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UBC Reports Jan 12, 1972

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 I »
JANUARY 12, 1972, VANCOUVER 8, B.C.
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THE PAST
M TURKEY
L.
Archaeologists from the UBC Department of
Classics are currently excavating parts of the
ancient city of Anemurium, which flourished in
the third century A D on the south coast of Turkey.
One of the expedition's most spectacular finds
n the summer of 1971 was this bronze, lead-filled
weight in the form of the goddess Athena. For
details of the expedition, turn to Pages Two and
Three. Photo by Dr. Hector Williams. In the third century A D , the city of Anemurium was a
flourishing metropolis on the south coast of Turkey. By the
middle of the fourth century, however, the city was abandoned
and by 650 A D it had been destroyed, probably as a result of
Islamic expansion. In the article below, Dr. Hector Williams,
assistant professor of Classics, describes the excavations being
carried out at the ruined city by a team of UBC archaeologists
headed by Dr. James Russell.
ANCIENT
ANEMURIUM
GIVES UP
ITS SECRETS
By Dr. Hector Williams
Assistant Professor of Classics, UBC
Scattered along Turkey's southern coast lie
the crumbling remains of many
once-flourishing cities; now only sheep and
goats graze in the decaying ruins and each
year sees another wall collapse before winter
wind and rain. Adding to this process of
destruction have been the constant
depredations of man; the ancient buildings
serve as a convenient quarry for local villagers
and ancient sites a treasure trove to be
plundered for the ever-growing market in
illicit antiquities. By and large passed over
unnoticed by the historians of their day, the
story of these cities lies buried in the earth
that covers them. It is to recover the tale of
one such city that a joint archaeological
excavation has been conducted for the past
two years by UBC and the University of
Toronto under the direction of Dr. James
Russell, associate professor of classics at UBC.
SITE SURVEYED
Our site, ancient Anemurium, sprawls along
nearly a mile of coastline on Turkey's most
southern point, Capa Anamur, which along
with the nearby modern town takes its name
from the ancient city. The name derives from
the Greek word for wind and once one has
experienced a summer gale there one has little
doubt about its suitability. Relatively
inaccessible until construction of a highway in
recent years, the site was hardly known
although its vast necropolis, well-preserved
theatres and baths, and extensive remains
marked it out as a place worth investigating.
After several short seasons of survey work
conducted by Prof. Elisabeth Alfoldi of the
University of Toronto, a large-scale campaign
was undertaken in the summer of 1970 under
Dr. Russell. In some six weeks of work part of
a large mosaic-paved court (later identified as
a palaestra or exercise yard associated with a
large adjacent set of public baths) and a small
theatre were dug. As a result of this work it
became clear that much of interest and value
remained  to  be exposed.  Thus funds were
2/UBC Reports/Jan. 12, 1972
again sought from the Canada Council and
another season of extensive work was carried
out in the summer of 1971.
A three-fold program was undertaken:
excavation and restoration work in the
palaestra, exploration and mapping of other
areas of the site, and investigation of the
possibility of cleaning and restoring some of
the fine wall mosaics and frescoes to be found
on the site. A larger team was recruited for
this campaign; besides Dr. Russell as director
and myself as assistant director and
photographer, our staff from UBC included
Prof. C.W.J. Eliot, now professor of
archaeology at the American School of
Classical Studies in Athens; students Pamela
Rumball and John Humphrey and a former
UBC student, Tom Boyd, as architect. Two
students from the University of Toronto and
a student conservator from the Institute of
Archaeology at the University of London
almost completed our number. We added our
final members in Ankara, Turkey's capital —
our komiser, Bey Altan Akat, who
represented the Turkish authorities, and our
cook, Keshan. Several days were spent in
Ankara making final arrangements and
assembling the great quantities of supplies and
equipment — everything from chemicals to
cutlery — necessary for work in an area far
removed from the amenities of civilization.
DIETARY STAPLES
Our dig house is about five miles from the
nearest town and although some necessities
could be found there — gas for the two ring
burners which cooked our meals, bread and
the occasional piece of goat meat to
supplement the tomatoes, rice and eggplant
that were our dietary staples — much had to
be brought in with us. The house itself, a
small, four-room concrete building perched
high on a cliff above the sea, served as home,
office and workroom for the dozen or so of
Please turn to Page Ten
See EXCAVATION
COURTYARD
UNCOVERED
The major project undertaken in 1971 by
UBC archaeologists at the ancient city of
Anemurium was the uncovering of a large, 120-
by-80-foot exercise courtyard that lay adjacent
to one of the public baths in the ruins. The
illustration at right by UBC architecture
graduate Tom Boyd, a member of the
expedition, shows approximately what the
public bath complex looked like in the third*
century A D. The photograph at right below
shows the mosaic-covered courtyard after the
completion of excavation work this past
summer. Aside from the courtyard itself, the
only remaining recognizable feature of the bath
complex is the line of the facade of the entrance
to the baths proper at the far end of the exercise
courtyard, one of the largest mosaic-covered
areas known in Turkey. The fountain house in
the illustration at right supplied water for the
baths and an outdoor pool where the citizens of
Anemurium took their ease.
I
Mosaic inscription at entrance to bath says "Have a good
bath."
Dr. James Russell, associate professor of classics at UBC,
is director of the A nemurium excavation.
Feature of belt buckle found in ruins is a Christian cross. LINE OF FACADE
BATHS
LIMESTONE-PAVED
COURTYARD
MOSAIC-PAVED
EXERCISE YARD
Illustration by Tom Boyd
V    '
..^mmMk^mSS
Pictures by Dr. Hector Williams
UBC Reports/Jan. 12, 1972/3 UBC's
OPEN DOOR
DEAN
By Peter Thompson
Assistant  Information  Officer,  UBC
TB he University of B.C.'s new dean of Science is
going to continue the "open door" policy that he
adopted from Dr. Gordon Shrum whom he
succeeded in 1961 as head of UBC's Department of
Physics.
"It worked well for Gordon Shrum and it did for me
when I took over the physics department from him,"
said Dean George M. Volkoff. "As dean of the Faculty
of Science, if anyone has a problem and I'm not busy he
can walk in and get it done with right away, instead of
having to wait for an appointment."
Dean Volkoff's appointment, by UBC's Board of
Governors, became effective Jan. 1. Dr. Robert F.
Scagel, head of the Department of Botany, had been
acting dean since July 1, 1971. Prof. Kenneth C. Mann
of UBC's Department of Physics, became acting head of
the department Jan. 1.
Dr. Shrum, now chairman of B.C. Hydro, had a
pivotal role in Dean Volkoff's life. Born in Moscow in
1914, Dean Volkoff enrolled at UBC in 1930 in the
Faculty of Arts and Science to become, like his father
and uncle before him, an engineer. But the influence of
his first-year physics teacher, Dr. Shrum, was so intense
that he changed his goal and graduated in 1934 with a
B.A. degree with honors in physics and mathematics,
winning the Governor-General's Gold Medal after leading
his class in every year. His average mark in his last year
was 97.9 per cent.
He went on to become one of Canada's leading
theoretical physicists and developed a long and broad
association with UBC. The man he succeeds as dean of
Science, former Dean Vladimir Okulitch who retired
June 30, 1971, is his brother-in-law. His wife, Mrs. Olga
Volkoff, now a lecturer in the Department of
Microbiology, registered as an undergraduate at UBC one
year before her husband and was teaching in what is now
UBC's Faculty of Agricultural Sciences when they
married in 1940. Their oldest daughter, Elizabeth,
graduated from UBC three years ago and their twin
daughters, Alex and Olga, graduated last spring. Another
brother-in-law, Mr. George Okulitch, head of the Fraser
Valley Milk Producers' Association, is co-chairman of
UBC's current drive to raise $500,000 for the Faculty of
Agricultural Sciences.
Some of Dean Volkoff's views have probably been
influenced by his personal efforts to get an education
during the depression. He put himself through UBC on
4/UBC Reports/Jan. 12, 1972
scholarships. During a period when funding of
post-graduate fellowships was almost non-existent, he
was sponsored by Dr. Shrum and the late Prof. Thomas
C. Hebb, first head of UBC's physics department, to
work toward his Ph.D. He went to the University of
California at Berkeley in 1936, the year he received his
M.A. degree in physics from UBC and became a
Canadian citizen, to work under the famed J. Robert
Oppenheimer. During the last year of his Ph.D. studies,
which he completed in 1940, he was awarded a Royal
Society of Canada fellowship for $1,500.
Dean Volkoff isn't too chargined that students seem
to have become disenchanted with the physical sciences
and that registration in physics and chemistry has
declined across North America.
