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UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Reports Feb 5, 1970

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Vol. 16, No. 5/Feb. 5, 1970/Vancouver 8, B.C.
The critical path schedule for construction of the
TRIUMF cyclotron has taken a large step toward the
day when the first beam of subatomic particles is to
be guided through the machine at the University of
^^The leap forward occurred Tuesday when the
^Pard of Governors awarded a $1 94-million contract
to Davie Shipbuilding Ltd. of Lauzon, Quebec, to
fabricate the cyclotron's 4,000-ton magnet, the
largest and probably the most important component
of the project.
If the machine goes on stream on schedule in March,
1973, Canada will be the first country in the world with
a third-generation cyclotron. This new generation of
machines will pioneer a field of science using subatomic
particles called mesons. TheTRIUMF cyclotron will be
the first of the meson factories.
Canada's two other cyclotrons at the University of
Manitoba and McGill University are relatively
inexpensive machines which are used in studying the
^jcleus of atoms. The McGill machine belongs to an
rlier generation of cyclotrons, while the Manitoba
machine operates on much the same principles as
Later cyclotrons were designed to answer
questions about subatomic particles which go beyond
nuclear physics. These machines for particle physics
are so expensive to build and operate that only the
wealthiest of nations can afford them.
Third-generation machines like TRIUMF will be
used for experiments within the nucleus, with
particular interest in mesons, particles which are
involved in the transfer of forces which hold the
nucleus together. Though more expensive than
first-generation machines, advances in magnet design
and other innovations put such projects within the
means of smaller countries.
Switzerland is planning a meson cyclotron near
Zurich at a cost of $25 million. Russia is going to
shut down an existing machine at Dubna in 1972 and
convert it to a meson factory. A $56-million meson
linear accelerator 1800 feet long is being built at Los
Alamos, New Mexico.
Design, manufacture and transportation of the
TRIUMF magnet is probably an unprecedented
industrial feat for applied physics in Canada.
During three years of work UBC engineering
physics graduate Dr. Ed Auld, a native of Chilliwack,
B.C., leader of the TRIUMF design group, made eight
major models and dozens of minor modifications to
them before freezing the magnet design. Dilworth,
Secord, Meagher and Associates (Vancouver,
Toronto) has been responsible for the structural
design of the magnet. The final shape of the magnet is
Cyclotrons accelerate subatomic particles up to
speeds   where   their   energies   are   so   high   that
Please turn to page four
HEAD of the Department of Civil Engineering, Dr.
W.D. Liam Finn, has been appointed Dean of the
Faculty   of   Applied   Science   by   UBC's   Board  of
Governors. He hopes to develop a Pollution
Engineering Center and develop work in the field of
ocean engineering. For details, see story below.
Professor W.D. Liam Finn, head of the
Department of Civil Engineering, was appointed Dean
of the University of British Columbia's Faculty of
Applied Science at a meeting of the University's
Board of Governors on Tuesday (Feb. 3).
Prof. Finn, at 35 the youngest dean at UBC and
possibly the youngest of any Applied Science Faculty
in Canada, has been acting dean since the death of Dr.
Frank Noakes in August, 1969.
Prof. Finn brings with him new projects and ideas
aimed at increasing the engineer's ability to deal with
contemporary problems facing British Columbia and
Canada. They include new areas of engineering
endeavour and curriculum changes which will broaden
the awareness of engineers of the effect of their work
on society.
High on the list of priorities is an expansion of
teaching and research in water resources and
pollution engineering.
"I hope the programs in Chemical and Civil
Engineering can be merged to establish a Pollution
Engineering Center in the Faculty which can graduate
the personnel needed to implement the provincial and
federal plans for the improvement and control of the
quality of the living environment."
Another important area requiring development is
ocean engineering. A graduate program in ocean
engineering is planned within the Faculty if sufficient
federal funds are made available.
"Canada must develop its own offshore resources;
it must respond in a positive way to the
ever-increasing penetration of northern waters by
American companies by developing the technology
and educating the personnel to exploit the mineral
and food resources of our offshore environment.
Development of the technology must be primarily a
task of industry but UBC is in a unique position to
educate future engineers for exciting careers."
