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UBC Publications

UBC Reports Jun 17, 1993

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Board of Governors
chair steps down
by Connie Filletti	
Staff writer
UBC's Board of Governors chair,
Kenneth Bagshaw, has resigned in order
to concentrate on his legal practice in
Bagshaw, 53,
was appointed to
the board by
provincial order-
in-councilin 1987
and has been
elected annually to
serve as chair
since April, 1990.
His term on the
board was to
expire in
"I can say,
without hesitation, that this role has
been the most rewarding and challenging
endeavour I have experienced outside of
my professional practice." Bagshaw said
in stepping down.
A partner in the law firm Ladner Downs,
Bagshaw completed three years of an
undergraduate Arts program at UBC
before graduating from the university's
Faculty of Law in 1964. He received the
Law Society Gold Medal for first place
standing in his graduating class.
Active in community affairs, Bagshaw
has served as president ofthe Vancouver
Art Gallery, chair ofthe B.C. Arts Board
and as a trustee of the British Columbia
Heritage Trust.
"Reflecting back on the various people
who have served with me on UBC's Board
of Governors, I can only marvel at the
consistent sense of dedication to the
institution and the welfare of its students,
faculty and staff that has been unfailingly
exhibited," Bagshaw said.
UBC President David Strangway
commended Bagshaw for his service to
the university.
"I am very grateful for the leadership
he has provided to the board in some
challenging issues it has faced over the
past few years. His commitment to the
university is greatly appreciated."
The chancellor of the university will
preside as acting chair until a replacement
for Bagshaw is announced.
UBC grad Campbell
new Tory leader PM
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
"I think it's an indication of the shape
of things to come."
That's how one student reacted to
Kim Campbell's election as UBC's first
female frosh president in 1964. The
unidentified student, quoted in The
Ubyssey, didn't know how prophetic
those words were.
This week, Campbell won the federal
Progressive Conservative leadership race
and became the second prime minister to
have graduated from UBC. The first was
John Turner.
Although Campbell is just 46 years
old, her association with UBC spans three
decades and includes an undergraduate
degree, a law degree, graduate study and
Seventeen-year-old Avril Phaedra
Douglas Campbell enrolled at UBC in
1964, a recent grad of Vancouver's Prince
of Wales Secondary. Interested in politics
from an early age, she was the high
school's first female president.
Within a month of her arrival on
campus, she was urging her classmates
to support her campaign for frosh
Taking stock of the electorate
See story page 4
"Confused? Fed up to the teeth? You're
new at UBC, you're not really sure what's
going on, and now some crazy female
wants your vote for Frosh President,"
Campbell said in The Ubyssey.
She won with the slogan "Kim is
cuddlier," but Campbell was not one to
take a back seat to men. Asked to respond
to a sexist columnist's rant that women
should stay in the home, and out of
politics, she said:
"If more men could be induced to stand
over hot stoves, push vacuums and wash
dishes it would enable women to devote
themselves to the important business of
running the world for which they are so
well suited. In fact, women have a moral
duty to save the world from the terrible
mess that men have made of it."
The Ubyssey greeted her election by
saying "Mr. President...isn't."
Campbell remained active in student
politics, later becoming vice-president
ofthe Alma Mater Society and a member
of International House's board of
She supported  her studies in the
See CAMPBELL,, Page 2
Flying Fish
Gavin Wilson photo
Thirty Japanese carp, or koi, await release at the edge of a pond in the Nitobe
Garden. The carp, a gift from Montreal's Botanical Garden, were flown in
from Montreal last week.  See story in Offbeat, page 3.
Lee to take over as chancellor
Robert H. Lee, a UBC graduate and
president of Prospero International Realty
Inc., will be installed as the university's
14th chancellor on June 25, succeeding
Leslie R. Peterson, who has served as
chancellor since 1987.
Bom in Vancouver in 1933, Lee earned
a Bachelor of Commerce degree from the
university in 1956. He was presented
with a distinguished alumnus award from
UBC in 1982.
Lee served two terms as a member of
UBC's Board of Governors and was a
founding director ofthe UBC Foundation.
He is currently a member ofthe leadership
committee of A World of Opportunity, the
university's fund-raising campaign.
In 1990, Lee was invested as a member
of the Order of British Columbia in
recognition of his outstanding
achievements and service to the province.
Lee and his wife Lily (UBC Nursing '56)
have four children, who are also graduates
of the university.
Research Revived
A group of B.C. companies band together to
keep B.C.
Research alive
Campus Planning
Public meetings on UBC planning proposals
Arts History
Forum: An English professor argues for the Arts
Sales Force
Profile: Prof. Jim Forbes leads students through the marketing maze 2 UBC Reports • June 17,1993
Continued from Page 1
Faculty of Arts with summer jobs
skinning halibut in a Prince
Rupert packing plant, working
on the mayonnaise line at Kraft
Foods and as a sleepwear clerk
at The Bay.
She graduated with honours
in Political Science in 1969. Her
honours thesis was called The
Size Principle and Grand
Coalitions in China: A Date with
a Model.
From 1968 to 1969, Campbell
was a research assistant for
Political Science Prof. Michael
Wallace, under whom she began
graduate studies in the master's
"She was certainly one of the
brightest students I had," said
Wallace, who also described her
as "very chatty, feisty and witty.
"She also had a very sharp
tongue, which is no great
surprise to anybody, but she
could be fun, too," he said.
Campbell did not complete
Dedication Dance
Abe Hefter photo
Chief Henry Seaweed ofthe Nakwaktok tribe took part in a
ceremony that re-dedicated the Thunderbird name and
emblem to UBC. The re-dedication took place during the
UBC Sports Hall of Fame and Heritage Centre induction
ceremonies at the Faculty Club in April.
her graduate degree at UBC
before transferring to the London
School of Economics. While she
was abroad in 1972 she married
UBC Mathematics Prof. Nathan
Divinsky, whom she had met on
campus. They divorced nine
years later.
Campbell returned to the
university in 1975 where she
taught in a combination of part-
time and sessional positions until
1978. Her main teaching
responsibilities were second-year
lecture courses in contemporary
political ideologies and foreign
Campbell began studying law
at UBC in 1980.
Always musically inclined, she
wrote, staged and scored the
annual Law Review musicals,
including one titled The Best
Little Court House in Canada,
produced just as the Supreme
Court was rewriting the
solicitation laws.
She received her law degree
in 1983 and became a lawyer
with the Vancouver firm of
Ladner Downs. By now she had
begun her political career in
earnest, writing her final exams
while running for the Social
Credit party in the provincial
According to her former
professor Wallace, Campbell's
rise is markedly different from
that of previous prime ministers
because of her relatively modest
background and lack of old boys'
"She had some good breaks
along the way," he said, noting
her timing in joining, then
leaving, B.C.'s Social Credit
party, her election in a hotly
contested, key federal riding, and
being catapulted into the justice
portfolio just as a number of
high-profile issues were dealt
Despite her meteoric success,
maintaining power will prove to
be her greatest test, he said.
"Whether she can build and
hold together a political coalition
without alienating people is an
interesting question that hasn't
been answered yet," Wallace
"Just being bright isn't
The Crane Library Open
House planned for
Tuesday, June 29 has
been postponed until late
September. For more
information call 822-
If you have mild asthma, you might be interested in taking
part in a research study evaluating a new type of medication
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If interested please call Nazlin for further
information. Phone 421-1429 (please leave a
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FAX 224-4492
M-TH 8-9  FRI 8-6
SAT-SUN 11-6
Office of the Registrar
effective June 15,1993
►phone numbers remain the same
•our new mailing address is
2016-1874 East Mall, V6T1Z1
►our hours of business are
Mon, Wed, Thurs, Fri:    8:30 — 4:00
Tuesday:    9:30 — 4:00
Surplus Equipment Recycling Facility
Special Event
Tent Rentals
Berkowitz & Associates
Statistics and Mathematics Consulting
■ research design • data analysis
• sampling • forecasting
lonathan Berkowitz, Ph.D
4160 Staglb Crescent, Vancouver, B.C,V6N3S2
Office: (604) 263-1508
Home: (604) 263-5394
Department of Pathology
Post Doctoral Fellow
The Department of Pathology has positions available after July 1,
1993 for recent post-doctoral scientists (PhD) and/or MD) devoted to
studies of inflammatory diseases of heart and blood vessels. Particular
pathobiological, cellular and molecular approaches are being taken to
address questions regarding the basis of transplantation-related
vasculopathy, immune-mediated and virus-mediated vascular,
myocardial and valvular diseases. Specific projects focus on cell-cell
and virus-host interactions in the pathogenesis of disease. Independent
researchers will work in an exciting, collegial and progressive investigative
unit and interact with many others in vascular biology, atherosclerosis,
genetics, virology, immunology and transplantation biology. Salary will
be according to current UBC guidelines and level of experience.
The University of British Columbia welcomes all qualified applicants,
especially women, aboriginal people, visible minorities, and persons
with disabilities. In accordance with Canadian Immigration requirements,
priority will be given to Canadian citizens and permanent residents.
Deadline for application and possible starting date is open.
Please forward curriculum vitae, statement of research experience
and goals, and names of three referees to:
Dr. Bruce McManus, MD, PhD
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
University of British Columbia
Cardiovascular Research Laboratory
St. Paul's Hospital
1081 Burrard Street
Vancouver, BC V6Z1Y6
Telephone (604) 631-5009
Facsimile (604) 631-5158
UBC Reports is published twice monthly (monthly in
December, June, July and August) for the entire
university community by the UBC Community
Relations Office, 207-6328 Memorial Rd., Vancouver
Managing Editor: Steve Crombie
Editor: Paula Martin
Production: Stephen Forgoes
Contributors: Connie Filletti, Abe Hefter, Charles Ker,
Gavin Wilson
Editorial and advertising enquiries: 822-3131 (phone)
822-2684 (fax).
UBC Reports welcomes the submission of letters and
opinion pieces. Opinions and advertising published in
UBC Reports do not necessarily reflect official
university policy.
Material may be reprinted in whole or in part with
appropriate credit to UBC Reports. UBC Reports ■ June 17,1993 3
Kersti Krug photo
Cantonese Tragedy
Elizabeth Cheung, left, and Lisa Wan, members ofthe Jin Wah Sing Musical
Association, perform a segment from a Cantonese Opera at the opening
ceremony for the Museum of Anthropology's exhibition, A Rare Flower: A
Century of Cantonese Opera in Canada. Exhibition continues until Nov. 7.
Koi: new tenants
by sfaff wrifers
The boxes were marked with ominous warnings. "Live wild animals,
handle with care. Keep fingers away from openings."
Inside, however, were the most benign of creatures: 30 Japanese
carp, or koi, for the pond at the newly renovated Nitobe Garden.
The koi, an integral part of all
traditional Japanese gardens, were a gift
from Montreal's Botanical Garden. They
join about 20 koi already living at Nitobe.
Koi are considered the national fish of
Japan, where they are specially bred for
the beauty of their markings. They can be
worth several hundred dollars apiece.
The shipment was flown here by
Canadian Airlines, who donated cargo
space aboard one of their regularly scheduled flights.
Each fish was carefully packed in a plastic bag containing a minimum of
water and a maximum of oxygen. The bags were then placed into 20
styrofoam boxes, which protected them from damage and temperature
The fish arrived in good condition and seemed to take to their new home
with aplomb, which pleased Botanical Garden Director Bruce Macdonald,
who negotiated the gift while on a recent visit to Quebec.
This is a colourful new addition to Nitob'e Garden," he said ofthe pond's
new denizens, each sporting a unique pattern of gold, white and black
markings. "We couldn't be more pleased."
•  •  •  •
Don't tell Bill Clinton and Boris Yeltsin, but the Museum of Anthropology
wasn't spruced up on their behalf.
Yes, the museum was cleaned inside and out, from the carpets to the
top of the tallest totem pole, just before the summit. But the job was done by
Paramount Pictures for filming of its movie Intersection, starring Richard
Gere and Sharon Stone.
"It just happened to be in time for the presidents' visit," said Jill Baird, a
student intern who works as a communication assistant at the MOA.
Baird's job involves working with movie directors and technical staff to sort
out logistics and make sure crews comply with the museum's rules and
With a budget of $40 million, Intersection is the biggest, most expensive
film ever shot in Vancouver, and Baird was on the scene as filming took place
over four nights at the museum.
During filming, which went until dawn each morning, the exterior of the
museum, including the Haida houses, was brilliantly illuminated with huge
crane-mounted spotlights.
"It looked absolutely spectacular. It was really quite beautiful to see the
whole thing transformed," Baird said.
In the movie, Gere plays Stone's husband, an architect celebrating the
opening of his latest project, the museum. Eighty extras, including the
museum's own Dena Klashinsky, co-ordinator of the Native Youth Program,
played the guests.
During the party, Gere's character's girlfriend, a writer for the now-defunct
Vancouver Step magazine played by Canadian actor Lolita Davidovich, arrives
unexpectedly and causes a scene.
Unlike many Hollywood films shot here, this one is actually set in
Vancouver and the museum goes by its own name.
"The publicity should be great; the museum looked fabulous," Baird said.
Directed by Mark Rydell, Intersection is slated to be Paramount's major
release for the Christmas season.
This is the third television or film production shot at the museum in the
two years Baird has worked there, and it certainly won't be the last.
"Disney phoned the other day. They might want to do something up here,
too," she said.
Local companies rally
to save B.C. Research
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
A consortium of private companies
has reached an agreement to purchase
the assets of B.C. Research Corp., giving the
south campus facility a new lease on life.
The Terracy Consortium announced
earlier this month that it is investing
more than $2 million in the bankrupt
centre for applied research and
The consortium is a group of three
B.C.-owned corporations with experience
in research technology and product
development, engineering and business
management. Its members are Terracy Inc..
NORAM Engineering and Constructors Ltd.
and Stothert Group Inc.
The B.C. Research Corp. went into
receivership in March after the provincial
government refused to give it a $ 1 - million
loan guarantee and continued annual
research funding of $1.5 million.
The new owners say their goal is to
make B.C. Research an engine for
international business development in
the province. It will continue to offer
research and development services to
small and medium-sized companies and
allow UBC scientists and engineers to
make use of its unique facilities.
The facility's uncertain future had
threatened to undo several joint research
projects involving UBC faculty members,
disrupt the work of graduate students,
and rob naval architecture students of
needed facilities.
The purchase will also maintain about
100 knowledge-based research jobs.
Hugh Wynne-Edwards will serve as
the new president and CEO of B.C.
Research. He is currently president of
Terracy Inc. and a former UBC professor
with a wide range of government and
industry experience, including several
years with Alcan as chief scientific officer
and vice-president of research and
Wynne-Edwards praised UBC and the
provincial government for their roles in
resurrecting B.C. Research.
"We received encouragement from the
provincial government and the cooperation of the university and CIBC in
negotiating the lease for the facility." he said.
'This is a winning arrangement for all
concerned. Jobs are maintained, the
university receives a market-rental return,
the province's research abilities arc
enhanced. B.C. business has improved
access to research, and the government's
overall research, development and export
objectives are furthered."
Nason named vice-provost
by Connie Filletti
Staff writer
Libby Nason has been appointed vice-
provost to support Daniel Birch, vice-
president, Academic and Provost, with
functions and projects of university-wide
significance. Nason has served as
provost's assistant since 1989.
Her major responsibilities include
policy development and redevelopment,
faculty and staff relations, co-ordinating
UBC's partnership agreements with
university colleges, and chairing the
President's Advisory Committee on an
Employee Assistance Plan.
She will also continue to initiate
campus publications to inform the
university community about services and
policies, prepare submissions on UBC
activities for Senate and government, and
suggest communications strategies and
organizational  structures  to meet the
developing needs of the university.
Nason, a graduate of McGill University,
also attended the Universite Aix-Marseille,
and joined UBC in
1981 as a labour
relations specialist
in the Human
Resources Dept.
As manager of
employee relations
between 1986 and
1989, she was
responsible for
labour relations,
compensation and
training for all non-academic staff.
She recently spearheaded the
development of UBC's conflict of interest
policy and is currently developing initial
drafts for policies on the environment
and on sustainable development.
