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Array THE  UNIVERSITY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
VOL   55   I   NO   7   I   JULY   2,   2009
UBC REPORTS
3      Indigenous People
3      Happy cow
4     Camp Fyrefly
12   Customer prejudice
The virus that binds
A novel idea
marries biology
and mining
By ERINROSE HANDY
Researchers often make
progress by applying a proven
scientific method from one realm
to another, connecting seemingly
disparate disciplines. Such
interdisciplinary approaches are
powerful tools in the drive for
scientific innovation.
But who would ever dream of
applying viruses to mining?
Professor Scott Dunbar
of UBC's Norman B. Keevil
Institute of Mining Engineering
would.
"I read an article about
bacteriophage - viruses that
infect bacteria - being used to
create nanodevices in which
proteins on the phage surface
are engineered to bind to gold
and zinc sulfide," says Dunbar.
"And it struck me: if zinc sulfide,
why not copper sulfide? And if
so, then it might be possible to
use these bio-engineered proteins
to separate common economic
sulfide minerals from waste
during mineral extraction."
Bacteriophage, commonly
called phage, refers to viruses
that infect bacteria. Typically
phage consists of an outer
protein coating that enclose
genetic material—DNA. They
are the most abundant life
form on Earth, numbering as
many as 1031. Phage replicate
by infecting bacteria but are
harmless to humans, animals and
plants. Only a few nanometers in
Prof. Scott Dunbar is enlisting the help of viruses and bacteria in copper mining.
diameter, hundreds could fill the
diameter of a single human hair.
Current methods of sulfide
mineral separation add
detergent-like chemicals called
collectors to a tank containing
a slurry of finely ground ore
particles. Collectors render
specific sulfide particles in the
ore hydrophobic ("afraid" of
water) so that they attach to
bubbles in the tank and float
to the surface forming a sulfide
concentrate. However, in some
cases, particularly with ores that
contain several sulfide minerals,
the recovery of specific sulfide
minerals can be poor.
Dunbar has partnered
with UBC colleagues Sue
Curtis and Ross MacGillivray
from the Centre for Blood
Research and the Department
of Biochemistry & Molecular
Biology to bring the idea from
concept to laboratory. Together
they recently published a
paper entitled Biomining with
bacteriophage: Selectivity
of displayed peptides for
naturally occurring sphalerite
and chalcopyrite in the
journal Biotechnology and
B ioengineering.
The researchers found that it
is possible to identify proteins
on bacteriophage that bind to
minerals of economic interest
such as sphalerite (zinc sulfide),
the chief ore mineral of zinc,
and chalcopyrite (copper iron
sulfide), the chief ore mineral of
copper. The procedure is called
"bio-panning," a type of genetic
engineering.
"You begin with a phage
library which may contain one
billion phage particles, each with
different protein sequences. A
few of these have the binding
protein of interest. When the
entire library is exposed to the
mineral of interest, these few will
bind to the mineral," explains
Another possible
application is
bioremediation,
where metals are
removed from
contaminated
water.
Dunbar. "You wash away the
non-binding phage, then expose
the binding phage to E. coli,
which they infect and reproduce.
The resulting phage would
have DNA that contains the
'codes' for the binding proteins
of interest. The procedure is
repeated four or five times to
amplify the number of binders.
It's somewhat like breeding
animals for particular features.
continued on page 4
New University Librarian comes home
Digital strategy is a top priority for Ingrid Parent, the new University
Librarian.
By GLENN DREXHAGE
If fate hadn't intervened a
few decades ago, Ingrid Parent
wouldn't be returning to her
alma mater to serve as its 14th
University Librarian.
In 1970, Parent earned her
BA in Honours History from
UBC, with a thesis on nationalist
trends in 19th century Central
Europe. The stage seemed set.
"If I had received a scholarship
to an American university
where I was accepted, I expect
that I would now be a history
professor somewhere instead of
a library professional," Parent
says.
Thankfully for UBC, that
didn't happen. Instead, the
following year, Parent earned
a library science degree (also
from UBC). After graduation,
she relocated to Eastern Canada
where she held increasingly
senior positions, culminating
in the role of Assistant Deputy
Minister at Library and Archives
Canada (LAC).
Now, a mixture of the
personal and professional have
drawn her back to the West
Coast. "Speaking from the
heart, it felt like coming home -
arriving with a lot of experience
and expertise gained over the
years."
Parent took over the helm
of UBC Library on July 1,
shortly after winning an award
from the Canadian Association
of Research Libraries for
Distinguished Service to
Research Librarianship. In
addition, she's also just been
named the president-elect for
the International Federation
of Library Associations and
Institutions, and will serve as
president from 2011-2013.
At UBC, the library's digital
plan will be a top priority for
Parent. She notes that digital
activities typically involve three
functions: collecting electronic
publications and archival
records, providing new and
more efficient types of digital
services, and digitizing print and
other materials. Parent aims to
continue developing these at
UBC Library in partnership with
other organizations.
She brings ample experience
to the task, as she co-led the
development of LAC's Canadian
Digital Information Strategy
"That strategy goes beyond
libraries and addresses the fact
that Canada is falling behind
other countries in innovation
and concrete progress," she
continued on page 12 I     UBC    REPORTS     |    JULY
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Highlights of UBC media coverage in June 2009.  compiled by sean sullivan
month.
Dr. David Huntsman, a genetic
pathologist at UBC, said the find
described as a "Eureka" moment
shows the power of new DNA
sequencing technology.
"By identifying the singular
mutation that causes granuloma
cell tumours, we can now more
easily identify them and develop
new ways to treat them," he said.
The findings were also reported
by Forbes, the Vancouver Sun
and ABC.
Ancient bones and huge teeth
UBC researcher Nicholas
Pyenson was interviewed by the
San Francisco Chronicle and
U.S. News and World Report for
his study in the journal Geology.
Pyenson was among the
researchers investigating the
famed Sharktooth Hill Bone Bed
in California, a vast, 15-million-
year-old graveyard.
"It's a fantastic natural feature,
and our work there is a synthesis
of evidence about the Earth's
history, the ocean's history and
the history of biology," Pyenson
said.
Jane Rule remembered
The Globe and Mail and
Vancouver Sun were among the
media that reported on a $1.7
million donation to UBC in
honour of lesbian literary icon
Jane Rule.
The donation will create
Canada's largest university
endowment fund for the study
of human relationships and
sexuality.
Rule, the late pioneering
Canadian author and former
UBC educator, contributed
to two major social and
cultural revolutions:
the decriminalization of
homosexuality and the rise of
Canadian literature on the world
stage.
UBC law professor Benjamin Perrin says Canadian officials must do
more to crack down on human trafficking.
Perrin hailed as 'hero'
UBC Law professor Benjamin
Perrin was among seven people
in the world recognized by the
U.S. State Department for their
work to fight human trafficking.
Perrin's recognition by U.S.
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
was reported by CTV^ the Globe
and Mail, The Canadian Press
and the Vancouver Sun.
Perrin was a university
undergraduate working as a
volunteer in Cambodia when he
first saw Canadian men entering
brothels for sex with minors.
Ashamed for his country, he
became a spokesperson for the
cause, conducting research and
lobbying Canada's politicians to
push for tougher laws, the Globe
and Mail said.
Rats learn to play the odds
Researchers have found rats
are able to "play the odds" in a
gambling task designed to test
the biology of addiction.
Lead author Catharine
Winstanley says the findings will
help scientists develop and test
new treatments for gambling
addiction, a devastating
condition that affects millions
worldwide.
The study, reported by the
BBC, CBS, The Canadian
Press and the CBC, also finds
that gambling decisions can be
impaired or improved with drugs
that affect brain dopamine and
serotonin levels, suggesting that
these neurotransmitters may
moderate gambling behaviour.
Breakthrough in battle against
ovarian cancer
Researchers have discovered
that a single genetic mutation
is behind one of the deadliest
forms of ovarian cancer in a new
technique that could lead to a
whole host of new treatments,
the Daily Telegraph reported this
UBC REPORTS
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inrose Handy erinrose.handy@ubc.ca
Jodyjacob jody.jacob@ubc.ca
Brian Lin brian.lin@ubc.ca
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Sean Sullivan sean.sullivan@ubc.ca
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from the source UBC    REPORTS     |    JULY    2,    2009     |     3
Indigenous Peoples want their culture back
ByJODYJACOB
Indigenous knowledge and
culture is legally taken and
exploited, often for profit,
damaging Indigenous peoples
and communities in Canada
and around the world, says
Greg Younging, a professor
of Indigenous Studies at UBC
Okanagan and member of
Opaskwayak Cree Nation in
Manitoba.
His research in the area
of traditional knowledge,
Indigenous rights and intellectual
property rights indicates that
under the current international
intellectual property rights
(IPR) system up to 95 per
cent of patents, trademarks
and copyrights on Indigenous
traditional knowledge and
cultural expression are owned
by non-Indigenous people or
corporations.
For instance, says Younging,
numerous sport team logos,
the 2010 Vancouver Olympic
logo, and the canoe and kayak
design are just some examples
of how Indigenous culture and
knowledge have been taken and
exploited. As well, Indigenous
art, traditional medicine, song,
dance, and customs are often
used to market items and brand
them as "Aboriginal." Younging
offers an example of a company
that trademarked the name of a
sacred Indigenous ceremony to
sell toilet paper.
Greg Younging is working on ways to reduce exploitation of Indigenous traditional knowledge and cultural
expression.
