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UBC Publications

UBC Reports Feb 13, 1969

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Vol. 15, No. 5/Feb. 13, 1969/Vancouver 8, B.C.
Effective Teaching Tool
Our cover illustration by Victor Doray, director of the medical illustration department, shows
man at the centre of a broad array of audio visual devices which extend and amplify his capacity
for communication. The possibilities and the problems of AV devices in education are discussed
by Doray and other experts in this field on Pages 2 and 3.
^ c
UBC Lags In
Faculty and staff members who are most closely
involved with the use of audio visual aids at UBC are
in full agreement on several points.
The University's present facilities are inadequate in
relation to the needs in this area.
UBC lags behind most other universities in the
development of this field.
Development of an audio visual production centre
to serve the general needs of the University as a whole
is becoming an increasingly urgent priority.
Most departments of the University have some
audio visual equipment but the main areas of
concentration are in the Faculty of Education's audio
visual department, the Faculty of Medicine's
department of medical illustration, and the Extension
Department's audio visual services.
"We feel that there is an urgent need for a
communications centre on campus including a
distribution system, a production centre for all phases
of AV, and a central library including books, charts,
slides, film and videotape," says Professor B.R.
Whitinger of the Faculty of Education.
"UBC is far behind most Canadian universities in
this area and a centralized facility for the whole
campus, with decentralized facilities in large
departments, is a top priority need."
Prof. Whitinger says his department would like to
work towards the development of more automated
AV devices such as audio visual film loops and AV
carrells linked to an information retrieval system to
give students access to material on film, videotape
and other mediums.
He also feels that large departments on campus
should have an AV consultant on their staff to advise
faculty and students on the best use of AV
equipment and techniques.
Prof. Whitinger says within the Faculty of
Education alone last year his department handled
8,000 requests from staff members for use of AV
equipment, excluding TV, and 5,000 requests from
students, excluding those using equipment in
professional courses.
The department's equipment includes a
fuliy-equipped TV studio with closed-circuit service
within the Education building, five sets of mobile TV
equipment and a broad range of video tape, still and
movie film equipment and production facilities.
The department handles AV production for the
Faculty of Education afd other UBC departments
such as nursing edu" :ion and continuing medical
education ana Tor Z\.K' iae organizations such as the
Vancouver School Board.,
Television videotape facilities are used for such
applications as counsellor training, training in musical
conducting and teacher training. Students can analyze
their techniques and spot faults by means of instant
playback of the videotape.
Audio visual equipment is also finding a growing
number of applications in the Faculty of Medicine
where the AV services are operated by the
department of medical illustration.
Arvid Kendall, TV director for that department,
says TV equipment is now in use in the department
of psychiatry to film interview techniques, in the
school of nursing, the department of anatomy and in
the department of health care and epidemiology.
Kendall is now purchasing new equipment which
will be used to test various techniques and
applications of TV to teaching in preparation for
development of the Faculty of Medicine's
Instructional Resources Centre in 1971.
The pilot equipment includes four TV cameras
ranging from a desk-type unit with a monitor to a
remote control pan tilt unit with a remote control
zoom lens.
The cameras can be used as a system or as
individual units.
"We will use this equipment to find out what
applications of TV to teaching are valid. Is it of value
to monitor a patient via TV at a nursing station for
example?" Kendall said.
"Another advantage of this equipment is its
extreme simplicity. The user simply has to point it
and focus it. I've seen some university TV set-ups that
are so complex that only a professional can use them
and other people are scared off by the complexity of
Kendall said the pilot equipment will allow faculty
members to explore the possible applications of TV
without worrying about complex equipment.
"When our Instructional Resources Centre in the
Health Sciences Centre comes into operation we will
have technicians to operate the professional
equipment and by using the simpler equipment now
teachers will have learned the possibilities of TV for
Victor Doray, head of the medical illustration
department, says the projected Instructional
Resources Centre will combine all AV media in one
area and will serve the needs of the completed Health
Sciences Centre.
"Although television-and later the computer—will
be our main integrating and distribution media, the
emphasis will be placed on a multi-media approach
which will knit art, photography and AV educational
research into a total systems framework."