Women's safety committee
cited as model for universities
by Connie Filletti
Staff writer
UBC's President's Advisory Committee
on Women's Safety on Campus has been
cited as a model for other Canadian
universities in a survey of the status of
female faculty and students at Canadian
The committee was established in 1991
to advise on safety policies at UBC and
monitor, review and make
recommendations on existing safety
"We have successfully brought together
university administrators with
responsibility for campus safety and
campus users to explore the safety
concerns of women and possible solutions
to these problems," said Florence Ledwitz-
Rigby, chair of the committee.
"As a result ofthe committee's efforts,
more attention has been paid to safety
issues and concerns."
Since the report's release, Ledwitz-
Rigby has received requests for
information from other Canadian
universities which plan to develop
women's safety committees.
The report, prepared for the Canadian
Federation of University Women (CFUW),
is based on findings from 45 universities
across Canada. It identifies more than 50
features that an ideal "woman-friendly"
university would have or ensure.
In addition to a university-wide
commitment to personal safety, other
items include: support services such as
on-campus child care; a policy on gender
neutral language; a sexual harassment
policy: a greater variety of scholarships
for female students; and an employment
equity policy.
The CFUW report concluded that
progress is being made in improving the
status of women at Canadian universities,
but expressed concern that the pace of
change was slow and uneven in focus.
The greatest advance has occurred in
recognizing the existence of sexual
harassment and creating policies to
address the issue, the report said. It
identified a dearth of women professors
as the major problem existing for females
on Canadian campuses today.
A copy of the complete report is
available in each faculty office and at the
Main Library. 4 UBC Reports ■ June 17, 1993
Public review of campus plan under way
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
UBC planners have begun an
extensive public process to
discuss proposals for the greater
campus plan, a guide to the
potential growth and
development of the southern half
of campus.
The plan's first draft is a
discussion paper which sets out
possible land use for a 242-
hectare area of campus outside
of the main academic core.
Together with the main
campus plan, which was
approved by UBC's Board of
Governors last year, it will form
a complete development plan for
UBC's Point Grey campus.
"Aligning the university's land
use plan with the visions of the
many and varied interests within
our community is a challenging
task for UBC and for Campus
Planning and Development in
particular," said UBC President
David Strangway.
The discussion paper was the
topic of two well-attended public
meetings held recently on
campus, one with residents of
the Acadia Park area and the
other with the Universily
Endowment Lands Ratepayers'
Association. More public forums
will be held during the next few
Many at the meetings
expressed concern that the plan
would be approved without
adequate public participation.
'There is absolutely no rush
to get the plan approved,"
Strangway said. "We want to
remain very flexible with the
timetable and with the proposed
"The discussion paper is a
way for us to discuss the issues
and get input from the campus
community and people living in
neighbouring communities."
Campus Planner Andrew
Brown said the draft plan aims
to increase land use efficiency,
better reflect the university's
identity, integrate what are now
isolated areas of campus and
improve access for the off-
campus and campus
The discussion paper
suggests that 36 hectares could
be set aside for associated
research on campus, as an
important   adjunct   to   the
university's academic activities.
Most oil his land would be located
south of 16th Avenue, adjacent
to an area already leased for this
purpose by Discovery Parks Inc.
The plan also calls \'nr
proposed market housing in two
areas: adjacent to ihe exist in ;
Hampton Place development,
south of 16th Avenue, and a
small parcel south of 16th along
Southwest Marine Drive.
Proposed student housing
sites include an extension of
Acadia Park residences to
Wesbrook Mall and up Fraternity
Row, between Thunderbird and
Agronomy roads, to East Mall.
Another block of university
housing would sit between
Thunderbird Boulevard and
Stadium Road, adjacent to Totem
Park residences.
At one meeting, Acadia Park
residents said they were
concerned with a proposed
realignment of campus
The plan proposed extending
Acadia Road south across 16th
Avenue, continuing to Southwest
Marine Drive. It also proposed
that Thunderbird Boulevard be
extended  east  to  University
UBC stock market linked to
whims of Canadian electorate
by Abe Hefter
Staff writer
Buy low, sell high.
You'll get a chance to do just
that while learning first-hand
about the operation of a financial
market, and more about
Canada's election process, when
the 1993 UBC Election Stock
Market (UBC-ESM) opens for
business Jury 5.
The UBC-ESM is a financial
market in which the ultimate
values of the contracts being
traded are based on the outcome
of the 1993 Canadian federal
Participants invest their own
funds, buy and sell listed contracts,
well as earning profits.
"The UBC-ESM is being
operated for educational and
research purposes. It is designed
to help us study the predictive
power of markets, the behaviour
of traders and the dynamics of
the political campaign," said
Associate Prof. Tom Ross of the
Faculty of Commerce and
Business Administration.
"It also affords students an
opportunity to learn more about
how markets work and motivates
them to follow more closely the
upcoming campaign."
Modelled directly on the
Universityof Iowa political stock
market, which has been running
since 1988, the software has been
customized to reflect the
Canadian political system, added
Ross and faculty colleagues
Vasu Krishnamurthy and
Murray Frank are directors of
the UBC-ESM, along with Robert
Forsythe of the University of
Traders on the exchange will
buy and sell financial
contracts representing
political parties participating
in real elections.
This  year,   the   exchange
■>c^ Hef*erp'-,7o
Associate Prof. Tom Ross is putting the finishing touches on
the UBC Election Stock Market, which will be up and
running July 5.
includes two markets involved
in the Canadian federal election,
expected to be called this fall.
The principal market is the
House of Commons market, with
six contracts to be traded: Bloc
Quebecois, Liberals, New
Democrats, Progressive
Conservatives and the Reform
Party, with a final contract
covering all other parties.
At any point in time, the
market's estimate ofthe share of
seats to be won by a party can be
inferred by looking at the current
price of that party's contracts.
This way, Ross said, the
market acts as a continuous poll
that can respond quickly to
significant campaign events such
as leadership debates.
The second market operated
by the UBC-ESM is the majority
government market. There will
be three contracts in this market
corresponding to a Liberal
majority government, a
Progressive      Conservative
majority government, or neither.
The minimum investment in
a UBC-ESM account is $5.00,
and the maximum is $1,000.
The amount you invest will be
posted to your cash account.
Funds can then be used to
buy individual contracts from
other traders or from the UBC-
ESM exchange system, a fully
computerized market, open 24
hours a day.
Funds remaining in the cash
account, plus the liquidated
value of contracts held at market
closing, will be refunded to the
traders. All the money that
comes in will be paid out.
The software for the UBC-ESM
is currently operational in the
faculty's local area network. The
market is open for practice
trading by those wishing to see
how the system works.
If you're interested in opening
a funny money account, or
becoming a trader on the real
market, call 822-8614.
Boulevard bisecting the Acadia
neighbourhood, which contains
family housing.
"If Acadia Road is extended as
shown here it will jeopardize the
safety of our children," said one
Brown said an expanded and
improved road network was
recommended to connect a
disjointed and confusing street
system and distribute traffic over
a greater number of roads,
eliminating the need for multi-
lane thoroughfares on campus
that are "hostile to pedestrians."
He added that the Acadia
Road extension would also
demarcate what is now a little-
understood boundary between
the university campus and
Pacific Spirit Park.
Brown said planners will
review the roadway extensions
in light of public concern.
"fR 30-0^
For more information
call the UBC Alumni
Association at 822-3313
A Dance for Development
to the World Beat Sound of DAL DIL-VOG
Friday, June 25
Studio 16 & the French Cultural Centre
1551 W. 7th Ave. (near Granville)
Doors open at 5:30, Cocktails at Studio 16. Presentation 7pm
in the French Cultural Centre. Band starts 9pm in Studio 16.
Presentation on international development work in the Third World
with a focus on an award-winning program in India.
Tickets $15/ $12.50 for 10
For info or reservations call: 736-3696
tt...the best organized
International Congress
they had ever attended,"
John R. Ledsome. MD- International Congress of Physiological Sciences
**...You provided meeting rooms for almost 4,000 people
and accommodation for over 2,000 for two weeks and did it
in a friendly and efficient manner."
Dr. Gordon A. McBean- International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
**...You performed beyond the call of duty and were able
to foresee potential problems before they happened."
Dr. Daniel F. Gardiner- UBC Program for Executive Development
**...a mark of excellence to supply the needs of a
conference and receive no complaints!"
Mary Lou Bishoff— Anglican Renewal Ministries Conference
Let us help you plan
the best conference you've ever attended
• Accommodation in highrise towers with spectacular
ocean and mountain views
• Set on 1,000 wooded acres only 15 minutes from
Vancouver city centre
• Flexible meeting areas for groups from 10 to 3,000
• Complete audio-visual services and satellite
communications available
• Catering for events from barbecues to dinner dances
• Comprehensive conference organization and
systems support
Write, phone
or fax for
video and
University of British Columbia
5961 Student Union Boulevard
Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 2C9
Telephone (604) 822-1060
Fax (604) 822-1069
UBC Reports ■ June 17,1993 5
June 20 through July 17
Friday, June 25
Ophthalmology Grand Rounds
Reach For The Top. Dr. Andrew
McCormick, Ophthalmology, Drs.
Barry MacLean and Ralph
Rothstein, Paediatrics. G.F.
Strong Auditorium at 9am. Call
Health Care/Epidemiology
Grand Rounds
Friendly Hospital Initiative:
Breastfeeding Promotion North/
South/West/East. Dr. Wah
Wong, Chair, Development
Education, UNICEF-BC. James
Mather 253 from 9-10am. Call
Wednesday, June 30
Regent College Summer
Evening Lectures
Discovering The Holy Spirit In
Contemporary Spirituality.
Professor James M. Houston,
Spiritual Theology, Regent
College. Main floor auditorium
from 8-9:30pm.  Call 224-3245.
Monday, July 5
Theology And Liberation In
Latin America: The Post-Marxist
Challenge. Dr. Samuel Escobar,
Professor Thornley B. Wood,
Missiology, Eastern Baptist
Theological Seminary. Main floor
auditorium from 8-9:30pm.   Call
Tuesday, July 6
Vancouver School of
Theology Summer Public
Lecture Series
Joseph—The Mystery Person In
The Birth Story. Rt. Reverend
John S. Spong, Bishop of the
Diocese of Newark, NJ. Chapel of
the Epiphany, 6050 Chancellor
Blvd. at 7:30pm.   Call 228-9031.
Thursday, July 8
Experiences Of Trauma And
Images Of God. Dr. Carrie
Doehring, Boston U., School of
Theology. Chapel ofthe Epiphany
at 7:30pm.  Call 228-9031.
Wednesday, July 7
Regent College Summer
Public Lectures
Christian Sexual Ethics: A
Dialogue. Dr. John R.W. Stott,
Rector Emeritus, All Souls'
Anglican Church, London, Eng./
The Rt. Rev. John S. Spong, Bishop
of the Diocese of Newark, NJ.
Christ Church Cathedral, 690
Burrard Street from 8-9:30pm.
Call 224-3245.
Monday, July 12
Reason And A Responsible
Faith. Dr. Clark H. Pinnock, prof,
of Systematic Theology, McMaster
Divinity College. Regent College
main floor auditorium from 8-
9:30pm.   Call 224-3245.
Tuesday, July 13
Vancouver School of
Theology Summer Public
Lecture Series
The Challenge Of Archaeology
For Biblical Interpretation.
Dr. Wille Riekkinen, University
of Helsinki. Chapel of the
Epiphany, 6050 Chancellor Blvd.
at 7:30pm.  Call 228-9031.
Wednesday, July 14
Regent College Summer
Public Lecture Series
Reading And Being Read: New
Insights Into The Parables of Jesus.
Dr. John L. Nolland, vice-principal,
Trinity College, Bristol. Main floor
auditorium from 8-9:30pm. Call
Thursday, July 15
UBC Orientation Session
Coordinated by Organizational
Training   and   Development,
Human Resources, for new
and existing staff at UBC.
Yorkeen Room, Cecil Green
Park from 9am-12pm. Call
Vancouver School of
Theology Summer Public
Lecture Series
Women And Power. Drs.
Charlotte Caron, Randy Warne,
Pamela Dickey Young. Chapel
of the Epiphany, 6050
Chancellor Blvd. at 7:30pm. Call
Monday, June 28
Regent College Summer
Poetry Reading. A Tree Full Of
Angels. Ms. LuciShaw, Writer-in-
Residence/adjunctprof. Main floor
auditorium from 8-9:30pm. Call
Thursday, July 1
Storytelling. Please... .Tell Me A
Story. Susan Klassen. Main floor
auditorium at 7pm. Call 228-
Tuesday, July 6
TBA.     Dr. John R.W.  Stott,
Author/Rector Emeritus, All Souls'
Anglican Church, London, Eng.
Regent Bookstore from l-2pm. Call
Thursday, July 8
Bedtime Stories With Regent
Readers. Thena Ayres, Rita
Houston, Fay Lapka, Ron Reed,
Loren Wilinson. Main floor
auditorium at 7pm. Call 228-
Friday, July 9
Brooks Williams In Concert.
Brooks Williams, folk singer-
songwriter.   Main floor atrium at
7:30pm. Admission$7. available
at Regent Bookstore. Call 228-
Monday, June 21
Biology Seminar
Future Technologies For The
Analysis Of Complex Genomes.
Dr. Maynard Olson. IRC #4 at
3:45pm.  Call 822-5925.
Campus Tours
School and College Liaison
tours provide prospective UBC <
students with an overview of
campus activities/ faculties/
services. EveryFridayat9:30am.
Reservations required one week
in advance.  Call 822-4319.
Summer Theatre
You're A Good Man, Charlie
Brown. Frederic Wood Theatre
at 8pm from June 17-July 31 at
8pm. Adults $10. students/
seniors $8.   Call 822-2678.
M.Y. Williams Geological
Museum Special Sale
We need more space. Tons of
crystals, lapidary stones, fossils
(would you believe dinosaur
bones?) offered to the public at
incredible savings. Two days,
June 19-20 from 10am-5pm. Call
UBC Bookstore Mid
Renovation Sale
Wednesday. June 23 from
8:30am-8:30pm. Call 822-2665.
Library Orientation Sessions
A student's tour on the best
usage of a library foryour subject
area. Tue-Fri, July 6-9, July 14
am only. Main Library entrance
hallatl0:30amand2:30pm. Call
50th Anniversary Conference
On Pharmaceutical
Annual conference of The
Association Of Faculties of
Pharmacy Of Canada (AFPC). Pan
Pacific Hotel from July 31-Aug.
4. Brochure/registration, call
Professional Development
For Language Teachers
Continuing Studies' English
Language Institute offers practical
workshops for teachers in:
Intercultural Learning,
Pronunciation, Field Trips, Reading
Comprehension, Writing/
Classroom Management. Courses
begin in July. Call 222-5208.
Reachout Program
Student volunteers write letters
to students intending to attend
UBC, explaining life at UBC and in
Canada, to ease the apprehension
of international students. For
information go to International
House or call 822-5021.
Women Students' Office
Advocacy/personal counselling
services available. Call 822-2415.
Continuing Studies
Reading Writing And Study
Skills Centre. Courses beginning
in July include Basic Skills,
Impromptu Speaking, Study Skills,
Reading for Speed/
Comprehension, Grammar,
Composition and Writing
Improvement.  Call 222-5245
Language Programs/Services
French, Spanish, Japanese And
Chinese conversation classes.
Intensive 3-weekprograms: French
July 5-22 And July 26-Aug 13;
Spanish, Japanese, Mandarin And
Cantonese - July 12-29 and Aug.
3-20.   Call 222-5227.
Fine Arts Gallery
Tues.-Fri. from 10am-5pm.
Saturdays 12-5pm. Freeadmission.
Main Ubrary. Call 822-2759.
Sexual Harassment Office
Advisors are available to discuss
questions or concerns and are
prepared to help any member of
the UBC community who is being
sexually harassed find a
satisfactory resolution. Call
Margaretha Hoek at 822-6353.
Statistical Consulting/
Research Laboratory
SCARL is operated by the
Department of Statistics to provide
statistical advice to faculty/
graduate students working on
research problems. Call 822-4037.
