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UBC Reports Dec 1, 1971

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 DEC.     1,     1971,     VANCOUVER     S,    B.C
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David Suzuki
Talks About
You and Me'
-See Pages Six
and Seven
Pictures by UBC Photo Department
At UBC's
Forest They
Drop Trees
From Planes
-See Pages Two
and Three
Frank Gnup-
UBC's Long-
-See Pages Ten
and Eleven UBC's
For most UBC students and faculty
members,    the    "campus"   of   the
University of British Columbia is the
1,000 acres of land at the tip of Point
Grey on the outskirts of Vancouver.
For many students and faculty
members, however, the term campus
has a wider meaning. It encompasses a
12,000-acre research forest north of
Haney, a 1,500-acre research farm on
Vancouver Island, a 90-acre geology
camp near Oliver, a 180-acire
ecological reserve near Hope, as well
as other miscellaneous properties.
Most of the other "campuses" to
which UBC holds title are the result of
grants from the provincial government
or gifts from individuals who have
willed property to UBC for specific
In the article beginning at right on
this page, UBC's assistant information
officer Peter Thompson describes
some of the research being carried out
at UBC's Research Forest in the
Fraser Valley, where a new concept in
management, called best-use forestry,
is being planned.
The Oyster River Research Farm
operated by the Faculty of
Agricultural Sciences on Vancouver
Island is described in an article on the
page opposite.
And on Page Four of this issue of
UBC Reports are brief descriptions of
seven other properties scattered
throughout the province and owned
butrtght by UBC.
'Best-Use'  Forestry
Assistant Information Officer, UBC
University of B.C. foresters are trying to cushion the
impact of an irresistible force meeting an immovable
The collision has already begun. But its greatest
impact, due perhaps in 10 to 20 years, may be softened
if a proposed Faculty of Forestry experiment is
The irresistible force is the growing public demand
for access to our forests.
The immovable object is the bundle of social,
economic and psychological conditions which are
preserving our forests almost exclusively for timber
The frontier scenario of the future won't be
cattlemen driving off sheepherders and grain farmers.
It may be timber companies trying to keep urban
recreationists out of their timber stands.
Unless the proposed UBC experiment works.
The experiment is the introduction, for the first time
anywhere, of "best-use" forestry. UBC hopes to convert
its entire 10-square-mile Research Forest near Haney to
best-use forestry management and is looking for research
money to put it into operation.
Formally, best-use forestry is "the continual
integration of forest-land uses to provide the maximum
benefit to the welfare of society," according to Mr. John
Walters, director of the Research Forest.
Behind its introduction lies a combination of social
and technological changes impinging on the forest
"Today there are more people who are more mobile
and have more money and more leisure time," Mr.
Walters said. "They're articulate. They're more assertive.
Their attitude towards private property is changing.
They don't respect it the way they did in the past."
The public is demanding that private logging roads be
converted to public highways. They regard the forests of
the province as their heritage and they are demanding
increasingly sophisticated access into them.
"Foresters have tended to have a passive if not
negative attitude towards recreational use of timber
land. That's changing," Mr. Walters said.
"You can't merely put up a picnic table and an oil
drum for litter in a company forest area today. You have
to provide sophisticated, intensively-managed
recreational facilities and ways have to be found to do
this on an economic base through tax concessions to the
companies or direct charge to the public.
"And   even   if  vou   provide all  this free they'll  be
irritated with you if their camper gets stuck or they
crack their oil pan because there's no gravel in the car
park. Roads will have to be maintained to certain
standards acceptable for private vehicles."
"Multiple-use forestr/" is the management practice
currently in force in the province, Mr. Walters said. This
has tended to mean that foresters have recognized forest
uses other than tiimer production, but mostly
secondary to timber production.
Forest companies have allowed the public to use their
logging roads at  most ':irnes  in  areas where company*
activities weren't in progress — except during the forest '
fire  season   —  and   during weekends and  on   holidays
where the companies were active.
Co-indicent with changing social values are
technological changes shaping the forest industry.
In the not too distant future, almost the only crops-
available to the public will be those that can be sown,
cultivated and harvested mechanically. This is already
accepted in the agricultural industry.
Total mechanization s coming to the forest industry.
Site preparation for seedling planting, the planting
operation itself, and protection and harvesting will all be
done mechanically.
Seedlings can now be sown mechanically thanks to
the pioneering work of Mr. Walters in developing a tree
planting gun. And in many parts of the world harvesting
is done with huge machines which hold the tree and snip
it at its base with two shears as if it were a flower.
Shear harvesting is common in Europe, Eastern
Canada and the interior of B.C. Nearly all the trees
harvested in the interior are cut by shears. Three years
ago this type of mechanical harvesting was almost
unknown there. ^Ht
"The reason why shears aren't used on the coas^if
B.C. is because the terrain is too rugged; it isn't rolling
country like the B.C. interior or the southern pine
forests of the United States or the softwood forests of
eastern Canada," said Mr. Walters.
"But the economics of forestry will force us to
totally mechanize timber management. This means
timber production will be limited to the parts of the
coast that aren't so steep that machinery can't move on
"Nowhere in the world does forestry operate on such
a large scale in such rugged terrain as coastal B.C. So the
impact of total mechanization will be greater here^^n
anywhere else." M9
This, says Mr. Walters, is where best-use forestry
comes in. The Univershy's Research Forest has been
divided into different zones and each zone has its own
list of forest products arranged in a certain priority.
Contented UBC sows mtusch grass at Vancouver Island farm
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2/UBC Reports/Dec. 1, 1971 Planned
Basically, the higher, less-fertile levels have been
zoned primarily for recreation — hunting, fishing, hiking
and picnicking — and for the production of drinking and
irrigation water. Timber production has been assigned a
lower priority here.
Timber production is the first priority in lower,
more-fertile elevations with watershed management and
recreation inferior to timber. Recreation corridors will
run along streams and other appealing stretches of the
zone for the use of fishermen, hikers, riders and
"Best-use forestry tries to sort out the conflict
between different groups in society wanting exclusive or
near-exclusive use of our forests," said Mr. Walters.
"Since there isn't enough forest to go around on the
coast, the only way to sort out the conflict is to
integrate as many of the uses as possible.
"This means intensive management. You can't have
intensive use of a forest without intensive management.
"The challenge of the experiment is to work out ways
of integrating the different uses successfully. How do
you open the forests up to recreationists without having
it burnt down? How can you produce drinking water for
urban centres and allow swimming and fishing and
logging in the same area without pollution?
"These are problems we have to solve."
More mechanized forms of fire protection will have
to be developed, perhaps using infra-red scanners for fire
detection.   The recreation  corridors along the streams
(hrough the timber-producing areas could be separated
rom the coniferous trees by hardwoods such as birch
and broad leaf maple. Fire doesn't run through these
hardwoods as easily as through a conifer forest and so
they act as a natural fire-break.
The whole experiment will be done on a
sustained-yield basis. "Sustained-yield is used by
foresters throughout B.C. It means that the maximum
amount of timber logged in any area each year is the
same as is added by nature through forest growth," Mr.
Walters explained.
"We will apply sustained-yield to the other forest
products — recreation, wildlife and water production —
and harvest no more deer, for example, than the number
added each year, which would otherwise be in surplus.
"The forest is a living organism. We want to manage it
in ecological balance so that it produces in perpetuity
|ind at the same time maximize our benefits from it."
Perhaps the most innovative feature of the
experiment is how it may resolve the problem of who
Please turn to Page Four
MR. JACK WALTERS, director of UBC's Research
Forest near Haney, B.C., and inventor of a gun for
planting tree seedlings, will oversee a proposed plan
to   implement a   "best-use"  forestry  scheme at  the
12,000-acre forest. Forest is widely used for scientific
experiments and as a training site for students in
UBC's Faculty of Forestry. Picture by the UBC Photo
A little known "campus" of trie University of B.C.
is the 1,500-acre Oyster River Research Farm on
northern Vancouver Island between Campbell River
and Courtenay.
The farm, valued at S500,000 when it was
acquired by UBC in 1962, is not only a research and
student training centre for the Faculty of Agricultural
Sciences, it is also a model dairy farm which will this
year generate some $145,000 in milk sales alone.
Dean Michael Shaw, head of UBC's Faculty of
Agricultural Sciences, is quick to point out, however,
that the farm doesn't produce large profits.
The farm's income in the last fiscal year was
$147,754, which included money from the sale of
milk to the Fraser Valley Milk Producers'
Association, the sale of timber and livestock and the
rental of houses on the farm.
Counterbalancing the revenue were salaries paid to
eight full-time employees and other operating costs
totalling $142,897, which resulted in an excess of
revenue over expenditure in the last fiscal year of
In 1967, shortly after Dean Shaw was named to
head the faculty, a decision was made to restrict the
Oyster River farm to a dairy operation exclusively.
Up until 1967, the farm had a mixed animal
population, including beef cattle and hogs as well as
dairy cattle.
The decision to drop beef cattle and hogs from the
operations of the farm was largely an economic one.
Once these animals had finished feeding trials they
had to be shipped at considerable expense to the
mainland for slaughtering because there are no
abattoirs on Vancouver Island.
In 1969 an irrigation system was installed at the
farm to increase the hay crop. These factors —
restriction of the farm's operations to dairy cattle and
improved feed production — made the farm more
self-sufficient and enabled it to become a break-even
operation in a relatively short time.
Today there are 296 dairy animals, including 95
milking cows, valued at $75,445, on the farm. The
milking animals product one-and-a-half tons of milk a
The operations of the farm are controlled by a
management committee established by Dean Shaw in
1967 and chaired by Prof. Warren Kitts, head of the
Department of Animal Science in the agricultural
sciences  faculty.  The day-to-day operations of the
farm are the responsisility of Mr. Leo Kansky, a UBC
animal    science    graduate    who    was   named    farm
manager in 1955.
Now that the farm is operating on a break-even
basis the management committee envisages that more
use will be made of the property for faculty research.