Doray says the Instructional Resources Centre will
include such facilities as AV-equipped lecture halls, a
Please turn to page four
Audio tape automatically sets projectors and tapes in motion
For calculations and active study
I       \
A referral library and non-programmed playback machine
This mobile learning van will allow students or small groups off-campus or in remote areas to obtain programmed
material on a multi-media basis. For example, the trailer could be parked at the home or office of a physician in a
remote community participating in a program of continuing medical education. An audio tape recorder provides not
only audio material but controls the automatic programming function for two slide projectors, a movie projector and a
TV projector.
Audio-visual systems, a complex and sometimes bewildering
array of electronic equipment, are a growing part of the
education scene. Victor Doray, director of the department of
medical illustration, gives his personal views onAV and makes the
case that they can be a valuable tool instead of a source of
confusion for the educator.
m mm ms «f _f saw
If you wanted a very strange prediction of what is going, *o
happen in the future I'd suggest that UBC, Simon Eraser
University and other post-secondary-,institutions will function
primarily as production centres for materials t^-t will be
dispensed through the media. v.
Universities will be reference points for live brains—faculty
members—accessible to individual students who are moving from
one institution to another with floating credits.
I think the University will be the repository of sophisticated
laboratory apparatus which is required to be centralized close to
the live brains to which the students can go.
Adjacent to an audio visual production centre, which will be
located somewhere between the library and the computer centre
on each campus, will be large auditoria capable of multi-media,
highly-programmed. Expo-like presentations, where two or three
thousand people can be given the same experience at the same
Evaluations are just coming through now on the five to 10 per
cent of campuses in the United States which have experimented
extensively with AV. The results show that in most cases there is
no significant difference in attainment between the student
taught by the media alone or by the conventional method of
classroom teaching.
One can take two attitudes on this: that there is no point in
buying expensive TV equipment if the teacher in the classroom is
doing the job; or, one can say that it is possible to reach 10,000
people with TV and obtain the same results as a teacher working
with a classroom group. In other words, you can reduce the cost
of teaching. I am not advocating this kind of total expediency but
I'm simply suggesting that you can make a point even here on
behalf of the media.
I think that what UBC will be facing in the future is growing
pressure to ensure that a greater efficiency per dollar must come
out of our educational system.
I hate the word efficiency because it sounds sterile, but the
point is that we can show that the educational methods we use
today are not only inefficient but the are disastrous in terms of
the impact they have on some of our brightest students who are
dropping out of this system.
It can be shown that with the use of visual aids more students
can be reached with the raw data—the data that has to be poured
into any curriculum.
It can be shown that we need increased curricular flexibility if
we are to respond to the requests of the students who have much
more sophisticated demands from a society that calls for a greater
ability to cope with many different specialties.
It is also agreed by most teachers that you get better results if
the student can learn at his own rate.
If you take all these factors into consideration you can see
that probably the only way we can economically allow for an
expanded curriculum and self-motivated study is through the use
of some kind of machinery which allows the student to absorb
the raw data at his own rate.
The machines are often called audio visual carrells. More
sophisticated ones are dial access carrells where the material is fed
out from a central "library" area and the student can retrieve any
information he needs by dialing a code.
In considering AV, one has to weigh the investment in the
dispensing materials against the facility this type of system
affords for diversity and self-paced study and the number of
people you can reach against the additional cost of more space
and teachers needed for conventional techniques.
At this point I believe that AV becomes economical and
I'd say that on the whole most educators do not know how to
use visual aids. Probably 10 per cent at the most use them
properly—as an extension or a supplement to themselves.
Audiovisual hardware is there to be used and is neither good
nor bad in itself. It becomes bad when the educators, writers,
artists or whoever refuse t lecome involved with it and then
become angry or disenchan^d when the information process is
primarily of a technical, administrative and ofteri-dehumanized
I said in an interview recently that if you piled all the AV
machines on top of o-'.e another you'd form a tower of Babel
which would crush the edf 'or-unless there was a foundation
or a core of creative productivity and thinking by the teachers ■in
using them.
Most teachers become very self-conscious about AV aids—they
see them as a threat.
I think we must realize that the book—the first teaching
machine if you like—took almost 100 years to gain acceptance.
Today there are hundreds of developments piling in on us; there's
television, the computer, computer-assisted learning and so on.