Clinical Research Support
Faculty   of  Medicine   data
analysts supporting clinical
research. To    arrange    a
consultation, call Laura Slaney
Bone Building Study
Seeking 10-11 year old girls for
study on changes in bone during
growth. Participation includes
monitoring ofbone density, nutrition
and growth. Call 822-6766.
Stress Study
Seeking management/
professional staff who feel they
cope with stress quite well or not
well at all for participation in a
two-hour group interview. Call
Bonita Long at 822-4756/Sharon
Kahn 822-5454.
UBC Hearing Access Project
Free hearing asessments/help
in dealing with effects of hearing
loss on communication. Open to
all UBC students, staff and faculty.
Audiology/Speech Sciences. Call
Dermatology Studies
Nail Fungus Infection
Volunteers 18-70 years
required to attend 11 visits over 48
weeks. Infection must be in the
right or left large toenail.
Honorarium. Call 875-5296.
Genital Warts
Volunteers  18 years or older
required to attend a maximum of
17 visits over a 7 month period.
Honorarium.   Call 875-5296.
Severe Psoriasis
Male volunteers 18-70 years
required to attend 8 visits over a
20 week period.  Call 875-5296.
Psychology Department
Cognition/Emotion Study
Seeking participants ages 21-
60   for  studies   exploring  the
cognitive  effects  of emotions.
Participation involves 3-90 minute
sessions spread over 1-2 weeks.
Honorarium $40.  Call 822-2022.
Sexual Response Study
Sexually functional/dysfunctional
women required to participate in
research on sexual arousal.
Honorarium. Call822-2998Monday-
Thursday from 4-6pm.
Volunteer Opportunity
University Hospital, UBC Site
Invites friendly help to Join the
Volunteer Services group to staff
the gift shop, visit patients and
participate in other programs. Call
Dianne at 822-7384.
Drug Research Study
Male and female volunteers
required for face and genital herpes
treatment studies. Sponsoring
physician: Dr. Stephen Sacks.
Medicine/Infectious Diseases. Call
Child Study Centre
Taking registrations now for
afternoon kindergarten classes
beginning in September. Child
Study Centre. 4 afternoons/
week, Monday-Thursday, 2
teachers/class. Call 822-2311.
Introductory Main Garden
Every Wednesday/Saturday
now thru to September 25 at
1 pm at the entrance to Botanical
Garden. Admission cost
includes tour.   Call 822-4208.
Visual Cues Reaction Time
Volunteers of all ages needed.
Call Desiree at 734-1313 (local
379). B.C. Rehabilitation
MOST  (Managerial  and  Other  Skills Training  Program)  is
offering a series of courses to UBC employees in June/July.
For location and fee information, call 822-9644.
June 21/28 Valuing Cultural Diversity
June 22 Effective Meetings
June 24 Selection Interviewing: Ensuring Equity
June 25 Racism:  Breaking The Silence
June 25 Occupational Health & Safety Course
July 05 Managing Change
July 06 Manager As Coach
July 06 An Introduction to Occupational Safety at UBC
July 07 Employee Relations II
July 08 Successful Communication Through Letters And Memos
Please note:
All but three are day-long workshops.
Material for the Calendar must be submitted on
forms available from the UBC Community Relations
Office, 207-6328 Memorial Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T
1Z2. Phone: 822-3131. Fax: 822-2684. Notices exceeding
35 words may be edited.
Deadline for the July 15 issue of UBC Reports —
which covers the period July 18 to August 14 — is noon,
9 1. What have been the Library
acquisitions budgets over the last 10
See Graph 1, "Library Acquisitions
Budget, 1984/85 to 1992/93".
NOTE: These amounts do not include
expenditures on library materials and
service paid by departments and faculties.
9 2. What have been the Library
acquisitions expenditures over the last
20 years?
See Graph 2, "Library Acquisitions
Expenditures, 1972/73 to 1991/92".
NOTE: These amounts do not include
expenditures on library materials and
service paid by departments and faculties.
9 3. The ARL rankings of libraries in
North America are based on a complex
formula involving size, acquisitions,
operating expenditures etc. How has
the UBC Library ranking varied over
time in the past 20 years?
ARL Rank
Also see Graph 3-
See Appendix 1, ARL Membership
Index, 1991-92, which shows Toronto in
5th place. UBC 27th, Alberta 33rd, McGill
40th, Laval 52nd, Western Ontario 56th,
York 61st, Queen's 82nd<Waterloo 85th,
McMaster 87th,  Saskatchewan 91st,
Manitoba 99th, and Guelph 100th.
As shown in the 1991 -92 ARL Survey,
in the category "total operating
expenditures in the Library", UBC was in
the 19th place. Moreover, in every single
category (staff, subscriptions, total
holdings, etc.) UBC was in the 2nd or 3rd
place in Canada.
9 4. Using the ARL information base,
we show plots of acquisitions versus
operating and total expenditures for
all university libraries that today have
3,000,000 volumes or more.
See Graphs 4a - 4g, Acquisitions vs.
Library Operating Costs, and Acquisitions
vs. Total University Expenditures.
See Appendix 2 for data.
9 5. What steps have been taken to
reduce operating costs?
(a) Reduce Library staff:
The Library has continuously reduced
the number of Library staff since 1972.
This reduction has been possible because
of increased productivity resulting from
investment in computers and
telecommunications, as well as from
improved and more efficient operations.
See Graph 5, "Student. Faculty, and
Library Staff Growth - Scaled
See Appendix 3, "Salary Budget Cuts;
Reallocations to Collections; New
Collections Funding 1986/87 - 1992/
93". This shows the last seven years'
history of reallocations to collections.
Duringthepast 18 months, the Library
has restructured its organization to
increase the size of management units,
reduce the number of managers by nine
positions, and reallocate to meet
unbudgeted needs. The following
Assistant University Librarian and
division head positions have been
eliminated or transferred to the ETA pool:
Assistant University Librarian for Public
Services, Central Libraries; Assistant
University Librarian for Technical
Services, Systems and Finance; Head,
Hamber Library; Head, Biomedical
Branch, VGH; Head, Health Sciences
Network; Head, Information &
Orientation; Head, Special Collections;
Head, Catalogue Records; and Head,
Government Publications. The Library is
organized to operate with 30% fewer
managers than was possible two years
(b) Introduce automation into
Since the mid- 1960s, the Library has
been making extensive use of technology
to improve productivity in all major
processing areas such as circulation,
cataloguing, and other technical services
Automation of cataloguing began
around 1968, when the In-Process list
was used to generate "processing packets"
— carbonized decks of slips that saved
typing such things as temporary records
and marking slips individually. In 1978
the Library contracted for on-line
cataloguing services with UTLAS and
closed its card catalogue, saving the staff
time previously devoted to card production
and most of the card filing time.
Substituting the  Library's  own  local
June 17, 1993
Dear Colleague:
For a recent meeting of the Board of Governors,
my office prepared a set of Questions and Answers
about the problems facing UBC and other universities
with respect to maintaining and supporting their
library collections. These Questions and Answers
are reproduced here. Your comments and
suggestions are most welcome.
K.D. Srivastava
Vice President, Student
& Academic Services
system for UTLAS in 1985 saved about
$250,000 per year in real dollars, and
enabled the Library to automate more
cataloguing functions such as the
establishment of name and subject
headings. (It also provided an on-line
catalogue for Library users.)
Cataloguing and the other technical
services divisions are examples of areas
where the workload has remained fairly
constant, but the number of stall have
been reduced significantly as a
consequence of implementing automated
processing systems. In 1970, there were
149 stall: bv 1986 this had dropped to
123 staff: and by 1990 it had decreased to
1 13 staff.
The technical services areas are heavily
automated and further productivity gains
are not likely to be achieved by the sole
application of technology. The Library's
recently completed Services Review has
proposed some organizational and
workflow changes for these areas that are
more likely to contribute to improved
(c) Introduce automation into
circulation systems:
Circulation is an example of an area
where workloads have increased
dramatically since the mid-1960's when
the automated circulations system was
first implemented, and the punch-card
circulation system replaced a manual
system, but staff levels have remained
almost constant. In 1965, there were 35
staff lor 5.000 patrons and 792,918 loans.
In 1991, there were 36 staff for 35,000
patrons and 2,097,962 loans.
In September 1992 the first phase of a
re-developed circulation system was
implemented. Further productivity gains
are possible, but may be offset by
increased patron use of new or enhanced
features. In almost all libraries, the
introduction of new technology or
improved systems that are directly used
by patrons generates more activity that
results in increased workloads for staff.
However, the automated system usually
also permits the increase to be absorbed
within existing staff levels.
9  6.  How much  does it  cost to
catalogue a book?
The  Library estimates  the  cost to
catalogue a book is $26.50.
9 7. If the Library had not introduced
automation, how much would it cost
today to catalogue a book?
In 1970. the Library had 36 more staff
in cataloguing, a combination of librarians
and support staff. If one were to calculate
what those number of staff would be
earning today, the figure would be a very
high one. One would also have to include
the Library of Congress card service costs,
and prices for card stock, photocopies,
and card catalogues. A year's output of
cards took about ten new 60-drawer
cabinets a year. In addition, the Library
would have needed all of the space for all
of those drawer cabinets. (The Library
would need to more research to come up
with how much all of this would cost.)
9 8. UBC takes great pride in the
fact that it has a high circulation of
books and journals. Does this have a
Yes, it is a major cost and the Library
has been experimenting with anchoring
selected journals. It is planning to anchor
all journals in 1993/94 for significant
savings in operation.
(Experience to date on the last five
years indicates that anchoring journals
has significant costs rather than savings.
See details below.)
UBC Library circulation is high relative
to most other research libraries; however,
circulation statistics over the last 6 years
have been decreasing while the use of
library materials as demonstrated by the
photocopy statistics have increased
dramatically. 2 Insert- June 17, 1993
Total copy volume Circulation
1986/87   3.8 million      2.284 million
1987/88 4.6 million 2.274 million
1988/89 6.6 million 2.246 million
* 1989/90 7.9 million 2.200 million
1990/91 8.9 million 2.097 million
1991/92 9.3 million 2.084 million
^ Circulation represents the process of
signing out library material, processing
its return, and sorting and shelving the
material. In addition it includes gathering
material used in the Library, and sorting
it and returning it to the shelves.
Anchoring journals has increased their
-> availability and it is likely that while a
volume used to be checked out for a week
to one user, it is now consulted in the
Library 2 to 3 or 4 times during that week
requiring reshelving each time. Certainly,
r~ increased internal use has consumed
any staff savings from reduced circulation
* and is likely to continue to do so. Shelving
backlogs in the Main Library were the
source of many complaints during the fall
term; the Library has reallocated
resources to maintain photocopiers and
"■ reshelve materials from copy areas.
For those collections where use of
serials is high or where duplicate
subscriptions are being eliminated, the
Library is adopting an anchoring policy to
improve availability.
—     The Library has continued a cautious*
approach to anchoring journals for the
following reasons:
Limited study space:
Education Library has only 21 study
seats and room for only 3 photocopiers in
^ its present facility. Journals circulate for
2 hours to enable students to read or
copy articles elsewhere.
The MacMillan Library shares
j, the same space problems experienced in
the Education Library and circulates most
•» of its journals also.
Hours of access:
Main Library is not currently open
- evenings and weekends in the spring and
summer   sessions   when   research
"" programs are most active and journal
material is required. A proposal to anchor
all science journals faltered on this issue
in 1989. The Library is committed to
reallocating resources to improve hours
~* of access and will then anchor journals in
„ this collection.
Journal anchoring:
Life Sciences Libraries are moving to
x.complete anchoring by fall 1993.
x Law Library will complete anchoring
journals by fall 1993.
See Appendix 4, "Journal Circulation
Statistical     Summary",     which
-1 summarizes journal circulation in 1988.
The costs of circulation are mainly in
the staffing of checkout desks and
reshelving of materials once they are
returned. If the Library anchors journals,
checkout desks will still need to operate,
while reshelving costs will increase as
y more journals are used and copied in-
Prospects for savings lie in the
reduction of service points and in a new
circulation system which will include self-
service features. The Library is currently
working actively on reducing the number
of service points. Some minor savings
have been achieved with Phase I of the
new circulation system, with additional
savings anticipated late in 1993 when
Phase II of the system is in place.
Anchoring should, however, save some
costs for ordering multiple copies.
9 9. When will the new automated
circulation system be in place and
what savings will this introduce?
The UBC Library was one of the first
libraries to implement an automated
circulation system in 1965, almost 30
years ago. The current redevelopment
project of this original system commenced
in September 1991. It is utilizing a client-
server model and will be the first major
local application to reside entirely on the
Library's UNIX computers.
Phase I was completed on schedule in
September 1992 with the barcoding of
most of the UBC Library's circulating
collection and the replacement of the old
EPIC card reader terminals with
microcomputer based workstations.
Phase II is scheduled for completion in
September 1993. It will complete the
upgrading of the circulation system
software to be compatible with the rest of
the Library's automated systems and
introduce many new features and
The implementation of the "first
generation" circulation system at the UBC
Library in the 1960s resulted in major
productivity gains without staff increases.
The new circulation system will put the
library in a similar position for the next 5
to 10 years.
Many of the new features will provide
more direct and efficient benefits to users.
For example, patrons will be able to place
holds on items from online terminals in
the Library or elsewhere instead of having
to come into the Library and fill out a Hold
Request form. Historically, the
introduction of new automated systems
in libraries usually generates increased
activity, especially if new features are
directly available to users. It is too early
to measure these improvements and their
potential impact on workloads.
The UBC Library has also identified
some further enhancements that it would
like to develop and implement in the local
circulation system as a Phase III to
commence after September 1993. One of
these — self-serve check-out of items —
has potential for significant productivity
gains. However, it will also require closer
integration of anti-theft devices with the
circulation equipment and check-out
9 10. Do Interlihrary Loans cost
UBC to service other library users?
Yes, since the UBC Library is the major
library in Western Canada, we lend a lot
more than we borrow. A new policy has
been introduced that requires total
expenditures in borrowing to be offset by
income from lending to other libraries.
Incremental staff costs to gather,
photocopy and mail material to other
libraries are recovered. Costs of purchase,
processing and storage of library materials
are not currently recovered. The Library
is analyzing its lending data to identify
groups of borrowers who do not lend an
equivalent number to us.
Commercial services which supply
documents to libraries are highly efficient
and almost match UBC current retrieval
costs. To recover the capital investment
in the collection would price UBC out of
the document delivery market. In an
effort to remain competitive in the lending
market and to begin to recover sufficient
costs to assist with borrowing, the UBC
Library has been streamlining operations
and reducing costs.
The Library is able to lower its costs of
lending and borrowing because of
reciprocal arrangements with other
libraries. For example, the balance of its
lending and borrowing with other
members of the Canadian Association of
Research Libraries is equal. The Library
is experimenting with not charging each
other to streamline the service and thus
decrease the delivery time as well as
eliminating charging costs. The Library is
monitoring this to see that it remains in
balance. Right now it is.
The Library also has a similar
arrangement with the University of
Washington; however, UBC usually
borrows more from them than we lend to
them. In a phone call with the Collection
Development Librarian on February 5th,
the University Librarian was informed
that if the UBC Library cancels 25% of its
serials, then UofW may want to question
the reciprocity of the agreement, and the
Library may need to start paying for it.
Thus UBC's value as a partner with them
will be diminished, and the Library may
be incurring new costs.
The Library is analyzing its borrowing/
lending data to identify what set of
borrowers account for the imbalance
between our lending and borrowing.
911. Has the new policy (1987-88
?) of requiring that copying costs be
cost recovered been successful?
Yes, on four counts:
(a) copying is now much more
convenient and easy for users;
(b) circulation has been reduced
sharply (see Q 8 for data);
(c) the Library is able to have modern
copying capacity available to users;
(d) no GPOF subsidy is provided to
this area.
9 12. How has the networking
capacity of the catalogue improved
both the effectiveness of the service
and introduced efficiencies?