"Some students consider that the job market for
physics and chemistry graduates is saturated. But the
dedicated students will come anyway. Over the past 10
to 20 years, when the popularity of the physical sciences
was at its height, the relative number of dedicated
students in physics and chemistry didn't vary that much
from what it was before. What is happening now is that
students looking primarily for a career are tending to
look elsewhere."
Nor is he too concerned with what appears to be a
swing in student interest and research support in favor of
the biological sciences. "Physicists and chemists," he
said, "will become more involved in the biological
sciences. You should remember that many of the
fundamental discoveries in biology in the past couple of
decades have been made by people trained as
physicists."
(Francis Crick, leader of the two scientists who
discovered the structure of the genetic master-molecule
DNA, perhaps the greatest biological advance since the
publication of Darwin's The Origin of Species, was a
physicist. Crick became interested in the structure of
protein, the basic ingredient of all living tissue, after
reading What is Life? by Erwin Schrodinger, a
theoretical physicist.)
Nor does Dean Volkoff subscribe to the view that
scientists should be responsible for the results, bad as
well as good, of their discoveries. In many cases, he said,
scientists just aren't in a position to know what
applications will arise from their work. "How could
Einstein possibly realize what would come out of his E =
mc2,"  he asked. And secondly, it's presumptuous of
scientists- to decide for themselves whether a basic
discovery should or shouldn't be revealed to the public
for fear of what might flow from it.
"Every discovery can be used for good or evil," he
said. "Who is the scientist to decide unilaterally what is
good for society? A new discovery may result in havoc if
improperly applied, but it may also help a population of
people across the world dying of some disease. Who is
the scientist to think he should take these decisions
upon himself? Without science, we'd probably still
living in caves and probably still bashing each other i
the head."
•
Whether or not a scientist continues work in what
promises to be a productive area for the good or evil of
society is up to him. Dean Volkoff said. The decision is
personal, rather like deciding whether or not to continue
going to church.
He supports efforts to bring to public scrutiny
technological or scientific alternatives.
"I think the recent series of H.R. MacMillan Lectures
on energy and the environment was very worth while.
My only regret is that the Centennial Auditorium at the
MacMillan Planetarium is small. The views for and
against different energy sources should have received a
mass audience and I'm glad to hear that the talks will at
least be published."
Dean   Volkoff   himself   has   been   involved   in
research the results of which he couldn't have
predicted.   He   has  also   worked,  during  the   ,
Second World War, on research which was kept from
public discussion.
He could not have foreseen the results of his Ph.D.
thesis under Oppenheimer. Large bodies of gaseous
matter in space would form "neutron stars," he
postulated, if compressed by huge gravitational forces, v
Electrons orbiting around the nucleus of gaseous atoms
would be pushed towards the nucleus, forming a
compact mass. As the electrons and nuclei came closer
together, the force of electrical repulsion between them
would increase until it equalled the gravitational pressure
squeezing the gaseous matter together.
This is a type of research that so infuriates some
members of the public. It was a mathematical exercise.
Theoretical physics was combined with mathematics to
produce a hypothesis, a prediction. Perhaps not even a
prediction but a mathematical projection of what would
happen    if    certain    theoretical    considerations    are Prof. George Volkoff, the new dean of the Faculty of Science at UBC, is a theoretical physicist who
predicted the existence of pulsars, or neutron stars, in 1939 while working with famed physicist J.
Robert Oppenheimer in California. The central mathematical fdrmula of the paper predicting pulsars is
on the blackboard to Dr. Volkoff's right. Picture by the UBC Photo Department.
:«) »* * ■
. "*:   '^aif.'V-v
elaborated. It was impossible to check whether these
so-called neutron stars existed in the heavens or not. To
stretch a simile, it was a piece of scientific theology put
together by a brilliant student expensively educated. To
some people, a waste of time, talent and money.
And so the subject of "neutron stars" lay dormant
for exactly three decades until radio astronomers at the
University of Cambridge picked up periodic bursts of
adio signals from outside the solar system. Other such
burces were soon discovered and the objects emitting
them were named pulsars. They turned out to be
neutron stars, 100,000 times smaller than ordinary stars,
invisible in the light spectrum but much more active in
the radio spectrum than ordinary stars and rotating at
tremendous speeds. They are still a mystery to
astrophysicists.
Dean Volkoff's secret research was during the Second
World War. He returned to UBC's physics department in
1940 as assistant professor, then joined the National
Research Council's group doing work on heavy-water
nuclear reactors at the University of Montreal. His wife
worked in Montreal at the same time, producing
Canada's first penicillin for the pharmaceutical firm of
Ayerst, McKenna & Harrison, and unaware of the nature
of her husband's work. He was in charge of theoretical
physics for the NRC's atomic energy project. While he
was still in his late 20's, his work contributed to the
design of Canada's first atomic energy plant at Chalk
River, Ont.
For his war work he was named a Member of the
Order of the British Empire in 1946. He is one of the
few UBC professors to have received an honorary degree
while an active member of the faculty; he received a
D.Sc. in the fall of 1945.
When he returned to UBC after the war he initiated,
along with his graduate students, research at the
University in nuclear magnetic resonance when the
Hennings Building was opened in 1947. The first Ph.D.
awarded by UBC went to Dr. T.L. Collins, one of his
graduate students.
Although he will extend the open-door policy set by
Dr. Shrum into the dean's office. Dean Volkoff's work
habits differ from Dr. Shrum's. Dr. Shrum was an early
bird who liked to break the back of the day's work in
the early hours. Dean Volkoff prefers to walk the short
distance from his home on Western Parkway in the
Endowment   Lands,   arrive  at  about   9:30 a.m.,  work
through the day, go home for supper and then return for
paper work in the evening.
Evenings that aren't spent working are usually taken
up by music or theatre. Like many mathematically
trained people, he has a passion for music. "I meet more
people in physics, chemistry, engineering and other such
departments at musical events than I do from the
humanities," he said.
He has passed his appreciation of music and the arts
on to his daughters. "I'm glad they're daughters because
I'm not the type to take his boy out and play ball. I've
never been interested in sports. On the other hand I
enjoy nothing more than getting my wife and daughters
all dressed up and having the pleasure of taking them to
the opera."
Vk M— AWhWe a boy he was diagnosed as having
wl M V ■ endocarditis, inflammation of the lining of
V "At the heart. "There's some doubt in my mind
about this since it was before sulfa drugs and penicillin
and many of my medical friends tell me I would have
been dead without them." Nevertheless, he used the
diagnosis throughout his school years as an excuse to
avoid athletics.
The only form of physical exercise he enjoys is
hiking, a pastime that has been useful in enticing at least
one physicist to join the physics department when he
was head. Prof. Erich Vogt, now on leave of absence at
Cambridge University, finally decided to join UBC while
hiking with the Volkoffs on Hollyburn Mountain on the
North Shore.
It was Prof. Vogt, Dean Volkoff and Prof. John
Warren of the physics department who in the mid-1960s
organized and promoted the idea of TRIUMF, the
nuclear accelerator now being built on UBC's south
campus by four western universities and the federal
government. TRIUMF is the first inter-university project
in Canada. Prof. Warren was its first director and Prof.
Vogt associate director.
Three years ago Dean Volkoff was appointed a
member of the National Research Council, becoming
one of 15 top Canadian scientists and engineers who
meet three times a year to decide on allocation of
research and scholarship funds to support scientific work
in Canadian universities.
Academic decisions, he said, should be left to those
who have to live with them. He is opposed, for example,
to student participation in tenure decisions. Tenure
assures a faculty member permanent employment and
was brought into existence as an attempt to guarantee
academic freedom. He thinks it is unfortunate that furor
has surrounded the cases of some professors who have
not been offered tenure.
"Though there has been a lot of dissent over a few
cases recently, it is because we have such beautiful
means of amplification these days. The vocal minority
becomes as much a cliche as the silent majority. I'll bet
there have been a dozen or more cases in the past couple
of years in which tenure hasn't been granted that we
haven't heard about.
"Many people within the University are not offered
re-appointment with tenure when their probationary
appointment runs out because the University thinks it
can get better people. The market changes all the time,
of course, with supply and demand. Right now it's a
buyer's market. After a person has been with the
University for, say, four years, many would say we were
heartless and arrogant to let him go. But if we did
re-appoint such a person with tenure, then some other
person in the job market, perhaps better qualified,
would go without. We try to get the best we can at all
times for the benefit of the department, the University
and future students who'll be coming to UBC. I don't
think it's proper to ask students, whose time here is
limited, to make these decisions."