One long-term experiment, involving the
cross-breeding of Holstein and Ayrshire cows, has just
been completed at the farm. The Holstein-Friesian
Association of B.C. made donations of dairy animals
to the Oyster River herd to aid the project.
Two new members of the Department of Animal
Science, Dr. Raymond Peterson and Dr. John Hodges,
are analysing the results of the experiment to
determine if the cross-breeding has been beneficial in
terms of both present and potential milk production.
They are also interested in studying, through
breeding, the possibility of increasing the protein
content of milk, since the world is protein-deficient.
"In the future," said Dr. Kitts, "we want to use
the farm for an overall agricultural system analysis to
study grazing habits, forage production and the
energy inputs and outputs of various crops such as
grass and corn for winter feeding of cattle."
The UBC farm also serves as a training centre for
students who are interested in the applied aspects of
Please turn to Page Nine
UBC Reports/Dec. 1, 1971/3 FOREST
Continued front Page Three
will pay for intensive management. The forest industry
has unanimously agreed that the forest environment
should be protected from abuse but has justifiably
rejected suggestions that it absorb the cost of providing
forest recreation to the public.
The potential value of recreation shouldn't be
underestimated. As much mcney is invested in salt-water
sport fishing boats and equipment on the coast of B.C.
as in commercial fishing. And the balance between sport
and commercial fishing investment is widening each
The return from one acre of forest on s.teep, rocky
soil used for recreation is probably much higher than the
value of timber grown on the same acre each year,
remembering that it takes 100 years for a tree to mature.
With the vast population living on the west coast of
the continent, coastal B.C. may soon become the Alps of
North America. Though the tourist revenue could be
enormous, so would the cost of forest management,
and under the present system the managers of the forests
— the forest companies — don't see a nickel of the
tourist dollars the forests attract.
Why should forest companies pay for providing
first-class camping facilities, maintaining trails or
stocking lakes with fish?
Recreationists using the University Research Forest
will pay for the privilege. Part of the best-use experiment
will be to change the public's attitude towards the
forest. First by educating recreationists on how to use
the forest without destroying it, and secondly by
convincing them that their recreation incurs a cost.
Fishermen entering the Research Forest, for example,
would choose a length of stream for their exclusive
fishing that day and be charged a fee.
Though the experiment scunds idealistic, it has a
realistic basis. It must pay for itself.
The Research Forest, the only one in B.C., finances
its research and teaching through revenues from the
forest. Up until now this has mainly been through
timber sales. Between 1953 ard 1970, some 100 million
board feet of logs worth S5.8 million were harvested and
converted into lumber worth S3.7 million.
About 200 research projects have been done at the
Research Forest by foresters, ecologists, zoologists and
others from UBC, Simon Fraser University, and the
federal and provincial governments.
About 1,000 UBC forestry students have received
their field training there and the B.C. Institute of
Technology, B.C. Forest Service and B.C. Aviation
Council use it for teaching.
For years groups of high school and elementary
school students have received instruction at the Research
Forest on ecology, tree growth, tree indentification,
forest management and forest protection.
There is a special trail for the blind designed in such a
way as to give them knowledge of the forest through the
senses of touch, hearing and smell.
A program is now being planned to train high school
teachers in forest instruction.
Mr. Walters, a graduate of UBC's Faculty of Forestry,
received his own field training at the Research Forest
after the Second World War, a few years after the
provincial government crown-granted the Research
Forest to the University in 1941.
The area had been the site of the largest railroad
logging operation in the Pacific Northwest between 1920
and 1931 when 7,000 acres of 700-year-old virgin forest
were logged.
It was while a forestry student at UBC that Mr.
Walters got the idea of a seedling gun, a gun that shoots
seedlings into the ground and is now used throughout
the world.
The seedlings are grown in special plastic
bullet-shaped containers with holes at the bottom for
root growth. As the seedling grows ir. *:he ground, its
roots break open the bullet.
The alternative is the old method, still .vidsly used, of
Other Property Described
In addition to its research forest and farm, UBC
owns a variety of smaller properties scattered
throughout B.C. What follows are brief
descriptions of each.
Oliver, in the ^southern Okanagan Valley, the UBC
Geology Field School was purchased in 1961.
Nearly 90 acres in extent, the property is used in
the spring and summer each year as a training
school for third-year geology students and by
graduate students working on thesis topics.
"The great variety of geological features at the
property and the low rainfall make it particularly
suitable for the geology department's purposes,"
says Dr. Raymond Best, associate professor of
geology, who is responsible for the operation of
the field school.
The property, once beautifully wooded and
park-like, was overrun by a forest fire in the fall of
1969 and is now somewhat barren. The fire failed
to destroy the UBC buildings on the property —a
cpok house, two bunk houses, two wash-houses
and an office. Also on the property are six seismic
trailers donated by oil companies.
In August of 1972 the UBC geography
department plans to run its field school on the
reserve was a gift from the late Mr. L.T. Thacker in
1959. Located near Hope, it consists of 180 acres
plus 1.73 acres of land on nearby Kawkawa Lake.
It was intended when the property was given to
UBC that it be left undeveloped and set aside for
studies in animal and plant ecology by scientists in
a variety of fields.
PRtDEAUX HAVEN. The haven, one of the
finest and most sheltered small-boat anchorages on
the B.C. coast, is located 14 miles north of Powell
River. It consists of 40 acres of shore property and
has a shoreline of about three-quarters of a mile.
The haven, was a gift in 1965 to the University
from the Reed and Sarah Hunt Fund. UBC is
entitled to use, improve or develop the property
for academic purposes, providing its natural
beauty is not impaired and public enjoyment of
the boat haven is not obstructed.
UBC has undertaken to ensure that Prideaux
Haven will be perpetually available as an anchorage
for pleasure craft. Dean Ian McTaggart Cowan,
dean of the Faculty of Graduate Studies, says the
shore property and the waters of the haven have
unique values for marine biology and ecological
ROCKWOODS. The Rock woods property is
located at Batchelor Bay in West Vancouver near
Whytecliffe and was donated to the University by
the late Major General Victor Odium in 1959..
There are six buildings on the five-acre property —
four houses, a map house and a boathouse.
In 1965, UBC's Board of Governors allocated
Rockwoods to the B.C. Work Study School, which
staged conferences and training sessions at the
property for several years. More recently, UBC's
Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration
has used the houses on the property as a site for
courses in continuing education for businessmen,
terms of the will of the late Mrs. Florence E.
Heighway, vytto died in 1960, UBC and the
Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society
received two pieces of property located at 2141
Government Street, Victoria, and 1626 Venables
Street, Vancouver.
Both pieces of property are administered on
behalf of the University by a trust company and
income is used "for the purposes of medical
training." The Victoria property includes a
warehouse leased to Kelly, Douglas and Co. Ltd.;
the Vancouver property is leased to Vancouver
Sheet Metal Ltd.
In 1969, UBC received a gift of property in
downtown Vancouver from the late Wlr. Eugene
Sidney Woodward. The property at 1055 Granville
Street is occupied by a camera store. The income
from the property provides for the annual
"Eugene Sidney Woodward Lectureships" in the
Department of Economics.
reforesting an area oy planting bare-root seedlings using
a hoe. The survival rate of bare-root seedlings is much
lower than those planted in a bullet using a gun. But
most important is the cost difference.
Using a hoe, one man can plant 500 to 700 bare-root
seedlings in a day a: nine cents per tree. With the gun, a
man can plant 2,600 a day at a cost of two cents per
The difference is critical because few people want the
slow and low-paid job of planting using the old method.
And also because of the volume of planting that needs to
be done.
"About two million seedlings were planted in B.C.
this year using the gun and 51 million using the old
method," said Mr. Walters. "Both government and
industry are aware of the need to plant more seedlings
and are planning to set up nurseries to produce 75
million seedlings per year by 1975.
"But: even that won't be enough. Plans are being
discussed for 100 million per year and the B.C. Forest
Service recommends that 500 million seedlings be
planted each year, almost half the total number planted
in all of North America this year.
"Using the old method, it would take 12,000 men
and cost $50 million alone to plant 500 million trees. So
planting in the future must be completely mechanized."
It is uneconomic to sow seeds. Nature supplies a crop
of Douglas Fir seeds only once every seven to 10 years
and when she does she provides 30 million seeds per acre
to allow for the enormous number of seeds lost to
weather and rodents.
Besides, the seedlings replanted are from trees
selected for their genetic superiority over the
run-of-the-mill trees growing wild in unmanaged forests.
Mr. Walters is taking mechanical planting a step
beyond the seedling gun. For about a year he lias
experimented with a method of dropping seedlings from
At first the seedlings were dropped in a version of the
bullet container modified into a bomb. It was larger than
the bullet and had plastic fins or stabilizers imbedded
into the soil to guide its flight. The first stabilizers were
made from plastic swizzle sticks which Mr. Walters says
he enjoys collecting.
Then the seedlings were dropped without anyj
container at all. What he did was grow the seedlings in
dirt molded into the shape of a bomb. The day before
the drop the seedlings and the dirt mold are frozen. The
first batch were frozen in the camp kitchen freezer at
the Research Forest's Loon Lake Lodge. After the drop
the seedlings begin to groyv as soon as the earth
surrounding their roots thaws.
Many of the drops at the Research Forest have been
done using a tilted runway — a short runway 600 to 700
feet long cut up the side of a mountain. New to North
America, tilted runways have been used for years in New
Zealand for dropping fertilizer. Tilted runways are
advantageous in remote, rugged areas, such as coastal
B.C., which are not serviced by road and are long
distances from conventional airports.
Small aircraft land up the tilted runway, slowed down
by the force of gravity. Thev can load up with about
4,000 seedling bombs, take off down the runway
accelerated by the force of gravity, drop the trees and
return for another load in as Ii :tIe as 10 minutes.
Lands, Forests and Water Resources Minister Ray
Williston, at a forestry symposium celebrating the
Faculty of Forestry's 50lh anniversary Nov. 18,
predicted social and econorric disaster for B.C. unless
conflicts in forest-land uses aie resolved. And he has said
that the problems will have o be solved within the next
ten years.