One of the more important developments may be
the creation of a new engineering curriculum. Sharing
the mood of the students for a broader curriculum to
prepare graduates for the challenges of the
post-industrial society, the Faculty has instructed a
special committee to study the problem.
Preliminary indications from the study are that the
engineering curriculum will change to stress more
strongly the social obligations of the engineer and to
provide a greater exposure to liberal studies.
Prof. Finn's major research interests are in the
field of earthquake engineering and soil mechanics,
and he will continue to head the soil mechanics
program in the Department of Civil Engineering. The
soils group has developed some of the most
sophisticated equipment in the world for measuring
the reactions of soils to earthquakes.
"This is extremely important for construction in
earthquake zones such as Vancouver. Some of our
recent work will lead to a major reduction in the cost
of nuclear reactor installations. Every nuclear power
station in North America is designed to resist
earthquakes and our work shows that the effect of
the earthquakes on the foundation soils of those
stations has often been over-estimated by 200 per
cent or 300 per cent," Prof. Finn said.
Prof. Finn was born in County Cork, Ireland. He
graduated in first place at the National University of
Ireland in 1954.
He received the master of science and doctor of
philosophy degrees at the University of Washington
where he was an instructor in Civil Engineering before
joining UBC in 1961. He was Visiting Scientist to the
Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1967-68. Currently he
is President of the UBC Faculty Association. DR. IAN ROSS
Two committees in the Faculty of Arts are
investigating ways of improving teaching at the
University. UBC Reports asked the chairmen, Prof.
Roy Daniells, University Professor of English
Language and Literature, and Dr. Ian Ross,
coordinator of the Arts One Program, to discuss the
work of each committee. What follows is an edited
version of their tape recorded conversation.
UBC REPORTS: I wonder if each of you would
briefly describe the reasons for the establishment of
the committees you chair, and the aims of each.
DR. IAN ROSS: My committee is a stepchild of
Prof. Daniells' Committee, and our function is to
look at ideas about teaching and get people in the
Faculty of Arts to reassess their present practice in
the interest of us all having a better understanding of
the teaching role.
We've had five meetings of the committee and
we've held two conferences. The meetings have dealt
with such things as incentives to teachers, assessment
of teaching and, in part, methods of teaching.
The first conference dealt with the teaching of
existing first year courses. We had spokesmen from
psychology, linguistics, English, and economics
talking about how they teach first year courses. The
second conference dealt with new programs now
being offered by the Faculty of Arts. We discussed
the aims of the new programs and some of the
problems of teaching them.
Both conferences generated quite a bit of
discussion and a lively exchange of ideas to the extent
that people were talking about what they did in
classrooms and what might be done.
UBC REPORTS: Prof. Daniells, you chair the
committee on the improvement of instruction. Could
you describe for us what it is you're discussing and
aim to do.
PROF. ROY DANIELLS: The terms of
reference of the committee were extremely narrow,
for obvious reasons. We were told to pay no attention
to curriculum, to the appointment of staff or to
finance. Last year we met a good many times and
canvassed a large variety of subjects, and did not, on
the face of it accomplish a great deal. I think,
however, in actuality, we travelled a long way. In the
first place, we achieved a consensus within the
committee which was initially difficult and in fact
could have been regarded as improbable. There is now
a very harmonious relationship among the various
people, who began by differing widely because of
temperament,  background and political orientation.
Now, we looked into, to take one representative
example, the question of teaching assistants — under
what conditions do they teach, how good is their
teaching, who finds out how good it is, what is done
when this is found out — and discovered that there is
virtually no correlation among departments. For
example, the Department of English has a very large
and loosely structured system of coping with its
teaching assistants which goes back a long way into
the history of the department. Incidentally, the
information we got suggested that the teaching
assistants in the English department, in spite of their
diversity and frequently their lack of training, have
been very effective.
On the other hand, the German department is a
smallish structure, very tightly organized, very
carefully supervised with its aims and objectives
thought through, stated, almost finalized. These
differing ways of dealing with teaching assistants led
us to bring forward a recommendation that a
committee should be set up to exchange information
on how their departments dealt with teaching
assistants. On the face of it, of course, this is
impossible — there are too many departments — but
assuming that there could be some groupings, with
perhaps the languages each sending one person, we
did conceive this as being possible. A second
recommendation brought forward was the idea that .
an ongoing program should be established to ensure
that a stream of new ideas regarding teaching be kept
flowing. This was put to the faculty and accepted,
and the result was the group chaired by Dr. Ross.