Dean Volkoff often describes himself as a frustrated
travel agent. "Next to physics, I'd prefer to be in the
travel business," he said. "I'm always telling my friends,
whether they appreciate it or not, where they should
stay on their travels, where they should go, how they
should get there and what time of the year they should
go."
Jfts a child he came from Moscow to Vancouver
ATjAwhere he received his elementary education.
A^^^^Then he went with his parents to Harbin,
Manchuria, where a large number of Russians had
gathered after the Russian Revolution. He attended
secondary school there while his father was a professor
in the Polytechnical Institute. From Harbin he returned
to Vancouver to enrol at UBC. His knowledge of Russian
and his position as a leading theoretical physicist have
since taken him around the globe, often as part of
Canadian government delegations. He took part in the
seven-week conference at Geneva in 1958 to study the
possibility of detecting violations of a possible
agreement on suspension of nuclear tests. The
conference's successful conclusion contributed to the
nuclear test ban.
UBC Reports/Jan. 12, 1972/5 o
a.
o
D
ASSISTANT professor of civil engineering Dr.
Richard Spencer carries out research into the
behavior of buildings during earthquakes on this
dynamic testing apparatus. The machine allows
varying loads, simulating earthquake conditions, to
-*-*
be applied to building parts in the laboratory and
makes it possible to predict deterioration or
damage these parts might suffer under earthquake
stress. Test results are used to help develop better
designs for critical parts of buildings.
On an office wall of civil engineering professor
Sheldon Cherry there hang two photographs of a
fearsome carved wooden mask, equipped with a
movable wooden visor.
It is a Kwakiutl Indian "earthquake mask," used
years ago by a Vancouver Island tribe as the focal
point of an earthquake dance designed to appease the
gods whenever an earthquake struck.
Exactly how the mask was used is not known, but
its existence does serve to illustrate the widespread
fear of earthquakes which, it is estimated, have
caused more than 13,000,000 deaths in the last 4,000
years.
Accounts of the awesome devastation caused by'
severe earthquakes date back to man's earliest
permanent settlements; official records and personal
correspondence of the 17th century reveal that the
early European settlers of North America were nearly
as impressed by earthquakes as the natives. A major
earthquake that occurred in early 1663 in the St.
Lawrence region received a great deal of publicity in
contemporary writings, much of it greatly
exaggerated. Tales were told of mountains being
thrown down and entire forests sliding into the river.
Yet despite this fascination with earth tremors,
accurate and methodical reportage of earthquakes did
not become widespread until the early 1900s.
Precautions such as building codes to protect city
dwellers from catastrophic quakes were initiated
only in the 1930s. And it is only within the past
decade that the actual mechanics of earthquakes have
come within the understanding of man.
UBC's contribution to this knowledge has come
primarily from the Departments of Geophysics and
Civil Engineering, both of which inau«^ted
intensive programs of earthquake research atSBr 10
years ago.
University   geophysicists   may   not   be   able   to
EAR THQUAKEt*
and ■ what
UBC is doing
about them
KWAKIUTL Indian earthquake mask, above,
complete with moveable visor to cover the eyes,
was used in dance designed to appease the gods
whenever an earthquake struck. Picture courtesy
the UBC Museum of Anthropology.
SOIL DYNAMICS are studied in a sophisticated
laboratory established by Dean of Applied Science
Dr. W.D. Liam Finn, shown at right discussing an
experiment with research associate Mr. Setsuo
Noda. Model of a dam is enclosed in a shake-table
which can accurately duplicate ground motions
during an earthquake. Behavior of the real
structure can be deduced from recordings made on
sensitive instruments. Picture by UBC Photo
Department.
6/UBC Reports/Jan. 12, 1972
predict quakes any better than the Kwakiutl Indians,
but they certainly have a greater understanding of
them. In the past year alone, faculty members have
conducted studies on earthquake-related topics such
as marine geophysics, seismology, propagation of
seismic waves, instrumentation, seismological ^^es
of the earth's core and the effect of earthqual^K)n
the wobble of the earth's axis. This last area of
research has been carried out by Dr. D.E. Smylie,
associate professor of geophysics. He has become
prominent among North American scientists for his
work in this field, and has co-authored an article on
the subject for the Scientific American.)
A major topic of concern to UBC researchers is the
new theory known as "plate tectonics." This
theory gives earthquake researchers, for the first time,
an adequate understanding of the worldwide
distribution of earthquakes. While it has been known
for a long time that most earthquakes are caused by
the release of stress in the earth's crust and upper
mantle, the origin of these stresses has not been
understood.
The plate-tectonics theory explains the build-up of
the stresses by the relative motion of large rigid
plates, which together form the outer layer of the
earth. Some of the boundaries of these plates occur at
continent-ocean borders, some in the middle of the
oceans.
At some continental margins, there is a sliding
motion between the two plates. Where this occurs,
such as along the western edge of North America,
many shallow (and possibly damaging) earthquakes
take place. For example, the San Andreas fault is part
of a feature along which the Pacific Ocean basin is
moving northwest relative to North America at the
rate of about one inch a year.
In other regions, such as the Aleutian Islands and
the western coast of South America, there is a slow
but monumental crashing of one plate against
another. As the two plates collide, one is forced
underneath the other and the resultant release of
stress may cause earthquakes. The plate on the oceanic side of the continent's
edge descends beneath the continent at about a 45
degree angle to depths of hundreds of miles. A
collision can produce both deep and shallow
earthquakes and explains the devastating tremors that
occur in the mountains of western South America.
The descending slab becomes heated and its
material is absorbed into the deeper parts of the
earth. This raises the question qf how the slab's
material is replaced. Scientists now know that new
material from deep in the earth is added to the plates
along a 40,000-mile chain of submerged mountains
located roughly in the middle of the oceans, where
shallow earthquakes occur frequently but receive
little publicity because they are far from populated
areas.
ENERGY GENERATED
However they may be caused, earthquakes
generate energy in the form of seismic waves which
can travel tens of thousands of miles and still be
recorded by sensitive seismic instruments. The
seismograms which are recorded can then be analysed
for a variety of research purposes.
Dr. R.M. Ellis, associate professor of geophysics,
has been using earthquake data to examine features
of the earth's crust in western Canada. In a project
now being developed he hopes to determine the
depth to which the rigid plate extends beneath
western B.C.
Another geophysics researcher, Dr. R.M. Clowes, is
supervising a study of the variation of the speed of
arthquake waves as a function of depth in the earth's
entral core, using data which he compiled while
carrying out research at the Australian National
University.
There is also continuing theoretical work within
the department on the subjects of earthquake
mechanisms, the propagation of seismic waves, the
effects of crustal structures on recorded seismograms,
as well as other projects. Such research involves
mathematical and statistical procedures too complex
to be explained in such limited space.
Dr. Smylie, along with several graduate students,
has completed this past year a generalized theory of
earthquake displacement fields based on realistic
models of the earth. Dr. Smylie has for some time
been investigating the effect of earthquakes on the
wobble of the earth's axis, known as the Chandler
obble, and his latest efforts have yielded the most
recise computations to date of the effects on the
wobble expected from quakes. The study also
investigated the speed of shock waves from quakes as
they travel through the earth's core, mantle and crust.
Another approach to the study of crustal and
upper mantle features which relate to the
plate-tectonics theory, and one which complements
earthquake studies, is the use of chemical explosions
to produce seismic waves. The advantage of these
explosions is that their time of detonation and place
of origin are precisely known, whereas the times and
positions of naturally-occurring earthquakes must be
determined from recorded data.
Dr. Clowes is developing a system for recording
seismic waves from artificially-created explosions
which have been reflected from deep within the
earth's crust below the ocean floor. When put into
operation the program will involve setting off small
chemical explosions — completely safe explosions —
in the waters off B.C.'s coast and timing and
recording the shock waves that result. The intent is to
study, in a much more detailed way than has been
possible in the past, the complex plate tectonics of
the coastal region of B.C. and how this region fits
into the global plate-tectonics picture.
A land-based seismic recording project using
explosives has already been carried out as the result
of a co-operative venture between Dr. Ellis and UBC
graduate students and the earth physics branch of the
federal Department of Energy, Mines and Resources.
Recordings were made between Prince George and
Prince Rupert in an effort to look at the earth's
crust in central B.C.
Perhaps the most ambitious project envisaged by
the department is the installation of a six-component
array of seismometers in  the area surrounding the
'•r
^7>i
soon-to-be-completed Mica dam in B.C.'s interior.
The complex system would record any seismic
activity which might result from the filling of the
reservoir behind the dam. The decision on grant
applications for this project is being awaited even as
this is written.