Basically, the UBC Library's online
catalogue system is available 24 hours a
day, seven days a week to any user able
to connect to UBCnet from terminals/
work-stations on campus or via the
Internet, Datapac, and local dial- in. All
information is available and current for
staff in both technical and public service
areas. Labour intensive card catalogues
and various printed lists are no longer
required. During the past year, the Library
has installed over 50 new OPAC inquiry
workstations in various Library locations
and will now be able to discontinue the
production of various microfiche
catalogues and lists by mid-1993. There
have been cost savings to the Library
Perhaps most important, users do not
have to come to the Library to find out
what is available. They can access the
online Library system from their campus
offices and labs, or from home; search in
numerous local databases and
commercial databases such as ERIC,
Psychinfo and Medline that are available
on the local systems; and retrieve and
print out citations for desired items.
9 13. All this automation for
catalogue access and circulation
systems must require large computing
capacity. How have these costs been
dealt with?
Computing capacity costs have been
coming down on a unit basis and the
Library has been able to provide
substantial increases in capacity at very
little additional cost.
Some general statistics provide an
overview of the size and capacity of the
UBC Library's online systems. The Library
has almost 40 different databases
available for general inquiry. These range
from fairly specialized finding tools such
as union lists of B.C. newspapers, serials,
and media items; patents databases;
bibliography collections; maps; and
archival items to large indexing and
abstracting databases such as ERIC and
Psychinfo that contain hundreds of
thousands of records. The merged UBC
Library CATalogue file has over 2 million
records in it. Several ofthe MARC source
files mounted locally collectively contain
over 1 million records.
At present, the UBC library has almost
45 gigabytes of magnetic disk storage
utilized on both its IBM mainframe and 4
UNIX servers. At peak periods, there are
between 250 and 300 users, both staff
and patrons, performing searches and
other online activities simultaneously.
Use ofthe existing systems and demands
for new files and functions will probably
continue to grow for the foreseeable future.
The Library is addressing this demand
and its associated requirements for
computing capacity by undertaking a
migration of its local system from an IBM
mainframe based environment to one
based on multiple, low-cost UNIX
platforms. For example, since January
1993 the main online inquiry facility
known as UBCLIB has been supported
on a SGI Iris R4000 UNIX computer with
11 gigabytes of disk and an estimated
capacity of at least 150 simultaneous
users. (The high user capacity also reflects
the efficiencies of the software shell the
Library has implemented: 20 - 30 users is
a more typical load on this size of machine.)
This machine cost $45,000 and is
comparable in capacity to the IBM 3081
mainframe still utilized by the Library.
The latter cost approximately $1.5 million
when originally purchased.
9 14. How does the policy of
decentralizing all computing budgets
to users affect the Library?
The Library system is largely on a
stand-alone basis now and the Library
must make its own priority decisions.
The decentralization policy has
certainly provided the Library with more
financial resources and flexibility in
establishing priorities and making
system-related decisions. However, it
has also generated some financial and
service issues, since the Library is fully
responsible for its computing facilities.
Connectivity is absolutely critical for
the Library and the university community
has high expectations for online access to
the Library's online systems. The Library
has continued to work closely with
University Computing Services in the redesign of the Library network so that it is
fully compatible with and connected to
UBCnet and also appropriately
maintained. As University Computing
Services has migrated to a cost-recovery-
based operation, this has resulted in new
operating costs for enhanced network
communications that the Library must
support directly from its budget. Insert-June 17,1993 3
At present, the dividing line between
"campus network infrastructure" and
local or departmental networks and
systems is still in transition.
Departmental systems support and
expertise varies considerably and this
contributes to more confusion with
respect to not just distribution of budgets,
but distribution of responsibility. As one
of the major online facilities that is
probably used by almost every member of
the UBC community at some time during
the year, the Library is fielding an
increasing number of queries and/or
complaints about network access and/or
equipment problems.
9 15. Within Canada how do
acquisitions and operating budgets at
various universities compare?
We often compare ourselves with the
following universities:
McGill, UofT, UWO, Man, Sask, Alta,
See Appendix 5 for data.
9 16. Are further savings possible
in the Library operations?
Yes, when we compare our costs to
those of comparable libraries. The Library
has analyzed its operation costs in detail.
Some of the reasons for higher costs of
UBC may be:
- too many specialized branch libraries;
higher wage rates for student
Some of the branch libraries, for
example Data and Social Work, have
been integrated into the Main Library,
and similar plans are under consideration
for some others (Wilson Recordings
Collection and Sedgewick Undergraduate
Savings have been realized in Library
operations in the past, and seeking
efficiencies is a major value and strategy
ofthe UBC Libraries. In 1992-93, as part
ofthe Strategic Plan, the Library began a
rigorous analysis of major Library services
with a goal of reducing staff and operating
costs by 10% over two years. The realized
savings would be used to pay for
anticipated salary settlements (outside of
the control ofthe Library) and for shortfalls
in other areas of the Library budget:
computer costs needed to maintain the
present level of service as well as the
transition towards the electronic library,
preservation costs (projected at $ 120,000
annually), university archives processing,
retrospective conversion of Library
holdings prior to 1978, and special
projects such as dealing with the
vandalism that occurred during the recent
The UBC Library is expensive to operate
because of the historical development of
libraries that occurred, partly in response
to the large size ofthe campus, with many
branches and divisions. Indeed, the
Library has 42 service points. The Library
is in the process of reducing the number
of service points and branch libraries.
One of the limitations that prevents the
Library from proceeding further in this
area is the dysfunctional structure ofthe
Main Library.
9 17. Why did all the major
libraries in Canadian universities rank
so low in Maclean's survey when ARL
ranks us number 2 in Canada?
Because they totally ignored the size of
the library collections, preferring insiead
to rank on the basis of acquisitions per
student.   They also ranked libraries on
the size of the operating expenditures.
The criterion favours inefficiencies in
918. Is there a cost to maintaining
branch libraries?
Yes, there is a cost, but provided each
branch is large enough to have efficiencies
of scale, and they are fully automated,
the costs can be kept to a minimum when
users can locate the volume and walk to
retrieve it.
UBC Library is integrating small
branches with larger units - the Film
Library, Social Work Library and Data
Library have been closed and integrated.
The Wilson Recordings Collection will be
integrated into another part ofthe Library
this spring.
Because of historical agreements we
maintain libraries at VGH, St. Paul's and
the Shaughnessy site at considerable cost.
In 1988 the Library received almost $1
million recurring funds from the Medical
School Expansion Program to support
these services. Efficiency resulting from
technology has enabled the Library to
maintain the services at the funding base
9 19. Does the province recognize
the uniqueness of our Library?
No, in spite of many requests and
interventions UBC receives no special
consideration. We did, however, receive
a provincial grant to help us catalogue
back issues for automation and for
retrospective conversion, as did the other
universities and colleges, from 1978 to
1982. We have a complete automated
catalogue for books and journals from
1978 on, and records for earlier materials
in the branches have been converted. We
should fully complete the retrospective
work not only for ourselves but to serve
the other institutions in B.C. 800,000
records need to be converted at a cost of
approximately $2 million.
9 20. Do we have any costs
associated with the new university
All UBC costs for lending materials to
the new university colleges are cost-
recovered. However, we do subsidize
lending to the extent that our fixed costs
of building, cataloguing and housing the
collection to support this lending are not
9 21. What are the factors that
affect book and journal acquisition
(a)  Inflation;
fb) Exchange rates;
(c)  Inflating costs that are above
the combination of (a) and (b).
See Graph 6, "Indicators of Library
Acquisitions Costs", and Appendix 6,
"Average Book Prices"; "20 Year Index of
Periodical Increases".
(d) Increasing volume of published
See Appendix7, "Number of Book Titles
Published"; "Book Production - United
Kingdom"; and "BookProduction - United
9 22.    What steps have been taken
to deal with these issues?
We use a 10-year rolling average to
protect against (a) and (b). We also partly
address (d) by providing a further 1.5%
for growth. We are completely unable to
deal with item (c). This is largely driven
by private sector publishers who have
discovered that libraries are captive
markets and that the libraries are
constantly under pressure to keep buying
their journals. Many of these private
sector publishers will sell subscriptions
to individuals at prices often considerably
less than they will to libraries and require
these individuals to sign that they will not
donate these to libraries.
At its March 25, 1993 meeting, the
Board of Governors urged the University
Administration to find ways of moving
UBC in the ARL ranking to 20th or better.
An analysis of the ARL ranking is being
conducted, and strategies are being
developed to make more effective' use of
the total resources available to the Library.
9 23. What steps have been taken
to reduce the level of duplicates
purchased from university funds across
the campus?
Since 1981 the Library has targeted
duplicate subscriptions in each round of
cancellations. In 1983 approval was
obtained for the Library to divest itself of
involvement with the departmental
reading rooms. About 50% ofthe library
collection cost for reading rooms was
transferred from the Library to the various
deans' budgets. Most ofthe reading room
collections were duplicate. Since that
time the Library has not been involved
with reading rooms; their budgets are
controlled by deans and department
heads. In 1988 and especially in 1992
the Library looked intensively at duplicate
subscriptions. The remaining pockets of
duplications (other than isolated titles)
were found to be:
(a) between Sedgewick and Main;
(b) between the four health science
(c) internally within Law (multiple
copies of large legal sets which are
intensively used by students and
(d) reference materials which are in
daily use in two or more sites.
Much ofthe duplication between Main
and Sedgewick was cancelled this last
summer. The rest will go by 1995 (with
the Phase I building). The duplication
between the health science libraries was
significantly reduced, but there is a core
collection of titles which must be at all
sites for accreditation purposes and for
good student eduction. A survey of the
large law libraries in 1988 showed that
UBC had no more, and in some cases
fewer, duplicate law sets than other law
libraries of comparable size. The Library
will, however, examine this issue in detail.
The duplicate reference materials are
being reviewed and will be reduced. In
some cases consolidation of units will
bring savings. There are a few cases
where tapes could be mounted centrally,
but the cost equals the cost of several
paper copies.
The issue of duplication between the
library system and the departmental
reading rooms is a thorny one. Faculty
members may also use research grant
funds for office subscriptions. The issues
involved tend to be in the realm of hours
of access; availability on the shelves;
security against theft, fire and flood; and
proximity to the academic buildings. The
quirks of history have also played a part
in determining whether a faculty or
department has a  reading room or a
branch library.   The long term solution
would seem to be to establish a few     v
unbound  periodical  reading areas  at
strategic   locations   within   library
buildings;   to  have  enough  space  for
readers and adequate photocopiers; to
allow no removal from these sites (requires      T
detection devices and staff on hand); to     ^
provide for frequent reshelving; and long
hours of access.   All these factors have
costs  attached  -  some  capital,   some
continuing. Further analysis will be done.
More duplicate subscriptions will be
cancelled, especially in the health *
sciences. After the next round of
cancellations the health science libraries
expect to have duplicate subscriptions
down to no more than 11% of their total
subscriptions, from 20%. The libraries
are working with the clinical departments
to establish one site library for each
specialty. For example. Ophthalmology
has agreed that ophthalmology journals
will be held exclusively at the branch
library at VGH and no longer on campus.
The health science duplicate ""
subscriptions should this year be down ^
to 300 to 350 copies costing no more than
$50,000. Overall, duplicate subscriptions
are costing no more than 2% of the
collections budget this year and should
be down to about 1% by the end of 1995
if present building plans come to fruition.
9 24. Is there any end in sight to
the obscene rises in prices of journals
to libraries?
The situation we are facing is not
tmique. In North America there are only
68 research libraries which have holdings
of 2 million print volumes or more. All
these libraries are facing the same issue
of not being able to continue to acquire
the same slate of subscriptions. Many
have cancelled hundreds of thousands of ,
dollars worth of subscriptions in recent
years. If purchases of lower quality -
journals are reduced, the suppliers may
have to start phasing out the less
important journals. It is particularly
important to assess quality and content
against current price. Over the last couple «
of decades societies and associations have
often handed over publication of their
journals to commercial publishers. There
are still many fields where the highest
quality journals are published by societies.
Non-profit organizations generally try to
keep cost increases to a minimum. The
large commercial conglomerate _
publishers seek to maximize profits and
costs go up accordingly. Many such
publishers charge a library subscription
rate which is several times the personal
subscriber rate. A move back to more ^
non-profit publishing and a more active
role by members in monitoring their -
society's publishing practices would help
to contain costs.
Meanwhile, the mergers and growth of
the commercial publishers continues.   A
Reed and Elsevier have merged in a $9.4
billion deal.  See Appendix 8, "Reed and
Elsevier to Merge".
9 25. What has happened since the
university decided to let the Library
keep the library fines rather than take
the money into general revenue?
The amount collected has risen from
$94,864to$136,252 since 1988/89. This
money in turn is used for Library
9 26. If the university is basically
a "no growth" institution, why are
Library costs such an issue?
Library materials increase every year
and so libraries must continue to grow. 4 Insert ■ June 17, 1993
The Library purchases about one mile of
books each year. These must be
catalogued, circulated and housed on a
growth basis. It is lor this reason that a
major campaign project is the Library. It
also puts immense pressure on librarians
whomusthandle on increasing volume of
materials with increasing efficiencies.
9 27. Will automation, CD-ROMs
help to reduce this pressure?
Automation has already been a major
tool in keeping ahead of the deluge. CD-
ROM or other technology may help in the
longer run, but this will not save anything
until international standards are adopted.
So far, automation and the associated
information technologies have only
indirecdy or partially addressed the major
issues associated with acquiring and/or
sharing scholarly information. First, it is
primarily the various access tools that
are available online: full text and images
are only starting to become available and
usually in limited or prototype situations.
Second, actual document delivery
systems, whether based on machine-
readable data or hardcopy, have only
started to appear during the past few
years and are still limited in their coverage
and often expensive. Many of these
prototype systems are not easy to use, or
are often inefficient or non-standard.
While automation and electronic
information products have improved
efficiency in processing and in the
research process, they have resulted in
increased requirements for teaching
search skills to end users. Last year more
than 14,000 students, faculty and staff
attended training sessions to improve
searching skills on the Library's databases
and CD-ROM products.
9 28. Will the new Library provide
Yes, it is being designed for this purpose
but these efficiencies will have to be used
to handle increasing volumes of material.
The new building will permit the library
to reorganize services for efficiency and
flexibility rather than to organize
according to space available as is the case
in the old Main Library building. Reference
services now offered from Sedgewick
Library, Humanities & Social Sciences
Division, Government Publications
Division, Data Library and Interlibrary
Loans will be integrated into one service
point in the new building. Periodicals
and Microforms now served from two
locations will be consolidated into one. A
minimum of five staff are required to open
the present library building. The Phase I
building will require only two.
The Library is already adjusting the
organizational structure in anticipation
of the Phase I building: Humanities &
Social Sciences Division and the
Government Publications Division are
now directed by one head. Physical
integration is not possible because of
space constraints. Main Library
Circulation Division and Fine Arts
Circulation are being integrated at the
present time. Interlibrary Loans will be
decentralized to some reference divisions
over the next six months and Main Library
Circulation and Sedgewick Circulation
are developing an integration plan.
9 29.    Can donations of books and
journals help to solve the problem?
Yes, but only in limited ways.
(a)   Donations of cash to buy needed
books or journals are the most helpful.
(b) Donations of current, issues of
journals as they are received ca i be helpful
for the more expensive journals. Since
there is a staff cost in following up \<i!:i
donors who are tardy, in evaluating Oncost and issuing annual tax receipts, it
may not be cost effective for cheap titles.
(c) Gifts of personal collections are
very variable in value and content. Much
staff time can go in personal conversations
with donors, visiting their houses to assess
collections, checking holdings, selecting
individual items, arranging appraisals
and issuing tax receipts, not to mention
cataloguing. These gifts add to the
research value of the library collection
but they are rarely of a suitable nature to
replace current acquisitions, and they
can have a significant staff cost. The
library staff try to be sensitive to donors'
feeling and the University's good name
when offers must be turned down.
(d) Donations of current books and
journals from foreign governments or
organization are usually valuable because
they have less ofthe staff costs associated
with them and are usually current
publications or starter' collections.
(e) The mass of duplicate material
which the library ends up with as a result
of gifts can be expensive to dispose of.