"B.C. manages the largest publically-ownod forest in
the western world," ^rr. Wjlters said. "As the only
research forest in the province, UBC's Research Forest is
the logical site for working out solutions to guide future
management of provincial fo'ests. It's our job. There's
no one else to do it."
4/UBC Reports/Dsc. 1, 1971 dip.
PROF. JAMES DUNCAN, right, head of UBC's
Department of Mechanical Engineering, discusses
with Mr. John Hoar, machine shop supervisor, the
numerically    controlled    milling    machine    recently
purchased by the department. The machine,
controlled by a punch tape .prepared from computer
cards, will automatically machine complex, precision
surfaces. Picture by Michael Tindall.
UBC Engineers Apply
Computers to Machines
Assistant Information Officer, UBC
Vancouver and western Canada have a chance of
cashing in on the revolution now taking place in the
design and use of machine tools.
The revolution involves hooking computers to
machines so that objects with complicated or
precision shapes can be manufactured automatically.
Many simple "numerically controlled," or N/C
machines, are in use in North America. But the first
sophisticated use of N/C machines will probably be in
the making of dies, the parts of machines that punch
or press manufactured objects into final shape.
Pots and pans, telephones, car and aircraft engines,
refrigerators and almost every other manufactured
thing has its source in dies.
Dies must be at least as precisely made as the
shapes they are creating and until now they have had
to be tediously and expensively hand-finished by
industrial craftsmen called die-makers.
Until, that is, a handful of men around the world
began thinking of applying computers to die-making.
Some of the leading work in this field has been
done by Prof. James P. Duncan, head of the
University of B.C.'s Department of Mechanical
He has put together low-cost machining and simple
computer equipment which can automatically
produce almost any three-dimensional object. His
N/C unit can be programmed with instructions
transmitted over telephone lines from any point in
the world.
His efforts are the logics I outcome of the more
than 30 years he has devoted to the manufacturing
Fully-trained as a die-maker after graduating from
university, he spent much of his life as a professional
engineer concerned with machine surfaces, first as an
auto and aircraft design engineer with the company
which later became Chrysler Australia Ltd., and later
as a turbine designer in England.
Prof. Duncan's pioneering work in automated
machining of surfaces, in the basement of UBC's old
Mechanical Engineering Building, was rewarded a few
months ago with a $102,000 grant from the National
Research Council, one of the largest NRC equipment
grants ever received by UBC.
His first work was financed through a small grant
from Prof. William Armstrong, then dean of the
Faculty of Applied Science and now deputy president
of the University. More money came from Caterpillar
Tractor Co. and American Superior Electric Co. lent
him equipment at no charge.
The first N/C unit Prof. Duncan put together did
work for groups on- and off-campus, including local
and national engineering firms.
It did experimental work in shaping the inflector
for the TRIUMF cyclotron now being built on UBC's
south campus. The inflector will change the direction
of travel of sub-atomic particles as they enter the
huge, S30-million machine. When TRIUMF goes into
operation in 1973, it will accelerate these sub-atomic
particles until they reach a speed at which they can
be used in experiments.
Prof. Duncan's first unit also did work on the
design of acoustical horns used in experiments aimed
at reducing noise pollution, as well as in machining
the forms for making components for a new type of
artificial kidney being designed at UBC.
Surface design of the components is critical to
avoid blood clots forming inside the artificial kidney.
If the kidney is successfully taken into production, it
will cost a fraction of the cost of artificial kidneys
now in use.
Both the noise pollution and artificial kidney
projects involve Prof. Duncan's department.
His unit was also involved in experiments
connected with the U.S. National Aeronatics and
Space Administration's project to place a telescope in
orbit around the earth. The telescope's mirror had to
be accurate to within one-millionth of an inch.
Prof. Duncan's contribution was to minimize
distortion of the mirror that would result when the
mirror was placed in outer space where the
gravitational force that acts on earth is absent. The
gravitational "sag" in the mirror would disappear in
space, causing distortion.
During the time he was working on his N/C
machine he gave extension courses to representatives
of the B.C. manufacturing industry through UBC's
Center for Continuing Education. These contacts
convinced him of the future potential of N/C
machines for Vancouver.
"Vancouver is already a strong city for
computer-based technology," he said, "and there are
great advantages here for local companies such as
Gearmatic Co., which bought an N/C machine after
learning of our work and are very happy with the
"We've also found that without any changes in the
aerial mapping procedures of McElhanney Surveying
& Engineering Ltd., we're able to program our N/C
machine to. cut three-dimensional models of terrain to
whatever scale is wanted.
"We've already produced a three-dimensional test
model with the company's co-operation."
B.C. Hydro is interested in having work done for
them and he said other local companies such as
Lenkurt Electric Co. of Canada and Capilano
Engineering Co. have been using N/C machines for
some time.
"But the exciting potential of N/C machines wili
probably be in die-making. One unit has successfully
produced a die in one-fourteenth the time currently
taken by an industrial die-making firm.
"Apart from the enormous economies involved in
producing dies in a fraction of the time it would take
a man to do it, automated machining will overcome a
serious factor limiting manufacturing today, the short
supply of skilled die-makers and the high cost of
manual finishing.
"As manufacturing activities increase, dies are
needed in greater number and wear out faster. Some
only last a few hours. And at the same time, fewer
people seem to be attracted to die-making as a
The new automated machining unit he has put
together with money from his $102,000 NRC grant
has opened up another possibility for establishing a
local manufacturing industry — producing precision
artificial limbs on an international scale, Prof. Duncan
Co-operating with him is Mr. James Foort,
bio-medical engineer with the division of orthopedic
surgery in UBC's Faculty of Medicine, who was
technical director of a research group at the Manitoba
Rehabilitation Hospital in Winnipeg before joining
UBC this fall.
Central to the project is a unique stereoscopic or
three-dimensional camera designed by Mr. A.J.
Bowker, a graduate of UBC's mechanical engineering
department, who is in charge of mechanical design in
the national aeronautic laboratories of the NRC.
Using the camera, photographs of the remaining
limb and the stump of the amputated limb can be fed
into the automated machining unit to produce replica
shapes for an artificial limb.
"The amputee population of the world is small,"
Mr. Foort said, "and servicing it tends to be
"We have the possibility of setting up a centralized
manufacturing and distribution industry in Canada
supplying de-centralized clinics with artificial limbs.
"The clinics would be equipped with cameras such
as    the   one   we're   building   now.    An    important
Please turn to Page Nine
UBC Reports/Dec. 1, 1971/5 David Suzuki T
Wm ithin our lifetimes society has made a
■ quantum leap into the age of science
I and technology. There is no place on
F this planet that one can go and escape
the debris of man's inventions. A scant 15
years ago, science and technology
promised a world of plenty, of leisure and no poverty in
which machines would do our every bidding. Yet today,
these dreams have changed to a nightmare of urban
sprawl, environmental decay and ever more frightening
weapons of control and destruction.
Many of us scream for some kind of stability in this
accelerating proliferation of new things, yet our
insatiable appetites for novelty and titillation only feed
the rate of change. Who is to blame, what has gone
wrong? I would like to propose the thesis that the root
of the problem lies not with science, not with politicians
or power-mad fiends, but with us.
In the past decade, we have witnessed an accelerating
turnover in social fads, each heavy with its vision of the
apocalypse and laden with all of the violent rhetoric of
we-they politics. So we have lived through:
ban-the-bomb, civil rights, anti-Vietnam, university
reform, population and pollution and liberation groups.
Yet today, nuclear weapons continue as a billion-dollar
industry, apartheid and segregation remain as rigid as
ever, the Indo-China war continues on, universities have
waffled their way through the crisis and now the ecology
movement has diverted its critics. In no case are we any
nearer a solution to any one of the problems, yet newer,
more relevant issues dull the older ones into apparent
Have we become a race of jaded do-gooders whose
fleeting concern with "vital" issues is simply a form of
mental masturbation? While this is undoubtedly true for
many in these movements, it is too glib to dismiss the
bulk of sincere individuals committed to the causes in
this way. It seems to me that the fad issues represent
peripheral manifestations of a common underlying
cause. We delude ourselves in supposing that by
preventing the Amchitka blast, saving the whales or
whooping cranes, getting more representation in
university government or cutting down on industrial
pollution, we will ensure a better world because such
actions don't get at the heart of the problem.
As the enormity of each issue becomes apparent to
each person involved, as our energy and morale is
battered in the fight for change, we shift from cause to
cause in the hope that a new issue may be the key to
transforming society. I hope that the current eco-craze
will last longer because it comes close to grappling with
fundamental issues of man on this planet. But I fear the
fanatical fervor and dogma of the eco-freaks, whose
commitment to their vision of the solution for the world
often resembles the ruthless shortsightedness of the
industrialists they so vehemently decry.
I cannot see how we can treasure the lives of other
organisms so long as we show such contempt for human
life. How can we speak of the intrinsic worth of
redwood trees or maintaining wilderness areas while
human lives and minds are destroyed by apartheid,
segregation and napalm? It is irresponsible to say that
Vietnam, French separatism, police brutality and the
oppression of women are not germane to the
environmental problem. In fact, unless we also deal with
these problems, the ecological crisis will never be solved.
I would like to pose two questions and deal with
them in order. 1. Will we survive the next 15 to 20 years
in the sense of maintaining society as we know it? 2. If
we do, will the world be a better place?
Most of us have been involved primarily with
short-term problems and here I feel that the
fundamental cause of many of our crises resides in the
autonomous nature of elite groups. In a complex
technological society skills of a very specialized nature
come to be practised by highly trained people. So we
6/UBC Reports/Dec. 1, 1971
have neurosurgeons, criminal lawyers, brake specialists,
etc. As each group of specialists grows in size and
importance, they come to acquire or are granted special
powers of self-regulation that renders them virtually
immune from the suggestions and criticisms of the
general public. With the autonomy, there is an
inexorable change in commitment from the privilege of
serving the community to a concern with growth and
maintenance of power which too often conflict with the
needs of the public.