UBC REPORTS: When you said earlier that
your committee had reached a consensus did you
mean on certain basic principles with regard to
PROF. DANIELLS: No, it is more a case of
resolving paradoxes. Let me give you an example.
There are clearly two opposed views of how you go
about remedying bad situations in teaching. Let's say
a given instructor is found to be extreAm^k
inefficient. Now, one set of people will take a v^w
that he is protected by tenure and the concepts of
academic freedom, nobody must tell him what to do,
nobody must visit his class unless invited, nobody
must in any way impinge upon him. He will, in due
course it is supposed, manage to establish, with the
help of his students and colleagues, a better rapport.
Now, at the other extreme is the view that a bad
instructor should be got rid of, the head of the
department or the dean should take action by
presenting him with a deadline. Our committee,
which contained within itself both polar opposites, is
steadily moving towards not so much a compromise
as a set of arrangements which would recognize both
of these, to some degree, valid points of view.
UBC REPORTS: Dr. Ross, it appears from
Dr. Daniells has just said that his committkl
concerned with an overall view, while your group
seems to be concerned with specifics for improving
instruction in the classroom. Specifically, how do
those who have taken part in your meetings see
instruction being improved in the University?
DR. ROSS: Well, we have talked about
methods, and I'll come to that. But before we got to
methods, we talked about incentives. We believe that
the climate of opinion in the University should be
such that teaching is respected and that people who
are good teachers are given some kind of reward for
their teaching. This means working at various levels to
ensure that teaching is a factor in decisions about
individuals, and some of us feel quite strongly on this
As for specific teaching methods, we talked about
the problems of teaching large classes and seminars,
teaching first year students, teaching students in
major programs, teaching students who had
committed themselves to some area of academic
specialty, as opposed to teaching students who might
simply want to explore a field. There are difficult
problems connected with these various kinds of
teaching. As to audio-visual aids, Mr. George
Rosenberg, of the Fine Arts Department, who is on our
committee, has suggested that we explore teaching
possibilities there by holding demonstration lectures,
asking people who can use slides, films and tapes
effectively to do so.
UBC REPORTS: Prof. Daniells, do you have
anything to add to what Dr. Ross has said?
PROF. DANIELLS: Well, I warmly approve of
the Master Teacher Awards, which the generosity of
Mr. Walter Koerner permitted,as one of the incentives
of which Ian has spoken. I think, too, that
anti-calendars can be very important. The
anti-calendar got off to a bad start here. It was done
by students and in some areas very badly. There were
vicious attacks upon individuals. I myself went over a
v * batch of reports upon an individual, compared the
reports with the published result, and found the
discrepancy ludicrous. Now, the fact that an
anti-calendar can be used viciously and badly doesn't
interfere with the fact that it is, at bottom, one of the
most useful and promising devices that can be
conceived. If you look at copies of the beautifully
edited and bound volumes issued by some American
universities, you see how carefully, scrupulously,
dispassionately and with what completeness they
have managed to collect opinion ancl report it so that
any instructor can look up his own name, his own
course, and go down the whole list of questions and
see what the consensus is.
Now, there are problems in getting this
implemented here. It would have to be on a
University-wide basis and the quite-nicely-handled
f^Bcts in applied science and chemistry would have
to be brought in. But I'm convinced that the
, University, with the full and official conjunction of
student-elected authority should undertake
something which isn't called an anti-calendar but an
annual review.