Taken as individual projects, these studies are
rather academic exercises, but as parts of ongoing
worldwide earthquake research, they are major steps
on the path to a workable theory of the cause of
earthquakes and perhaps their eventual predictability.
The benefits to life and property from such a
breakthrough need no explanation.
An interesting display in the Department of
Geophysics is the campus seismic station. In the front
hall is a seismograph recording 24 hours a day. It is
sensitive enough to detect and record the vibrations
caused by winds on trees and the effects of ocean
waves striking the beaches and cliffs of Point Grey.
Naturally, it is also sufficiently sensitive to detect and
record the vibrations from earthquakes around the
world, which is its primary function.
The amount and scope of earthquake and related
research is a small miracle considering the limited
staff and funds available. Despite grants from the
National Research Council and Defence Research
Board and others, the department continually
requires funds to update its seven-year-old seismology
equipment and carry out field programs, which are
expensive.
It is perhaps worth mentioning the often-confused
roles of the seismometer and seismography. The
seismometer is the device which converts the
mechanical motion of an earthquake into an electrical
signal. The seismograph picks up the signals,
amplifies, filters and records them. From these, the
geophysicist translates the data into, among other
things, a measurement of the quake's magnitude on
the Richter scale, numbering from zero to infinity.
The magnitude of an earthquake is an instrumental
measure, and for any given quake the magnitude is
the same anywhere. This is not to be confused with
earthquake intensity, the effect of an earthquake on a
given site. This qualitative measurement varies
according to the distance the location is from the
earthquake's epicentre, or place of origin, and the size
of the earthquake.
DOING SOMETHING
While the geophysics department worries about
the cause, location and path of earthquakes, the job
of actually doing something about them in
down-to-earth terms falls to the civil engineering
department.
Prof. Sheldon Cherry initiated research into
earthquakes in the civil engineering department in
1960. He is currently chairman of the Canadian
National Committee for Earthquake Engineering.
This committee is responsible for recommending
guidelines for construction in earthquake zones.
Prof. Cherry is quick to point out that there is
only so much that can be done about earthquakes.
"You never use the word 'quakeproof'; you can
make a structure earthquake-resistant, but the
philosophy of earthquake engineering is to design the
building in such a way that a minor quake will cause
no damage, and in the event of a catastrophic quake
to make sure that even if the building is destroyed,
people will be able to get out of the building.
"If we know the type of earthquake ground
motion at a given site, if we can say 'this is exactly
the way the ground would vibrate at this point,' we
are sufficiently advanced in our techniques that we
could tell almost exactly how the building would
behave," says Prof. Cherry.
"But you have to know the characteristics of the
structure."
Research in the department is centred on the
effects of earthquakes on soils and buildings.
To find out more about the effect of earthquakes
on soils the UBC civil engineering department has
developed a sophisticated Soil Dynamics Laboratory.
Started in 1964 by Dr. W.D. Liam Finn, dean of
Applied Science, with continuing support from the
National Research Council of Canada, the laboratory
is one of a very few in the world equipped to carry
out a wide range of tests on the behavior of soils
during earthquakes. As well as carrying on basic
research, the laboratory has been available to
Canadian industry to assist in assessing the
earthquake resistance of dams, dykes for flood
protection, nuclear reactor foundations and
shore-front structures.
The most important feature of the Soil Dynamics
Laboratory is a new type of shake-table which can
accurately duplicate the ground motions during an
earthquake. Model dams, dykes or buildings can be
placed on this table and shaken as they would be
during an earthquake so that the behavior of the real
structure can be deduced.
BUILDINGS TILT
One of the most difficult and dangerous problems
faced by designers is the tendency for sand under
water to become a liquid or quicksand when shaken
by an earthquake. Buildings on such sands will tilt or
settle into the ground. The soils dynamics group,
consisting of Dr. R.G. Campanella and Dr. P.M. Byrne
in addition to Dean Finn, have developed special and,
in some cases, unique equipment to detect the
possibility of this happening. Recently Dr. Finn was a
consultant to the United Nations, which is helping
the Mexican government set up a similar seismic
laboratory in Mexico City.
Special computer methods have been developed to
compute the movements and stresses in structures
during earthquakes. Dean Finn has lectured
extensively on these methods in the Soviet Union,
Bulgaria and Mexico. Engineers from these countries
as well as from the United States, Turkey and Japan,
have all spent periods at the Soil Dynamics
Laboratory.
Research into the behavior of buildings during
earthquakes is being carried out by Dr. Richard
Spencer, assistant professor of civil engineering and
graduate student John Glanville. With National
Research Council support, Dr. Spencer has built a
special dynamic testing machine which can apply
varying loads, simulating earthquake conditions, to
parts of buildings.
This machine makes it possible to predict
deterioration or damage these parts might suffer
during an earthquake. Test results are used to help
develop better designs for critical parts of buildings,
and to provide data for special computer programs
which Dr. Spencer uses to analyse behavior of
complete buildings.
These programs take into account the damage and
other consequences of the severe deformations that
can occur in buildings during earthquakes.
Around the same time that UBC's civil engineering
department acquired the shake-table, it submitted a
bid for a major development grant from the National
Research Council, its principal source of funds. The
money would have been used to set up a major
research centre, with sufficient facilities to study
nationwide earthquake data.
Although UBC didn't obtain the grant, Prof.
Cherry says the department is still working toward a
centre along these lines.
"One of the projects which would be of concern
to such a centre would be research leading to the
development of micro-zoning maps showing which
parts of a region are more prone to earthquakes than
others. We have these on large-scale maps, of course,
but we need them for smaller areas like Greater
Vancouver."
Cherry confesses that such a map is still a long way
off, but until then he and his department will
continue to look for better ways to build structures
and better places to put them.
■■■^Jfe Vol. 18, No. 1 - Jan. 12,
IID^I 1972. Published by the
lini| University of British Columbia
%0 mW \w and distributed free. UBC
REPORTS Reports appears on
Wednesdays during the University's winter
session. J.A. Banham, Editor. Louise Hoskin,
Production Supervisor. Letters to the Editor
should be sent to Information Services, Main
Mall North Administration Building, UBC,
Vancouver 8, B.C.
L
UBC Reports/Jan. 12, 1972/7 Taking the Blandn
DR. GEORGE TOMKINS: "It's an
inescapable fact that there exists
some excellent material on Canada,
printed and published by foreign-
owned publishing houses."
Dr. George S. Tomkins, chairman of the social studies
department of UBC's Faculty of Education, has been on
leave of absence since September, 1971, to serve as
co-director of the Canada Studies Foundation, an
independent foundation incorporated in February,
1970. The foundation's aim is to improve the quality of
studies about Canada in the elementary and secondary
schools of Canada. UBC Reports interviewed Dr.
Tomkins about the work of the foundation when he was
in Vancouver recently.
UBC REPORTS: What led to the organization of the
Canadian Studies Foundation? >
DR. GEORGE TOMKINS: The fundamental rationale
for the establishment of the foundation is contained in a
1969 report entitled What Culture? What Heritage? It
was written by Mr. A.B. Hodgetts, a teacher from Port
Hope, Ontario, and can best be described, I suppose, as a
lament for a nation's history teaching. Mr. Hodgetts and
I are now the co-directors of the foundation.
There's a pretty broadly based Board of Trustees
chaired by Mr. Walter Gordon, the former federal
government cabinet minister. The Board includes a lot of
people who are well known in public life in Canada —
journalists Pierre Berton and Pat Carney, both graduates
of UBC; Dr. John Deutsch, president of Queen's
University and former head of the economics
department at UBC; Mr. Donald MacDonald, the
president of the Canadian Labor Congress and a number
of members of the Canadian Senate, including Senator
John Nichol, who is also a UBC graduate.
UBCR: The presence of Mr. Gordon on the Board of
Trustees and other people who have had nationalistic.
sentiments attributed to them might lead an obseutt' to
assume that the foundation is nationalistic in it^^als
and was bent on developing what is called a "Canadian
identity." Is that so?
DR. TOMKINS: There is the danger of that
assumption, I suppose. If I were asked if the foundation
was a nationalistic enterprise I would have to answer yes,
but not in the sense that we are seeking to promote any
particular version of Canadian nationalism or particular
view of Canada. On the contrary, we think, as the
Hodgetts report indicated, that the trouble with schooj
material about Canada is that it has emphasized a bland
consensus view of the Canadian past. We hope to
develop approaches to emphasize the variety of
Canadian life and the regional diversities that constitute
Canada. The aim is to promote a rational and intelligent
approach to the study of Canada and only in this sense
can the work of the foundation be termed a natioiMfctic
enterprise. WW
CANADIAN IDENTITY
I'd like to comment too on the use of the term
"Canadian identity." Mr. Jean Louis Gagnon, the head
of Information Canada, recently wrote about this
problem and made some observations to which I wholly
subscribe. He expressed the hope that we would never
develop a Canadian identity and I would be very
disturbed if the purpose of the foundation was to
promote an ideological concept of Canadianism.