I include as specialists any group, garage mechanics,
businessmen, policemen, lawyers, doctors and teachers.
Those of us in the University, I'm sure, are conscious of
the way the Administration and Physical Plant, with all
of their rules and regulations, become impediments to
the activities of the very people they originally started to
serve. I don't mean to deny the importance and
necessity of specialists. It is their relative immunity from
and insensitivity to inspection and criticism by the
people affected by them that creates difficulties.
Examples of the non-concern of elite groups for other
people are numerous and painful to recite:
• The police are so concerned with enforcing law and
order that they often end up hurting and killing the very
people they are there to protect;
• The United States military tests bombs and dumps
nerve gas weapons with complete impunity and its
record of lies to the elected representatives of the people
is shocking;
• Lawyers and judges look to the law for justice yet
wink at collusion and display the very prejudices which
have no place in a just society;
• The lying, deceit and exploitation of business and
advertising are too sickening to recount;
• The medical profession perpetuates the myth of
omnipotence and public service while covering up the
laziness, stupidity, avarice, incompetence and drug
addiction of many of its members.
I would like to spend some time with the group of
specialists with whom I am most familiar —
scientists. Scientists hold a very special position in
present society, since their work, when translated
by technology, affects every aspect of civilization.
Yet, by the nature of its languages, complex
machinery and requirements for prior knowledge,
science has remained cloaked from the prying eyes of
Scientists, of course, are people with many reasons
for being in science — curiosity, social status, fame, the
Prize, etc. But they are uniformly committed to the
need for freedom in their work, a freedom which often
abrogates any responsibility to the rest of society for the
application of that knowledge. There is no question that
we need science to destroy many of our myths and
superstitions. Copernicus showed us that the earth was
not the centre of the universe, Pasteur demonstrated
that living things only come from other living things and
Darwin explained how man evolved. Each man evoked
profound upheavals in his society that helped to rid us
of ignorance and create a less egocentric view of man.
But while science and technology are now providing
us with satellites, color TV, antibiotics, plastics and jet
planes, they have also proliferated the spectre of
hydrogen bombs, ICBMs, nerve gas and a technology
that threatens to destroy every vestige of freedom and
individuality. All of science is double-edged, full of
promise to create a better life, yet ominous with
possibilities for ever more frightening weapons and
dangers. Scientists can no longer deny their
responsibilities to inform all of society about their work
and its implications — and to stop that work if its
application is inevitably harmful.
Let me give you an example of advances in one small
area of science — genetics — as an illustration of the
potential for beneficial and destructive application to
The most exciting area of science in the past ten ye
has been molecular genetics, where the actual biological
language has been decoded. With an understanding of
how a gene is made and what it spells, it is now possible
to make genes in test tubes and to consider injecting
them into cells by tying such genes onto viruses. In fact,
the first completely synthetic gene was completed at the
end of May, 1970. This holds the promise of cures for
many forms of inherited mental disease, diabetes,
albinism and so on. It also provides an ultimate weapon
for total biological control since the injection of a small
number of genes could completely cripple one's mind or .
For those who hold that this science is fiction of the
far future, I sadly point out that already geneticists have
injected viruses into children in an attempt to "cure" a
hereditary disease. Dr. Sol Spiegelman, of Columbia
University's medical school, has described the isolation
of pieces of viruses which can suck up certain molecules -
in cells. He calls them "self-reproducing magic bullets"
and while they may destroy cancer targets, the same
tools may be potent biological weapons.
I'm often told by my colleagues that my vision of the
world  and the  use of science  is a  warped one which
overplays   a   pessimistic   view.   But   I   wonder,   is   my   -
concept of reality so far out of line? I wish it was.
I would suggest that the way our society operates,
with its commitment to short-term quickie solutions, we
may "solve" the pollution problem by changing man to
tolerate higher levels of dirt rather than cleaning up the
air, water and land. We're already doing it. Today, in Los
Angeles, school children can't play outside during recess.
But when the smog alert sounds, people close doors and
windows, turn on the air filters, drop Murine in their
eyes and out they waltz. In Tokyo today there are
machines which dispense fresh air when you drop in a
coin. Recently I was thinking about the mercury
problem and  I  asked myself,  "Why can't we make a \ u \f F    if *
\5acam\m   that   requires  mercury   to   survive?"  Then,
whe^^vels get high, we purchase a tablet containing the
bacteria, eat it and the bacteria run through our bodies
gobbling up mercury. A day later we get a pimple on the
end of our nose and we just squeeze out the mercury. Is
that going to be our solution?
, \ would like to construct another scenario. It is clear
that the concern over expanding population is resulting
in strong social pressures to limit family size. There will
undoubtedly be legislation enacted to encourage small
families by rewarding sterilization or to punish by extra
taxes families with excess children. In such a society the
decision to have a child will be a serious, positive step
which will cost money. Children, therefore, will become
much more precious to the couple and to society.
I'm sure, therefore, that government will require that
all pregnant women be tested to ensure that no child
with a gross abnormality such as mongolism is allowed
to be born. The technique of amniocentesis is now used
routinely to analyze the genetic makeup of a foetus. I
San see legislation requiring all pregnant women to have
an amniocentesis so that any gross abrormality can be
aborted. All of this is a realistic scenario for the near
Now    let    us    suppose    that    a    biologist
approaches a government official and states
that there is a class of embryos which can
be predicted at the time of conception to
have a high probability of never completing
high school, not passing above the poverty
level   of   income,   becoming   involved   in  crime,  having
Irriental and physical disabilities and dying prematurely.
If this can be predicted, so the argument might go, we
Icould save society as well as the individual child a terrific
Iburden  by abortion.  This sounds compelling until we
[realize the above description fits Indians on reservations
it  blacks    in    ghettos.    Here,   clearly,   the   genetic
constitution described above is detrimental only  in a
ce-You and Me'
1 IHM-.>- I: AMi^i'
racist environment. And I wonder whether our solution
to racial problems will be by eliminating race rather than
changing society to encourage differences. Our
intolerance of blacks, Indians, Jews, Asians and
ong-hairs has already driven men to incredible solutions.
ihope you can see the dnagers and hopes of future
research from these simple examples. Are we to
avoid dilemmas by calling a halt to research, as
some radicals are demanding? This could deny to
many cures for cancer and other diseases, but
that's no great sacrifice. However, it would deny
an activity which in my view makes us unique and worth
being human — the asking of a question which we then
try to answer. This activity ranks with art, music and
poetry as a uniquely human thing which makes man
beautiful. To stop science would be to destroy an
important part of human dignity.
What then are the responsibilities of the scientific
elite? It is no longer possible to shun the applied aspects
of one's work. One can no longer carry out research
solely for the accolades, the published papers,
promotions and research grants. The work of scientists
must be translated so that all people can understand the
basic principles in order to scrutinize the research. We
must be able to decide on how information will be
Science is already being misused because scientists
have not had the courage, interest or sense of
responsibility to speak out. A classic example of this was
the way in which the marginal effects of LSD on
chromosomes was blown up out of all proportion to the
actual scientific data in order to frighten people and
prevent them from using acid. This was done in spite of
the borderline nature of the effects of LSD on
chromosomes and the known, potent mutagenicity and
chromosome breakage by caffeine. The disenchantment
of the young with this kind of "scientific proof" will
rebound expensively, in my opinion. And so long as
scientists refuse to clarify the factual evidence they
stand guilty of trying to perpetuate the myth of freedom
and objectivity by denying the public the right to
evaluate the data. I do not mean to imply that LSD is
not a dangerous drug. I believe it is, but for reasons of its
psychological effects and not any genetic dangers.
Moreover, the results with caffeine suggest that tests
done in test tubes may not be readily extrapolated to
There are two aspects to the question of our
immediate survival. We must create the means of
preventing further input of technological progress
instead of trying to control it after it has created
problems. We must anticipate problems and stop them
before they are created. This means that before any new
technique or device is implemented, we must determine
whether it will hurt other people or create problems in
the long run. The immediate rewards of profit or power
must no longer be allowed to dominate the flooding of
our system with technological innovation.
It seems to me that the aura of science and
technology has enforced on most people a feeling of
helpless insignificance. I felt people had to be mobilized
on a large scale to realize that applications of science and
technology were too important to leave in the hands of
specialists and that they had to have a say in these
decisions. I turned to the medium of television in the
hope that it might be a way to evaluate levels of
consciousness on a large scale. I don't regret my
involvement in television as a learning experience and
have come away with a better perspective on the
medium. Although we produced what in my view was a
mediocre product that could have been better even with
the facilities we had, it was a disillusioning experience
for other reasons.
Scientists who comprise the scientific elite not only
shun the responsibility of translating their work for the
public, they actively attempt to censure those heretics
without the proper credentials who attempt to do so.
Within the scientific elite, the man who speaks out loses
credibility as a reputable scientist unless his views are
highly supportive of the needs of the group. After a
show with John Goffman, I received a call from an
official in the Atomic Energy Commission of Canada
who attempted to discredit Goffman as a scientist
instead of dealing with the specifics of Goffman's
charges. In the same way, Linus Pauling suffered
incredible pressures simply because he believed in peace
and felt that nuclear testing jeopardized it. Paul Ehrlich
is coming under fire as a scientist because he deigns to
"popularize" ecology. We know where these men stand,
but where are their opponents who have as much
opportunity to speak out in public? Where does the bulk
■of the scientific community stand? And among those
who snipe so readily at the ego and power trips of
scientists who speak out, very few have been willing to
help or lay their positions open to public scrutiny.
Another disillusioning aspect is that the media
represent power and one is left trying to impose his view
against those with other views. And the media create an
image for individuals which is too often assumed to be
that of the real person. There are people on this campus
who dismiss me as a person without ever having spoken
to me and assume that the person created by the media
is me. And so involvement in the media militates against
the person-to-person involvement that I feel is so
Nevertheless, if we are to avoid continual
technology-induced crises, we need to assess the
long-range effects of all innovation. People in power
from   Minister   of   Science   and   Technology   Allistair
Gillespie to Senator Maurice Lamontagne, the author of
a study on Canadian science policy, to Science Council
President O.M. Solandt are proposing such a review. So
perhaps it will be.
