education - 2,594; Science - 321.
CREDIT COURSES, including 46 evening credit courses given during the
1971-72 Winter Session, 33 courses given during the 13-week 1972
Intersession from May to July and courses given in the field, either in B.C. or
CREDIT COURSES (21) given by correspondence    	
CREDIT COURSES given for certificate and other purposes    	
NON-CREDIT courses given by correspondence
association with various UBC Faculties.
Adult Education — 11 courses for participants from a variety of agencies and
institutions, and a diploma program in adult education	
Resource Industries — Comprising 20 courses in Agriculture; seven in
Forestry, including a symposium to mark the 50th anniversary of the Faculty
of Forestry; and seven courses and two evening lectures in Fisheries, including
a  conference   in  Nanaimo  on environmental  issues,  research and fisheries
Community and Regional Planning — Seven courses for professionals,
including two offered by cassette tapes and printed materials for planners in
centres outside the Lower Mainland, and a seminar for Canadian planning
students organized by the UBC School of Community and Regional Planning
Education Extension — 44 program events and advanced courses leading to
the Continuing Education Certificate in Early Childhood Education	
Continuing Education for Engineers, including a Diploma in Administration
for Engineers, roughly equivalent to a full year's post-graduate work, and 56
courses and seminars held in Vancouver and six B.C. centres	
Continuing Legal Education — 22 courses and activities tor practising lawyers
and  a  Criminology  certificate  program for police,  probation  officers and
corrections personnel	
Social Work, Aging and Inter-Cultural Relations - Three courses for
professional  social  workers,  courses on aging and collaboration with the
Vancouver Sikh community	
Creative Arts and Science — 46 courses covering such areas as photography,
literature, film, art and music	
Daytime Program — 50 courses and activities, the majority held in off-campus
Humanities and Life Sciences — 24 courses, workshops and other activities in
such fields as current affairs, creative writing and psychology	
Languages — Four intensive residential language programs — two in English
and two in French — and an English language program for foreign students   .  .
Public  Affairs  —  25 courses on  a wide variety  of topics,  including  B.C.
history, international affairs and Canada-U.S. relations	
Social Sciences — 33 courses, some offered in conjunction with the UBC
Departments  of   Economics  and   Geography.   Courses   in  archaeology  and
native Indian culture were also included	
Study-Travel — Two programs involving travel in Europe and Mexico	
Urban Affairs — Educational workshops and other events for elected local
government officials, urban affairs specialists and citizens	
In the past two years the IERC has been developing resource materials,
including reports, articles, journals, lesson aids and tapes on Indian culture for
use in B.C. schools. Two-thirds of this material is out on loan to schools in
any   one   week.   In   1971-72   the   IERC   organized   35  teacher  workshops
designed to prepare teachers for Indian education	
Diploma Division, Accounting Management — Division operates programs in
professional fields. Diplomas are awarded in the following areas after an
average of three to four years of study: Certified General Accountant,
Chartered Accountant, Registered Industrial Accountant, Junior Chamber of
Commerce Diploma, Sales and Marketing Diploma, Institute of Canadian
Bankers Diploma. There is also a management studies program for insurance
personnel.    Courses    consist    of    evening    lecture    programs    and    one
correspondence course for the Chartered Accountant program	
Real Estate Program — Offered are a four-year diploma course involving four
options, pre-licensing programs for real estate salesmen and agents and a real
estate short course. Total registration in ah programs	
Executive Development — A series .>f seminars and workshops designed to
enable  businessmen to  keep abreast of new developments in the fields of
financial management, organizational behavior and systems analysis	
Dentistry  —  25 courses were given in the last academic year on the UBC
campus for practising dentists and dental hygienists	
Human Nutrition and Dietetics — Three courses and one special lecture given
in conjunction with the UBC School of Home Economics    	
Nursing — 1971-72 program consisted of eight on-campus courses, ranging in
length from two to four days, and two off-campus courses. One of the
off-campus courses — Coronary and Intensive Care Nursing — was given in
two parts for nurses specializing in emergency and intensive care for patients
with heart disease. The course was given in more than  15 B.C. centres by
travelling instructors. Total participation in Nursing courses	
Pharmaceutical  Sciences  —   Four  on-campus  courses and five off campus
courses given in four B.C. communities	
Medicine — A total of 101 Continuing Medical Education courses for
physicians and other health professionals were staged in 1971-72. Almost half
the   courses  —  48   —  were  community   hospital  courses  held   in   centres
throughout B.C. Total participation	
UBC Reports/Oct. 26, 1972/11 ^^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
Point Grey cliffs show signs of recent sloughing as waves continue eating away cliff-base at high tide. Cliff-face at top of this section is now only 60 feet
from Cecil Green Park. Continued erosion poses threat to $3 million worth of University buildings.