Regionalism is a fact of Canadian life and unity \r\
diversity, to use a somewhat hackneyed phrase, is the
essence of Canada. The Hodgetts report showed rather
convincingly that history teaching in Canada tended to
ignore the rich texture of Canadian society. I agree with
Ramsay Cook, of York University, that the nation-state,
not the nationalist state, is the appropriate polity for
Canadian society.
UBCR: The problem you've been discussing is also, to
some extent, bound up with the increasing Canadian
obsession with the imposition of American influence on
our culture. Is there a lack of material about Canada
available in the schools and is there undue American
influence?
DR. TOMKINS: I would agree that there has been
very real and, in some cases, justifiable, concern about
this problem recently. Again, I have to say that I would
deplore any nationalistic bias which would result in a
reversion to centralized control of the curriculum when
our schools are, for the first time, being given sorrfe
healthy freedom in this regard.
There is, of course, the continuing problem of the
ownership of Canadian publishing firms by foreign-based
companies, British and European as well as American. I
favor   action   which   would   ensure   that   some   fixed
8/UBC Reports/Jan. 12, 1972 ess Out of Canadian History
proportion of Canadian publishing should be controlled
by Canadians.
On the other hand, there is the inescapable fact that
there exists some excellent material on Canada, written
toy Canadians but printed and published by
foreign-owned publishing houses. There are safeguards
too, probably more than we need, on the kinds of
materials which get into the schools through the
provincial departments of education, the school boards
and individual teachers.
PROJECT INTERESTS
i
There are some pretty militant individuals, who see
themselves as protecting the interests of Canada, who are
demanding the exclusion of foreign textbooks and the
imposition of Canadian-written and produced material.
All this raises the ugly spectre of censorship at a time
when we are attempting to be more flexible and
open-ended. I don't think we need to be too concerned
about "protecting" Canadian children. I don't think we
can do it and it's questionable whether such a thing is
desirable at a time when there is increasing awareness of
things Canadian and an increasing flow of published
material about this country.
In summary, I'd have to say that the deploring of a
lack of material on Canada is overdone. Someone asked
me recently if it wasn't the case that textbooks on the
history and geography of Canada were being written and
imposed on our schools by Americans and I had to
answer that I don't know of a single history or
geography of Canada in use now or in the past in
i Canadian schools that was written by an American.
«ked at another way, of course, militant
ions of concern can be beneficial. They almost
inevitably result in the initiation of corrective measures
and in my particular area of interest — the social sciences
-* where it is a fact that there has not been sufficient
concern about Canada and Canadian problems, nor has
there been a body of trained Canadians capable of
tackling questions of significance to this country, the
situation is changing already. Right across Canada one
can now find excellent graduate programs for training
Canadians for the schools and universities.
I think I should point out here that I am not speaking
on behalf of the foundation in most of my preceding
remarks. The foundation doesn't have policies on these
kinds of questions and is only interested in promoting
better material about Canada and better ways of
teaching about the country.
. M—CR: This is probably a good point to leave the
generations and talk about specifics. Can you
describe how the foundation is going about its work?
DR. TOMKINS: Behind the work of the foundation
is the viewpoint expressed in the Hodgetts report that
teaching about Canada in the schools, contrary to all its
stated objectives, tends to strengthen the divisive
rhfluences in our society. It does not counterbalance the
inevitable and desirable regionalism of Canada by giving
students an adequate understanding of the total
Canadian environment. The Hodgetts report and studies
done by the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and
Biculturalism reveal that most schools have not helped
«o lessen prejudicial attitudes nor have they fostered an
awareness of the distinctive characteristics of our
multi-ethnic society.
Broadly speaking, the foundation assists in the
development of and co-operation between project teams
of educators in different parts of Canada. The teams
consist of classroom teachers, university professors of
different disciplines, experts in learning theory and
practice, and administrators. The ultimate aim of the
projects that are being funded is to develop classroom
materials and teaching methods that will reflect the
nature of Canadian society in all its diversity and help
students to understand and become more involved in
Jheir total Canadian environment. Typically, materials
i used in Nova Scotia to teach children there about British
Columbia have been produced in Toronto publishing
houses. We happen to think that British Columbia might
pley a role in interpreting this province to others, and
vice versa.
UBCR:  Can you be a bit more specific about the
. projects?
DR.   TOMKINS:   Certainly.   Our   largest  project   is
called   Project   Canada   West  and   is   concerned   with
!  develop;ng units of classroom work based on the theme
of urbanization. The central organization is located in
Edmonton and consists of a director and supporting
office staff. There is a policy committee associated with
the project representing the academic community and
the four western teachers' organizations.
All the universities of western Canada are associated
with the project in one way or another. There are 14
teams of teachers and academics in western Canada
working on various sub-projects, four of them in British
Columbia. Various UBC faculty members are
contributing     in    various    ways.    (See    box    below.)
To  be more specific, one of the sub-projects being
UBC Faculty
Help Foundation
Nineteen members of the UBC teaching staff
from five faculties and departments are or have
been involved in various aspects of the work of the
Canada Studies Foundation.
The faculty members are listed below by
faculty and department.
FACULTY OF EDUCATION - Prof, CJ.
Brauner, Mr, J.N. Sutherland, Mr. J.W. Kehoe, Mr.
D.C. Wilson, Mr. A.M. Gunn, Dr. T.R. Bentley, Dr.
Gerald Walsh, Dean Neville Scarfe, Dr. Ian
Housego, Prof. R.J. Hills, Prof. F.L. Brissey, Mr.
Dennis Milburn.
POLITICAL SCIENCE - Dr. Paul Tennant.
ANTHROPOLOGY - Dr. E.K. Maranda.
HISTORY - Dr. Charles Humphries and Mr.
Keith Ralston.
GEOGRAPHY - Prof J. Lewis Robinson, Dr.
Gary Gates and Dr. Cole Harris.
carried out in Nanaimo involves the development of new
ways of studying what used to be called "civics." The
study of civic and municipal government hasn't always
been the most attractive topic for young people and
some quite imaginative approaches are being taken to
the problem in Nanaimo.
At Britannia Secondary School here in Vancouver
another sub-project is developing units of classroom
material to enable students to study the inner city.
Three members of the UBC geography department
are involved in a national project called the Geography
of Canada Project, which is developing a series of
monographs to be used by teachers and is designed to
upgrade geography teaching in Canadian schools. One of
the UBC geographers. Prof. Lewis Robinson, is also a
consultant to a sub-project of Project Canada West in
Burnaby. This deals with a study of resource-based
urban centres of the type found in the western provinces
and in the shield areas of the eastern provinces. Teachers
and students are making firsthand studies of such
communities in British Columbia.
The foundation also aided the Faculty of Education
here, with the assistance of the Center for Continuing
Education, in sponsoring a conference in Kamloops in
October, 1971, on the subject of Canadian Studies.
Looking at the work of the foundation nationally, we
have several other large projects underway in eastern
Canada, each again built around specific themes. One is
exploring new ways of getting Canadian literature and'
art into the curriculum, another is identifying major
events in Canadian history which are taught in radically
different ways by English and French historians. In the
latter project the object is to locate materials that reflect
these differing interpretations and have teachers from,
say, Montreal teach Toronto students and vice versa. The
two projects I've mentioned above are bilingual.
I think I should emphasize here that we are not
aiming for a wholesale revision of the school curriculum
across Canada. The project groups are attempting to
produce units of work in the area of Canadian studies
that can be plugged into the curricula now in existence
in the ten provinces.
Let me say that in recent months of traveling
between here and Halifax, I've been impressed with the
deep and sincere interest in our work on the part of
teachers, school administrators, university administrators
and  academics and  leading business, professional and
labor people I've met. We are developing new patterns of
co-operation, especially between teachers and university
academics where it's been badly needed. And creative
teachers — of whom there are many more than people
in the universities assume — are responding to the
challenge, both individually and .collectively. The B.C.
Teachers' Federation, for instance, is giving a great deal
of support to Project Canada West.
UBCR: And the function of the foundation in all this
is money, guidance and encouragement?