^■| second aspect to survival in the next decade is
LM^L\ that this is the American century. The United
mW^L\ States has dazzled the world with the gaudy,
^■^B  plastic products of its powerful technology.
L^LwL^LM It has been a global imperialist, infiltrating
—W^\^—\ the political and economic structures of
countries throughout the world and ripping off gigantic
pieces of the world's oxygen supply and resources while
littering the planet with its wastes. If we are to survive at
all it will depend upon the fate of the U.S.A., and we
can only hope that the radical-reactionary polarization
within that country will bring that system to a stop or
that its whole superstructure will collapse under its own
weight. It should be obvious to any thinking person that
the American supertechnocracy does not work; rather
than freeing people for a realization of their humanity it
has impoverished, dehumanized and imprisoned the
minds and souls of its people.
A fundamental issue which we as Canadians must
recognize is that so long as we remain a colonial branch
plant to the U.S., we will in fact have no say in the
future of our own people. So long as our resources are
funnelled to the U.S., so long as our land is owned or
leased by Americans, so long as our universities continue
to increase the importing of American scholars, so long
as our culture comes from New York or San Francisco,
we are committed to an American destiny. Even our
branch plant radicals shout "off the pigs" or "right on"
and our branch plant reactionaries act as if our
university students are Berkeleyites. I don't believe that
Canadians are better or different from Americans, but
the national border permits us, in fact, to learn from the
mistakes  of  the  U.S. We can  only  profit from  those
Continued on Page Eight
UBC Reports/Dec. 1, 1971/7 "In the long run, we mi
an increasingly complex;
society can perpetual e
human worth and dign
Continued from Page Seven
mistakes if we have had the independence to make our
own decisions.
In the long run, we must ask whether an increasingly
complex and impersonal technological society can
perpetuate a sense of human worth and dignity. Is the
current contempt of management for labor and vice
versa, the loss of satisfaction from work, the polarization
of young against old, the increasing dependence on drugs
such as tranquilizers and sleeping pills, the manifestation
of a technology devoid of humanity?
What I am going to say now has been swirling around
in my head for the past few months and is meaningful
only to me. I don't lay this on you as a trip. If anything
I say is meaningful for you, then you will make of it
what's important for you.
In my involvement with the pressing concerns of
the world and my commitment to involving people
in the ideas of science and technology, my own
people-to-people relations have eroded. With more
and more things to do and say, there has been less
and less time for personal relationships. And as I
reflected, I realized how narrow a view of the world
science gives me. Because science as a game is so precise
and logical, we scientists begin to look at people in the
same light. In our drive to be logical, we negate feelings
which are real but cannot be explained or understood.
Love, joy, happiness and beauty cannot be examined in
the same way that science examines fruit fly behavior.
Yet how often do we put people down by saying,
"You're being too emotional," or "You're taking it
personally," as if being emotional or taking something
personally in any way negates the reality of that person's
needs. How often do we say, "But you're not being
consistent," or "That's not what you said last year," as
if consistency and constancy are immutable
characteristics of human behavior. Science provides one
way of looking at the world, but it has been successful in
its sphere that we attempt to apply those tools to human
behavior and interactions, too often at the expense of
basic emotion.
Many of us, I'm sure, had high hopes for Pierre Elliott
Trudeau. He's a genuine intellectual, he sounds great, he
has style and class. Yet, in spite of his commitment to
the ideals of democracy and all its guarantees of
freedoms, when the crunch came he applied naked
power to preserve his position and structure and was
applauded by the great majority of Canadians. I spent
four years in a concentration camp during the Second
World War under the War Measures Act for committing
the crime of having genes that came from Japan three
generations ago. I had hoped that this mockery of the
ideals of democracy resulted from temporary insanity
brought on by war hysteria. But we didn't learn from
that mistake and instead chose to erode democracy again
in 1970. This was a profound shock to me.
I have begun to realize that my problem was that I
believed the words. But in the end all the words in the
world don't mean a thing. In the final analysis, we are
what we do, not what we say. When we study ants we
don't ask the ant to say what he is or read the books
ants have written — we watch what ants do and that
defines them. But with man we listen to his words and
become confused because he says things that his every
action belies.
♦ We say we believe in freedom, yet people in power
remove it whenever they feel threatened;
♦ Jerry Rubin wants everyone to do his thing but
he'll kill the pig who tries to stop him;
♦ We say we believe in peace and we go to war to
preserve it;
♦ We say we believe in education, yet we establish
enough regulations and hierarchy to prevent it.
♦ Listen to what politicians, lawyers, doctors,
professors and engineers say they believe in. They all
sound great — but then look at what they do. That's
what they are.
And so I  came to realize how in our society, words
have power because we believe the words. And he who
uses words well has power over others and his power
comes because of the way our society operates. We want
to give others power. We want others to make decisions
for us because basically we don't believe that we are
capable of taking the responsibility for our own
freedom. And I began to see how, for me, life has been
one filled with constant insecurity and of self-doubt. In
order to feel my own worth I required that others tell
me, "That was good," or "You're great." But when we
rely on others to define ourselves, we can be up one
minute and those same people will have us down the
next. And that's what drives us on to succeed so that
others will say "You're O.K." But there are always
people who are "better," "brighter" and "more
successful" than we, and for many this results in a
feeling of impotence and worthlessness.
So it's easier to let Mr. Bennett decide that we
shouldn't see liquor or alcohol ads because we're so
stupid we'd surely be seduced by them. It's easier to let
university professors and administrators set the rules
because students really believe they are incapable of
knowing what they want, that they're too ignorant to
make an effective contribution. And this mentality is
actively encouraged and reinforced by those of us in
power. And so we professors flaunt all of our degrees,
credentials and official positions as if these symbols of
power demonstrate that we have wisdom.
As I reflected on this I had to ask, am / any different
from them? I, the good guy; them, the bad guys. I
realized that in my lab I have played the game of power
without ever recognizing it. Even though the work that
comes out of my lab is truly a product of the sweat and
ideas of everyone in it, / have received the credit,/ have
made decisions on expenditure of money and
distribution of space, / have written letters of
recommendation, given lectures on our work and applied
for grants. The burden of responsibility and power that
comes with this position now is overwhelming. I wonder
why the lab cannot run as a true democracy and whether
decisions made by consensus wouldn't be better
decisions and relieve one person of crushing
And I thought of my relationship with women and
how I have used words oh, so cleverly, and I have
actually believed my words even when my every action
showed exactly where I stood. I have been insensitive to
pleas to "Let me be me," or "Accept me for what I am,"
and instead used words like "love" and "need" to
demand fulfillment of my needs without regard to
theirs. I thought of how often I've said to friends
"You've got to make up your own mind, it's your
decision," and then attempted to impose my will subtly
so that what / wanted would be done. We give apparent
freedom, then play' with words to manipulate, usually
without even knowing it.
I realized how often I play the role of parent t^Mw
children. I say, "What do you want to do today? tK)
when a suggestion is made, I resume my role as big
daddy and reply, "Oh, I've only got a couple of hours*
let's go to Stanley Park." The illusion of freedom, but
with me at the controls.
And so I realized that Nixon, Agnew and Trudeau are
not the evil, vicious creatures I had thought. They're
"good" people who believe in the ideals of their
country, love their families and have faith in God. Bufr
they're people, people not much different from you or
me. And if we can't get out of playing games, assuming
roles and imposing our will on those we love, how can
we expect others in higher positions of power to behave
any differently? Because, you see, we're all locked into
that game of power. Look at the roles we are channelled
into from the time we're born. Boys are expected Ur
have different aspirations and roles from ^L\
socio-economic and racial differences impose different
hopes and expectations. We assume the roles of parent,
child, teacher, lover, student, boss; roles which imprison
all parties involved into set patterns of behavior.
Science and the universities are places where power
games are played to the hilt and where peoples' minds"
and lives may be destroyed. That's not exaggeration,
that's fact. Faculty and student suicides, murders,
mental breakdowns, ulcers and alcoholism attest to this.
Yet those who cry for violent change, who demand
freedom by confrontation and threat or who impose
decisions by rank and position only perpetuate a system'
based on violence and power. By playing that game we
only perpetuate it. And so I feel there is no way to
change universities or society from within because we
have to play the games in order to get in at all.
Wm e need a revolution, a revolution in our
■ minds that recognizes our own human
I fallibilities and weakness. We need to
J accept love, pain, anger and joy as the
most valid expressions of humanity. We
need to understand that loss of power^
means freedom from the terrible burden of infallibility
and roles and that acceptance of freedom brings
responsibilities to oneself and the recognition that we
can only be free so long as others are. And only when we
are there can we really hope to escape the insane spiral
of crisis and violence.
This is where I am in my head. But the most difficult
part lies ahead. I must now be what I think. Until our
gut reactions are what we think they should be we are
not there. We begin the revolution when we feel the
horrible burden of power over others and try to let them
be free so that we are free. As Pogo said, "We have*
confronted the enemy and them \sus."
8/UBC Reports/Dec. 1, 1971 UBC NEWS
8, B.C.
UBC's president, Dr. Walter H. Gage, was invested
as a Companion of the Order of Canada by Canada's
Governor-General, the Hon. Roland Michener, at a
ceremony in Ottawa on Oct. 29.
Appointment as a Companion of the Order,
Canada's highest decoration, is made for "outstanding
merit of the highest degree, especially service to
Canada or humanity at large."
The Medal of Service of the Order of Canada,
awarded to individuals "for merit of a high degree in
many different areas of service to Canada or to
humanity at large," has also been awarded to Mr. John
Liersch, a member of UBC's Board of Governors, and
four faculty members.
Faculty members honored were: Dean Emeritus
Henry F. Angus, former dean of Graduate Studies;
Prof. B.C. Binning, of the Department of Fine Arts;
Prof. D.H. Copp, head of the Department of
Physiology, and Prof. Harry V. Warren, of the
Department of Geology.