In the meantime, I think we can encourage
departments in the Faculty of Arts to provide their
own small, controlled anti-calendars, perhaps kept
within the department, perhaps sent to the individual
DR.ROSS: We had a discussion along similar
lines, and we looked at the science anti-calendar, the
Black and Blue Review, also we discussed the kinds of
questionnaires that are used in the Department of
Economics and Faculty of Applied Science. We also
1^Lm some information about procedures at the
University of Texas, where student administrators
distribute forms, collect them, and have them
evaluated by an objective body. It was felt there is a
value in getting student responses to teaching as long
• as the conditions are pretty clearly laid down. But we
think an anti-calendar should go along with peer
UBC REPORTS: When you say peer judgments,
do you mean judgments by colleagues in the same
DR. ROSS: Yes. Our committee took the view
that we teach each other, in a sense, and that we
should, through faculty seminars and working
together in courses and programs like Arts One, build
up a knowledge of each other as teachers. We often
teach in each other's presence, and this is very
valuable for assessing a person's capacity or potential
• f     as a teacher.
UBC REPORTS: The impression one gets is that
where perhaps 20 years ago emphasis seemed to lie on
research and publishing, there has now been a swing
back in the direction of teaching.
DR. ROSS:     Well, I've been at UBC nine years,
and my impression coming here was that teaching was
J      highly regarded. But I think there's a very powerful
influence   coming   from   sciences   which   has  made
publication records crucial in connection with the
assessment of careers. I think this has had an impact
on the humanities. I believe that scholarship is needed
in teaching, that you've got to have scholarly
qualifications and that there is a carry-over from what
you do in connection with your research or your own
independent thinking and reading into your
classroom. I don't like to see a deep dichotomy
between those who publish and those who teach.
PROF. DANIELLS: There is a new factor, I
believe, that has to be added to this problem. Fifty
years ago a man doing research on, say, Robert
Browning would be engaged in an over-view of his
work, with an emotional response to the body of his
work. The kind of thing he was doing for publication
could be brought right into his classroom and would
stimulate an interest in the students. Today, they're
using computers to analyse Browning's
vocabulary.This is good too, but it's unassimilable in
its present form. I think the fact is that research has
become a razor blade, whereas it used to be an axe
for chopping wood and making fire. As a result,
teaching does not necessarily coexist with research
the way it used to.
UBC REPORTS: Do you think there's a place in
universities for the professor who is exclusively
devoted to research, and conversely that there is a
place in the university for the professor whose
interests lie primarily in the field of teaching?
DR. ROSS: Well, I would think you could have
in the modern university those who are engaged
primarily in research, whose contribution to its
intellectual life is to generate ideas or methods in
their particular field, and that there will be a transfer
effect from what they do and write; conversely, there
are probably individuals whose function is one of
pursuing critical enquiry with students and
colleagues, and whose role is primarily that of a
teacher. I would regard the latter as making as great a
contribution to the quality of intellectual life as the
PROF. DANIELLS: I think a number of
extraneous elements enter here. A small college,
remote from large centres, with a high proportion of
students to staff can scarcely afford the luxury of a
chemist who devotes all his time to research. It's in
the big universities that these diversities can chiefly
UBC REPORTS: It's been said that teaching is
like sex; everybody knows that everybody else is
doing it, but nobody knows how the other man is
performing. Is that a valid statement?
PROF. DANIELLS: No, it isn't. Heads of
departments often do, and always should know how
people are performing. I could name many who do. A
great deal is known, and even I could tell you about
the performance of certain people in physics and
mathematics from having listened to them in various
contexts and having talked to their students.
DR.ROSS: Well, even in the area of sex, that
isn't a corporate activity yet, for all our
permissiveness, but teaching is.I think we are a
corporate body, we do work together as teachers, and
I think we do know what the other does. Certainly in
a large, complex department there are areas of
darkness where nothing is known, but where people
do teach in joint programs, or where they share
seminars, or where there are invitations to individuals
to come into a course to give a lecture, a person's
ability as a teacher is known.
UBC REPORTS: Something that has been
widely discussed at UBC in recent years is instruction
in pedagogical techniques for new faculty members,
who may, in the years just before they start teaching,
have been almost totally involved in research. Do you
regard this as a good move to contemplate and have
either of your committees discussed the possibility of
doing this in the university?
DR. ROSS: Yes, our committee did and we also
discussed the idea of a board of instruction set up by
the University. On the whole, we are cool to these
bureaucratic attempts to deal by fiat with teaching
and the initiation into teaching. A board suggests
licences and the revoking of licences, and I have some
feeling of horror about that.