"It's a ridiculous situation,"
says Younging, who worked
for 14 years as the managing
editor of Theytus Books, the first
Aboriginal-owned and operated
press in Canada, before pursuing
Many expressions of traditional
knowledge don't qualify for protection
within the IPR system because they are
too old and are, therefore, supposedly
in the public domain.
his PhD at UBC. "Indigenous
knowledge is being taken and
used with no permission, profits
are being made from it and none
of the money is going back to
the indigenous communities,
who remain the lowest socioeconomic group in Canada."
The problem with the
current system, he says, is that
it puts Indigenous traditional
knowledge - often passed down
orally through generations -
into the public domain without
respecting customary laws,
spiritual practices and sacred
A happy cow is a healthy cow
By LORRAINE CHAN
What does the world look like
to a cow?
UBC researchers are using
science to understand how
dairy cattle experience the
environments we build for them.
As a result, the Faculty of Land
and Food Systems (LFS) has
earned a global reputation for
advancing calf and cow welfare
and practical solutions that work
for industry.
"How dairy cattle eat, sleep,
rest and interact speaks volumes
about their preferences," says
Marina (Nina) von Keyserlingk,
an associate professor in the LFS
Animal Welfare Program. "By
analyzing their behaviour, we
can help producers avoid costly
problems such as lameness and
other common illnesses."
Earlier this year, von
Keyserlingk and LFS Animal
Welfare Professors Dan Weary
and David Fraser received a
$1 million Industrial Research
Chair (IRC) joint award from
the Natural Sciences and
Engineering Research Council
(NSERC) and eight Canadian
dairy farming organizations:
the Dairy Farmers of Canada;
Westgen Endowment Fund;
Pfizer Animal Health; Beef Cattle
Industry Development Fund;
BC Milk Producers Association;
BC Dairy Foundation;  BC
Dairy Education and Research
Association; and Alberta Milk.
The researchers will use the
five-year award to expand
UBC Animal welfare researchers are learning what the world looks like
for a cow.
previous studies on the key
"transitions" in the life of dairy
animals, periods when they are
especially vulnerable to illness.
These critical times include
the start of lactation, the end
of lactation, and the weaning
process for calves. The research
will help the dairy industry make
improvements in management
and facility design that can
benefit both the farmers and the
cows.
Fraser says the science-based
solutions from the Animal
Welfare Program are the reasons
why the UBC Dairy Education
and Research Centre (DERC) has
attracted international partners
from countries like Brazil, Chile
and Germany among others.
"While other dairy research
centres mostly address nutrition
and production issues, DERC
has pioneered studies that
incorporate the animals' social
behaviour and environmental
needs," says Fraser.
Located in Agassiz, BC DERC
is the only research facility
in North America with an
automated system that can track
the feed and water intake of
individual animals. The facility
also offers a 24-hour surveillance
system that allows investigators
to monitor the movements
and choices of more than 300
dairy cows. Researchers use
sophisticated software to analyze
the data to decipher the animals'
behaviour.
"We have the strongest group
of cattle welfare researchers in
the world," says Weary. "A long
history of collaboration with the
dairy industry also keeps our
research current. The changes
we suggest are grounded in the
constraints of modern dairy
farming while still improving the
lives of animals."
In March 2009, the Dairy
Farmers of Canada - a voice for
more than 13,600 producers -
published a new Recommended
Code of Practice for the Care
and Handling of Dairy Cattle
that incorporates many DERC
findings such as pain control
methods during dehorning,
improved calf housing and
feeding practices and lameness
prevention.
"UBC researchers are
making outstanding and lasting
contributions to dairy farming,"
says Dr. Rejean Bouchard of
Dairy Farmers of Canada.
"Producers in Canada and
internationally can trust that
these best-practice guidelines
will translate into better lives for
their animals." 13
traditions that have governed
the use of this knowledge in
Indigenous communities for
centuries.
Many expressions of
traditional knowledge don't
qualify for protection within
the IPR system because they
are too old and are, therefore,
supposedly in the public
domain. As well, the "author"
of the material is usually not
identifiable, meaning there
is no "rights holder" in the
usual sense of the term; and,
traditional knowledge is owned
collectively by Indigenous groups
for cultural claims, as opposed
to individuals or corporations
for profit, which makes it much
more difficult to protect.
"So what people are doing is
taking (Indigenous) content and
putting it into an alien context,
leaving behind all the rules and
cultural meaning of it," he says.
"They just want the beauty of
it, or the exotic look of it, and
they don't care what it really
means or what it really is, or if it
is sacred to a people. Often our
traditional knowledge or cultural
expressions are misrepresented
and presented in disrespectful -
and even offensive - manners."
The consequence, Younging
says, is that spiritual and cultural
damage is done to Aboriginal
Peoples.
"Indigenous peoples have the
continued on page 4
Buddy system
works for calves
LFS Animal Welfare
Program PhD student
Andreia Vieira is studying
the benefits of social
enrichment and cognitive
development for calves
during weaning. Her
research shows that calves
do much better in pairs.
Currently, calves are
removed from their mothers
shortly after birth. They are
then housed in single stalls
and fed with an artificial
teat. When they are two- to
four-months old, calves
are then weaned and given
starter feed, a period that
causes some stress.
"When a calf is isolated,
it will vocalize 10 times
more," says Andreia. "But
when they have a social
partner, they're much
less stressed. They learn
together."
A veterinarian from Sao
Paolo, Vieira has received
substantial scholarships
from the Brazilian
government to study at
UBC.
"Brazil has major beef
and poultry industries
and there's a huge interest
in what UBC is doing
in this relatively new
science of combining
animal psychology and
production," she says. 4     I     UBC    REPORTS     |    JULY
Camp Fyrefly looks to empower
LBGTTQI youth
Participants at the first-ever B.C. Camp Fyrefly will experience workshops taught through a "queer lens," organizers say.
By SEAN SULLIVAN
UBC research is helping to put
a new spin on the typical youth
summer camp.
Between July 2 and 5,
50 youth will join peer leaders
and adult volunteers at an island
retreat in Howe Sound for the
first-ever B.C. Camp Fyrefly.
The camp is an outdoor
leadership retreat for lesbian,
gay, bisexual, trans-identified,
Two-Spirit, queer, intersex and
allied (LGBTTQI&A) youth
between the ages of 14 and 24.
Camp Fyrefly started at
the University of Alberta in
2004, and has since spread to
Saskatchewan, Newfoundland
www.mediagroup.ubc.ca
and Labrador, and now B.C.
The camp's success in other
provinces is partly because
it meshes an outdoor camp
with a social intervention, says
organizer Rod Knight of UBC's
School of Population and Public
Health.
"We're talking about gender
norms with a group of kids
who probably don't talk about
sexuality in their communities,"
he says.
The participants are coming
from 31 communities across
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intended to provide a safe and
supportive environment for
LGBTTQI students.
"If we give these youth the
networks and resources to go to
their school administrators, and
show these clubs are a normal
practice, they can tell the people
in charge, 'This is about social
justice,' " he says.
The camp is also an
opportunity to use UBC research
to target specific needs amongst
LGBTTQI youth.
"We know these youth are
"We know these youth are experiencing
significant sexual health inequities,
compared to their heterosexual peers."
Health Science
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B.C., and often from areas with
no specific outreach for sexual
minority youth. Knight, who
has previously volunteered at
the Alberta camp, says it can be
an eye-opening experience for
people who have felt isolated or
discriminated against.
"I've seen a lot of youth
coming from a really remote
community, and they'll say
to us, 'I've never seen a gay
person before. I'm the only one
I know,'" he says.
"It can be a very emancipating
for them."
Through drama, dance,
painting and writing, as well
as interactive workshops, the
participants can explore and
articulate the complex personal,
safety, legal and health issues
they face as sexual minority
individuals, Knight explains.
The workshops centre on four
themes: arts and performance,
health and sexuality, health and
sustainable living, and leadership
skills.
These workshops are taught
through a "queer lens," says
Knight. For example, one of the
leadership workshops will teach
strategies for founding a high
school's gay-straight alliance,
which is a student organization
experiencing significant sexual
health inequities, compared to
their heterosexual peers," says
Knight.
For example, a 2008 study by
Elizabeth Saewyc, an associate
professor at the School of
Nursing, found gay, lesbian
and bisexual teens in British
Columbia are at a higher
risk of pregnancy because of
discrimination, sexual abuse
and harassment compared to
heterosexual teens.
"They're also far more likely
to have thoughts of suicide and
more likely to get a sexually
transmitted infection," adds
Knight.
Through group discussions
led by peers, as well as
workshops led by legal experts,
sexual health professionals
and addictions counselors,
the participants will go home
with a lot more than just good
memories.
"We want them to go back to
their communities and have not
only the skills they've learned,
but also this vast network of
experts and friends," he says.
"These youth will leave with
sense of pride, and a willingness
to step up and enact change." 13
VIRUS
continued from page 1
"I knew we had phage that
could bind specifically to
sphalerite and to chalcopyrite,"
says Dunbar. "But then, so what?
The phage had to do something
to the mineral surfaces to be
useful."
It turns out that the phage that
bind to a mineral do affect the
mineral surfaces, causing them to
have a different electrical charge
than other minerals. The proteins
on the phage also form links to
each other leading to aggregation
of the specific sulfide particles.
"The physical and chemical
changes caused by phage
may be the basis for a highly
selective method of mineral
separation with better recovery.