A recent federal government report paints a
gloomy picture of job prospects for next spring's
graduates of Canadian universities.
It indicates that many graduates, particularly at
the bachelor's and master's degree levels, will have
difficulty in finding jobs for which they are qualified.
It suggests that prospects are brighter for PhD's as a
group, although there will be a shortage of jobs in
some disciplines.
The report, entitled The Market Situation for
University Graduates in Canada, was prepared by the
research branch of the Department of Manpower and
The department warns that the report should not
•be "judged to have predictive characteristics not
Fitended by its authors." But it says it is "anxious to
make available such insights as it has" about the job
Even making due allowance for the "preliminary"
and "exploratory" nature of the study, the report is
startling. Its major conclusions:
• There will be only one job requiring their
qualifications for every two bachelor-level graduates
next spring;
• Only one appropriate job will be available for
every three graduates with master's degrees;
• In this buyer's market some masters may be
hired for jobs that would normally be done by
bachelors, thus further constricting the BA's job pool.
The Manpower report was intended as a protection
of the job market situation for 1970-71 graduates.
However, since the increases in both supply of and
demand for graduates in 1972 are expected to be of
the same order as in 1971, the study is considered to
offer "a preliminary view of the 1972 situation."
(Issue of Nov. 10, 1971).
The chairman of a UBC Senate committee to
study the Universities Act says consideration of
tenure for university professors by the committee is
"inevitable" in the light of recent statements by the
Hon. Donald Brothers, B.C.'s minister of education.
Dean A.J. McClean, head of the Faculty of Law
and chairman of an 11-man Committee on the
^ Universities Act, said the committee, established in
October, had one meeting to deal with some of the
basic questions to be considered by the committee,
including the question of tenure for university teachers
Dean McClean told UBC Reports that the first
meeting of the Senate committee took place prior to
the newspaper reports of Nov. 17 in which Mr.
Brothers qas quoted  as saying  that his department
plans to review the question of tenure for teachers in
B.C.'s universities.
"In the light of Mr. Brothers' comments," Dean
McClean said, "a discussion of tenure, which -would
probably have taken place in any case, is now
Mr. Brothers was quoted as saying that the changes
he has in mind would involve "extensive revisions" of
the Universities Act, the legislation which sets out the
basic framework for university government in B.C.
and designates the powers of senior university
Dean McClean also said that he plans to discuss
with UBC's president, Dr. Walter Gage, the question
of liaison between the UBC Senate committee and
Mr. Brothers'department.
He said that any contact with the provincial
education department should be through President
Gage. "The question of tenure," he said, "is of
sufficient importance that one would expect there
would be some consultation by the department of
education with the universities."
Mr. Brothers was reported as saying that revisions
to the Universities Act could not be prepared in time
for the 1972 session of the Legislature, which begins
Jan. 20. (Issue of Nov. 14, 1971).
The University of B.C.'s Senate recommended a
list of priorities for additional academic space for the
next two years after nearly two hours of debate at its
Nov. 17 meeting.
By a 49 to 11 vote Senate passed a
recommendation from its Agenda Committee calling
for a revised report from the Senate Committee on
Academic Building Needs to be forwarded to
President Walter H. Gage and the Board of Governors
for consideration and decision.
The revised report recommended, in descending
priority, either a new building or extension of the
Henry Angus Building for the Faculty of Commerce
and Business Administration; a new building to house
both the Departments of Civil and Mechanical
Engineering; a new north wing to the Biological
Sciences Building for the Departments of Botany and
Zoology and the Institutes of Oceanography and
Animal Resource Ecology; and additional space for
the Department of Anthropology and Sociology.
(Issue of Nov. 24, 1971).
UBC faculty members have voted by a margin of
more than two to one to retain the present system of
faculty rank.
Nearly 80 per cent of the faculty of the rank of
assistant professor and above voted on the rank
question. The balloting was carried out under the
supervision of the deans of UBC's 12 faculties and
resulted in a vote of 782 in favor of retaining rank
against 373 in favor of eliminating rank.
Only two faculties — Arts and Law — voted in
favor of eliminating rank. In Arts the vote was 188 to
151 in favor of elimination, while in Law the margin
was 14 to 6 for elimination.
Most faculties voted by a wide margin to retain
rank. In Medicine the vote to retain rank was 104-23,
in Education the margin was 137 to 24 and in
Applied Science it was 59-27.
The vote on the rank question was carried out at
the request of President Walter H. Gage. In April, the
Board of Governors received the results of a vote
taken at the March 24 meeting of the UBC Faculty
Association where a proposal to abandon rank was
approved by a vote of 54 to 31.
The recommendation to abolish rank was made by
Prof. Walter Young, head of the Department of
Political Science, in a brief to the Association. Prof.
Young said he was "disappointed but not surprised"
at the result of the vote carried out at the request of
President Gage. (Issue of Nov. 24, 1971).
■ ■■^4^ Vo|< 17> N°- 20 - Dec- 1-
l||]|1 1971. Published by the
lll]l| University of British Columbia
WwMm^W and distributed free. UBC
REPORTS Reports appears on
Wednesdays during the University's winter'
session. J.A. Banham, Editor. Louise Hoskin,
Production Supervisor. Letters to the Editor
should be sent to Information Services, Main
Mall North Administration Building, UBC,
Vancouver 8, B.C.
Letter to the Editor
Dear Sir:
Due to a misunderstanding, for which I am
probably mainly responsible, a misleading statement
was included in the introduction to the interview
with me, published in the Oct. 27 edition of UBC
Reports. The introduction states that my
archaeological research was supported only with
grants obtained outside the University.
While it is true that the financial support we
received over the years in aid of archaeological
research came chiefly from sources outside the
University, the UBC Committee on Research has
always been most generous with their grants. Though
by necessity relatively small, these grants have been
of great importance, especially in the early years
when no other funding was available, in making it
possible to develop a program of ongoing research.
This continuing program permitted an impressive
number of students who later went on to professional
careers in archaeology to obtain their grounding in
the discipline at UBC. It is most important therefore
that the record be set straight on this point.
Charles E. Borden,
Professor Emeritus
of Archaeology.
Continued from Page Three
farming. Each year five students interested in such
areas as dairying, agricultural mechanics and soils
spend the summer months at the farm to familiarize
themselves with its operations.
The farm also serves as a demonstration unit. Each
year it is visited by some 2,000 persons, including
local school children and dairy farmers who want to
see the latest developments in dairy operations.
"In a sense," said Dean Shaw, "the farm is one of
the faculty's most effective extension operations."
UBC's interest in the farm began in the early
1950s as the result of an association between the late
Chief Justice of B.C., Mr. Sherwood Lett, who was
also UBC's chancellor at that time, and the farm's
then owner, Mr. Barrett Montfort, a retired New
York banker and real estate dealer.
Mr. Montfort, who was interested in the scientific
feeding of dairy cows and cattle, leased the farm to
UBC in 1954 and contributed considerable sums of
money to its operating budget. Mr. Montfort died in
1962 and under the terms of his will UBC was given
title to the farm provided that it continued to be used
for general farming, "including instructional and
demonstrational purposes . . . ."
Continued from Page Five
advantage of using a stereoscopic camera is that data
can be taken accurately and instantaneously. Present
methods involve hand-measurement with tapes and
"The data would be sent to the central fabricator,
who doesn't ever need to see the patient."
An application will be made to the Medical
Research Council for money to complete experiments
using the new unit for making artificial limbs.
The S102,000 grant boosted the mechanical
engineering department's total NRC funding this year
to more than $300,000. The department got about
75 per cent of the money it applied for from NRC,
the highest rate of return of any mechanical
engineering department in Canada. The national
average for mechanical engineering schools was 50 per
Prof. Duncan came to UBC in 1966 after helping
to build a mechanical engineering school at the
University of Adelaide in Australia from 1947 to
1954 and a similar school at the University of
Sheffield in England from 1956 to 1966.
He took his bachelor of engineering degree from
Adelaide in 1941 and his master of engineering degree
in 1954. Ten years later he was awarded the doctor of
science degree from the University of Manchester.
He was visiting professor in engineering mechanics
to Pennsylvania State University for a year before
coming to UBC.
UBC Reports/Dec. 1, 1971/9 c
UBC REPORTS: What do people do in Aliquippa,
FRANK GIMUP: Well, 27,000 of them work for Jones
& Laughlin, one of the biggest independent steel
companies in the world. That's the main industry. It's a
bit like Seattle and Boeing. They'd all starve to death if
Jones & Laughlin went down.
UBCR: Did you work in the steel mills?
GNUP: Sure did. I started with the steel company in
1936 when I was 16 years old. I had to do a little
finagling with my birth certificate to get in. They
wouldn't hire you until you were 18. But there was a
depression on and I got in there.
I went to get my working papers and the lady said,
"Would you lie to get a job?" and I said, "Lady, when
you're starving you'd lie to get a lot of things." My
mother went down and we swore I was 18 and I wasn't.
Worked eight, 10 hours a day, getting 10 cents an hour.
Today, kids are getting $4.50 an hour. They get as much
an hour as we got a week, damn near.
UBCR: Was it a tough town?
GNUP: They had some tough kids there, but it was a
good town. Still is. When you weren't working you were
playing baseball and football. You played on cow
pastures. Fields we played football on had shale stones
and in those days some of those guys were playing in
bare feet and if you got your shirt ripped up you'd come
home and get clobbered. Many families couldn't afford
to buy shoes so kids played in bare feet. They didn't
have a good football field in high school while I was
there. They got a new field after I left. Played on a field
that was sloped. Other teams hated to play us because
half the time you were going up hill, the other half you
were going down hill.
UBCR: You've got a lot of mementos hanging on
your walls here of your high school and college football
days. How did you get interested in football?
GNUP: I was playing football when I was 11, 12
years old. I always wanted to play against the bigger
guys. I thought I was tough and wanted to play with the
big ones.