As for courses on pedagogical method, unless
conducted by highly sensitive individuals, they're
liable to result in a great deal of boredom.
PROF. DANIELLS: It's very easy to learn how
to teach fairly well, if you wish to, because colleagues
will allow you to come into their classroom, your
friends will come into your classes on invitation, you
can go and listen to innumerable people who are
performing at a very high level, higher than you'll
ever reach yourself. The great block is the arrogance
of large numbers of beginners. And not beginners
only, but some with grey hairs who refuse to regard
any kind of instruction in method as anything but
totally beneath their dignity.
How you hold a piece of chalk, how large you
write on the board, how much pressure you put on it,
what you do with the window blinds, how you quell
noise outside, how you ensure texts will be there,
how you manage to finish within the hour what you
started to do, and how you elicit conversation — all
these things are easily grasped and understood. But
people don't want to do so, and I could again give
you the names of a set of arrogant people who, thank
God, have mostly left UBC, to whom nothing could
be conveyed in the way of teaching.
On the other hand you have those who, over a
period of 20 years, will get better and better and
better. Twenty years ago, again one could give names,
there were people I despaired of, and this year
students have come to me absolutely glowing and
saying, "You know, I had the most marvellous hour
with 'X'.'' Well, this is self-generating
self-improvement, which is extremely admirable, but
all this has to come from within. And I think this
reinforces lan's point that a board does nothing.
DR. ROSS: If I could just add something.
Professor Kenji Ogawa of Asian Studies is a member
of our committee, and he's a wise man. He told us
one day: "What I do is reflect systematically, after I
have given a class, on what has happened, and I learn
from that." I thought that was a very wise view to
take, that he went over in his mind how things had
gone, what he'd prepared, how successful it was, and
he had tried to learn from that experience.
PROF. DANIELLS: What most of us lack, you
see, is precisely that sort of humility which says, " I
need to go over it." And one can make the most
awful mistakes.
UBC Reports/February 5, 1970/3 PRESIDENT Walter Gage holds a framed scroll which
confers on him honorary membership in the B.C.
Teachers' Federation "in recognition of his
outstanding   contribution   to   education   through   a
Continued from page one
fundamental changes occur when they collide with
other particles in experimental areas outside the
cyclotron. Normally, cyclotron magnets are two
huge, coin-shaped pieces of metal lying flat, one
suspended over the other so that there is a small gap
between them. Subatomic particles released in the
centre of the magnet spin outwards gathering speed
until they are extracted at the edge.
TRIUMF designers have taken the usual
coin-shaped discs and divided each into six spiral
sections joined in the center like the petals of a flower.
The individual sectors and the space between them
provide a stronger focusing force on the spiralling
particles than conventional magnet design would
allow. This reduces the possibility of particles going
off course and penetrating into the cyclotron itself,
causing radioactive contamination.
The TRIUMF magnet will be made of low-carbon
steel plates three, five and 10 inches in thickness and
from one foot to more than 31 feet in length.
TRIUMF will buy the three-inch plate from the Steel
Company of Canada at Hamilton, Ont., for about
$400,000. The Lukens Steel Company's Coatsville,
Pa., plant — largest in the world — will supply the five
and 10-inch plates for approximately $600,000.
After Davie has cut, machined and assembled the
plates, it will be confronted with the major
transportation problem of getting the components
from the St. Lawrence River to the UBC peninsula on
the Pacific. Davie may rail the steel to Vancouver for
erection at the TRIUMF site or send it by sea via the
Panama Canal. Transportation costs are expected to
be about $200,000.
As part of the contract, TRIUMF will also get
about 255 tons of steel cut into one-or two-foot
squares from the scrap steel plate. The steel will be
used as part of the shielding around the cyclotron
vault which will be located 30 feet beneath the
existing grade on the South Campus.
Construction of the main building assembly and
erection of the cyclotron will be under the
supervision of TRIUMF's own Project Management
4/UBC Reports/February 5, 1970
distinguished career as a university teacher and
administrator." President Gage was also recently
made an honorary life member of the Canadian
Mathematical Congress.
Office. TRIUMF will award a series of individual
contracts for the various parts of the work.