DR. TOMKINS: That just about sums it up. The
foundation funds all the projects I've mentioned. The
funds enable teachers to be released from regular
classroom duties to work on curriculum development,
and to purchase, develop and try out new materials.
UBCR: Where do the funds come from?
DR. TOMKINS: Mostly from corporations and other
foundations. The Canada Council is a major contributor
and here in the west the Vancouver Foundation has been
especially generous in its support.
My own function within the foundation is to give
guidance and assistance to all the projects. I visit each
group, meet with them and attempt to iron out
difficulties and evaluate what they are doing.
UBCR: If the aims of the foundation are to be
achieved it would seem to be necessary to have some
machinery for ensuring that the material developed by
the various projects actually gets used in the various
provinces of Canada. How are you going to go about
this?
DR. TOMKINS: Well, first of all, let me say that the
foundation was established with the approval of the
Council of Ministers of Education of Canada and they
have given continuing support and encouragement to it.
The Council is kept in close touch with our work
through Dr. Maurice Richer, the Council's
secretary-general, who is an active member of the
foundation's Board of Trustees.
DEPEND ON QUALITY
In the final analysis, however, the acceptance and
adoption of the classroom units being developed by the
foundation will depend on their quality. What will
probably make the material attractive is the fact that we
are not attempting a wholesale revision of the
curriculum. Remember, we're not concerned about the
quantity of Canadian studies in the schools; it's more a
matter of improving the quality and the breadth in the
light of the Hodgetts report. My own feeling is that the
quality of the material, coupled with co-operation
between various levels of education on a cross-Canada
basis, will go a long way to ensure the success of the
foundation's program.
UBCR: What is the future of the foundation?
DR. TOMKINS: The foundation hopes to accomplish
its goals within five years and then go out of business.
When materials from the projects I've described earlier
are actually in use there will have to be an assessment
and evaluation of them. For the immediate future we are
exploring the possibility of a national bilingual journal
for teachers of Canadian Studies and possibly a
yearbook of Canadian Studies.
UBCR: The foundation is exclusively concerned with
Canadian Studies at the elementary and secondary
school levels. Do you think it's time a similar study was
carried out at the university level?
DR. TOMKINS: I think there's more going on in this
area that is generally realized. Our UBC calendar, after
all, lists many courses that deal wholly or partly with
Canada. The Association of Universities and Colleges of
Canada is in the process of establishing a committee to
look into Canadian Studies. Here at UBC I understand
there's a committee in the Faculty of Arts that is
looking at Canadian Studies and, of course, there are
continuing debates in the Senate on this topic.
In my own faculty — Education — there is a move to
develop Canadian Studies programs, because if we are to
improve the situation in the schools we have to produce
teachers who are better qualified in this area. Such
programs could be the means for promoting general
in-service curriculum development work co-operatively
with teachers in the field — an enterprise which I have
long believed deserves high future priority for the
Faculty of Education.
UBC Reports/Jan. 12, 1972/9 EXCAVATION
Continued from Page Two
us on the excavation plus occasional visitors, which
could include neighborhood dogs, cats, snakes and
scorpions. Water was brought in on donkey-back
from a well a third of a mile away down by the sea
and light in the evenings, was provided by a gas
lantern and flickering kerosene lamps.
We began the day wit'n breakfast at 5 a.m. and
work itself commenced at 6 a.m. and lasted until
5:30 p.m. Saturday, the local market day, was the
day off and we used it for excursions to neighboring
places of interest — the great 13th-century castle of
Anamur, for example, some five miles down the
coast, or the verdant foothills of the surrounding
mountains where we visited the source of the ancient
aqueduct that once supplied the great quantities of
water used by the population of Anemurium in its
heyday, when no less than six large public baths
provided places for relaxation and entertainment.
We hired some 60 workmen from the local farms
and villages and although most of these had to travel
three or four miles to and from work we had far more
jobseekers than we could possibly employ. Work on
the excavation was the major source of seasonal
employment in the area and the results of the
previous year's earnings were evident in the transistor
radio in every trench and the new bicycles which had
for many replaced the old donkey. Used to long
hours in their fields, the local workmen could keep
up a rugged pace of work even when the temperature
passed the 100 mark and the humidity rose to 90 per
cent. Although for most of the older men the work
was just a job, many of the younger ones, especially
the senior high school students, came to take an
increasing interest in the uncovering of this particular
facet of their country's incredibly rich past.
Each of us supervised a small team of pickmen,
shovelmen and wheelbarrow boys who carefully
cleared away the heavy overlay of rock and earth that
covered the ancient buildings. The extensive use of
rubble and concrete, which collapses into a chaotic
mess, made progress often very slow, but by the end
of the season we had succeeded in clearing most of
the great complex of mosaic-paved rooms and courts
that lay before the bath buildings. Here at last lay
revealed one of the largest mosaic-covered areas
known in Turkey, a great courtyard some 120 by 80
feet in extent with a fine polychrome mosaic in
geometric patterns around the sides and a coarser
blue and white mosaic in the central area, which
served for the actual exercise.
MAIN ARTERY
At the east end appeared a monumental staircase
linking the palaestra with a street, lined with
colonnades, that appears to have been the main
north-south artery of the city. Here, much to our
delighted surprise, we found an inscribed statue base
in honor of a local athlete who had been five times
victorious in great international athletic competitions
like the Olympic games. The find is especially
significant for it names the city, the first appearance
of its name yet found on the site. Equally interesting
is another inscription, this; time in mosaic, at the
threshold of the main entrance to the bath, saying in
Greek, "Have a good bath!" A similar inscription also
appears at the exit with the legend "You've bathed
well!"
This great complex, however, seems to have had a
rather short life. Constructed about the middle of the
third century AD, it was abandoned about a
hundred years later and squatters began to build their
houses in the area. We dug a number of these crudely
built structures of the fifth to mid-seventh century,
discovering many items of everyday household use,
such as lamps, glasswares, keys, locks, belt buckles,
cosmetic and writing instruments, and even a kitchen,
complete with hearth, breadboard and mortar for
grinding the grain into flour. Most spectacular was a
bronze lead-filled weight, which weighed almost 25
pounds, in the form of the goddess Athena; the story
~ quickly spread through the surrounding countryside
that we had discovered a statue of Attila the Hun,
filled with gold, and we soon received a visit from the
local police who wanted to know if we wanted
protection!
These scattered traces of everyday life and a layer
of ash in some of. the houses clearly indicated the site
had been suddenly abandoned and destroyed about
the year 650 AD. We know from historical sources
that the great wave of Islamic expansion began to
spread across the East about this time and there
10/UBC Reports/Jan. 12, 1972
seems little doubt that marauding Saracen fleets made
coastal life too dangerous for the Christian
inhabitants of Anemurium. It is likely that they
withdrew to less exposed settlements in the
surrounding hills and left the site to the silence of the
passing centuries. In the Middle Ages a small
settlement was established in another part of the site
but the days of Anemurium as a prosperous coastal
city were forever over.
We also began the exploration of areas
immediately adjacent to the palaestra-bath complex
and uncovered, again to our surprise, a large fountain
house from which gushed forth water into a huge
tank, some 70 by 135 feet in extent. In the same
area, but even more significant, were traces of an
ancient glass factory, one of a handful known from
this  period  of the early Byzantine empire. Cheap
glasswares largely replaced fine pottery for table use
in the fifth century A D but the kilns and factories
that produced it have always been elusive; ours may
provide important information for the history of glass
technology.
WRITE HISTORY
Our two seasons of work at Anamur have only
begun to reveal the rich potential of the site; years of
study and excavation remain before we can begin to
write the history of this city. Great quantities of raw
data, inscriptions, dozens of small finds, hundreds of
coins and thousands of pieces of pottery must be
studied and the tale they tell unfolded. Our actual
digging — and we plan another season of work for
May and June of this year — is only the first step.
Scorpions are one of the hazards of life in Turkey. This one was captured by a Turkish workman digging at the
Anemurium site.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
ENDOWMENT LANDS
Dear Sir: Please add Simon Fraser University to the
list of institutions whose members use the University
Endowment Lands. (See UBC Reports, Oct. 27,
1971) I, personally, have found the forest thereon a
productive area in which to procure bark and timber
beetles for research on these economically important
forest pests.
Sincerely,
J.H. Borden,
Associate Professor,
Dept. of Biological Sciences,
Simon Fraser University
Dear Sir: I read the articles relative to the
University Endowment Lands. It is abundantly clear
that even if utilized for building, the income to the
University would always be a minor part of total
budget. For that reason I tend to support Mr.
Belshaw's position relative to the creation of a city or
provincial park.