The Library normally invites other B.C.
institutions (especially the new university
colleges and UNBC) to come and take
their pick. Sending material to third world
countries costs staff time to sort and pack
(minimum is almost $ 13 per hour) and in
some cases the Library would have to pay
shipping costs. The Library's foreign
exchange partners usually want current
journals and books which normally are
not available to us as gifts. The Library is
required to pay for most of the UBC
publications which are sent to our
exchange partners.
(f) The Library has in the past received
endowment funds for specified library
purposes, both as donations and
bequests. The current value of the
endowment capital is approximately $1.8
Examples are:
David Lam Management Resource
Urban Land Real Estate Collection
Burwell bequest - social sciences
Coolie Verner bequest -
Crane Library
Various other small endowments
(g) The Provincial Centres of Excellence
provided $145,000 recurring funds for
acquisitions in the Pacific Rim area.
(h) The National Centres of Excellence
has provided $546,000 over 4years, which
has been used to acquire and mount the
CD Plus databases, including Medline for
the health sciences, and to provide remote
access to Engineering Index from campus
offices and labs. Additional databases for
the physical sciences are being acquired.
There will be future annual costs for the
databases which will have to be met from
other sources should this funding not be
9 30. What strategies has the
Library used to address the serials
1. Education — understand the
problem and develop solutions
Symposium for the university
community, March 14, 1991.
The University Librarian met with
the Deans, and arranged for meetings
with Ann Okerson, Director of the Office
of Scientific and Academic Publishing of
the Association of Research  Libraries.
March 14.  109!.
. UBC LIUKARY NEWS articles.
February IP,-)1 '\piil 1991..January 1992.
November 1 9' •.'..
. The UBC Library Strategic Plan-
distributed in UBC REPORTS. January
9, 1992, and to department heads and
. The University Librarian arranged
meetings with individual deans and their
department heads. Graduate Students.
and the AMS to discuss the Strategic Plan
and the serials inflation problem during
1991-92, 1992-93. (Only two deans did
not meet with the University Librarian.)
. The University Librarian works with
the Senate Library Committee on
2. Attempts to obtain more funding
. In the meetings with the Deans, the
University Librarian alerted them of the
serials problem and asked for their
assistance. Several strategies were
. In their fund raising, they could seek
endowments specifically for library
. New endowed chairs could be
accompanied by an additional amount
for library materials in that area.
. In its 1992-1993 budget request the
Library informed the University
Administration (as recommended by the
1988 Library External Review Committee)
of the decline in the purchasing power of
the acquisition dollar and included in the
request the amount needed to maintain
the purchasing level. No university is
able to do this. The actions taken include
reductions of subscriptions.
. The Library received an increase for
new programs and for the currency change
(as computed on a ten year rolling
average); however, it received no increase
for inflation.
. In 1991-1992, The Senate Library
Committee, apprised of the pending
disaster with serials, recommended to
Senate and to the Board of Governors a
plan of action to increase the Library
acquisitions budget. The GPOF allocation
to the acquisitions budget has remained
fairly close to 2%, although there are
annual variations due to freeze in
provincial grants and /or transfer of
Library operating budgets to collections.
A funding formula for the acquisitions
budget has been put into place since
3. Ensure that new academic programs
are assessed for the adequacy of existing
Library materials and services, or plans
to obtain the needed resources
. The Graduate Dean arranged for the
Library to review all proposed programs
for the adequacy of library materials and
. Missing from assurances that a
thorough review of Library adequacy has
been conducted are: new endowed chairs,
new centers, new institutes.
Submissions for changes to the
Senate Curriculum Committee are
accompanied by an assessment of library
resources and services. (It is likely that
this assessment has been pro forma rather
than real; however, the Senate Curriculum
Committee recently announced closer
scrutiny of Library materials needed in
light ofthe serials problem.)
4.   Attempts to change the scholarly
communication system
The Library has been working with
oilier research libraries in Canada and
the United States and with the academic
community in general to discourage
transfer of copyright to commercial
publishers and to examine to "publish or
perish" syndrome.
9 31. What are other academic
research libraries doing?
Some have cancelled or are planning
to cancel journals. Some have received
funds to help them in the short term,
while long term solutions are being
developed. Some are starting from a higher
advantage point because they have larger
The Association of Research Libraries
and librarians have made this crisis of
serials inflation a high priority. Activities
include: meeting with publishers,
tracking the size of the increase and
analyzing why. funding an Office to deal
with this problem, meeting with academic
associations and the American
Association of Universities and obtaining
their attention and involvement.
Library agencies are experimenting
with publishing electronic serials.
That other libraries seem to be
cancelling the more unique and lesser
used serials and keeping the same core
serials can either pacify or alarm us. We
can say, "Everyone is having to do this
difficult, unpleasant and inevitable thing
of cancelling."
See Appendix 9, report on the Andrew
W. Mellon Foundation study.
Reports indicate cancellations by ARL
libraries of $3 million in 1991, $7 million
in 1992, and $13 million in 1993.
See Appendix 10, "Serials
Cancellations Survey Shows Steepening
932. What are possible University
strategies for the Library collections?
So long as the prices of serials and
monographs keep on increasing at a rate
significantly higher than the increase in
the University's general purpose budget,
we will not have an "optimal" solution!
One-time additions to the collections
budget are only temporary relief. This is
a long-term crisis. There are, however,
certain strategies the University could
adopt. See Graph 6 for changes in CPI,
periodical prices and exchange rates
affecting the acquisitions expenditures.
Short Term Strategies:
We need to take action in April 1993.
We need to cancel serials or be certain
that we have the funds to pay for the
anticipated increase in price. A three-
pronged approach to lessen the negative
short term impact while we develop long
term solutions could involve three major
areas and look like this:
Library Options:
. Trace to the extent possible the
increase to large academic areas, e.g.,
humanities, social sciences, life sciences,
other sciences, and differentiate the
inflation amounts that need to be
. Use a larger amount of the
stabilization fund, realizing that this is
one-time money and that we will have
reduced   our   ability   to   deal   with Insert-June 17,1993 5
unexpected, sharp, increases in the
currency rates and we will only have
deferred the problem for one year. Use
every opportunity to transfer one time
cash savings to this fund.
Work with individual areas and
change the ratio of funds spent on
monographs, slightly.
. Use some of the funds intended for
new program support.
Discuss with specific faculties and
departments various options of cancelling
serials, and if any cost sharing for services
and acquisitions is feasible.
Pay the serials inflation bill by
eliminating Library staff positions and
Library services. (The Library is already
planning a 10% reduction/reallocation
over the next two years, so this option
would involve reductions in the range of
10% to 20% of existing staff positions.)
Charge for more Library services,
especially to the non-UBC community.
University Administration Options:
. Continue to support the Library as
it has in the past within the limits of the
constraints upon the University budget.
Continue the sensible, three part
formula addressing currency fluctuation,
inflation, and new program development
with some enhancements:
Encourage the Library to include
additional endowments for collections in
its fund- raising priorities.
Peg the inflation increase to the
Canadian Consumer Price Index, instead
ofthe GPOF increase to the S&E budgets.
Dean and Faculty Options:
Support increases to the serials
budget such as:
. Include a component for Library
materials in research grant and contract
proposals to ensure that researchers have
access to the serial literature and that
their published research results are
available for future researchers, and
. Examine the impact of new academic
programs on Library acquisitions, and
proactively include enhancement of
acquisitions budget when new programs
and endowed chairs are established.
Mid Term Strategies:
Implementing the Library Strategic
Plan will lead to a restructured and more
cost-effective Library. Savings will also
result after the move into the Phase I of
the New Library Centre. Some of these
savings can be reallocated into collections.
Long Term Strategies:
Work with other research universities
through professional associations and
with publishers on redesign of the
scholarly communication system:
(a) Continue to put pressure on the
academic scholarly community to take
back the control of journals/serials from
commercial presses. Also to exercise
similar pressures on professional and
learned societies, to keep their inflationary
cost increases close to the Consumer
Price Index.
(b) University presses should explore
ways of enhancing their revenues; for
example, through a parallel/
complementary imprint for "trade-books".
This may, in the long-term, permit
university presses to become self-
sufficient and hopefully profitable to
subsidize scholarly publications.
(c) University libraries in a region may
work cooperatively to develop
complementary collections and enhance
the interlibrary loan services. Interlibrary
loan charges must take into account the
"capital" investments of larger libraries in
space and collections. Current
interlibrary loan charges financially
discriminate against larger institutions.
(d) UBC Library in consultation with
the Senate Library Committee and
departments is reviewing its policies and
developing a strategy for:
* duplicate subscriptions
* division between expenditures on
monographs and serials
* division of expenditures between
Sciences and Social Sciences/
* identify "core" services versus
"convenience services and identify which
services  should  be  discontinued  and
which services should be cost recovered
* circulation policies with respect to
the length of lending period and
"anchoring" of serials/journals
* liaison with academic units with
respect to new research initiatives and/
or instructional programs. This should
enable the Library to identify service and
expenditure impacts on its operations
early in the planning stages.
* balance between the UBC Library
as a "reference" library and as a
"circulation" library. Since the research
universities are under severe financial
constraints, a major part of the Library
services may have to be for reference
* role of technology in delivering all
services including reference enquiries.
(e) In the funding formula for the
Library collections, an essential
component is the "Stabilization Fund".
The University and Library will continue
to work for enhancing this fund and at
some stage treat it essentially as an
endowment fund and only use interest
earning when emergencies occur. It is
useful to note that if the Library's annual
collections budget is to be incremented
by $1 million, an endowment capital of
approximately $16 million is needed for
the first year.   For a perpetual annual
increase at this rate, additional $ 16 million
endowment capitals are needed in each
ofthe subsequent years. In other words,
an initial endowment capital of
approximately $150 million would be
required to sustain the current rate of
increases needed by the Library to
maintain its current subscriptions for
serials and purchase of monographs.
Clearly, such a large endowment capital
cannot be achieved in the foreseeable
In the immediate future, however, the
Library will continue the consultation
process with the Senate Library
Committee and the campus community
and identify the cancellations, internal
budget reallocations, curtailment of
services and cost recovery measures. In
parallel a longer-term strategic plan is
also being developed for collections and
Index to Graphs
Graph 1 Library Acquisitions
Budget, 1984/85 to 1992/93
Graph 2 Library Acquisitions
Expenditures, 1972/73 to 1991/92
Graph 3  (not shown)
UBC in ARL Ranking
Graphs 4a-4g (4g not shown)
Acquisitions vs. Library Operating Costs,
and Acquisitions vs. Total University
Graph 5  (not shown)
Student, Faculty, and Library Staff
Growth - Scaled Comparison
Graph 6  (not shown)
Indicators of Library Acquisitions Costs
PLEASE NOTE: Some of the graphs
and all ofthe appendices as mentioned
in the above text have been omitted
from this reproduction. For more
information please contact Jean-
Philipe Wilmshurst at 822-3310.
Library Acquisitions Budget
($ millions)
1984/85 to 1992/93
Library Acquisitions Expenditures
1984/85 to 1992/93
($ millions)
Graph 1
Graph 2
1984/85    1985/86    1986/87    1987/88    1988/89    1989/90    1990/91    1991/92    1992/93
1973/74    1975/76    1977/78    1979/80    1981/82    1983/84    1985/86    1987/88    1989/90    1991/92 Library Acquisitions
Library Acquisitions
(SUS millions)
(S millions)
Graph 4a
Graph 4b        5
0      5      10      15      20      25      30      35      40      45      50      55
Total Library Expenditures (SUS millions)
Library Acquisitions
1980/81 Graph4c
($ millions)
0 50        100       150      200      250      300      350
Ceneral Purpose Operating Funds ($ millions)
Library Acquisitions
($ millions)
Graph 4d     ,
Western jf       Alberta
50 100       150       200       250
General Purpose Operating Funds ($ millions)
Library Acquisitions
(SUS millions)
Graph 4e
0 50       100      150     200     250     300     350     400     450     500
Ceneral Purpose Operating Funds ($ millions)
Library Acquisitions
Acquisitions I  Z7 / 3 / I T"
(SUS millions)
Graph 4f
1 .0
1       3       5       7      9      11       13       15       17       19      21       25
Total Library Expenditures (SUS millions)
Total Library Expenditures (SUS millions) Insert   June 17,1993 7
Department of Human Resources
It is clear that UBC must take actions
to respond to major changes in the
environment - one in which resources
are increasingly limited and harder to
come by. Repositioning is a major
University initiative to redesign the ways
in which we provide services to confront
significant budget problems while meeting
UBC's objective of excellence in research
and teaching. That is, supporting core
academic purposes requires a critical
review of non-academic roles to determine
which roles are the most essential, and
then to make those work as well as they
possibly can in a cost-effective manner.
As we look to the future, UBC's
continued success depends on our ability
to provide a stable support environment
and thus we must embark upon a
significant effort to restructure and
streamline our operating processes and
the services provided to faculty and
students. This repositioning effort is much
more than a simple budget cutting
exercise, and should be seen as the
beginning of a fundamental change in
UBC's administrative culture as well as a
journey of continually improving the way
UBC conducts its business.
It is imperative that this repositioning
exercise involve input from and
consultation with the whole UBC
The way we conduct much of the
University's business is perceived to be
slow and cumbersome - problems that
drive up overall expenses. By streamlining
the way we do things and simplifying the
staff structure, we intend to save money
and improve service. In some cases, this
may mean "working smarter"; in other
cases, it may mean trimming and/or
dropping some types of services
altogether, or having these services
delivered on a decentralized basis.
However, we recognize that our people
continue to be our most important
resource at UBC. Therefore, the actions
that must be taken to deal with budget
constraints should be structured in such
a way that decisions to reduce staff
positions result in layoffs as infrequently
as possible. Attrition, early retirement,
flexible work options and other means
must be considered before layoffs occur.
In short, we must exhaust the limits of all
our creativity to avoid the loss of our
people. However, should layoffs be
necessary, UBC will make a concerted
effort to assure a fair process that provides
adequate assistance to those who will be
leaving. Moreover, any changes in
operations and staffing will be made in
accordance with the contracts and/or
commitments covering those respective
In this document, you will find
information regarding a variety of
measures that provide options other than
traditional layoff practices.
Accomplishing these outlined
objectives will require participation,
creativity, and understanding from every
member of the community. A
Repositioning Steering Committee (RSC),
consisting of senior University officials,
will lead and oversee this effort by creating
a clear vision and identifying specific
targets. This will result in the creation of
task forces and project teams within vice-
presidential organizational units whose
challenge will be to achieve those targets.
Staff from the Department of Human
Resources will be assigned to work with
these task forces and project teams to
facilitate the repositioning process as well
as provide operational guidance as
required. Regular reports from the various
task forces regarding specific
implementation plans will be submitted
to their respective Vice-President with
final review by the Repositioning Steering
The Repositioning Steering Committee
will be articulating a clear strategic plan
including specific objectives and a
strategic policy position to provide an
integrated framework for this
repositioning effort.
As outlined, this effort is much more
than a simple budget cutting exercise
and should be seen as a long-term process
to "re-engineer" services and programs at
UBC so that the University becomes a
responsive learning organization that is
focused on continually improving the way
it delivers programs and services.
The repositioning exercise should be
seen as a journey incorporating a number
of activities in different phases, including
planning for repositioning, implementing
identified strategies, and rebuilding efforts
after the repositioning has taken place.
Preliminary Planning Activities
Initially, it is essential to plan for
repositioning by clarifying objectives and
services of the particular area and
designing the repositioning strategy for
the unit, keeping in context potential
negative effects of high level s of employee
uncertainty and anxiety. Specific |
interventions include:
• defining the new vision/key goals
and/or services of the unit;
• determining the extent of
• developing communication
strategies such as unit-wide
communication plans to present
to employees outlining the reasons
for required workplace
adjustments and repositioning;
• selecting a pre-designated
repositioning team, which should
include all levels of staff from the
respective unit, to facilitate the
process and ensure input is
obtained from all relevant
employees in the unit;
• establishing support systems at
the individual and group level.