The Board of Governors also approved an
excavation contract Tuesday for $195,600 to
Monssen Construction Ltd. Earth moving for the
cyclotron vault will begin this spring and end this
summer. While excavation is going on, G.E. Crippen
and Associates of North Vancouver will be
completing the detailed drawings for the main
building shell which will go to tender this spring.
The building will be 400 feet long, 100 wide and
60 high. It will be used as an assembly shop during its
first year of use so that the magnet and other
cyclotron components can be put together. Earth fill
from the excavation will be pushed up against the
16-foot-thick concrete walls of the vault so that the
final grade around the cyclotron will be 10 feet
higher than it is now.
When the cyclotron is in place, gantry cranes in
the building above the vault will place concrete beam
spans 100 feet long and weighing 90 tons each on top
of the vault for a thickness of 16 feet.
Participating in the project are the University of
Alberta, the University of Victoria, Simon Fraser
University and UBC. The University of Alberta is
contributing $250,000 a year to TRIUMF for the
next five years. The three B.C. universities will
provide the $4.4 million necessary to construct the
The federal government will cover the $23.3
million for the cyclotron, ancillary equipment, beam
transport system and experimental facilities and will
supply the $4 million a year needed to operate the
||H||VoluiTie 16, No. 5 Feb. 5,
IIHI 197°- Published by the Univer-
IIII llsity of British Columbia and
^^ mm^ ^^ distributed free. J.A. Banham,
REPORTS Editor. Barbara Claghorn, Production Supervisor. Letters to the Editor
should be addressed to the Information Office,
UBC, Vancouver 8, B.C.
Four of the most controversial recommendations in the report of the Senate
Committee on Long-Range Objectives will be
debated at a special meeting of Senate
The three-hour meeting will begin at 9 a.m.
in the Board and Senate room of the Main Mall
North Administration Building. Tickets for the
30-person spectator's gallery may be obtained
by applying to the Registrar's Office in the
General Services Administration Building.
The recommendations to be debated deal
with UBC's admissions policy and proposals to
amend UBC's existing academic structure or
alter it radically to create a system of federated
The admissions policy recommendations
(Numbers 1 to 3 in the committee's report) ask
that undergraduate enrolment be limited to
22,000, that the annual rate of graduate
enrolment be limited to 15 per cent and that
graduate enrolment be limited to 5,000.
In addition, the report recommends that
entrance requirements for B.C. students be
raised to the equivalent of 65 per cent and that
in the fall of 1970 enrolment be restricted for a
five-year period in the first two years of
programs leading to the bachelor of arts,
agricultural sciences, education, physical
education and recreation, and science programs
and in the first year of the bachelor of
commerce program.
Senators will have to consider a majority and
a minority recommendation bearing on the
UBC's future academic structure.
The majority recommendation calls for
support of the concept that greater efforts be
made to create a more personalized
environment for faculty and students and asks
that an ad hoc committee of Senate be created
to consider and recommend possible changes in
the grouping of faculties, schools and
The majority recommendation also
advocates that the present type of structure of
faculties, departments and schools be retained,
with modifications to make the system more
responsive to changing conditions but without
the adoption in principle of a Federated
Colleges scheme.
The minority recommendation asks Senate
to adopt in principle the federated colleges
system and request the President and the Board
to implement such a system as soon as possible.
Amendments to recommendations will be
considered at the meeting but alternative
motions will have to be presented as notice of
motion for debate at another meeting.
Nominations Called
Nominations have been called for the $1,000
Professor Jacob Biely Faculty Research Prize,
awarded annually to a UBC faculty member for
distinguished research.
To be eligible for the prize candidates must hold
the rank of assistant professor or above and have been
a UBC faculty member for at least three years. The
research which is submitted for assessment must have
been accomplished and published in the past three
The closing date for nominations is April 1. Details
regarding submissions are available from the office of
the Faculty of Graduate Studies.
The Prize was established in 1969 by Mr. and Mrs.
George Biely to honour Prof. Biely, a distinguished
agriculturalist and former head of the UBC poultry
science department. Mr. Biely is president of Biely
Construction Co. and the brother of Prof. Biely.
The first winner of the prize was Prof. Myer
Bloom of the Department of Physics.


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