UBCR: Did you hold your own against them?
GNUP: I held my own against anybody.
UBCR: What happened after you finished high
GNUP: I had a chance to go to Duke University. That
fell through and I went to the University of Wisconsin
on a scholarship. We got there and found you had to
work so many hours a day every day so we could offset
the cost of the scholarship. So I decided to go to
Manhattan College in New York. They gave us
everything, room and board and tuition.
UBCR: Was that a good thing for you?
GNUP: It was certainly a good thing for me because
my old man was only working one or two days a week
10/UBC Reports/Dec. 1, 1971
and he couldn't keep a family and send a kid to school.
Even in those days an education would cost $1,000 or
better a year. Athletic scholarships were the only way a
lot of kids got into school.
UBCR: Do you think athletic scholarships are, on the
whole, a good thing?
GNUP: For a lot of kids they are still a way of getting
an education. But sometimes it is taken advantage of
because a lot of schools have got a tiger by the tail and
can't get rid of it.
UBCR: In what way?
GNUP: The football team, in a lot of those schools,
could be dictating policy. They generate a lot of revenue
and some of the schools are building buildings with it.
So they have some say in how the school is run because
to build a winning team they take in a lot of kids who
perhaps wouldn't qualify.
UBCR: Do you disagree with the UBC policy of not
allowing athletic scholarships?
GNUP: No, I don't, because UBC has always had that
policy and I don't see any reason why they should
change it. A lot of American schools are giving up
football because they got tied up with those so-called
scholarship deals. They thought they would make a lot
of money, and found out they couldn't draw or compete
with established universities.
Recruiting is a problem too. When you recruit a boy
you are looking for a good athlete and the question of
him being a student is secondary. This school has always
maintained that the student comes first. It's always been
that way and I don't see any reason to change.
UBCR: Do you feel that UBC's athletic program
suffers as a result?
GNUP: It may suffer in terms of wins and losses,
especially the football program because B.C. doesn't
have a great high school football program. We've got
only 27 high school teams playing football and a lot of
the good players go to the United States on scholarships.
We lose a lot of kids because of UBC's academic
standards, too.
UBCR: The result has been that UBC's football teams
haven't done consistently well over the years.
GNUP: That's right. I think we started to come along
in the early '60s. Then, from the middle '60s on, when
Simon Fraser came into existence, they started to get
the player that we got before.
UBCR:, Because they offered athletic scholarships?
GNUP: I talked to an SFU administrator the other
day and he said they offer those kids a little bit. It may
not be a great deal, but the kid is getting something,
whereas they get nothing here.
UBCR: Has the fact that your record over the years
has been a poor one been a bit of a discouragement to
GNUP: It's been frustrating, not discouraging,
because I always feel, what the hell, next year's going to
be a better one. We always shoot for that. All we need is,
Frank Gnup,
the cigar-smoking coach of the UBC
Thunderbirds football team, grew up in the
school of hard knocks in Aliquippa,'
Pennsylvania, where he was known as the
Aliquippa Assassin, despite the fact that his
high school playing weight was only 114
pounds. Frank's ability to bounce back has
stood him in good stead during his 16 years
as UBC's football coach. Despite an overall -
won-lost-tied record of 52-J98-7, his UBC
teams have three times captured Western
Canadian Intercollegiate Athletic
Association titles and this year his squad
put together a three-game winning streak,
something that hasn't happened for years.
The interview with Frank Gnup below can
never hope to convey two qualities that
make him unique — his Casey Stengel-like
conversation and the quality of his voice.
The latter has been described by a
Vancouver newspaper columnist as the-
sound of "the jolly green giant rubbing two
concrete apartment blocks together."
say, a half a dozen kids with ability to make a pretty
good football team. Football teams aren't made up
entirely of great players. I feel that if we could ge^^half
dozen kids with good background we could pla^^Bmy
league, really. I get frustrated because you want to do
better and sometimes you don't have the kids doing
what you are asking them to do.
UBCR: Are you a proponent of the idea of winning
at any price?
GNUP: No, never have been. Everybody likes to win,
but you don't want to go out and kill somebody or take
advantage of rules and regulations.
UBCR: Is the object of athletics, then, simply to give
the boy who wants to play the opportunity?
GNUP: I would think so, yes. At UBC we have an
intramural program and an extramural program. The
extramural program is for that kid that has a lot of
talent and who wants to compete with his equals.
When you come right down to it competitionJ^the.
spice of everything. You can't tell me that partid^^on
means a whole lot. There have been more protests over
games in the intramural program than in any extramural
program or professional organization that I have been
associated with. Those intramural kids want to win as
bad as anybody. They go all out.
UBCR: You think that competitiveness is something"
that's in the human animal, then?
GNUP: I think it's an innate quality in people. If you
could instil it in people, you would have, instead of 30
kids, 45 kids out there battling, beating each other's
brains out because they were competitors. Some kicls
just give up pretty easy, they don't want to work at it •
any more. Times are a little easier now than they used to
UBCR: In what sense?
GNUP: Economics. Thirty years ago people were
emerging from the depression when they had to do a lot
of hustling to live. When the Second World War was over
the kids that came up had everything going for them. I
don't know if that was a good thing for the kids. That
takes some competitiveness out of you. Why should you
got out and bash your brains out if you don't have to?
That's one reason why the fight game is going down the
drain. Why get my brains kicked in if you can go out and
make $5 or $6 an hour driving a truck?
UBCR: We got to the point where Frank Gnup was at
Manhattan College, playing football and doing pretty,
well.   You   were  characterized   as a whirlwind  on  the
football field.
GNUP: I was just an average player. But I think I was
UBCR: Was it a rougher game then?
GNUP:   I   don't think   it  was.  You  didn't  have the 'It's frustrating, not
discouraging, to lose
football games. But I
always figure, what the
hell, next year's going
to be a better one."
protection you have now. We played without face guards
and your nose was always busted in, but I don't think it
was an^ougher.
U^H: What happened at the end of your college
football career?
GNUP: The Second World War came along. I had a
great life in the army. I was in signal corps for one year
and then I transferred to the air "orce and tried to be a
pilot. I got washed out on the psychological. They
wouldn't tell me why they washed me out, but I figured
they thought that I would get up in the airplane and it
wouldn't stay up there very long, me or the airplare. So
they transferred me to Mississippi first and from there I
went to the Third Air Force headquarters football team.
That was a team that was a pretty good football team. In
fact we played in Texas and General Arnold, Hap
Arnold, walked in with his staff and I never saw so many
stars in my whole life. They were fighting a war in Japan
and Europe and all the generals in the air force walked
into dfcdressing room and Hap Arnold made a speech to
the tW^Rlubs and said he didn't care where we got our
football players but he wanted the best football players
in the air force. He said he didn't care if they went to
China to get them and they used to go to Africa and
bring them back and play football because they were
good football players and all the college kids and ex-pros
were brought in. We had some good football teams in
those years.
I was in the army air force for three years and ten
months, and three years of that time I was playing
UJ3CR: What position did you play?
GNUP: I was blocking back. I guess equivalent to
quarterback now. That's the guard with his brains kicked
UBCR: What happened when the war ended?
GNUP: I signed a contract with the Buffalo Bills in
the All-American Conference. They drafted a lot of the
kids "out of the air force and service teams to play in that
taague. Now that league became the American Football
League later on. Buffalo stayed in. About this time some
people in Hamilton talked me into coming to Canada.
UBCR: What did they bring you to Canada to do?
GNUP: They thought I could teach them something
[about  blocking.   In  those days, in the Canadian game,
you   couldn't   block   more  than   10  yards down  field
beyond   the   line   of   scrimmage.   Today,   of   course,
[blocking  is unlimited.  But they thought I could teach
Ithem something about the blocking game and I came to
|the Hamilton Wildcats.
.UBCR: How long did you play for them?
GNUP: Four years. Then I signed up with the
Toronto Argonauts and played in 1950. After that I
vent to Peterborough and coached an intermediate
learn, and then to Brantford where I coached a senior
learn and then I came out here.
UBCR: How did you find out about the job out here?
GNUP: I didn't really apply because I didn't know it
was open. Dr. Gordon Shrum* came east and called my
home ancl said he wanted to see me. Apparently Annis
Stukis"'' and Ivor Wynnen recommended me. I had
played football against Stukis and I knew Wynne from
my days in Hamilton.
UBCR: And you were hired as a football coach, were
GNUP: I guess primarily as a football coach but, as
you know, the athletic program here isn't separate from
the academic program, which is a good thing because
then your financial picture is a lot better. Your athletic
program in other places has to make money to pay those
UBCR: What do you do in the academic program in
the University?
GNUP: I teach students the fundamentals of football,
golf and baseball.
UBCR: When you arrived, what did you find?
GNUP: When I came here I said to myself, "What the
hell did I get into?" There must have been 20 some kids
come out for football. But they were a tough bunch of
kids. We have always had a few tough kids every year.
But we've always had too few kids turning out to try to
make the team and we've always come up with some
kids that have no high school football background. In
the States that kid would have played maybe two years
in junior high and three years of varsity.
We have had kids that had never seen a football game
until he came here. We had an Indian kid — I used to call
him Chief, big kid — and I said, "You never saw a
football game did you, Chief?" and he said, "Yes, I did."
I said, "When did you see a football game?" He said,
"This afternoon." He'd seen the Lions for the first time
in his life. He had come out from Prince Rupert. He
could carry two guys, a guy under each arm. But he
couldn't understand what he thought was the brutal
part. He couldn't understand why he had to clobber the
guy and I couldn't get him to understand you'd better
clobber that guy before he clobbers you, that was the
name of the game. He thought it was a vicious game. A
good thing he couldn't cause I think he would have hurt
people if he had got mean.