Implementing Identified Strategies
These activities involve implementing
the identified strategies which could
include the potential displacement and
reduction of staff. At this stage, unit
heads must consider ways to maintain
credibility  within   the   unit   and  yet
understand that employees may likely
experience stress symptoms such as
burnout, anger and resentment. Unit
heads should recognize that this may be
a difficult period of transition for many,
calling for high levels of understanding
and sensitivity towards employees.
Specific interventions at this stage
• training for unit heads/managers
on implementing repositioning
• providing clear, candid and
complete information to employees
regarding the entire repositioning
effort through individual and/or
group meetings between managers
and employees;
• providing outplacement
opportunities to employees
terminated as a result of
repositioning including career
planning and individual and/or
family counseling, financial
• providing workshops on stress and
change management.
Rebuilding Activities
These critical activities are aimed at
re-energizing and motivating employees
who, at this stage, may experience and
display low morale, low productivity, lack
of commitment and general confusion.
Specific interventions include:
• clearly communicating the vision
and new objectives of the unit;
• providing training and re-training
programs for those employees who
have to take on new responsibilities
and ensuring that new jobs or
duties are clearly defined and fully
• using work teams to streamline
procedures, improve quality, and
move from venting to action;
• providing regular feedback on the
• demonstrating a real interest in
rebuilding morale through
employee empowerment and
involvement in the new unit.
Given the above repositioning stages,
it is essential to bear in mind that the
repositioning effort is a long-term strategy
for UBC. It is acknowledged that the
initial challenge will be to develop plans
to deal with the anticipated 1993/94
budget cuts. However, more importantly,
UBC must look beyond this initial
repositioning stage and meaningfully
review how it will continue to streamline
and realign programs and services to
meet ongoing, future challenges.
This section provides a framework of
strategies for unit heads to consider for
their specific units in order to achieve
outlined repositioning objectives. This
guide presents a number of major
strategies that provide other cost effective
alternatives other than the traditional
layoff approach which will help units
meet their objectives and ensure fair
human resources practices. It is important
to keep in mind that the strategies outlined
are options for consideration and not
entitlements. Implementation of these
strategies should be discussed with
officials from the Department of Human
Resources and may also require approval
from the Repositioning Steering
Committee. The major strategies include
(see detailed matrix charts):
• Strategy # 1: Program Service
Management - managing the
effectiveness, size or scope of
services and programs.
• Strategy # 2 : Work Schedule
Management - adjusting FTE
allocation to meet program or
service objectives.
• Strategy # 3: Turnover/Attrition
Management - managing
permanent change to the
composition of the workforce.
• Strategy # 4: Hiring/Recruitment
Management - identifying and
hiring candidates for new or
vacated positions.
• Strategy # 5: Classification and
Compensation Management -
identifying the appropriate level of
job classification and remuneration
for work performed.
In using the matrix , an important
guideline regarding "consultation" should
be kept in mind. The purpose of
consultation is to increase the flow of
ideas and alternatives, to test the
feasibility of alternatives, and to build a
degree of participation leading to
ownership or acceptance ofthe decisions
finally made. In this repositioning effort,
the following groups should be consulted:
• the unit itself - through processes
appropriate to each area, members
ofthe designated unit should have
opportunities to provide ideas and
advice on alternatives, especially
regarding balancing the work
remaining with the reduced
capacity ofthe unit:
• other functionally related units -
as necessary, units whose
responsibilities may be affected by
your unit's alternatives;
• clients - where actions will modify,
reduce or eliminate services, client
groups should be consulted for
How To Use Strategies Matrix :
The attached matrix is most useful
after you have spent time carefully
reviewing and clarifying your unit's key
objectives, programs and services through
appropriate data analysis and
consultation with key stakeholders. When
using the matrix, keep in mind the
(i) Review action steps and associated
pros and cons.
(ii) Draft an action plan that
incorporates as many of the options as
possible considering the cost/benefit to
your unit.
(iii) Examine the time frame to
determine if the reposition/reduction
goals can be met in a timely fashion.
(iv) Consult with appropriate
employees, bargaining agents, clients,
and other stakeholders.
(v) Discuss the plan of action with your
HR Generalist to ensure all alternatives
are fully considered especially before
authorizing the provision of layoff or
termination notice. 8 Insert • June 17, 1993
Managing the effectiveness, size, or scope of services and programs to meet identified needs.
*1. Reduce/eliminate non-essential
service/program or consolidate a service
or program that results in cost savings in
salaries and benefits. (Review
opportunities for cost-recovery services).
2. Hire for 9-10 month appointments
where appropriate and/or convert existing
12 month positions.
- Better reallocation and realignment   of limited resources
through work flow restructuring
and job re-engineering.
- Efficiencies of scale.
- Challenge old assumptions.
- Involvement of employees
- Saves salaries and benefits for 2-
3 months.
- Most effective for new hires.
Criteria to consider
*     • Weigh the effect of service reduction on other areas - no point cutting
services that have to be taken on by another area.
• Assess the effect on diversity/equity/human rights to ensure you are
maintaining your programs.
• Assess the rights and obligations of staff affected.
• Review centrality of the program to the mission of the unit/university,
i.e., the extent to which the program is essential to the objectives ofthe
unit and the university's profile.
• Review the quality of the program in relation to other programs.
• Assess the demand for program service from "clients".
• Evaluate the cost ofthe program/service relative to the cost of comparable
programs both at UBC and outside UBC.
• Review the potential redistribution of resources that will be available as
a result of termination/reduction ofthe program/service.
**   Long-term    = 7 months or longer to implement.
Short Term   = 1-6 months to implement.
Loss/and/or reduction of staff,
programs and services.
■ Short-term loss of productivity
during retraining/restructuring.
Difficult to convert 12 month
WORK SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT:: Allocation of FTE to meet program or service objectives.
1. Develop programs to support leaves
of absence without pay but with continued
benefits for a specified period of time.
2. On a permanent or temporary basis,
reduce hours where workload allows.
Improve the management of overtime to
contain or reduce costs.
3. Explore possibilities of work redesign
and innovative cost-effective uses of
4. Review and reduce through a
"delayering" approach the number of
"middle management" employees required
to meet program/service objectives.
5. Utilize temporary layoffs through
sessional positions where workload allows
and as per collective agreement.
■ Re-examine priorities
- Management flexibility to develop
programs that are voluntary/
involuntary and scaled to salary
- Retention of workforce.
- Controlled reduction.
- Immediate cost reduction.
• Management flexibility to develop
voluntary and involuntary
reductions through employee
• Efficiencies in work processes.
- Re-examine core business.
- More effectively balance
supervisor versus employee ratio.
- Efficiencies in work processes.
- Long-term cost savings.
Controlled costs.
Long-Term    = 7 months or longer to implement.
Short Term   = 1-6 months to implement
- Loss of productivity. Long-term.
- Critical services need to stay open.
- Potential for increased temporary Short-term,
- Loss of productivity.
- Reduction of service.
Reduction of staff/and or Long-term,
elimination of functions.
- Additional workload for remaining Long-term,
- May eliminate levels of skill and
job content that would be effective
over the long-term.
- May create conflict among
respective management
- Loss of productivity. Short-term. Insert-June 17,1993 9
1. Resignations:
- Examine resignations where position
can remain unfilled.
- Examine resignations where a cost
savings can be achieved by an equally
qualified lower cost replacement.
2. Early Retirements: ***
Examine early retirement options such
as special early retirement or regular
early retirement.
3. Buy Outs :***
- Offer to buy out positions on a voluntary
basis and capture funds (e.g. flat dollar
- Can link with pension incentives.
4. Implement permanent layoffs as a result
of a reduction or elimination of a service/
program through reorganization.
Managing permanent change to the composition of the workforce
- Opportunity to hire staff with
new skills (possibly at lower
- Where positions are not filled,
opportunity to save or redirect
- Voluntary.
- Opportunity to hire staff with
new skills and/or lower cost.
- Capture funds and save or apply
to repositioned environment.
- Voluntary.
- Unit Head approval required.
- Can apply future savings to
repositioning funding pool.
Appropriate management
Training costs when hiring less
experienced staff.
Loss of skilled staff.
Uncontrolled departures.
Retraining costs.
Retraining costs.
Less experienced replacements.
Loss of skilled staff.
Self funded by the department.
- Cost of severance may be
Position cannot be replaced/filled.
Long-term to fund.
Short-term to administer.
Long-Term    = 7 months or longer to implement.
Short Term   = 1-6 months to implement.
For employees who are at least 55 years
of age with at least 20 years of service in the UBC Pension Plan, UBC will pay up to 12 months
of salary and benefits. If there is interest, incentives will be developed for employees less than
age 55 with less than 20 years service.   Unit head approval is required on all incentives
1. Implement a hiring freeze for a specific
period of time. Use this time to plan
reposition strategy.
2. Implement a hiring reduction or
slowdown for a specified period.
3. Reduce cost of temporary help or
consultants when existing permanent
staff can be utilized.
4. Reduce reliance on or cost of external
search firms.
5. Reduce interview and relocation costs
by recruiting locally when appropriate.
Identifying and hiring candidates for new or vacated positions.
Immediate one-time savings.
Permits retaining current staff.
Evaluate priorities.
Manage staff size.
Better use of existing staff
More cost effective
Use existing expertise at UBC.
Immediate savings.
Loss of productivity. Short-term.
-Additional workload for remaining Short-term,
- Increased overtime and training
- May increase staff workload. Short-term
- Could reduce expertise which
outside help can bring in.
- May be more time consuming. Short-term.
May be more difficult to recruit if
these restrictions are in place.
Long-Term    = 7 months or longer to implement.
Short Term   = 1-6 months to implement. 10 Insert- June 17, 1993
CLASSIFICATION/COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT::       Identifying the appropriate level of job classification/remuneration for work performed.
1. Review and take action on vacant jobs
that may be appropriate for downward
classification with reduced pay.
Immediate and long-term cost
Control inflated salary and
Long-Term    = 7 months or longer to implement.
Short Term   = 1-6 months to implement.
- May eliminate levels of skill and
job content that would be effective
over the long-term.
- May create conflict with respective
Early Retirement Options
The UBC Staff Pension Plan allows a
member to retire and receive an immediate
pension at any time from age 55 to 65.
Age 65 is the normal retirement date.
Members retiring between age 55 and 65
with at least 20 years pensionable service
are eligible for "special early retirement"
incentives under the pension plan. The
incentives include a smaller or no
reduction in benefits for early retirement
and an increased annual benefit paid to
age 65 (bridge benefit). If a member retires
before age 65 with less than 20 years
service, their pension benefit is reduced
to account for its receipt over a longer life.
Qualifying for an early retirement pension
gives the member more choices. Members
may choose to start or defer their pensions.
In either case, members may seek other
employment or self-employment.
When members retire from the
University, they may apply for medical
and dental coverage through the Post-
Retirement Benefits Group Plan. This
Plan will cover the member for MSP
(hospitalization), extended health
benefits, and dental. The retiree covers
the full cost ofthe premiums. The Group
Life Insurance (and Optional Life) coverage
ceases on retirement. Members may elect
to convert their group life term insurance
to an individual term insurance by
applying to the carrier within 31 days of
The Pension Administration Office (now
located in the Old Administration
Building) can be contacted for more
information and/or counselling regarding
early retirement options.
Flexible Appointments
A number of flexible work options are
available to offer staffing and incentive
alternatives for employees (see matrix).
It is critical during this time of
transition, and as the nature of the
workplace changes, that UBC try to
make the work environment and
employees' needs as compatible as
possible. An initial assessment of job
design should precede all
considerations for instituting work
options. These options are offered with
the following considerations in mind:
• these options are opportunities and
not entitlements and offerings
should be based on operational
and customer needs at the
discretion ofthe unit head;
• selection of appropriate candidates
should take into consideration
departmental needs, health and
safety consequences, equity and
diversity issues, employee
performance and productivity;
• implementation of any of these
options should come after careful
review with the staff member of the
nature ofthe option, expectations
of performance, and the logistics
of the transition - a trial period is
strongly recommended with
regularly scheduled reviews;
the effect of legal liabilities and
funding source restrictions should
be carefully reviewed;
when evaluating options, unit
heads and respective employees
should examine the effect on
employees' benefits;
any modified work arrangements
for employees covered by a
collective bargaining agreement
must adhere to any applicable
provisions covered by the
respective collective agreement -
consultation with your HR
Generalist is advised before
entertaining considerations or
implementing changes.
Reduced Workload:  Allows
for staff under certain
circumstances (55 years of
age and 15 years of service)
to reduce their FTE
appointment while
maintaining full pension and
benefit entitlements.
Part-time Work: Allows for
reduction of the daily, weekly,
monthly, or annual period of
work required of the position.
Employees receive salary
proportionate to the reduced
time. Benefits can typically be
maintained with employees
paying their share of costs.
UBC continues to pay its share
provided minimum time
commitments are met.
i) Workplace
* Retains
outstanding highly
skilled employees.
* Improves
employee morale,
commitment and
* Fosters a better
match between
workload and
worker availability.
* Creates
opportunity to
cross-train or
provide internships
to staff covering for
another employee
during the leave
* Can apply
savings to
funding pool.
il) Customer
* Better match
between workload
and customer
service availability.
iii) Employee
* Can improve
employee morale,
commitment and
productivity by
management's and
employee's needs
and/or family
* Undisturbed time
to work or
increased personal
i) Workplace
* Requires
supervisor's time to
manage and
redistribute the
* Key people may
be unavailable
during certain
* Potential for
clear performance
expectations, and
* May require
cross-training to
ensure sufficient
office coverage.
* Collective
provisions (where
regarding hours of
work that have to
be adhered.
ii) Customer
iii) Employee
* Hours of available
service may be a
negative factor and
affect productivity.
* Scheduling staff
may be difficult as
may need to be
absorbed by
another employee.
employee support
needs to be
* Ensure adequate
clear performance
expectations and
scheduling of
coordinating work
among employees,
and/or keeping
track of hours.
* Benefits' impacts.
_.J Insert ■ June 17,1993 11
An authorized period of time
away from work with loss of
salary but without loss of
employment rights.  Variations
Developmental Leave: leave
granted to enable an employee
to pursue job related
Employees receive full benefits
but must pay employee's
Personal Leave: Can allow for
predictable leave periods and
are frequently scheduled
during times that coincide
with school breaks.
Employees receive full benefits
if they pay employee and UBC
share of costs.
Seasonal Employment:
Provides a predetermined
work schedule whereby work
occurs only during certain
periods ofthe year (e.g.
sessional appointments or the
summer off with no pay).
Deferred Leave: Allows
employees to defer a part of
their salary tax-free so that
when employees take leave,
they will continue to receive
salary. This option requires
government approval and will
require consultation with your
Human Resources Generalist.
i) Workplace
* Retains
outstanding highly
skilled employees.
* Expands the
work force.
* Improves
employee morale,
commitment and
* Results in better
trained employees
educational leave.
* Fosters a better
match between
work load and
worker availability.
* Reduces cost in
comparison to
retaining a full-
time employee.
* Creates an
opportunity to
cross-train or
provide internships
to staff covering for
another employee
during the leave
ii) Custon :■;
* Belter mail I,
between workload
and custom
service availability.
ii) Emp   >ys e
' Improve-;
cmplovet  morale,
i ■mimitn"'nt ad
management's and
employees' needs.
i) Workplace
* Requires
supervisor's time lo
manage and
redistribute the
* Technical or
highly specialized
positions may be
difficult to fill
during leave
* Cross-training of
replacement may
cause temporary
reduction in
ii) Customer
* Decreased or
eliminated services
may result during
iii) Employee
* Pro! eet ion of jobs
or employment
rights ol employee
on leave.
* Benefits' impacts.
i) Workplace
ii) Customer
iii) Employee
i) Workplace
ii) Customer
iii) Employee
A program wherein two
employees voluntarily share
the responsibilities of one full-
time position with salary and
benefits pro-rated depending
on percentage time worked.
Rather than the job being
part-time, each of the
employees who share a specific
position are part-time.
Commitment can be 50/50,
60/40, 70/30 or any variation
* Reduces
tardiness turnover.
* Retains
employees who
need to work less
than full-time.