I am enclosing a piece of literature relative to the
Cook County Forest Preserves which provide a ring
around this large metropolitan area (Chicago). I
believe there is almost universal support of this
long-range plan for keeping the countryside in its
normal state, for the use of the population-at-large.
Perhaps this information will lend further support
to those who are conservation minded.
Sincerely,
John A  McLaren, M.D.
Wilmette, Illinois
Dear Sir: I have been reading with interest the
University Endowment Lands controversy reported in
recent issues of UBC Reports. As a young boy I had
access to these lands and later attended UBC there. It
was not until I worked abroad at the University of
London (Imperial College) that I began to realize the
true value of the University Endowments Lands
(UEL). Imperial College, because of the finite limits
of its properties, is being forced to grow inwards
rather than outwards. The result is a very crowded
maze of buildings. This could happen to UBC if it
sold off its lands to outside interests.
I endorse the idea of developing the UEL into a
provincial    park,    providing    there    is   a    minimal
disruption of the "natural" state of the forest (as it
exists today). This would ensure future generations of
city children the opportunity of easy access (as I had)
to the wilderness. The people of B.C. could then have
a university and park for which they would be
justifiably proud.
Yours sincerely.
Dr. G.M. Elfstrom (B.A.Sc.'68)
The University of Tennessee Space Institute
Tullahoma, Tenne^^-
The last sentence of Dr. Elfstrom's first paragmjF
gives the impression that UBC owns the Endowment
Lands. UBC does not hold title to the Lands, which
are    under    the    jurisdiction    of    the    provincial
government. -Ed.
RESEARCH FOREST
Dear Sir: In UBC Reports dated Dec. 1, 1971, you
wrote a report on 'Best-Use' Forestry. In this report
you made a very brave statement which I believe is
false. The statement in question is "nearly all the
trees cut in the Interior are cut by shears." If this is
so, why have I never seen them in operation, if
they're so widely used and I'm from the Interior. It's
probably because your information is entirely
incorrect. I'd advise you ... to keep to the facts and
don't try to pad your report with useless information.
John C. Mallett
Forestry
B.C. Institute of Technology
Assistant Information Officer Peter Thompson,
author of the article, comments: "According to an
official of the Canadian Forestry Service, 'it may be
accurate to say that shears were used in most areas
last year and that this year most trees will be
harvested by mechanical tree cutters - shears, or
tractor-mounted augers and chainsaws.
Dear Sir: The article by Peter Thompson in your
Dec. 1 issue ("Best-Use Forestry Planned")
highlighted the often-ignored fact that forest
management is a political as well as a technical issue,
and one that will move to the forefront of public
awareness as available recreational land becomes
increasingly overcrowded and over-priced.
However, I disagree that the most just and feasible
solution   is to  "educate" the public to accept the Job Prospects Appear Brighter
Job prospects for University of B.C. bachelor
degree graduates this spring may not be as bleak as
some expect.
At least not if the experience of UBC students
who graduated with bachelor degrees last spring is
any indication.
Last year's job prospects for Canadian university
graduates were predicted to be the most depressing in
decades in a number of official and unofficial reports
done by federal government agencies and other
sources.
But a series of "post-graduation activities" reports
on UBC graduates by the University's Office of
Student Placement show that last spring's bachelor
graduates did much better than predicted.
GOOD SHOWING
The good showing by UBC graduates last spring
indicates that the prediction of national employment
opportunities for graduates were off base as applied
to UBC. Perhaps the same exception to gloomy
national employment predictions will occur this
spring.
Of course, using the Student Placement Office
reports as a firm guideline to job opportunities this
spring could be completely misleading. The
employment conditions that existed last spring and
summer may have changed for the worse. But on the
other hand they may be the same or better.
At any rate, the good job-finding record of UBC
graduates last year in the face of predictions of high
unemployment rates is a heartening omen if nothing
slse.
The UBC surveys were for the Faculties of
Medicine, Dentistry, Arts, Science, Law,
Pharmaceutical Sciences, Forestry, Applied Science,
Commerce and Business Administration and
Agricultural Sciences. Not surveyed were the
Faculties of Education and Graduate Studies.
The reports asked graduates what they planned to
do for the year ahead; for example, whether they
were continuing to graduate school or professional
training, planning to travel, or wanting to work and
had found a job or were unemployed. The
information was gathered through the summer and
early fall.
This article deals only with the Faculties of
Applied Science, Arts, Agriculture, Commerce,
Forestry and Science.
Surprisingly, the highest unemployment rate
among these was in Commerce, presumably one of
the most employable graduate groups. Its 10.6 per
cent unemployment rate was about half again as great
as that of Arts graduates.
To some extent it may be unfair to compare the
employment data of one faculty with another, since
information on some faculties was gathered a month
or so before others.
The Arts survey shows, incidentally, that the
faculty's 7.3 per cent jobless rate was insignificantly
higher than the 7 per cent recorded in a survey of
that faculty by the Placement Office in 1964 during
the golden years of graduate employment.
This is all the more astonishing when it is
remembered that the Arts graduating class last year
was about 50 per cent larger than the 1964 class, and
that the percentage of the class looking for jobs last
year was 40 per cent compared with about 30 per
cent in 1964.
Some of the Arts and Science students had jobs
that didn't correspond to the abilities or knowledge
they acquired at UBC. In the case of Arts graduates,
no    information   on   the   suitability   of   jobs   was
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
paramountcy of corporate interests and profits, and
consequently the need to compensate these interests
when public wishes are placed first. More and more
people in this province are questioning the right of
private companies to utilize Crown land with callous
disregard for the needs and interests of the broader
community. I doubt very much that it will be
possible to convince the public to pay for what
belongs to it by right: access to public land, air free
«xious smoke and fumes, and water free from
rous wastes and chemicals.
Therefore, perhaps our "educational" efforts ought
to be directed instead towards the forest companies.
With some effort, it should be possible to persuade
them that protection of the environment and care for
• the rights of others are part of the price that must be
paid for the use of a public resource. We might begin
by reminding them of the fate of the automobile
manufacturers, who also thought their political clout
rendered them immune from the consequences of
corporate arrogance and irresponsibility.
Yours sincerely,
Michael D. Wallace,
Assistant Professor,
Department of Political Science, UBC
SUZUKI ON SCIENCE
Dear Sir: Thank you for David Suzuki's article. It
■* is shocking, but in a most salutary way, and he sees
through the shabby veneer of pseudo-scientific,
pseudo-democratic, pseudo-religious, jet-age society
with the incisive penetration of the Hebrew prophets.
I heartily concur with his protest that Canada is a
"colonial branch plant to the U.S." When aire we
, going to kick the Yankees out? Have we the guts to
do it? Or will our children be born into this
feudalism?  . . .
Yours in the fight for economic sovereignty,
Vince Venables, B.A/50,
North Kamloops, B.C.
Dear Sir: I have just been reading the Dec. 1 UBC
Reports and, as usual, find the content most
interesting. I know of no other publication of this
sort. In fact few newspapers equal it in quality of
news presentation and quality of writing. It must be a
mighty effort and out in that vast silent population
mass, it should and I suspect is, having an effective
impact. Your success is tremendous ....
I thought Suzuki's talk was excellent. From my
viewpoint, he is probing deeply, as one expects the
University to do, and zeroing on the vital targets. Of
course, being way out there in the vanguard may
seem lonely for him at times, but being a leader is a
lonely role. As long as he can be sure that he isn't
in a squirrel cage but in the right ball park, then he is
on safe enough ground. I suspect he can thread his
way through life safely enough ....
Yours sincerely,
Lester W. McLennan, UBC'22,
Fullerton, California
NETHERLANDIC LITERATURE
Dear Sir: I appeal to all Dutchmen and Flemings
and to all Canadians interested in assisting a course on
Netherlandic literature in translation to be given at
UBC next academic year.
We are planning to introduce a course entitlted
"Dutch literature in translation" to be organized by
the UBC Center for Continuing Education. We would
like to start in September of this year.
Since the establishment of the Canadian
Association for the Advancement of Netherlandic
Studies in June, 1971, and the prime minister's recent
statement to Parliament on Canada's multiculturalism,
it is clear that the culture of the ethnic communities
in this country will get the attention and support
which they deserve. The Dutch and Flemish
communities should not stay behind! At the
University of Calgary Netherlandic literature has been
taught for several years and there are projects to
introduce similar courses at other Canadian
universities. Vancouver and surroundings
accommodate a great number of persons of Dutch
and Flemish origin. In order to be able to start we
need some 20 participants. That is why you should
not hesitate to send in your name and address and to
acknowledge your interest. Write to: Prof. S.A.