Another possible application is
bioremediation, where metals
are removed from contaminated
water" says Dunbar.
Dunbar and his colleagues
are the first to apply phage to
mineral processing. Their work is
supported in part by the Applied
Research and Technology group
of Teck Corporation and the
Michael Smith Foundation for
Health Research. Prof. Valery
Petrenko of Auburn University
supplied a phage library.0
INDIGENOUS
continued from page 3
right to use their art, history,
tradition, knowledge, music and
other forms of expression in
ways that respect their traditions
and in ways the Indigenous
community agrees with. Once
they regain the ownership of
those things, they can use them
to alleviate some of the poverty
that affects their communities,"
he says.
Younging is currently
involved in discussions with
the World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO), a
specialized agency of the United
Nations dedicated to developing
a balanced and accessible
international intellectual
property system.
"Probably the most important
international work is the WIPO
Intergovernmental Committee
on Intellectual Property and
Genetic Resources, Traditional
Knowledge and Folklore," he
says. "That forum is developing
two international instruments
— we don't know yet if they're
going to be treaties, conventions
or declarations. One is to protect
traditional knowledge and the
other to protect traditional
cultural expressions."
And although Younging
is confident this work at the
international level will eventually
lead to new international laws,
he regrets that Canada is not at
the forefront.
"There are 12 countries doing
something nationally on this
issue and Canada is not one of
them," he says.
"It's unfortunate, because
history will look at those
12 countries and remember
them as countries who helped
the international process by
correcting a law they knew was
wrong. Canada will be judged
the other way." 13 UBC    REPORTS     |    JULY    2,    2009     |    5
THE   UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
Equity Office and Human Rights and Equity Services
Discrimination and Harassment Report 2008
The Equity Office envisions a community in which human rights are
respected and equity is embedded in all areas of academic, work and
campus life. Through its leadership, vision and collaborative action, the
Equity Office will further UBC's commitment to excellence, equity and
mutual respect.
Human Rights & Equity Services (HES) works to ensure UBC Okanagan is
a welcoming and respectful learning and work community for everyone;
one that respects differences, champions fair treatment and embraces
diversity.
OVERVIEW
The University of British Columbia's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment (Policy
#3, hereinafter referred to in this report as the "Policy") was adopted and implemented
in 1995 and revised to its current form in 2001. It is currently under review for possible
further revision.
The Policy helps the University provide all members of its community - students, staff
and faculty - with the best possible environment in which to study and work. Such an
environment is one where all have equitable access to study and work opportunities, are
treated with respect and dignity, and are free from discrimination and harassment. The
Policy protects against discrimination and harassment on actual or perceived personal
characteristics related to 13 human rights grounds. It also prohibits UBC community
members from engaging in such discriminatory or harassing actions against other UBC
students, staff and faculty. The 13 grounds of prohibited discrimination are based on
those outlined in the BC Human Rights Code. Specifically, these are:
Age (19 and older)
Ancestry
Colour
Family status
Marital status
Physical or mental disability
Place of origin
Political belief (in the context of employment only)
Race
Religion
Sex (which includes sexual harassment and gender identity/expression)
Sexual orientation
Unrelated criminal conviction (in the context of employment only)
The BC Human Rights Code, and likewise, UBC's Policy, provides protection from
discrimination and harassment in the areas of housing, employment and service
provision. At UBC, this provision of service includes academics, athletics and residential
life. The obligation to adhere to the Policy and maintain a discrimination- and
harassment-free work, study and campus environment falls upon all students, faculty,
and staff, especially those in a position to supervise the work or conduct of others.
THE EQUITY OFFICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS AND EQUITY SERVICES
The mandates of the Equity Office (UBC V) and Human Rights and Equity Services
(UBC O) are to ensure that the rights and responsibilities provided for by the Policy
are fulfilled by the UBC community. We conduct a range of educational programs and
events to heighten awareness of related rights and responsibilities under the Policy, and
we offer fair complaint procedures to address discrimination and harassment when
it does occur. Our complaint procedures offer a clear, equitable approach to problem
resolution and they supplement other University and extra-University mechanisms,
such as those of employee associations and unions, the courts, the BC Human Rights
Tribunal and the Office of the BC Ombudsman.
In 2008, the Equity Office at UBC Vancouver was staffed by 3 Equity Advisors (3.0
FTE), 2 administrative staff (2.0 FTE), and one Associate Vice President, Equity. At
UBC Okanagan, the Human Rights and Equity Services (HES) office was staffed by one
full-time Equity Advisor. HES falls under the jurisdiction of the same Associate Vice
President. Both campuses utilize the same Policy and both offer complaint management
services and educational/preventative programming on a range of equity issues.
The purpose of this report is to share the data collected by the Equity Office and
Human Rights and Equity Services on their handling of discrimination and harassment
incidents in 2008. Each campus will report on their statistics separately.
DISCRIMINATION AND HARASSMENT DEFINED
According to the BC Human Rights Code and the UBC Policy, discrimination is
defined as the denial of an opportunity to, or a biased decision against, an individual
or a group because of some actual or perceived personal attribute, such as sexual
orientation or religion (or any of the 13 grounds listed above). Discrimination also
occurs when individuals are judged on the basis of their group membership, rather than
their individual capabilities or merit. For example, to exclude a female applicant from a
manually intensive job because "women are not strong" is an unfounded, unjustifiable
denial of an opportunity. Similarly, it is discriminatory to deny employment to an
otherwise qualified woman who appears to be pregnant because it is assumed that she
will leave the position in short order. In some situations, however, different treatment
can be justified, perhaps because of a reasonable occupational requirement. To reject
a blind applicant for a job as a pilot, for example, is a justifiable reason for different
treatment and denial of the position. A decision or conduct based on a bona fide
occupational requirement does not violate the BC Human Rights Code or UBC Policy.
However, the legal test that must be applied to determine whether differential treatment
is based on a bona fide occupational requirement is difficult to meet. Most incidents of
differential treatment based on any of the 13 grounds cannot be justified and thus are
prohibited at UBC.
Harassment is a form of discrimination, which entails offensive or insulting treatment
of individuals or groups, again, because of their actual or perceived personal
characteristics relating to one or more of the 13 grounds of prohibited discrimination.
The harassing behaviour is unwelcome to the recipient and the behaviour is assessed
as harassment based on the impact of the behaviour on the recipient (subject to the
reasonable person test), rather than the intent of the alleged harasser. Discrimination
and harassment, whether intentional or unintentional, are unlawful and in violation of
the UBC Policy.
UBC's Policy also includes provisions to protect against retaliation for persons who
bring forward complaints of discrimination or harassment.
COMPLAINT MANAGEMENT
In 2008, the Equity Office (UBC V) and Human Rights and Equity Services (UBC O)
provided consultation and case management assistance to students, faculty, and staff,
including administrative heads of unit, executive members of employee associations and
members of departmental equity committees. Complaints accepted by the Equity Office/
HES were resolved by complainants themselves, by Equity Advisors, by administrative
heads or by a collaborative process involving Equity Advisors, administrative heads,
complainants and/or respondents.
As set out in the Policy, Administrative Heads of Units are responsible for addressing
discrimination and harassment in their units. Administrative Heads are the top
administrators in a given unit - institutes, faculties, departments and the like; and may
include, for example, Directors, Academic Heads, Deans, Associate Vice Presidents,
and Vice Presidents. Administrative Heads and Equity Advisors jointly share the
responsibility for enforcing the Policy. Individuals who believe they have a human rights
complaint may take their concerns to their Administrative Head or to an Equity Advisor
in the Equity Office or HES; the option is theirs. In many cases, the Equity Advisors
and Administrative Heads work in tandem to address complaints and concerns brought
forth. Equity Advisors do not advocate for any one group on campus (faculty, staff or
students) or individuals to a complaint (complainants or respondents), but rather serve
as advocates for the Policy - to ensure a discrimination- and harassment-free campus.
Concerns brought directly to an Administrative Head of Unit which did not involve the
Equity Office or HES are not reflected in this annual report.
Concerns brought directly to the Equity Office at UBC V or the Human Rights and
Equity Services (HES) office at UBC O are classified either as consultations or cases.
"Cases" involve the Equity Advisor in direct intervention in a mandate situation. In
other words, they are cases that meet the burden of proof established by the Policy and
upon which the Equity Advisor acts to remedy the concern.
"Consultations" usually take one of three forms: 1. concerns which are preventative
in nature, 2. those which do not fall under the mandate of the Policy, or 3. concerns
which would fall under the mandate of the Policy, but we do not have consent to
proceed with the concern as a case. Some consultations are fairly straight forward and
resolved through the provision of information or a referral, for example, while other
consultations can involve significant amounts of work on the part of the Equity Advisor.
[1] I     UBC    REPORTS     |    JULY    2,    2009
1. Preventative consultations are ones in which a breach of the Policy has not yet been
made, but where a potential complainant or Administrative Head of Unit has good
reason to believe that a breach of Policy may occur if prior intervention does not first
take place. With concerns such as these, the Equity Advisor, in consultation with the
department, acts to provide preventative education or programming, develop action
plans and/or offers other intervention services to prevent discrimination or harassment
before it occurs.
2. Consultations which involve concerns that do not fall under the mandate of the
Policy include, for example, allegations which fall outside the one year time limit for
reporting incidents, involve non-UBC parties or a non-UBC context, do not meet the
burden of proof for a human-rights based complaint of discrimination or harassment,
or fall under the mandate of another UBC policy or procedure. Concerns of personal
harassment and interpersonal conflict which do not contain a human rights element are
treated as consultations.