* Combines the
skills and
experiences of two
people to meet the
exact needs of one
* Allows the
department to
maintain a 1.0 FTE
* Guarantees 100%
customer service
availability during
regular working
* Allows for
undisturbed time
to work or
increased personal
* Improves
employee morale,
commitment and
productivity by
management's and
the employees'
needs and/or
* Provides option
for employee to
train successor
while "phasing out"
of the department"
and allows for
transition of new
* Requires time on
supervisor's part
for implementation
to ensure
compatibility of two
* Co-workers must
be supportive for
the arrangement to
* Ensure adequate
clear performance
expectations and
scheduling of
coordinating work
among employees,
and/or keeping
track of hours.
* Confusion/
inefficiency may
exist for clients and
colleagues due to
the discontinuity of
two people
providing the same
* Potential cost
increase to support
both employees'
* Clients may
confusion due to
two people
handling a single
service or issue.
* Requires
between job sharers. 12 Insert • June 17, 1993
General term referring to
flexible work schedules that
permit variable starting and
quitting times within limits set
by management. Typically,
flexible periods are at either
end of the day with a
designated "core-time" set in
the middle, during which all
employees must be present.
i) Workplace
* Redesigns
schedules for
units that need
broader or more
intensive coverage
by providing more
staffing options.
* Better
organization of
work due to
concentration on
core hours for
meetings/calls etc.
* Reduces
* Expands use of
work space and
* Tends to reduce
overtime costs.
* Expands
recruitment pool,
especially for
specialty skill jobs.
ii) Customer
* Expanded service
hours to
client needs at
irregular times.
iii) Employee
i) Workplace
ii) Customer
iii) Employee
* Broadens
employee skills,
due to cross
* Retains
employees with
valuable skills
that no longer
want to work a
full schedule
and/or typical
working hours.
* Accommodates
employees who
need undisturbed
time to work or
have special
* Improves
employee morale,
commitment and
* Collective
agreement provisions
regarding hours of
work have to be
* Supervisor/
employee support
needs to be carefully
* Potential for
inadequate employee
clear performance
expectations, and
* May require cross-
training time to
ensure sufficient
office coverage and
temporary reduction
in productivity.
* Key people may be
unavailable at
certain times.
* Supervisors must
be willing to allow
employees to work
more independently.
* May reduce cost
effectiveness of
productive time if
higher level position
expected to routinely
cover for lower level
* May not have
services at the time
they prefer.
* May miss out on
particular office
events or meetings.
* Providing coverage
for colleagues may
mean less time to do
own job.
Refers to a workweek that is
condensed into fewer than five
days. 9-day fortnight is a
typical example of a
compressed work week.
* This option requires
consultation with your Human
Resources Generalist as
collective agreement provisions
have to be adhered to.
i) Workplace
* Useful to
decrease cost of
operating capital
* Improved
allocation of labour
* Higher
productivity due to
fewer interruptions
during typical
office hours.
* Reduces
* Computer access
may be improved
with on-line
activity during
non-peak hours.
ii) Customer
* Expanded service
hours to
client needs at
irregular times,
i.e., students or
those in other time
iii) Employee
i) Workplace
* Can improve
employee morale,
commitment and
productivity by
and the
employees' needs
and/or family
* Undisturbed
time to work or
personal time.
* Accommodates
* Collective
agreement provisions
regarding hours of
work have to be
* Supervisor/
employee support
needs to be carefully
* Potential for
inadequate employee
clear performance
expectations, and
* May require cross-
training time to
ensure sufficient
office coverage and
temporary reduction
in productivity.
* Key people may be
unavailable at
certain times.
* Supervisors must
be willing to allow
employees to work
more independently.
* May reduce cost
effectiveness of
productive time if
higher level position
expected to routinely
cover for lower level
ii) Customer
iii) Employee
* Hours of available
service may be a
negative factor and
affect productivity.
* Scheduling staff
may be difficult as
responsibilities may
need to be absorbed
by another employee.
* Supervisor/
employee support
needs to be carefully
* Ensure adequate
employee communications, clear
expectations and
scheduling of
meetings, coordinating work among
employees, and/or
keeping track of
* Ensure health and
safety requirements
are maintained. .
* Providing coverage
for colleagues may
mean less time to do
own job. Insert-June 17,1993 13
Altering the current profile and
composition of bargaining unit employees
to achieve repositioning objectives will be
affected by relevant provisions of the
respective collective agreements. The
attached matrix reviews obligatory
provisions of key constituent groups. It is
recommended that in application or
interpretation of these provisions the
University utilize a "correctness" test to
its actions. Although more restrictive
interpretations of applications could be
"reasonably" or "fairly" arrived at, it is
important that the University's actions
not merely comply with contractual
obligations but are also the correct action
to take under the circumstances.
Consequently, a close review of reallocation plans should be conducted by
the unit's senior management with
assistance from the respective HR
Generalist to ensure full consideration is
given to employee, union local,
department and University factors.
Furthermore, a prerequisite to
administering transfer and layoff of
provisions is a systematic review of fiscal
obligations, service requirements and all
expenditures before formalizing a plan
involving the reallocation of human
resources. Full consideration is given to
alternative efficiency, cost saving or
staffing measures that may arise through
subsequent reviews with staff members
or other public individuals on campus.
Any unit not conducting a full review
may be vulnerable to criticisms of not
having made reasonable efforts to reduce
the effect on bargaining unit personnel.
Initially, meetings with all employee
group representatives will be held to share
current information. Moreover, the
Department of Human Resources will be
inviting the unions to participate in regular
repositioning meetings to discuss
repositioning impacts and provide input
to repositioning plans.
Regarding any specific unit's
repositioning plans, the bargaining agent
for employees affected by changes in
number of hours worked, schedule of
hours worked, employment status etc.,
will be informed of any such proposed
actions. Should the changes affect a
significant number of employees or
effectively alter the manner in which a
service is provided, adequate opportunity
will be made available to the bargaining
unit to comment on the proposed changes
or to recommend alternative service
delivery methods.
A Re-employment/Relocation Centre
(RRC) will be set up to coordinate the
potential placement of displaced
employees to other jobs within the
University and will provide assistance to
those who wish to widen their employment
search beyond the University.
The official layoff letter initiates the
placement process by referring the
employee to the RRC Coordinator located
in the Human Resources Department.
The RRC Coordinator will make the
individual aware ofthe services available.
Attendance at the layoff orientation
sessions will begin the placement process.
All employees notified of layoff are
encouraged to attend so that they may
learn of the various services available to
help them achieve successful results in
their job search. At these sessions,
employees will not only learn how the
recruitment process at UBC has been
adapted to accommodate the displaced
worker but they will also hear about
special workshops that will be offered.
One of the workshops will be a skills
and interests assessment. This workshop
will help identify the skills and interests
of an employee and will help the employee
to focus on personal values. This
assessment will not only help the employee
determine what to do next but will also
assist the RRC Coordinator in matching
a displaced employee's skills and interests
with open positions at UBC. The other
workshop is the job search programme. It
offers practical "how to" seminars in
resume writing, interviewing, and other
job hunting skills. The information and
practical know how gained from these
sessions will increase opportunities for
re-employment at UBC or elsewhere. A
workshop on stress management
techniques for employees will also be
made available.
Another integral part ofthe RRC is the
ongoing marketing of our displaced
employees to the business community of
the Lower Mainland. A data base will be
established so that employers in the Lower
Mainland can contact the RRC to either
post their job opportunities or receive
from the RRC Coordinator resumes of
employees who have expressed interest
in the type of work and/or have the skills
required by the employer.
This initiative will not only assist UBC
employees but will provide an opportunity
for employers to recruit without the high
cost of advertising.
Participation in the programs offered
by the RRC does not guarantee a new job
at UBC, nor does it guarantee employment
outside the University. Rather, the
programme is designed to prepare
individuals for a job search. Within UBC,
it emphasizes that serious efforts will be
made to place as many displaced
employees as possible.
Staff from the Department of Human
Resources will be involved in providing
both general and specific support to the
community. A number of change
management activities are proposed
including serving as a resource and guide
to unit heads in facilitating the respective
repositioning effort, as well as delivering
a number of related training programs
through the MOST Program. Specific
training will include:
• workshops for unit heads/
managers on change management,
dealing with strategic and human
resources planning issues;
• workshops for unit heads/
managers on how to implement
repositioning strategies such as
"how to streamline";
• workshops for unit heads/
managers on "how to communicate
• workshops on "quality
• workshops on stress management.
There will be an organized effort to
keep people informed and to allow input
to the process. The Repositioning Steering
Committee will provide regular updates
through UBC Reports and special
newsletters. Special meetings with unit
heads / managers will also take place. More
detailed communication plans will be
developed through task forces and project
teams created in each vice-presidential
Reduced Workload Responsibility Appointments: Staff Members
Under certain circumstances, staff
members who hold continuing full-time
positions may be permitted to hold a
reduced appointment while maintaining
full pension and other appropriate
specified benefit entitlements.
Where it is to the advantage of the
University and to the staff member
(mutual and voluntary), a reduced
workload appointment may be considered
for a member of the full-time continuing
staff who is at least 50 years of age at the
time of the request, and has had at least
10 years full-time continuous service at
the University.
1. Reduced workload appointments
may reduce the daily, weekly,
monthly or annual period of work
required of the position.
2. Reduced workload appointments
would not be considered below 50%
of that established for the
equivalent regular full-time
3. The actual salary received will be
proportionate to the reduced time
4. The employee's contribution to all
benefit programs will be based on
basic full-time salary (before
reduction) with the exception of
income replacement (long term
disability) which will be based on
actual salary received.
5. The University's contribution on
behalf of the employee to the
pension plan and other benefit
programs will be on the same basis
as #4 above.
6. The employee's salary will be
subject to the normal salary reviews
appropriate to the salary policy
relating to the employee's
classification, occupational group
or relevant collective agreement.
7. Where an employee works a
reduced workload on a sessional
or similar arrangement, salary
payments may be spread out over
the year to provide twelve month's
8. Reduced workload appointments
concluded under the above
practices shall continue until
retirement or termination as may
be appropriate.
Employees who have reduced time
commitments may maintain pension and
benefits participation as follows:
1. Pension Plan
Contributions and pension credits
will be based on the basic full-time
salary in each calendar year.
2. Long Term Disability Benefit
Premiums and benefits will be
reduced in the same proportion as
the reduction in the individual's
time commitment.
3. Group Life Insurance
UBC premiums and employee
coverage will be based on the full
basic salary.
4. M.S.P., Extended Health, Dental
Plans, Tuition Fee Benefit
Coverage and premium cost-
sharing will be continued.
5. Sick Leave
Paid Sick Leave will be accumulated
on a pro-rata basis in keeping with
the individual's reduced time
commitments. However, it should
be noted that Sick Leave may only
be used during a period when the
member is normally scheduled to
6. Vacation
The member will receive a
proportionately reduced amount
of vacation credit.
7. Paid Holidays
Paid holidays will be paid when
they occur on a day in which the
reduced workload person is
normally scheduled to work, at the
reduced level.
8. Canada Pension, Unemployment
Insurance, Workers'
These benefits will be available
according to the applicable
government regulations.
All reduced workload arrangements
must be approved in writing by the Dean
(Academic Departments) or Department
Head (Non-Academic Departments) and
the Associate VP, Human Resources or
designate. Details of the final reduced
workload arrangement will be confirmed
in writing and signed by the employee.
Because of the technical and legal
complexity involved in such
arrangements, no arrangement will be
considered complete until such a
document has been prepared and signed.
In cases involving employees covered
under collective agreements, permission
must also be obtained from the union to
reduce hours without the necessity of
laying off and reposting the position. 14 Insert • June 17, 1993
Early Retirement Incentive Program for Staff Age 55 and Over With Ten or More Years Service
Effective May 20, 1993 to December
31, 1993 staff age 55 and over who hold
continuing positions may be eligible for
an early retirement incentive. The cost of
the incentive is to be paid by the
department of the eligible employee.
Where it is to the advantage of the
University and to the staff member
(mutual and voluntary) staff members
age 55 and over with at least 20 years
continuous service may be eligible for an
early retirement incentive according to
the following matrix:
Staff members with less than 20 years
of service but 10 or more years of service
are eligible for a reduced early retirement
incentive based upon the percentage of
their years of service divided by 20 and
applied to the appropriate age category in
the above matrix.
For example, if an employee is 57 with
10 years of service, the appropriate age
category is 5 or more years from age 65.
The employee's years of service (10) divided
into 20 equals 50%. The employee is
eligible for 50% of 100% of their annual
base salary (or 6 months of salary
Years from
age 65 as at
July 1,1993
5 or more years
4 to 5 years
3 to 4 years
2 to 3 years
1 to 2 years
within 1 year
Retirement Incentive
Monthly equivalent of incentive
100% of Annual Base Salary =
80% of Annual Base Salary =
60% of Annual Base Salary =
40% of Annual Base Salary =
20% of Annual Base Salary =
1 /12th of Annual Base Salary
12.0 months of Salary
9.6 months of Salary
7.2 months of Salary
4.8 months of Salary
2.4 months of Salary
= 1.0 months of Salary
For example, if a member is 61 years
and 3 months old on July 1, 1993 with
over 20 years of service and their annual
salary is $42,000, the retirement incentive
would be:
$42,000 x 60% = $25,200 or 7.2
months of salary continuance.
The early retirement incentive is paid
by salary continuance and may be spread
over more months than the entitlement
(for example - 12 months could be spread
over 24 months) as long as the entire
amount is paid by normal retirement.
Benefit programs would continue for the
extended time period with any benefits
based on salary levels adjusted downward
in recognition of the reduced salary.
The employee will terminate or retire
following the salary continuance. Benefits
are maintained while on salary
continuance as follows:
1. MSP, Extended Health, Dental
and Tuition Fee Benefit
Coverage and premium sharing will
be continued.
2. Group Life Insurance.
UBC premiums and employee
coverage will be continued.
3. Pension Plan
UBC and employee contributions
and pension credits will continue.
4. Long Term Disability, Sick Leave,
Vacation and Paid Holidays
Premiums and coverage under
these programs will not be
5.   Canada Pension, UIC, WCB
These benefits will be available
according to the applicable
government regulations.
All early retirement incentives must be
discussed and approved in writing by the
the Dean (Academic departments) or
Department Head (Non-Academic
Departments) and the Associate VP,
Human Resources or designate who will
be responsible for approving any incentive
in writing.
Details of the final early retirement
incentive arrangement will be confirmed
in writing and signed by the employee.
Because of the technical and legal
complexity involved in such
arrangements, no arrangement will be
considered complete until such a
document has been prepared and signed.
Those offered the incentive will have
until the close of business on December
31, 1993 to accept. The department and
employee will mutually agree on a date
when the employee would cease work
and commence salary continuance; such
date may be after December 31, 1993.
Employee-paid Benefit Top-Up Incentive for Staff Members Not Eligible for Reduced Workload
Effective May 20, 1993 to December
31, 1993 staff who reduce their hours of
work through mutual agreement with
their department(s) to accommodate
budget reductions, will be eligible to
maintain certain benefit programs based
on the employee's full-time equivalent
salary by paying the additional employee
and/or UBC cost of those benefits.
Where it is to the advantage of the
University and to the staff member
(mutual and voluntary), staff members
less than age 50 or with less than 10
years service may be eligible to maintain
certain benefit programs based on their
full-time equivalent salary by paying the
additional employee and/or UBC cost of
those benefits.
1.   MSP, Extended Health, Dental,
Tuition Fee Benefits
If employees reduce their work
hours to a level that continues to allow
them to be eligible for these benefits,
regular coverage and premium sharing
will be continued. Otherwise, the
employee will be responsible for full
payment both employee and/or UBC costs
of these benefits.
2.   Group Life Insurance
UBC will pay its share of the
premiums based on the reduced salary
level of the employee; the employee will
have the option to pay
premiums  to  maintain
coverage   based   i
equivalent salary.
the additional
life insurance
their   full-time
3.   Pension Plan
The University and employee will
continue to pay contributions based on
the reduced salary level; the employee
can maintain full coverage by paying the
additional cost of UBC and employee
contributions based on their full-time
equivalent salary.