Action Sought On Cliff Erosion
The UBC Alumni Association plans to make
official representation to the provincial government
for action to stop the erosion of the Point Grey cliffs.
Members of the Association's cliff erosion
committee will seek a meeting with provincial Lands
Minister Bob Williams to discuss a proposed erosion
solution which the Association favors. The proposed
solution is outlined in a 16-page brochure which the
Association has recently produced, detailing the
nature and extent of the cliff erosion problem.
The Alumni Association has thrown its support
behind the proposal for construction of a sand-gravel
protective fill along about 3,700 feet of the most
seriously threatened section of the cliffs. This
proposal was developed for the Vancouver Parks
Board by Swan Wooster Engineering Co. Ltd. and the
Parks Board has accepted it. There is to be no road
built along the protective fill; it is to remain a
recreational beach.
Bob Dundas, chairman of the Alumni cliff erosion
committee, pointed out that in recent years the cliffs
have been eroding away at a rate of 0.3 to 1.6 feet
per year and now several University buildings are
threatened with disaster if nothing is done to stop the
erosion. The most seriously threatened is Cecil Green
Park, an imposing former residence which serves as
offices for the Alumni Association and a conference
and social centre for campus and community groups.
At the nearest point, the cliff-face is now only 60 feet
from this building. But the building is only about 20
feet from the predicted line of a future slide.
Continued erosion also poses a threat to the
School of Social Work in the old Graham residence,
the UBC President's residence, and the former
women's residences. The total value of the buildings
in question is about S3 million.
"The steady eating away of these cliffs should be
alarming enough to any responsible person," says Bob
Dundas. "But what is more alarming is the fact that
there is a danger of a large slide - somewhat like the
one that struck the Quebec village of Saint-Jean
Vianney some time ago - being triggered on these
cliffs   by   prolonged  heavy   rain  or  earth-shock.   If
12/UBC Reports/Oct. 26, 1972
nothing is done, we may be faced with a similar
Erosion is hitting the Tower Beach section of the
200-foot cliffs the hardest. The main cause of the
erosion is the wave action of the ocean at high tide,
with the greatest erosion occurring during stormy
winter months. Wave action undermines the sand
cliffs which then slough onto the beach, to be swept
away by waves. The undermining effect of surface
and subsurface drainage water also contributes to the
creation of slide conditions.
The Alumni Association favors construction of a
sand-gravel protective fill as the most economical and
best available solution to the problem. The estimated
cost of the project is $250,000.
Essentially the proposed solution calls for creation
of a new beach above highwater elevation to protect
the base of the cliffs from further sea erosion. Sand
dredged from nearby offshore areas would be used
for fill and would be covered with a three-foot
protective   layer  of  coarse  pit-run  gravel.  The  fill
would be of sufficient width to permit the accumulation of slide materials at the base of the cliff above
the wave zone.
The minimum width of the protective strip would
be 30 feet, extending to a maximum of 85 feet at the
most critical point. By protecting the cliffs from
further wave erosion and allowing slide materials to
accumulate on the new beach, the protective fill
would enable the cliffs to stabilize. Once this stability
is achieved, it is expected, on the basis of similar
Point Grey slopes, that the slopes would eventually
be covered with vegetation.
Once the erosion control project is completed, the
action of the waves should gradually "landscape" the
area, carrying sand and driftwood up onto the beach,
making it a pleasant, natural beach for recreation.
Some copies of the Association's Point Grey cliff
erosion brochure are available to interested groups on
request. For information contact: UBC Alumni
Association, Cecil Green Park, 6251 N.W. Marine
Drive, Vancouver 8, B.C. (228-3313).
Alumni Association favors construction of protective sand-gravel fill along
3,700 feet of most seriously threatened cliffs. Proposal would prevent
further erosion and preserve Tower
Beach for recreation. It would not
include a road. Outlined section in
illustration indicates protective fill;
shaded portion illustrates area that
would be visible at high tide.


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