3. Lastly, consultations can involve concerns which would meet the burden of proof
under the policy, but for which the Equity Advisor has not been given consent to
proceed with the concern as a case. The procedures provided for in the Policy are
complaint-driven. Unless the allegations of discrimination or harassment are very
serious in nature - for example, ones with potential consequences that threaten the
safety or lives of individuals, units or the University - the complainant has the right to
withhold consent to proceed with an allegation through case management procedures.
This provision is in place to allow members of the University community to consult
with the Equity Office before they make an informed decision to proceed, or not, with a
case under the Policy.
In consultations, some individuals want information and advice on how to address
problems themselves. Others are too fearful of retaliation to confront respondents or
to inform administrative heads, and therefore, insist the Office not intervene on their
behalf. Since discrimination or harassment complaints cannot be pursued anonymously,
as stated above, Advisors approach these incidents in a consultative manner unless the
concern is of such an egregious nature (i.e. it seriously threatens the health and safety
of UBC community members) that they warrant action even without the complainant's
consent. The limits on confidentiality in the Equity Office and HES are such that it
is only in very rare, exceptional circumstances that an Equity Advisor would choose
to pursue a complaint without consent to pursue from the presenting party. Other
consultations can involve the provision of assistance to people whose concerns do not
fall under the mandate of the Policy (such as concerns of personal harassment or serious
concerns of discrimination and harassment that involve a complainant or respondent
who is outside UBC jurisdiction). Consultations may take the form of answering
questions about the Policy, bridging communication gaps between parties, or referring
individuals to other UBC offices or external community services to find appropriate
redress for their concerns. This report refers to both "cases" and "consultations" as
"complaints."
Many of the incidents brought to the Equity Office and HES fall under the rubric
of personal harassment - situations in which parties are reportedly behaving badly
towards each other, but not on the basis of any of the 13 prohibited grounds set out
in the BC Human Rights Code. This broad category of personal harassment includes
such behaviour as bullying (also referred to as psychological harassment), mean-spirited
gossiping, interpersonal conflict and heated disagreements, to name a few. In 2008,
UBC's Respectful Environment Statement for Faculty, Staff and Students was formally
introduced. The Statement provides the guiding principles to support University
members in building an environment in which respect, civility, diversity, opportunity
and inclusion are valued. Administrative Heads of Unit and those in leadership and
supervisory roles are responsible for addressing such non-human rights harassment or
interpersonal conflicts. While the resolution of such interpersonal conflicts fall outside
the mandate of the Equity Office/HES, Advisors may attempt to assist clients in finding
the resources or assistance they need to remedy these situations. Clients may include
individuals or departments.
INFORMAL AND FORMAL COMPLAINT MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES
The Equity Office and HES employ both informal and formal resolution methods in
addressing human rights complaints. The vast majority of cases are handled under the
informal process by Equity Advisors, often in conjunction with Administrative Heads,
who work to sort out the issues and facts, and find workable solutions. Each mandate
case is unique - with different issues, players, contexts, and severity - and, therefore the
approach taken and resolutions brokered are tailored to the parties' needs. Sometimes
complainants have a particular resolution in mind, (e.g., an apology, a change in policy,
or the removal of offensive materials or conduct from a work station). Other times,
appropriate resolutions materialize through dialogue among the parties.
In rare situations, mandate complaints are addressed through formal, rather than
informal, proceedings. Complainants who experience severe infringement of their
human rights may apply for a formal investigation by submitting a written request
to the Equity Office or HES. Upon considering the complainant's request and initial
fact-finding on the matter, the Associate Vice President Equity may grant the request
and order an independent investigation and panel. Two cases were forwarded to formal
investigation in 2008.
Following is a summary of complaints and consultations received and handled by the
Equity Office at UBC's Vancouver campus and Human Rights & Equity Services at
Figure 1
Discrimination and Harassment Complaints: Cases and Consultations UBC V
CASES
2006
N=21 of 97
(22%)
2007
N=14of 81
(17%)
2008
N=12of 62
(19%)
Age
1
5%
0
0
0
0
Disability
1
5%
3
21%
4
33%
Ethnicity (ancestry, colour, race, place of origin)
7
33%
4
29%
5
42%
Family Status
1
5%
0
0
0
0
Marital Status
0
0
0
0
0
0
Political Belief
0
0
0
0
1
8%
Religion
0
0
0
0
0
0
Sex/Gender
14
67%
7
50%
5
42%
Sexual Orientation
1
5%
1
7%
1
8%
Unrelated Criminal Offense
0
0
0
0
0
0
Multiple Grounds of Discrimination
-4
(included
above)
-19%
-1
(included
above)
-7%
-4
(included
above)
-33%
TOTAL CASES
21
101%
14
100%
12
100%
In 2006, 3 cases had multiple grounds: 7 grounds over 3 cases so deduct 3 to reach N=21 total cases
In 2007,1 case had 2 grounds so deduct 1 to reach N=14 total cases
In 2008,4 cases had multiple grounds: 8 grounds over 4 cases so deduct 4 to reach N=12 total cases
CONSULTATIONS
2006
Total Consults
N=76 of 97
(78%)
2007
Total Consults
N=67 of 81
(83%)
2008
Mandate Consults
2008
Non-Mandate
Consults
2008
Total Consults
N=50 of 62
(44%)
Proceeding in a different process
10
13%
14
21%
5
1
6
12%
Outside Time Limit
0
0
1
2%
0
1
1
2%
Respondent/complainant and/or context not under UBC
jurisdiction
11
14%
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
0
Non-UBC complainant and/or respondent
n/a
n/a
6
9%
2
3
5
10%
Non UBC context
n/a
n/a
4
6%
0
0
0
0
No prohibited ground
43
57%
23
34%
0
20
20
40%
Allegation does not meet burden of proof
10
13%
11
16%
2
1
3
6%
Complainant does not wish to proceed
13
17%
8
12%
11
2
13
26%
Preventative
n/a
n/a
3
4%
12
1
13
26%
NEW - Other equity-related inquiry
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
6
6
12
24%
* Multiple Reasons Cited
-11
(included
above)
-14%
-3
(included
above)
-4%
-11
(included
above)
-12
(included above)
-23
(included
above)
-46%
TOTAL CONSULTATIONS
76
100%
67
100%
27
23
50
100%
TOTAL CASES AND CONSULTATIONS
97
81
62
[2] UBC    REPORTS     |    JULY    2,    2009     |     7
UBC's Okanagan campus in 2008. We are providing the complaint statistics for UBC
Vancouver and UBC Okanagan separately. This data reflect only those situations in
which the Equity Office or HES were specifically contacted, and does not include
the many other incidents in which Administrative Heads of Units or others managed
incidents independently.
UBC VANCOUVER - COMPLAINTS RECEIVED IN 2008
As shown in Figure 1 [Discrimination & Harassment Complaints: Cases and
Consultations], the Equity Office at UBC V received 62 complaints from January-
December 2008. Of these, 12 (19%) were mandate cases which employed the complaint
resolution procedures provided for in the Policy and 50 (44%) were consultations.
(Please see the "Complaint Management" section above for an explanation of what is
meant by "case" and "consultation".)
The top portion of Figure 1 shows the grounds of discrimination and harassment that
were cited in the 12 cases handled by the Equity Office. Sixteen grounds were cited
across 12 cases this year, with sex/gender and grounds related to ethnicity - ancestry,
colour, race, place or origin - cited most often (in 5 cases each or 84%). Disability was
cited in 4 cases (33%) and both sexual orientation and political belief were cited one
time each. The top portion of this Figure also indicates 4 cases (33%) cited multiple
grounds of discrimination which reflects the reality that there are often multiple or
intersecting factors that influence how discrimination manifests. Over the course of
the past three years, the proportion of cases citing multiple or intersecting grounds has
fluctuated widely, from a low of 7% in 2007 to a high of 33% in 2008. Due to the low
number of cases overall, discerning a meaningful pattern of intersectional inequalities
that arise in cases is not possible. When multiple or intersecting grounds are cited, we
count each ground separately and then subtract the number of multiple grounds cited
across all cases to reach a total. This ensures we do not give more weight to one ground
than another.
The lower part of Figure 1 offers reasons why additional complaints brought to the
Equity Office did not proceed to cases, but rather were handled as consultations. In
2008, the Equity Office handled a total of 50 consultations: 27 fell within the purview
of the Policy, 23 did not. As set out earlier in this report, consultations typically take
one of three forms: 1. those that are preventative in nature, 2. those that do not fall
under the mandate of the Policy, and 3. those that appear to fall under the Policy,
but the complainant does not wish to proceed with Policy resolution options. Equity
Advisors record a variety of reasons for not proceeding to a case so as to capture the
unique circumstances involved in each situation. In 2008, a total of 73 reasons were
recorded across the 50 consultations: 38 reasons were recorded for the 27 mandate
consultations, and 35 reasons were recorded for the 23 non-mandate consultations.
Most of the 23 non-mandate consultations relate to conduct such as personal
harassment, bullying, or interpersonal conflict. This type of conduct is not covered
under Policy 3 and as such, the Equity Office has no mandate to resolve these matters
utilizing Policy complaint resolution procedures. As stated earlier however, we do assist
individuals who bring these concerns forward by providing guidance and assistance and
making referrals to more appropriate resources that may help to remedy the situation.