Vosters, Buchanan 256a, The University of British
Columbia, Vancouver 8.
S.A. Vosters,
Department of Hispanic
and Italian Studies, UBC
recorded in the 1964 survey and so a comparison
with jobs taken in 1971 is impossible.
The 1971 Science survey showed that some
graduates were "unsuitably" employed.
The surveys for Forestry, Commerce and Applied
Science list a number of graduates in "non-career"
jobs.
One male agriculture graduate worked in a gasoline
station and three female graduates worked as a
secretary, assistant in a pharmacy and as a
draftswoman.
FACULTY RUNDOWN
Here is a rundown by faculty:
Arts: 800 received bachelor's degrees and 683
were contacted for the report. Only about 14 per
cent of the 1971 arts class continued towards
master's and Ph.D. degrees, a drop from 25 per cent
in 1964. About 32 per cent were continuing in
professional training — accounting, teaching,
medicine, librarianship and others — approximately
the same number as eight years ago. Among the
departments in the faculty graduating more than 10
students, Sociology had the highest unemployment
rate and Economics the lowest.
Science: 430 received bachelor's degrees in the
spring. Twenty-two were in double degree programs
in dentistry or medicine and were excluded from the
survey. The remaining 408 were contacted and 358
responded. About 23 per cent were going into
graduate school, 20 per cent into professional studies,
32 per cent took jobs, 5 per cent were going to travel,
8 per cent were unemployed and 10 per cent went
into technical training, or unclassified studies. The
highest jobless rate was among Geology graduates.
The rate for Geophysics graduates was second
highest.
Applied Science: 226 received bachelor's degrees
and 205 were contacted. About 68 per cent had
career jobs - jobs that fitted their training - 16 per
cent were going to graduate school or other university
training, 8 per cent were going to travel for a year, 5
per cent were jobless and 3 per cent had non-career
jobs. Graduates in electrical engineering were the
hardest hit among the unemployed.
Commerce: 169 received bachelor's degrees and
156 were contacted. 103 had career jobs, 11 were
continuing their education in graduate school or law,
11 were travelling, 13 were in non-career jobs and 18
jobless. Among the options open to Commerce
students, those graduating in economics and
industrial relations were least able to get career jobs.
Forestry: Of the 49 receiving bachelor's degrees,
44 were contacted of whom 39 had career jobs, three
were jobless, one was travelling and one had a
non-career job.
Agriculture: 42 students received bachelor's
degrees and information was received from 38. Of
these, 11 were going to continue their education in
graduate school or professional training, four were
travelling, 21 got jobs and two were unemployed.
Some of the strangest information concerned the
type of work done by some graduates. Many of the
jobs were logical and fitted the educational
experience of the graduate. Foresters joined forest
companies, engineers took jobs in construction and
engineering firms, sociology graduates became job
counsellors and probation officers, fine arts graduates
were employed in museums and in the field of
archaeology.
ANOMALOUS JOBS
But other jobs were anomalous, probably because
of the tight job market, but in a few cases because of
the preferred choice of the graduate.
Fine arts graduates took jobs in bookkeeping and
drug research, two French graduates worked as a
stewardess and dental assistant, two psychology
graduates as a customs officer and in real estate sales,
a graduate in international relations worked as a truck
driver, a German student taught English in Japan, and
English graduates took jobs as an immigration officer,
laborer, ticket agent and sanitation worker.
While two economics graduates became
management trainees, another became a steelworker.
One mathematics graduate became a computer
programmer and another a radio news announcer.
UBC Reports/Jan. 12, 1972/11 a0^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
Contact
. f^.,„~,M/*.<-
This portrait of Cecil Green Park was executed by Vancouver artist and UBC graduate Raymond Chow on a commission from the Young Alumni
Club and presented in August to Dr. Cecil Green in recognition of his generous support of UBC.
YOUNG ALUMNI CLUB
Renewed Program Activity
Despite the fact that all available meteorological
evidence indicates that spring is not yet here, the
Young Alumni Club has nonetheless launched into its
spring program. Could it be they know something
we don't?
Since Jan. 6, Young Alumni Club members have
been taking part in two informal social functions a
week at Cecil Green Park, 6251 N.W. Marine. The
spring program involves functions on:
• Thursday evenings, Jan. 6 — April 6, 8 p.m. —
12 midnight;
• Friday evenings, Jan. 7 — April 7, 4 p.m. — 12
midnight.
The program offers members the opportunity to
Alumni Active In
Two Centres
A Universities of Canada Club has been formed in
New York for alumni of Canadian universities living
in that area.
The club is an outgrowth of the activities of the
Canadian Universities Ball Committee which since
1969 has staged an annual alumni ball in New York.
As well as continuing this social function, the
Universities of Canada Club will provide a permanent,
accessible focus for both individual Canadian alumni
and Canadian alumni associations already organized
and functioning in New York. The UBC
representative on the club is Miss Rosemary J. Brough
of 340 East 58th Street, N.Y.
In other branch news, a dinner for UBC graduates
is to be held on Friday, Feb. 18, in Edmonton. The
affair will begin with a "happy hour" in the Garrison
Club, Prince of Wales Armory, at 6 p.m., followed by
a buffet dinner at 7 p.m. in :he dining room.
A guest speaker from UBC is to attend, but final
arrangements for this part of the program have not
yet been completed. Tickets for the dinner are S2.50
each and reservations may be made by phoning Mr.
Gary Caster, 469-5146 in Edmonton.
12/UBC Reports/Jan. 12, 1972
listen or dance to taped music or just take part in an
evening of socializing.
Young Alumni Club membership is open to alumni
and members of the graduating classes of all faculties.
Membership fee is $3. The program presents a
pleasant opportunity for alumni and senior students
to drop into Cecil Green Park and relax after a week's
work or studying.
Alumni and students who are not now members
are invited to join and may do so at Cecil Green Park
any evening the club is functioning.
in other news of interest to students, the UBC
Alumni Association will again be holding a series of
"Intellectual Evenings" — a program which enjoyed
considerable success with students last year. The
series last year involved informal discussions between
faculty members and students on the topic, "Science:
Friend or Frankenstein?"
This year there will be a series of three Intellectual
Evenings, held at Cecil Green Park on Tuesday
evenings at 7:30 p.m., starting on Feb. 8. The general
topic is "University in the Community." Details on
speakers and precise topics are expected to be
completed soon. Further information may be
obtained by phoning the UBC Alumni Association at
228-3313.
Nominations
OpenforOffices
Nominations are open for the election of
officers to the board of management of the
UBC Alumni Association. The board governs
the affairs of the Association.
UBC alumni will vote this spring by mail
ballot to elect officers to the following
positions, each for a one-year term: president,
first vice-president, second vice-president, third
vice-president, treasurer, members-at-large (four
to be elected), a representative of each degree
(20 to be elected).
Nominations must be signed by five alumni
and have the written consent of the person
nominated, who must be a UBC graduate.
Such nominations, together with a
photograph and 75-word biographical resume
of the candidate, are to be received by the
Returning Officer no later than midnight Feb.
10, 1972.
Alumni will vote by mail ballot in the latter
part of March, with the results being published
by May 1.
Mail nominations to: Returning Officer,
UBC Alumni Association, 6251 N.W. Marine
Drive, Vancouver 8, B.C.
Options for Women Explored
One of the highlights of the spring UBC continuing
education program is a series of courses to assist
women in developing their personal potential.
In co-operation with the UBC Alumni Association,
the Center for Continuing Education is putting on a
workshop for women at Cecil Green Park, 6251 N.W.
Marine Drive, on six Wednesday mornings (9:30 a.m.
- 11:30 a.m.) from Feb. 2 to March 8. Dr. Clare
Buckland, lecturer with the School of Home
Economics, will conduct the workshop designed to
assist women develop "a clearer sense of selfhood and
more energy for creative and experimental ventures.
Whether in human relationships or in work." The
course fee is S15.
Two   other  workshops,  which   grew  out  of the
popular "Options for Women" program, will also be
held. One will focus on Choosing and Finding Careers
and will introduce women to the preparation of
personal resumes, job investigation and occupational
behavior. The workshop will consist of three meetings
on Wednesday mornings, from 10 — 11:30 a.m. in
room 307, Vancouver Public Library, starting Feb. 9.
Fee is $5.
The other workshop, Return to Education, will
introduce women to the possibilities, approach and
local resources for picking up discontinued education.
It will involve three meetings on Wednesday
afternoons, fro>n 1:30 - 3 p.m. in room 307,
Vancouver Public Library, starting Jan. 26. Fee is $5.

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