The development of technology today is so swift and so complex
that we can't afford 100 years for people to get used to it.
Educators are going to have to make a concerted effort to
learn about AV and not simply say that it is too complicated and
reject it.
I am just completing a film on all the buttons and levers that a
person operates in his car or house during a routine day. If you
confronted the average educator with one quarter of these
buttons he'd say that we are getting too technological. He must
realize that this technology has become part of our daily life.
Why should he not say that if there are items that will assist
him in his teaching he has the same obligation to get his "driver's
licence" for them as he does for his car?
If you wish to make yourself more of a communicator in
terms of sound, sight or conveying motion AV materials can
provide this function. In other words they should become part of
your amplification process and are not individual machines which
you put down in front of the kids and expect them to do your
job for you.
I'm pretty leery of most courses in the use of AV because their
approach is to teach you how to turn on the projector or thread
the tape. Courses in sensitization might be more important.
How do I become sensitive to the peculiarities of an
instrument? In what way does the technique of television editing
differ from movie editing? What are the implications for me as an
educator when I do wish to use TV to teach something?
What has to happen is that a teacher must come to someone
who knows the media and discuss his particular project and the
techniques which may be used. They must try and arrive at a
solution that is viable in terms of that particular professor's
philosophy of teaching and also in terms of the limitations and
benefits of the medium he plans to use.
We are moving towards a situation in which teachers will be
producers or at least co-producers. In education and the new
technology the professor's role is changing to one of a producer, a
stimulator, a co-ordinator, a person who strives to find out the
problems of the individual student and cope with them. Ideally, if
the media are used properly, they will free the professor and give
him the time to interact with the student as a stimulator of the
education process.
m mm ircm §»_mit
You often hear that students today are disenchanted with the
technology of our age and the dehumanization of our universities
as a result of machines and, in some cases, audio visual materials.
There is some truth in this because AV has in some cases been
used in a very dehumanizing way. Some teachers see this
equipment as a substitute for themselves in the classroom instead
of saying "this frees me to interact with students."
We".iave what is called a TV generation student coming tf our
campuses rioht now. They are supposed to be pass||/ and
unwilling to act in the sense of priorities or judgements b\.'«_so
they h'tve been sitting in front o* the so-called passive tube. If I
look back 10 years to my generation of students I come to the
conclusion that we were the passive ones. We were the ones who
allowed our newspapers to be headlined with panty raids and
other ineffectual things of this nature rather than the substance
of what was going on in our cities and in our country. One has to
take a really hard look at people who claim the media make a
person passive and non-involved.
Students today are asking for current validity to be the
keynote of whatever they are going after. Wherever this current
validity is lacking as the basis of a man's teaching or an
administrator's position students attack the areas they consider
vulnerable. One of the things thay they question, of course, is our
present system of teaching and government in universities.
Institutions that have rested heavily on what might be called
arbitrary authority—the universities, the church and the law—are
now feeling this pressure.
There is tremendous evidence of the response of students to
audio visual media, to film for example. There are something like
2,000 film production courses going on in North America right
The University of Michigan, instead of assigning essays on
poverty or something of this nature in their sociology courses,
now give the students cameras and tape recorders and tell them to
come back with a pictorial essay on the subject. The appreciation
which the students get of what the situation really is, together
with the reading which they tend to do more of as a result of
their personal involvement, had made the teachers really thrilled
with this project.
In our own University, Dr. William Gibson of the department
of history of medicine and science, has also used techniques of
involvement. He has found that involving the students in
preparing their own study exhibits has given them a motivating
factor which they never got from a reading list alone.
■ ■ ■» Jb Volume 15, No. 5-February 13,
I I ^J ■■ 1969. Authorized  as second class
I I HK I       mail   by   the  Post Office  Depart -
II [ J II merit, Ottawa, and for payment ol
^Af H_P ^0 postage in cash. Postage paid at
_ - D — - T - Vancouver B.C. Published by the
H t r U n I a University of British Columbia and
distributed free. J.A. Banham, Editor; Barbara Clag-
horn. Production Supervisor. Letters to the Editor
should be addressed to the Information Office, UBC,
Vancouver 8, B.C. X
SIliMIE pimnzi
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