In other instances, non mandate consultations can include those that involve non-UBC
parties or are of a non-UBC context, or those that fall under the mandate of another
UBC policy or procedure. The issues and behavioural descriptions raised in these 23
complaints are outlined in detail at Figure 7 of this report.
Thirty-five reasons were offered as to why these complaints did not fit under the
mandate of the Policy (12 complaints cited 1 reason, 10 complaints cited 2 reasons
and 1 complaint cited 3 reasons). The most prevalent reason recorded, in 20 out of
35 reasons recorded, was that the allegations raised by individuals did not involve a
prohibited ground of discrimination. This is consistent with the most prevalent reason
offered in 2007 (34%) and 2006 (57%). The second largest reason, recorded in 6 out of
35 reasons recorded, was that the individual seeking assistance was seeking information
only. This was followed by 3 instances where the complaint involved either a non-UBC
complainant or respondent. The six remaining reasons offered were dispersed across
remaining sub-categories.
As mentioned above, 27 complaints brought to our attention did fall under our
mandate, but were handled as consultations as opposed to proceeding to a case. The
38 reasons offered as to why they were handled as consultations are provided in
commentary that follows Figure 2 below. The issues and behavioural descriptions that
arose in these complaints are detailed in Figure 6 of this report.
On the whole, the longitudinal case data in Figure 1 from 2006-2008 indicates a
general decrease in annual complaints handled by the Equity Office, as well as variation
within the various grounds of discrimination and harassment cited. For example,
over the three year period of 2006-2008, one will notice a general decline in sex/
gender based cases handled by the Equity Office whereas cases related to ethnicity
and disability appear to be handled by the Equity Office more often. Although we
cannot fully explain this year to year fluctuation, we believe that certain factors play a
determining role: Firstly, as a dynamic organization, the environmental milieu at UBC
is in constant flux. The UBC environment is subject to such factors as union bargaining,
new construction, physical and human reorganization of units, changes in leadership
and expansion of programs. These changes impact the one-to-one interactions of people
that work, study and live at UBC and, at times, these changes manifest into equity
related complaints.
Secondly, some fluctuation of our annual totals may be attributed to changes in our
methods of record keeping. Brief consultations are no longer recorded in the computer
database thus, since 2006 the lower numbers reflect complaints in which Equity
Advisors played a more significant role (such as the participation in longer meetings
where significant intake and exploration of options are undertaken, the provision of
advice and assistance and/or the preparation and delivery of training or formulation of
an action or safety plan outside of these procedures) than that of quick sounding board.
Thirdly, we remain confident that increasing societal awareness and various educational
programming impacts the community and is effective in raising discrimination and
harassment awareness, limiting inappropriate behaviour and promoting respectful
interactions in the workplace, classroom and residences. Networking with other
service organizations and effective training of Administrative Heads of Unit about
their roles and responsibilities under the Policy to act on complaints of discrimination
and harassment also helps to ensure that local solutions may be first sought without
direct intervention from the Equity Office. Administrative Heads are often the first
line of redress for discrimination and harassment in their units and many act quickly
and astutely to manage these situations, solving the problem locally. As such, many
situations that occur on campus never reach the Equity Office and are not reflected in
our records.
Figure 2 [Grounds of Discrimination Cited in 2008 Complaints] tracks the number of
cases and consultations in which one or more grounds of prohibited discrimination
were cited. Of the 62 complaints brought to the Equity Office, 35 complaints cited
one (or in 10 incidences, more than one) human rights ground of discrimination or
harassment.
Fifteen complaints (43%) cited sex/gender, 14 (40%) cited grounds related to ethnicity
(ancestry, colour, place of origin or race) and 9 (26%) cited physical or mental disability.
In addition, sexual orientation was cited 4 times (11%), religion was cited 3 times (8%),
and unrelated criminal conviction was cited once (3%). The grounds most commonly
cited in all 2008 complaints - sex/gender, grounds related to ethnicity, and disability
- are consistent with the most commonly cited grounds in 2008 cases (see Figure 1).
There is also proportional consistency between the decline in sex/gender complaints
brought to the attention of the Equity Office (from 61% in 2006 to 43% in 2008)
and the increase in both ethnicity (from 31% in 2006 to 40% in 2008) and disability
(from 11% in 2006 to 26% in 2008) related complaints brought to our attention when
compared against the similar pattern noted in the case data in Figure 1.
Figure 2
Grounds of Discrimination Cited in 2006, 2007 & 2008 Complaints UBCV
CASES AND CONSULTATIONS
2006
N=36
2007
N=41
2008
N=35
Ethnicity
11
31%
15
37%
14
40%
Age
1
3%
0
0
0
0
Family Status
1
3%
3
7%
0
0
Marital Status
0
0
1
2%
0
0
Disability
4
11%
8
20%
9
26%
Political Belief
0
0
0
0
1
3%
Religion
1
3%
3
7%
3
8%
Sex/Gender
22
61%
21
51%
15
43%
Sexual Orientation
1
3%
1
2%
4
11%
Unrelated Criminal Convection
0
0
0
0
1
3%
Multiple Grounds of Discrimination
-5
-14%
-11
-27%
-12
-34%
TOTAL
36
100%
41
99%
35
100%
47 grounds cited over 62 complaints.
In 8 instances 2 grounds were cited (-8) and in 2 instances 3 grounds were cited (-4).
Subtract 12 from 47 to get 35 grounds cited between 12 cases and 23 mandate related consults
There were 10 instances in 2008 where
more than one ground was cited in
a complaint brought forward. Three
grounds were cited 2 times and 2
grounds were cited 8 times. A total of
twelve of the 35 complaints citing a
prohibited ground of discrimination
became cases including four where
multiple or intersecting grounds were
cited. The remaining 23 complaints citing
a prohibited ground of discrimination
were handled as mandate consultations.
There were an additional 4 complaints
that did not cite a prohibited ground
of discrimination during the initial
consultation stages, but were handled
and recorded as mandate consultations.
Thus there were a total of 27 mandate
consultations.
[3] I     UBC    REPORTS     |    JULY    2,    2009
Figure 3
Context of All Complaints UBCV
CONTEXT OF ALL COMPLAINTS
2006
N=97
2007
N=81
2008
N=62
Academic
46
47%
44
54%
28
45%
Employment
33
34%
27
33%
24
39%
Residence
6
6%
3
4%
3
5%
Clubs/Athletics/Recreation
2
2%
0
0
1
2%
UBC Service
7
7%
3
4%
3
5%
Non- UBC
3
3%
4
5%
3
5%
TOTAL
97
99%
81
100%
62
100%
Figure 4
Complaints by Campus Groups UBCV
CAMPUS GROUPS
2006
2007
2008
Students
62
64%
38
47%
34
55%
Faculty and Faculty Association
8
8%
17
21%
6
10%
Management and Professional
10
10%
15
19%
11
18%
Support, Clerical, Library, Trades, Techr
lical and Service Staff
14
14%
6
7%
6
10%
Non UBC
3
3%
1
1%
5
8%
Unknown
n/a
4
5%
n/a
TOTAL
97
100%
81
100%
62
100%
Figure 5
Gender of All Complainants and Respondents UBCV
COMPLAINANTS
2006
N=97
2007
N=81
2008
N=62
Female
72
74%
52
64%
42
68%
Male
24
25%
23
28%
18
29%
Transgender/GenderVarient
0
0
0
0
0
0
*Group
0
0
1
1%
1
2%
Department/University
0
0
0
0
0
0
Unknown
1
1%
5
6%
1
2%
TOTAL
97
100%
81
99%
62
100%
RESPONDENTS
2006
N=97
2007
N=81
2008
N=62
Female
17
18%
17
21%
10
16%
Male
40
41%
34
42%
17
27%
Transgender/GenderVarient
0
0
0
0
1
2%
*Group
1
1%
6
7%
0
0
Department/University
34
35%
18
22%
15
24%
Unknown
5
5%
6
7%
19
31%
TOTAL
97
100%
81
99%
62
100%
"Group" is a sub category used to identify instances where there are multiple complainants of more than 1 gender. In previous years, this subcategory was called "Both"
Figure 6
Human Rights Based Behavioural Descriptions of Complaints UBCV
INTERPERSONAL COMPLAINTS
2006
N=46
2007
N=54
2008
N=37
Unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviour
(insults, slurs, jokes, inneundo)
15
33%
16
30%
15
40%
Unwelcome written or visual behaviour
(email, graffiti, video, letter, etc)
7
15%
8
15%
9
24%
Unwelcome physical attention
(touching, staring, following - behaviour that is not stalking
or assault
7
15%
7
13%
4
11%
Stalking
4
9%
1
2%
1
3%
Threats
1
2%
0
0
5
14%
Assaults
2
4%
0
0
0
0
Retaliation
1
2%
3
6%
0
0
Biased Academic Decisions
7
15%
13
24%
4
11%
Biased Employment Decisions
2
4%
11
20%
7
19%
Exclusion or Denial of Access
7
15%
6
11%
7
19%
Information Only
n/a
n/a
3
8%
* Multiple behavioural descriptions cited
-7
-15%
-11
-20%
-18
-49%
TOTAL ALL BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS
46
100%
54
100%
37
100%
* In 2006,6 concerns cited multiple behaviours: 13 behaviours over 6 cases so subtract 7 from total to reach N=46
* In 2007,11 concerns cited multiple behaviours: 22 behaviours over 11 cases so subtract 11 from total to reach N=54
* In 2008,13 concerns cited multiple behaviours: 31 behaviours over 13 cases so subtract 18 from total to reach N=37
SYSTEMIC COMPLAINTS
2006
N=6
2007
N=n/a
2008
N=2
Policies and Practices
2
33%
n/a
n/a
1
50%
Curriculum
1
17%
n/a
n/a
0
0
Environment
3
50%
n/a
n/a
1
50%
Other
0
0
n/a
n/a
0
0
TOTAL
6
100%
n/a
n/a
2
100%
Thirty-eight reasons were offered as to
why these 27 complaints were handled as
consultations as opposed to proceeding
to a case (16 complaints cited 1 reason
and 11 complaints cited 2 reasons).