UBCR: Do you encourage your football players to be
GNUP: No. I don't think you can encourage a fellow
that doesn't have a mean spot or the temperament to be
mean. What you can do is tell him he'd better hit that
other guy and hit him a little harder than he hits you. If
you   do,   you'll   lick   him.   And   if  you   don't,   you'll
probably get licked.  I always feel the guy that hits the
* Dr. Gordon Shrum, former dean of Graduate Studies at UBC
and   now chairman  of  B.C.  Hydro, was representing the UBC
Men's Athletic Committee when he contacted Frank Gnup about
coming to UBC.
"•' Annis Stukis was the first coach of the B.C. Lions and is still
active in Canadian athletics.
a Ivor Wynne was a faculty member at UBC in the 1940s. He
was   dean   of   students   at   McMaster   University   in   Hamilton,
Ontario,   at   the time  of  his death   last year.   Hamilton's  new
football stadium is named for him.
first good blow is the guy usually has the battle won in
the long run.
UBCR: Do you think it's possible to make a kid who
isn't mean into a mean football player? When the kids
come to you are they pretty well set in their ways?
GNUP: I read an article somewhere that said football
was a character builder. Even if you're losing you can
always say you're building character. I never did believe
that because I felt that kids' character was molded by
the time he was 13 or 14 years old. That 18- or
19-year-old kid is kind of set. Nowadays he is even more
set, because he thinks he knows more than you do most
of the time. I think you can refine some things maybe,
he learns a little bit, but I don't think he learns as much
as people coaching football tend to believe.
Psychologists say that they take out their frustrations
by clobbering somebody but I couldn't go as far as to
say that. Any game that you play should be a lot of fun
and I think the fun is in the winning. Dr. Norman
MacKenzie, who was president when I first came here,
said, "Frank, we're not worried about winning, we are
just worried about having fun." I said, "Well, I don't
think you have any fun when you get beat, at least you
don't have as much fun as if you're clobbering the other
guy." Let's put it that way. You have a hell of a lot
more fun in winning. We've won three games straight
and you could tell the difference in the attitude of the
kids. They like to win just like anybody else does and
nobody can tell me that they are out there just having
fun, because it is quite a bit of work. You don't work all
week just to go out there and say you represent a team.
UBCR: What's the funniest thing that ever happened
to you as a football coach?
GNUP: One of the funniest things, well I guess you
could print it, we were playing Simon Fraser and one of
the lads, it's quarter time, and he came up to me and he
said, "Coach I got to go," and I said to him, "It's a hell
of a time, you should have done that before the game
started." He said, "I gotta go." I said, "Well if you have
to go you have to go." I asked him a couple of days
later, "You all right, were you all right?" He said, "No, I
didn't make it."
UBCR: What do you tell your boys before they go
out on the football field? Do you give them the old
do-or-die-for-UBC pep talk?
GNUP: No, I don't think we can do that anymore.
They used to give it to me when I played, but after
awhile I started to wonder what it was all about, because
I wanted to play, they didn't have to give me a pep talk.
I feel I may be wrong, that every kid that is playing
wants to go out there without having to be jazzed up. I
feel every game is a game and each kid that is a
competitor is going out there every afternoon to do his
best and I don't think he has to be motivated. They tell
me in the States they have motivators. I thought that in
this day and age the kids were more intelligent and
didn't believe that garbage, but apparently they get away
with it in some places.
What we try to do is prepare the kids as well as we
can under conditions we have here. See we don't have a
great hurly-burly program here. The kids go to school.
We practice at 5:30 p.m. because they have labs and we
don't meet with them because kids have different
classes. In the big time you would have a meeting every
day with your football team. Also, in the States they
have a quarter system, and a football player takes a light
first quarter, then when the football season is up he
loads a little more. You can't do that here.
UBCR: Do you think that the role of the manager in
sports is overplayed?
GNUP: Sometimes when you get good football
players you don't have to coach. In English sport, the
manager or coach is superfluous. A few years back I told
the baseball team, "Okay, gang, you guys are going to
run this team." And they said, "Like hell, mac," they
said, "you're the manager of this baseball team." You
see these were Canadian kids, brought up where the
manager and coach is the guy that runs it. In England
they don't have to run it. They can't understand why
there is substitution in the football game. Well,
substitution is 'cause people get whacked around pretty
good, can't take 60 minutes of that stuff any more. So
in a lot of cases I think it is overplayed because look at
the situation with the B.C. Lions. Eagle Keyes, who used
to coach Regina, hasn't forgotten what he knew then.
He just didn't have the talent here. Sometimes I think a
good football team can make a coach, then a good
football coach might mess up a football team that has
some talent because of substitution and some of that
other stuff, but if you've got talent in spite of coaching a
lot of times you're going to win.
UBC Reports/Dec. 1, 1971/11 ^m^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
Kierans Urges Gov't Adopt
New Economic Priorities
ERIC KIERANS relaxes at dinner prior to tearing
into government's short-term view of economic
policy. Meeting was sponsored by Commerce alumni,
faculty and students. Mark Kaarremaa Photo.
Canada faces even greater economic hardship in
future unless the federal government adopts
long-term economic policies aimed at boosting
employment, former Liberal communications
minister Eric Kierans warned during his recent
Vancouver visit.
Kierans said government economic policies have
concentrated too much on growth for growth's sake,
rather than stimulating development of healthy,
competitive industry providing high employment and
a high return to Canada. He charged that the
government had taken a short-term view of economic
matters because it was more concerned with gaining
votes than solving economic problems.
This was the basic message Kierans delivered in his
Nov. 10 speech to 375 Commerce alumni, faculty and
students in the UBC Faculty Club and in his
conversations with the news media. Kierans, once
director of McGill University's commerce school,
resigned from the Trudeau cabinet in April after
disagreeing with government economic policy.
Kierans argued that since the Second World War
government policy had encouraged expansion of
industrial capacity and output for growth's sake. The
result was considerable construction and a surge in
the economy but, he said, the surge was caused by
the expansion and not the added output of goods.
The price paid by Canada was inflation.
He said   it is important during the '70s that less
emphasis be placed on growth for growth's sake and
more on sound development of job-intensive
Canadian industries — and development primarily in
response to market demand rather than in response to
government subsidy programs which too often has
been the case in the past.
Kierans pointed out that while 2.6 million people
entered the labor force in the last 10 years, 3.9
million are expected to enter in the next decade. The
jobs, he said, will not be found in the natural resource
extractive industries — which government policy has
favored — but in service and manufacturing
As part of a program of building employment, he
suggested imposition of an across-the-board
corporation tax of about 35 per cent on Canadian
corporations which would ease the burden of high
employment industries and force resource industries
to pay a fairer share of taxes. Foreign corporations
would pay rates comparable to those in their home
country — generally higher.
Kierans  also  said   limits should   be   imposed on"
exports   of   raw   materials   as   these   will   be   more
valuable in coming years.
He also favored the staged introduction of free
trade between Canada and the United States over 10
years, but not a common market arrangement. Free
trade, he said, would reduce inflationary pressures
and eliminate the least competitive industries and
strengthen the most efficient, competitive ones.
Mail Ballot for Alumni Elections
A special UBC Alumni Association general meeting
has approved major revisions in the Association
by-laws aimed at making Association elections more
It is also hoped that the revisions will lead to a
higher level of alumni participation in Association
At the general meeting held at Cecil Green Park on
Nov. 22, alumni approved by-law changes which
provide for the annual election of Association board
of management officers by mail ballot.
This means that all ordinary UBC alumni will now
have an opportunity to vote for the officers who run
the affairs of the Association. Previously, elections
were held at annual general meetings in Vancouver
which, in effect, made it possible only for Greater
Vancouver area alumni to attend the meeting and
"In my view this was an essential reform and I'm
glad we've been able to achieve it," said Don Currie,
chairman of the constitution revision committee.
"Now we'll no longer have two classes of alumni. All
alumni — whether they live in Prince George or
Puerto Rico — will now have a say in who runs the
The revised by-laws require that the annual
elections of board of management members be by
mail ballot and that this ballot be published in the
spring issue of the Chronicle or other authorized
Alumni Association publication. This publication,
which is to be mailed by the third week of March
each year, is also required to contain a photograph
and a 75-word biographical resume of each of the
candidates for office.
The completed ballots are to be mailed to a
Vancouver postal box addressed to the returning
officer and are to arrive no later than midnight, April
15.    Ballots   arriving   after   that   date   will   not   be
12/UBC Reports/Dec. 1, 1971
counted. On or before May 1, the returning officer is
to publish in the major Vancouver newspapers the list
of candidates elected. The same information is also to
be published in the summer Chronicle coming out in
As for nomination procedure, the new by-laws
stipulate that a nominating committee shall be
appointed each year and shall consist of the
immediate past president of the Alumni Association
and four ordinary Association members appointed by
the board of management. The nominating
committee is to prepare by Jan. 15 and report to the
board of management's January meeting a slate of
nominees for the board of management offices,
namely: president, first vice-president, second
vice-president, third vice-president, treasurer,
members-at-large and degree representatives.
Further nominations, the new by-laws state, may
be made by five ordinary Association members who
endorse their nomination with their signatures and
who   obtain   the   written   consent   of   the   person
nominated. Such nominations, together with
photograph and biographical resume of the candidate,
are to be received by the returning officer no later
than midnight on Feb. 10 each year.
Ihe new by-laws, of course, also provide for the
appointment of a returning officer by the board of
management. The returning officer's duties are to
publicize the nominating committee's report, to
encourage further nominations, to provide the
Chronicle or other alumni publication with
photographs and biographical resumes of candidates,
to publicize the list of candidates elected and to
ensure the security and confidentiality of the
It is hoped that the adoption of a mail ballot will
help the Association become more active. "I hope
that this change will encourage more alumni to
become involved in the affairs of the Alumni
Association," said Jack Stathers, Association
executive director. "There's a great deal more that we
could do with greater alumni participation."
Join  the   uncommon herd
Young Alumni Club
Membership qualifications: applicant must be a
student in graduating year, or an alumnus, possess
a chronic thirst and be willing to part with $4.
For more information on this Alumni Association
program: phone 228—3313.
Underneath  the  shaggy  skin  of this YAC there
beats the heart of a swinger.
A UBC Alumni Association Program


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