The reason offered most often (in 12
of 38 reasons offered) was that the
consultation was preventative in nature
or that a breach of the Policy had yet to
occur. This was followed by 11 instances
where the complainant did not wish to
proceed with resolution options available
under the Policy, and in 6 instances the
individual coming forward was seeking
equity related information only. In
five instances the concern was being
addressed through another UBC process,
in 2 instances the concern involved non-
UBC parties, and in another 2 instances,
the burden of proof required to engage
case resolution options was not met.
Like the BC Human Rights Code, the
Policy protects UBC students, staff
and faculty from discrimination and
harassment in service, accommodation
and employment. Thus, this type of
behaviour will not be tolerated in the
various domains of the university - in
academics, employment, residences,
clubs/athletics/recreation and UBC
Figure 3 illustrates the breakdown of
incidents in these various university
settings. Employment and academic
matters have consistently been the
primary sources of equity-related
complaints over the last three years. Of
the 62 complaints handled by the Equity
Office in 2008, 28 (45%) fell within
the context of academics; whereas 24
(39%) stemmed from the employment
context. To look at the demographics of
the UBC community, one would expect
that the majority of complaints raised
with the Equity Office would originate
from students - who represent the largest
population of campus constituents - and
that complaints from students would
most likely arise in the academic context
(although students can also be employed
by the university and may engage
with UBC services, clubs, athletics and
recreation).
According to statistics from UBC's Office
of Planning and Institutional Research
(PAIR), there was a total of 45,310
undergraduate and graduate students
at UBC V in the winter academic term
of 2008 (data from November 1, 2008)
and a total of 10,753 staff and faculty
(data from May 31, 2008). Students
comprise 81 % of the UBC V community
population, while staff and faculty
represent 19% ofthe population. Based
on these community demographics, the
Equity Office receives a proportionally
high number of employment-related
complaints (39%).This is true, even
when combining the academic-related
complaints (45%) with complaints arising
from residence life (5%), athletics/clubs
(2%) and UBC services (5%).
As with previous years, students continue
to be the campus group most likely
to access the Equity Office. In 2008,
students brought 55% of all complaints.
This same group accessed the Equity
Office most often in 2007 and 2006
bringing 47% and 64% of all complaints
respectively.
[4] UBC    REPORTS     |    JULY    2,    2009     |     9
Figure 7
Non-Human Rights Based Behavourial Description of Complaints UBCV
NON-HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE
2006
N=45
2007
N=25
2008
N=23
Interpersonal Conflict
15
33%
8
32%
6
26%
Bullying/Personal Harassment
18
40%
13
52%
12
52%
Other
12
27%
4
16%
5
22%
TOTAL
45
100%
25
100%
23
100%
BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF NON-HUMAN RIGHTS COMPLAINTS
Unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviour
23
51%
12
48%
10
43%
Unwelcome written or visual behaviour (insults, slurs, jokes, inneundo, etc)
2
4%
4
16%
5
22%
Unwelcome physical attention (touching, staring, following - not stalking or assault)
1
2%
0
0
2
9%
Threats
1
2%
1
4%
0
0
Assault
1
2%
0
0%
1
4%
Retaliation
0
0
1
4%
1
4%
Biased Academic Decisions
11
24%
6
24%
3
13%
Biased Employment Decisions
6
13%
5
20%
7
30%
Exclusion or Denial of Access
6
13%
2
8%
1
4%
*Multiple behavioural descriptions cited
-6
-13%
-6
-24%
-7
-30%
TOTAL
45
100%
25
100%
23
100%
In 2006,6 concerns cited 2 types of behaviours so subtract 6 from total to reach N=45
In 2007,6 concerns cited 2 types of behaviours so subtract 6 from total to reach N=25
In 2008, 7 concerns cited 2 types of behaviours so subtract 7 from total to reach N=23
Staff brought 17 (28%) of the 62 complaints in 2008, which is consistent with the
26% and 24% brought by staff in 2007 and 2006. Management and Professional staff
brought 11 (18%) of staff complaints this year which is consistent with the 19% they
brought last year. All other staff - support, clerical, library, trades, technical and service
staff - accounted for the remaining 6 (10%) staff complaints. Again, this is consistent
with the percentage of complaints brought by this group last year.
Faculty complaints dropped significantly from 21% in 2007 to 10% in 2008.
Surprisingly, a total of 5 or 8% of complaints in 2008 stemmed from non-UBC
members. There were no 'unknown' complainants, which as a sub-category, captures
those who consult with the Equity Office but choose to remain anonymous,
consultations from a third party, such as an Administrative Head of Unit, where the
identity and affiliation of the complainant is not shared, or those who choose not to
disclose their affiliation for other reasons.
Overall, the breakdown of complaints by campus constituents appears to fluctuate from
year to year. Students continue to bring the largest number of complaints which reflects
the fact that they comprise roughly 81 % of the population on the UBC Vancouver
campus. As mentioned above however, although students bring the highest overall
number of complaints, proportionally staff and faculty (who comprise roughly 19% of
the population) bring a greater proportion of complaints.
Figure 5 illustrates the gender of individuals who have been involved in complaints
brought to the Equity Office over the last three years. Consistently throughout this
time period, women have been more likely to bring matters to the Equity Office than
have men. In 2008, out of 62 complaints, 42 (68%) women sought assistance from
the Equity Office as complainants to a concern, as compared to 18 (29%) men who
approached the Equity Office in the same capacity.
The data in 2008 recorded 1 complaint (2%) stemming from an unknown source and 1
complaint (2%) as a group complaint. As a sub-category, "unknown" is used to record
data where the identity and therefore gender of the complainant are actually unknown
(i.e. consultations with administrators looking for advice on managing cases on their
own where the identities of the parties have not been divulged). "Group" is used to
record instances where there are multiple complainants of more than one gender.
Our data collection methods were recently revised to include a transgender/gender
variant sub-category. This revision now allows the Equity Office to accurately record
gender identities of individuals who do not identify as either male or female. Prior to
this revision, individuals who did not identify as either male or female were included in
the "unknown" category. As a result, data recorded in the "unknown" category in 2006
and 2007 is not directly comparable to 2008 data.
55 interpersonal behavioural descriptions associated with their complaint and two
complaints raised systemic issues. Of the 37 complaints raising interpersonal concerns,
24 complaints cited one behavioural type and 13 complaints cited more than one
behavioural type. When more than one type of behaviour is raised in complaints, we
count each type separately and then subtract the number of multiple behaviours across
all cases to reach a total. This ensures we do not give more weight to one type of
behaviour over another.
The behavioural type raised most often in 2008 involved allegations of unwelcome
verbal or non-verbal behaviour such as insults, slurs, jokes and innuendos. This
type of allegation has been raised most often in complaints over the past three year
period: 40% in 2008, 30% in 2007, and 33% in 2006. Unwelcome written or visual
behaviours such as email, graffiti, video or letters were raised the second greatest
number of times in 2008 (in nine instances or 24%) and biased employment decisions
and exclusion or denial of access were each raised in seven instances or in 19% of all
complaints.
Figure 6 also illustrates that two complaints raised concerns of a systemic nature in
2008. One complaint raised allegations in relation to policies and procedures, and the
other raised allegations relating to environmental factors such as accessibility-related
concerns. 2007 data did not record distinctions between interpersonal and systemic
complaints, but we do note that systemic issues were raised in complaints less often in
2008 than in 2006. No further pattern is discernible.
Figure 7 shows behavioural descriptions for the 23 complaints which were not directly
related to our mandate. This group of complaints involves allegations of Interpersonal
Conflict (6 complaints or 26%), Bullying and Personal Harassment (12 complaints or
52%) and Other Non-Human Rights Based Complaints (5 complaints or 22%), such
as academic misconduct, contract or services issues, inappropriate remarks, academic
disputes and unfair dismissal. The total number of non-mandate complaints brought
this year (23) is very close in number to those brought in 2007 (25). Bullying and
personal harassment allegations continue to represent the largest number of non-
mandate complaints across all three years (40% in 2006, 52% in 2007, and 52% in
2008).
In 2008, the behavioural type raised most often involved allegations of unwelcome
verbal or non-verbal behaviours (10 complaints or 43%). This is consistent with
the type of behaviour complained about most often in previous years and with the
behavioural type raised most often in mandate-related complaints. Biased employment
decisions were raised as allegations the second greatest number of times and unwelcome
written or visual behaviours, such as insults, slurs, jokes and innuendoes were raised the
third greatest number of times.
In 2008, the pattern in terms of who was most often named as a respondent to a
complaint has shifted. Respondents recorded as "unknown" or not identified during a
consultation, accounted for 31% of all complaints whereas in 2006 and 2007, this same
category accounted for 5% and 7% of all complaints respectively. Males were identified
as respondents in 27% of 2008 complaints whereas they were identified as respondents
in 41 % and 42% of 2006 and 2007 complaints respectively. A department or the
University was identified as the respondent in 24% of 2008 complaints, and females
were identified in 16% of complaints. A transgender or gender variant respondent was
indentified in 2% of 2008 complaints.
UBC OKANAGAN - COMPLAINTS RECEIVED IN 2008
Human Rights & Equity Services (HES) at UBC Okanagan received 40 complaints
during 20081 . With such a small sample of complaints, there is a danger that providing
too much specific information might disclose personal or confidential information.
The information reported below covers complaints brought forward which includes
consultations and cases. Grouping data in this way allows the office to provide more
details about the types of complaints, contexts, gender, and alleged behavioural
descriptions brought to the HES office in 2008.
In 2008, there were a total of 39 complaints (12 cases and 27 consultations) that fell
under the direct mandate of the Policy. Figure 6 illustrates the range of interpersonal
behavioural descriptions and systemic components that individuals raise when they
seek assistance from the Equity Office. Thirty-seven complaints raised a total of
Figure 8 [UBC Okanagan Complaints Covered vs. Not Covered Under UBC's Policy
on Discrimination & Harassment] illustrates the total number of concerns (cases and
consultations) brought to the HES office. Overall the number of complaints covered
under UBC's Policy increased by 17 complaints from 13 in 2007. Of the seventeen
[5] io     I     UBC    REPORTS     |    JULY    2,    2009
Figure 8
Complaints Covered vs. Not Covered Under UBC's Policy on Discrimination and Harassment UBC 0
COVERED UNDER UBC'S POLICY
2006
N=20 of 30 total
complaints (67%)
2007
N=13of 27 total
complaints (48%)
2008
N=30 of 40 total
complaints (75%)
Age
0
0
1
8%
0
0
Ancestry
0
0
0
0
2
7%
Colour
0
0
0
0
1
3%
Race
9
45%
5
38%
6
20%
Sexual Orientation
5
25%
5
38%
2
7%
Disability
3
15%
0
0
10
33%
Family Status
0
0
0
0
2
7%
Marital Status
0
0
0
0
1
3%
Sex
3
15%
5
38%
8
27%
Place of Origin
0
0
0
0
2
7%
Religion
0
0
0
0
2
7%
* Multiple Grounds of Discrimination
* In 2008,6 cases had multiple grounds
(therefore deduct 6 from total to reach N =
24 total cases)
n/a
n/a
-3
(included above)
-23%
-6
-20%
TOTAL
20
100%
13
99%
30
101%
NOT COVERED UNDER UBC'S POLICY
2006
N=10of30total
complaints (67%)
2007
N=14 of 27 total
complaints (52%)
2008
N=10Of40total
complaints (25%)
Interpersonal Conflict
5
50%
1
7%
0
0
Behaviour covered under other UBC policy i
or procedures
3
30%
5
36%
2
20%
Personal Harassment
1
10%
1
7%
3
30%
Respondent and/or context not under UBCO jurisdiction
1
10%
7
50%
5
50%
TOTAL
10
100%
14
100%
10
100%
Figure 9
Context of All Complaints UBCO
CONTEXT OF ALL COMPLAINTS
2007
N=27
2008
N=40
Academic
11
41%
18
45%
Employment
6
22%
9
22.5%
Residence
5
19%
0
0
Clubs/Athletics/Recreation
0
0
4
10%
UBC Service
3
11%
4
10%
Non- UBC
2
7%
5
12.5%
TOTAL
27
100%
40
100%
complaints that fell within the jurisdiction of the Discrimination & Harassment Policy,
the prohibited grounds in these cases were: Ancestry (2), Colour (1), Race (6), Sexual
Orientation (2), Disability (10), Family Status (2), Marital Status (1), Sex (8), Place of
Origin (2), and Religion (2). Six complaints involved multiple grounds.
Complaints not covered under the UBC Policy decreased from 14 in 2007 to 10 in
2008. Of these 10 non-mandate consultations, 2 were covered under another UBC
policy or procedure, 3 related to personal harassment and 5 involved a respondent or
context not under UBC jurisdiction.
The UBC Policy on Discrimination and Harassment protects UBC students, staff,
and faculty from discrimination and harassment in service, accommodation and
employment at both campuses - Vancouver and Okanagan. Behaviours alleged to be
discriminatory are not tolerated in any programs and services offered at the institution.
Figure 10
Gender of All Complainants and Respondents UBC 0
COMPLAINANTS
2007
N=27
2008
N=40
Female
21
78%
29
72.5%
Male
6
22%
9
22.5%
Unknown
0
0
2
5%
Both
0
0
0
0
TOTAL
27
100%
40
100%
RESPONDENTS
2007
N=27
2008
N=40
Female
1
4%
3
7.5%
Male
14
52%
11
27.5%
Unknown
4
15%
11
27.5%
Both
0
0
0
0
Group
0
0
3
7.5%
Department/University
8
29%
12
30%
TOTAL
27
100%
40
100%
Figure 11
Complaints by Campus Groups UBC 0
CAMPUS GROUPS
2007
2008
Students
15
56%
19
47.5%
Faculty and Faculty Association
5
18.5%
6
15.0%
Management and Professional
5
18.5%
1
2.5%
Support, Clerical, Library, Trades,
Technical and Service Staff
2
7%
6
15.0%
Admin
0
0
4
10.0%
Non UBC
0
0
3
7.5%
Unknown
0
0
1
2.5%
TOTAL
27
100%
40
100%
Figure 9 [Context of All Complaints UBC O] illustrates the breakdown of complaints
in the various university settings and accounts for situations that may be outside of
UBC services. 2007 was the first year of reporting the context of all complaints at UBC
Okanagan and we are able to draw comparisons with this year's data.
Of the 40 complaints handled by the HES Office in 2008, 18 (45%) fell within the
academic context, 9 (22.5%) within the employment context, 4 (10%) within the clubs/
athletics/recreation context, and 4 (10%) within general UBC Services. The remaining
5 (12.5%) complaints were of a non-UBC context. There is little change in the context
of complaints between 2007 and 2008 except for categories of residence and clubs/
athletics/recreation. In 2007, 5 (19%) complaints were in a residence context where
in 2008 there were zero and there were no reported complaints in the clubs/athletics/
recreation context in 2007. In 2008 there were 4 (10%).
Figure 10 [Gender of All Complainants and Respondents UBC O] illustrates the gender
of parties involved in complaints over 2008. This is the second year that data is being
reported. This category includes both concerns where the identity and therefore gender
of the complainant are actually unknown (i.e. consultations with administrators looking
for advice on managing cases on their own where the identities of the parties have not
been divulged). The forms for 2008's annual report have included a transgender/gender-
variant category to correct for this error of previous years when concerns were brought
forward from individuals whose gender identity did not correspond with either the
female or male binary gender categories.
In 2008 out of 40 cases and consultations, 29 (72.5%) females sought assistance
from the HES Office while 9 (22.5%) males approached the HES Office, and 2 (5%)
were unknown. In 2008, department/university was cited as the respondent in 12
(30%) complaints, males were named as respondents in 11 (27.5%) complaints,
unknown respondents accounted for 11 (27.5%) complaints, groups were named as
the respondent in 3 (7.5%) complaints, and female respondents were cited in 3 (7.5%)
complaints.
As mentioned above, 2007 methods of recording the gender of parties to a complaint
only allow for categories of male, female, groups comprised of people of more than
one gender (categorized as "both"), department/University and unknown gender. This
binary conceptualization of gender did not allow for the accurate recording of gender
[6] UBC    REPORTS     |    JULY    2,    2009     |     II
Figure 12
Non-Human Rights Based Behavourial Description of Complaints UBC 0
NON-HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE
2005
N=11
2006
N=10
2007
N=14
2008
N=10
Interpersonal Conflict
0
0
5
50%
1
7%
0
0
Behaviour covered under other UBC policy or procedures
8
73%
3
30%
5
36%
2
20%
Personal Harassment
1
9%
1
10%
1
7%
3
30%
Respondent and/or context not under UBCO
jurisdiction
2
18%
1
10%
7
50%
5
50%
TOTAL
11
100%
10
100%
14
100%
10
100%
BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF NON-HUMAN RIGHTS COMPLAINTS
Unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviour
n/a
n/a
5
36%
2
20%
Unwelcome written or visual behaviour
(insults, slurs, jokes, inneundo, etc)
n/a
n/a
2
14%
3
30%
Unwelcome physical attention
(touching, staring, following~not stalking or assault)
n/a
n/a
0
0
1
10%
Threats
n/a
n/a
1
7%
1
10%
Assault
n/a
n/a
1
7%
0
0
Retaliation
n/a
n/a
0
0
0
0
Biased Academic Decisions
n/a
n/a
2
14%
0
0
Biased Employment Decisions
n/a
n/a
4
28%
2
20%
Exclusion or Denial of Access
n/a
n/a
1
7%
4
40%
* Multiple behavioural descriptions cited
-2
-14%
-3
-30%
TOTAL
n/a
n/a
14
99%
10
100%
' In 2008,3 concerns cited 2 types of behaviours so subtract 3 from total to reach N=10
identities of individuals who do not identify as either male or female. For example, this
group may include some people who identify as transgender, transsexual, genderqueer
or gender variant. In these instances, we record the gender of self-selection if one of
the male or female labels fit, but we do not have an accurate way to record gender
expressions and identities outside of this binary conception of a two-gender system.
Similarly, the term "both" reinforces this notion of a binary gender system. In 2008
we modified our forms to better reflect a wider range of possible gender identities and
expressions in the future.
As previously explained, the Human Rights and Equity Services (HES) Office and the
UBC Policy on Discrimination and Harassment serve the students, faculty and staff of
UBC Okanagan. In 2008, students brought forward the most number of complaints at
19 (47.5%) of the 40 complaints to the HES Office. Faculty complaints and Support,
Clerical, Library, Trades, Technical and Service Staff complaints each comprised 5
(15%) of the 40 complaints. Administration were the next campus group with 4 (10%)
complaints and 3 (7.5%) complaints were brought to the office by non-UBC members.
Lastly, one (2.5) complaint was brought forward by both Management and Professional
group and Unknown parties.
For the first time in 2007, the HES Office reported UBC O data for behavioural
descriptions of conduct in complaints that allege a human-rights based contravention
of the Policy. In 2008, 12 (40%) of the 30 human-rights based complaints described
instances of unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviour. The second most identified
behaviour cited 9 (30%) times was exclusion or denial of access. Systemic policies and
practices were cited in 5 (17%) instances. Unwelcome written or visual behaviour,
unwelcome physical attention, biased academic decisions, and fear of future behaviour
were behaviours cited 3 times (10% each) in complaints. Lastly, assault and biased
employment decisions were both cited once (3 % each). Similar to 2007, there were
multiple behavioural descriptions given by complainants and in 2008 10 (33%)
concerns cited 2 types of behaviour in the 30 human rights based complaints brought to
the HES office.
Figure 13 [Non-Human Rights Based Behavioural Description of Complaints UBC O]
shows behavioural descriptions for the 10 complaints which did not have a human-
rights based element in 2008. Non-human rights issues brought forward as complaints
included 2 (20%) of complaints covered under other UBC policy or procedures
while Personal Harassment accounted for 3 (30%) of complaints. The remaining
5 (50%) complaints are when a respondent and/or context was not covered under
UBC O jurisdiction. This could include where a party or context was external to the
UBC community, such as allegations of service issues, inappropriate remarks, unfair
dismissal, or labour matters.
Of the Non-Human Rights Based complaints brought to the HES Office, behavioural
descriptions most often cited in 2008 were exclusion or denial of access (4 complaints
or 40%). In 3 (30%) complaints, unwelcome written or visual behaviour were
identified. Unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviours and biased employment
decisions were each cited in 2 complaints (20% each). Lastly, 1 (10%) complaint each
of threats and assault were behavioural descriptions cited. In 3 of the non-human rights
based complaints brought forward, 3 (30%) concerns cited 2 types of behaviour.
Please note that the way in which data is interpreted and reported at UBC O and UBC V differs. The emphasis
of the data reported from UBC O is on whether or not concerns met the jurisdictional and definitional
requirements for allegations of discrimination or harassment in the Policy, not on whether they were handled
under the procedures of the Policy. UBC V reports on concerns which proceeded through the procedures in the
Policy (cases) and those that did not (consultations), instead of whether or not concerns met the mandate and fell
within the jurisdiction of the Policy. In UBC Vs report, all cases also involve mandate concerns and consultations
involve concerns that could either be mandate or not. Thus the data reported in this Annual Report may not be
directly comparable between the two campuses.
Figure 13
Human Rights Based Behavourial Description of Complaints UBC 0
BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS COMPLAINTS
2007
N=13
2008
N=30
Unwelcome verbal or non-verbal behaviour
8
62%
12
40%
Unwelcome written or visual behaviour (insults, slurs,
, jokes,
inneundo, etc)
5
38%
3
10%
Unwelcome physical attention (touching, staring, fold
owing-
-not stalking or assault)
3
23%
3
10%
Threats
3
23%
0
0
Assault
0
0
1
3%
Retaliation
0
0
0
0
Biased Academic Decisions
0
0
3
10%
Biased Employment Decisions
0
0
1
3%
Exclusion or Denial of Access
0
0
9
30%
Fear of Future Behaviour
0
0
3
10%
Systemic Policies & Practices
0
0
5
17%
*Multiple behavioural descriptions cited
-6
-46%
-10
-33%
TOTAL
13
100%
30
100%
Equity Office
University of British Columbia
2306 Brock Hall, 1874 East Mall,
Vancouver, B.C. V6T1Z1
Telephone: 604-822-6353
Fax: 604-822-3260
Email: equity@equity.ubc.ca
www.equity.ubc.ca
Human Rights & Equity Services
(HES), UBC Okanagan
3333 University Way,
Kelowna, B.C. V1V 1V7
Telephone: 250-807-9291
Email: equity.ubco@ubc.ca
www.ubc.ca/okanagan/equity
* In 2008,10 concerns cited 2 types of behaviours so subtract 10 from total to reach N=30
[7] 12     |     UBC    REPORTS     |    JULY
Customer prejudice: Women and minority
employees unfairly evaluated
UBC business Prof. Karl Aquino says consumers score women and minorities lower than white males in anonymous feedback surveys,
regardless of performance.
By BASIL WAUGH and
DEREK MOSCATO
A new UBC study finds that
women and minorities receive
lower scores on anonymous
customer feedback forms
compared to white males,
regardless of performance.
The study, to be published in
the Academy of Management,
shows that customers -
consciously or unconsciously -
exhibit prejudices against women
and minority groups when they
complete these forms.
According to UBC Sauder
School of Business professor
Karl Aquino, co-author of the
study, the research should raise
alarm bells for thousands of
North American employees
and companies that link
employee pay, promotions and
hiring decisions to anonymous
feedback survey results.
"This study shows that the old
saying 'the customer is always
right,' is not always true," says
Aquino. "Anonymous feedback,
if surveys are not constructed
carefully, is often more about
consumers' subjective biases
than any objective assessment of
employee performance."
male counterparts in equivalent
jobs, Aquino says.
"This has real consequences
for women and minority
employees whose pay or
advancement opportunities are
tied to anonymous customer
satisfaction surveys," he adds.
"At the same time, employers
may not be rewarding the best
employees, but only those
"The old saying 'the customer is always
right* is not always true."
In addition to casting doubt
on the accuracy of anonymous
feedback, the findings may
help explain why women and
minorities in the United States
earn wages that are 25 per cent
less on average than their white
who are most appealing to
customers."
The research, conducted in the
U.S., examined the feedback of
customers in three organizations:
a health maintenance
organization, a bookstore, and a
golf club.
In the health maintenance
organization, researchers
evaluated more than 12,000
patient reports on 113 doctors.
They found that objective
measures of performance were
associated with higher patient
satisfaction when the doctors
were white men. Women and
minorities received lower ratings
when performing at service levels
that were equivalent to those of
white male physicians.
"It can be disturbing to think
that the harder you try, the
less you are appreciated," says
Aquino, noting that the more
minority employees did for
patients, the worse they fared in
the anonymous surveys. "This
gets to the issue of whether we
can eradicate prejudice in the
workplace."
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APPLICATION DEADLINE
Exploratory Workshop Grant
Exploratory Workshops provide funding for bringing
together researchers from different disciplines at UBC
with distinguished external experts to, for example, work
jointly toward assessing the research possibilities in a new
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www.pwias.ubc.ca or call us at (604) 822-4782.
In the bookstore study,
participants were shown two
videotaped interactions between
a customer and a sales clerk who
was either a white male, black
male or a white female. Although
all clerks performed similarly,
participants anonymously rated
the white male clerk's service 19
per cent higher than the female
or the black male.
Finally, the researchers studied
the satisfaction levels of 3,600
golfers at 66 clubs nationwide.
Clubs that employed higher
numbers of Latinos or woman
were rated more poorly than
clubs employing fewer minorities
and more white men, even when
the clubs performed identically
on objective measures.
In light of the findings,
the research team - which
includes scholars from five
North American business
schools - argues that companies
should be wary of anonymous
feedback and offer tips to help
organizations construct better
customer feedback surveys.
Aquino says organizations
should make sure customer
surveys target specific employee
behaviors, rather than opinions
or subjective judgments which
are highly susceptible to bias.
And to increase accountability,
companies should ask customers
to identify themselves and not
use anonymous feedback for
pay or promotion decisions, he
says. 13
LIBRARIAN
continued from page 1
says. The goal of the national
endeavour is to provide a
"framework for future action
in all matters digital" (more
information can be found at
www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/
cdis).
However, the inexorable
growth of the information
highway has led some observers
to question whether libraries will
survive and thrive in the age of
the Google generation.
Parent isn't so sceptical. As
she notes, libraries and other
cultural institutions have content
that is indispensable to search
engines and other commercial
content providers. "Therefore,
libraries are not irrelevant, but
are key players in benefiting
from new technologies to
make information more readily
available to users," she notes.
When she isn't working,
Parent enjoys gardening, tennis
and skiing, along with the
occasional cooking experiment.
She's hugely interested in
historical maps - which she
collects - and also loves reading.
She's currently working through
Ken Follett's World Without End,
set in 14th-century England,
and Grown Up Digital by
Canadian e-guru Don Tapscott
- an apt illustration of Parent's
fascination with the past and
passion for the future. 13

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