4. Long Term Disability, Sick Leave,
Vacation and Paid Holidays, Canada
Pension Plan, UIC, WCB
These programs will be based -on
the reduced salary level.
All benefit top-up incentives must be
discussed and approved in writing by the
Dean (Academic Departments) or
Department Head (Non-Academic
Departments) and the Associate VP.
Human Resources or designate who will
be responsible for approving any incentive
in writing. Details of the benefits top-up
incentive arrangement will be confirmed
in writing and signed by the employee.
Because of the technical and legal
complexity involved in such
arrangements, no arrangement will be
considered complete until such a
document has been prepared and signed.
In cases involving employees covered
under collective agreements, permission
must also be obtained from the union to
reduce hours without the necessity of
laying off and reposting the position.
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Classified advertisment: (GST included)
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(604) 822-3131 6 UBC Reports • June 17, 1993
The Solid Core:
A Personal View
is a failure."
by Warren Stevenson
Warren Stevenson is an associate
professor in the Dept. of English.
I assume Professor Rowan's article
"The Challenge of Undergraduate
Education" (UBC Reports, Nov. 12/
92) was intended to provoke
discussion, and it is in this spirit
that I offer the following
I myself have never taught in the
Arts One program, although I think
sufficiently highly of its aims and
methods to have
guided one of my
daughters to its
nurturing bosom
- a bit of
parental finesse
which she did
not, as it turned
out, regret. Thus
my remarks are
offered with a
modicum of
The central
thrust of
Rowan's polemic
is doubtless
dead right:
education in
North America,
inexcusably in
the first two years
The problem he addresses — that
"the lower division lacks centre and
integrity altogether" — could be
symbolized by an inverted pyramid
or "widening gyre."  I also agree that
the situation is getting worse instead
of better, the current buzz regarding
"interdisciplinarity" notwithstanding.
Most of Rowan's models are
"American" (i.e.. United States) ones.
I happen to have degrees from two
Canadian universities and one in the
U.S., so perhaps I can claim a
certain ambience in this regard.
At Bishop's University, where I took
my first degree in the early 1950s, and
which based itself "on the Oxford plan,"
there was such a core.
Bishop's — at that time the
smallest university in Canada, with a
total enrolment of 295 students —
required that every freshman take a
course in "Divinity" (which most of
us regarded with benign amusement,
because among other things, the
professor who taught the course once
discovered an unmarked exam paper
on the bottom of his parrot's cage).
Arts students were also required
to take a course in either Greek or
Roman civilization: These were
offered in alternate years, and were
both memorably taught by a
professor who probably wouldn't get
tenure now because he read
everything from large, hand-written
lecture notes and, being three-
quarters blind, albeit blessed with a
razor-sharp wit, had us read our
papers to him in his office before
deigning to put his mark on them.
A compulsory course in "Divinity"
(i.e., the Bible) would no longer be
practicable at such an institution as
UBC, even if it were agreed that it
was desirable.  But a course in
Comparative Religion (such as
Religion 100) just might be, now that
we have sown the libertarian wind
and are reaping the whirlwind.   Such
a course would take a synoptic look
at the world's great religions:
Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism,
Christianity, Islam, the Bahai Faith,
and so on.  Certainly the hunger for
this kind of information presented in
a scholarly and objective manner is
there, as is the prerequisite "giant
ignorance" (to borrow a phrase from
Keats, who died an agnostic).
Similarly, there should be a
compulsory course for Arts students
in Classical civilization ("Classics
100"), whether Greek (where most of
our best philosophic ideas, as well as
the forms of
drama and
come from) or
Roman, or
both.  Let's
not leave our
thinking that
democracy as
well as having
been Canada's
first prime
minister, or
was the
world's first
dramatist.   As
the late
Northrop Frye remarked, "At the
centre of a liberal education
something should get liberated."
I can still recall my sense of
liberation when studying the Greek
myths of Hades, which introduced
me to the concept of irony without
my being told so, and also when
learning about Buddhism, which at
that time I was inclined to prefer on
a purely intellectual basis to
The following poem by one of my
students, which she wrote quite
independently, expresses better and
more succinctly than my prose the
current and continuing malaise
among our students:
The Paper Chase
Pressed induction of the mind
Transubstantiation ofthe soul
Amalgamation of a kind
Unrelated to any whole
We conduct our lives
In this sinister arrangement
Balancing on knives-
Warp field containment
(Linda Stiles/February, 1993)
In her accompanying note, Linda
wrote:  "As to the themes or
messages of the poem, I have only
two statements to make.  One, I
believe the indigestion that caused
the poem to occur was directly
linked to a conversation 1 had with
three fellow students (one in
Religious Studies, another in
Biopsychology, and the third in
Mathematics) about the tension of
examinations, the somewhat
ludicrous quest for good grades we
were all embarked upon, and what
we were all doing here in the first
place.  And two, the poem's original
title was 'University Life'."
Perhaps it is time we stopped
chasing, or pushing paper and started
looking for ways of providing our
students with what Professor Rowan so
aptly termed "a sense of the whole."
UBC Theatre
students Rachel
Cronin and
Michael Shanks
perform a scene
from the UBC
Summer Players
production of
Wait Until Dark,
which runs
through June
and closes July
2 at the Dorothy
Studio. Summer
Stock shows at
the Frederic
Wood Theatre
include You're A
Good Man
Charlie Brown
and What I Did
Last Summer.
Call 822-2678
for ticket
Barry Gnyp photo
Student wins award for
noise abatement device
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
UBC student David Longridge thought
there had to be a better way of curbing
commercial airliner noise pollution as he
watched a pilot fiddle with the throttle to
minimize the roar of jet engines during
When he returned to campus from his
summer job at Boeing aircraft in Seattle,
the Engineering Physics student designed
and built a noise abatement flight deck
aid as a class project for industrial
research supervisor Harold Davis.
The device, a throttle attachment that
acts as a guide for pilots, is now being
evaluated by Boeing. It also won Longridge
first prize in the undergraduate category
ofthe Make it Green contest for innovative
approaches to environmental technology
developed at B.C.'s universities.
The contest was co-sponsored by UBC's
Library Patscan service, which assists
university-industry technology transfer
with U.S. and Canadian patent searches,
and VanCity Credit Union.
Longridge. who graduated last month,
is now working full-time at Boeing.
"The objective was to encourage
inventions for environmental conservation
and to honour researchers working to
develop clean and green industrial
practices," said Patscan Manager Ron
Simmer. "We hope to educate students
and the public at large so that we can
make the tools to preserve the earth."
First prize in the faculty member
category went to Prof. Robert Evans, Dept.
of Mechanical Engineering, for his
combustion chamber design for lean-
burn engines, enabling vehicles to produce
lower levels of emissions. Evans'
combustion system is currently being
tested for commercial use.
Second prize went to Assistant Prof.
John Smit and research associate Wade
Bingle, both ofthe Dept. of Microbiology,
for their sys tem of using bacteria to extract
toxic heavy metals from wastewater
streams. A patent application has been
made through UBC's Industry Liaison
Brent Bolleman of the Dept. of
Mechanical Engineering won first prize in
the graduate student category for his
work on a new industrial sonochemistry
reactor for waste paper de-inking. University
of Victoria graduate student Peter Wild won
second prize with a project called centrifugal
membrane  and  density separation of
Gavin Wilson photo
Recent UBC graduate David
Longridge, right, displays the
invention that won first place in a
UBC /VanCity environment contest:
a noise abatement flight deck aid for
commercial airliners. Looking on is
Mechanical Engineering's Harold
Davis, in whose class Longridge
started the project.
industrial waste and process waters.
Second prize in the undergraduate
category went to SFU students Duhane
Lam, Andrea Varju and John Cavacuiti
for their ergonomically designed bicycle
that makes use of a cyclist's arm power as
well as legs.
First prize winners each received $700,
while second prize winners were awarded
Honourable mentions went to other
inventors including Plant Science Prof.
Murray Isman for his environmentally
friendly pest control made from tall oil, a
byproduct of the pulping process, and
Biochemistry Prof. Peter Candido and
post-doctoral fellow Eve Stringham, who
developed transgenic soil nematodes as
biological monitors for toxins in the
environment. The contest was judged by
representatives of VanCity and UBC's
Industry Liaison Office.
"We hope the recognition will enhance
their chances of success and inspire other
inventors to explore greener alternatives,"
said Jacquie Pearce, VanCity's
environmental co-ordinator. UBC Reports ■ June 17,1993 7
by staff writers
Fine Arts Prof. Jeff Wall has won the Ontario Arts Council's Jean A.
Chalmers Award for Visual Arts.
The newly created award, which carries a cash prize of $20,000,
honours artists working anywhere in Canada "who have created a
substantial body of work."
Their contribution can be measured by the artist's teaching, the
standards set by his or her work, the recognition it has received or
contributions made to the artistic life ofthe commmunity.
A UBC art history graduate. Wall has been teaching studio arts at the
university since 1987. His huge, backlit photographs have been exhibited in
West Germany, France. England and Holland.
• • • •
Shirley Sterling, a UBC graduate in the Faculty
of Education, is the winner ofthe Sheila A.
Egoff children's literature prize (text) for her
book, My Name is Seepeetza. The award was
presented at the ninth annual B.C. book prizes
Sterling's book traces her experiences as a 12-
year-old when she was taken from her family and put
in an Indian residential school.
A 1992 graduate of the Native Indian Teacher
Education Program (NITEP) at the First Nations
House of Learning, Sterling is pursuing a PhD in
education in the Ts"kel Graduate Program.
Native author Harry Robinson, who died in 1990,
won the Roderick Haig-Brown Prize for Nature Power: In the Spirit of an
Okanagan Storyteller. The book was co-authored by Wendy Wickwire, a
professor in the Dept. of Social and Educational Studies.
• • • •
Assistant Fine Arts Prof. Ken Lum is one of three Canadian artists to
be named a winner of the Art Gallery of Ontario's Functional
Sculpture Competition.
The Canada-wide search attracted more than 300 entries from artists,
architects and designers. Winners will be commissioned to create a
functional sculpture in the gallery's new outdoor terrace.
Lum is one of Canada's best-known conceptual. He received a master's
degree at UBC in 1985 and has been teaching at the university for three
• • • •
Dr. Donald Calne, a professor of Medicine and director of UBC's
Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, is this year's recipient of the
Fred Springer Award.
Presented by the American Academy of Neurology, the award recognizes
outstanding research contributions to the understanding and treatment of
Parkinson's disease.
Calne was honoured at a presentation ceremony held in New York City in
• •  • •
echanical Engineering Prof. Clarence de Silva has been chosen to
chair the engineering and applied sciences subcommittee of the
Science Council of B.C. He will also serve on the Science Council's
human resources committee.
The primary responsibility of these committees is
to make selections from applicants within the
province for the Science Council's various
scholarships and fellowships.
De Silva. a Natural Sciences and Engineering
Research Council Prof, of Industrial Automation, is a
recent recipient of a $210,000 fellowship from the
Advanced Systems Institute of B.C. for a research
project in intelligent control of industrial processes
and a core research grant of $80,200 from the
Science Council for a project on sensor technology
development for the herring processing industry.
de Silva
• • • •
Dr. Charles Slonecker has been elected president of the American
Association of Anatomists (AAA). His term of office began April 1.
A native ofWashington State, Slonecker joined UBC in 1968 and
was head ofthe Dept. of Anatomy between 1981 and 1992. His areas of
research include cellular immunology, inflammation and muscular
He has been an active member ofthe AAA for 25 years, serving on the
association's educational affairs committee as program secretary and vice-
Slonecker is currently director of UBC's Ceremonies and Community
Relations Office.
• • • •
Dr. Bruce McManus has been appointed to a five-year term as head of
the Dept. of Pathology effective July 1.
McManus received his BA and MD degrees from the University of
Saskatchewan, an MS in Applied Physiology from Pennsylvania State
University and a PhD in Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry from the
University of Toledo.
A fellow of the College of American Pathologists, the American College of
Cardiology and the American College of Chest Physicians, McManus is also
past-president of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology. He is currently a
member of the education committee of the U.S.-Canadian Academy of
McManus has been a faculty member at the University of Nebraska
Medical Center for the past 11 years. His research areas include
inflammatory heart and blood vessel disease.
Gavin Wilson photo
Winning team members display trophies and model aircraft that won UBC
its second straight championship. From left, Kevin Wilder, Joeleff
Fitzsimmons, Assistant Prof. Sheldon Green, Payam Farahbakhsh and Rob
Prior. Missing are Rob Overgaard, Jesse Houle and Dean Leonard.
Testing key to Geers'
flying success in U.S.
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
When a team of UBC engineering
students soared over their competitors to
take first place in the Heavy Lift Aircraft
Competition in the U.S. last year, it wasn't
just beginner's luck.
This year, entering for only the second
time, they did it again.
The UBC students defeated teams from
an international field of 95 universities
and technical institutes by designing and
building a model aircraft that carried
aloft the heaviest load.
The UBC entry lifted 21.65 pounds,
bettering the 18-pound lift of last year's
winning entry and nearly a pound more
than their closest competitor.
'They're really good students and I'm
very impressed with them," said Sheldon
Green, one ofthe team's faculty advisors
and an assistant professor in the Dept. of
Mechanical Engineering. "The team was
unbelievably keen to study aerodynamics
and anything to do with aircraft."
Team captain Joeleff Fitzsimmons said
they spent an average of 10 to 15 hours a
week above and beyond their normal
class load preparing for the event.
One of the key advantages was the
extensive flight testing of the aircraft,
which started in mid-February.
That really gave us an edge,"
Fitzsimmons said.
Team members also credited their
showing to several design improvements,
including a new airfoil section to improve
lift, a light-weight construction (at a mere
six and one-quarter pounds, UBC's balsa
wood and fibreglass aircraft was the
lightest in the event), a better propeller-
engine match for increased thrust and a
superior landing gear.
The competition is held under the
auspices of the Society of Automotive
Engineers in co-operation with Cessna
Aviation and Wichita State University in
Kansas, where the contest was held.
Contest rules required the radio-
controlled aircraft to take off from a short
200-foot runway, circle around, and touch
down on the same runway, carrying as
much weight as their designers dared
load on.
The other UBC team members were:
pilot Kevin Wilder, Jesse Houle, Payam
Farahbakhsh, Rob Prior and Rob
Overgaard. Faculty advisors were Green
and sessional lecturer Dean Leonard.
Shad Valley goes green
by Abe Hefter
Staff writer
UBC's Shad Valley program is going
The program, which offers selected
grade 11 and 12 students hands-on
exposure to new research in science and
technology and business financing and
marketing, will emphasize environmental
awareness this year, said Alice Cassidy,
the program's new director and a PhD
candidate in the Dept. of Zoology.
"We're making a real effort to have
absolutely no disposable items anywhere
in the program," said Cassidy.
For starters, the 52 students who
converge on UBC June 27 for this unique
four-week Canadian summer program,
will be expected to show up with their
own reusable cloth napkins.
"That's just one way we can cut down
on waste at meal time," said Cassidy.
The student projects that will be
presented to participating sponsors at
the program's conclusion will be expected
to emphasize environmentally friendly,
responsible resource use.
Shad Valley was created in 1981 by
the Canadian Centre for Creative
Technology at the University of Waterloo.
The program, which won a national award
for excellence  in business/education
partnerships from the Conference Board
of Canada, is run simultaneously at eight
Canadian universities.
The environment will also be a part of
the program's big picture as the students
participate in highly intensive laboratory
work, seminars and projects, while
attending lectures in mathematics,
computing, entrepreneurship, science
and technology.
The program will also include a field
trip to Science World, July 22, which will
see students take public transit to
Granville Island, from where they will
kayak to Science World.
"Both of those modes of transportation
are environmentally friendly. The only
energy you use in kayaking is your own,"
said Cassidy.
UBC's contribution to the program
includes access to virtually all facilities
including scientific labs, meeting space,
computing facilities and volunteered
faculty and staff time.
Shad Valley is financed entirely by
tuition fees and sponsoring organizations
involved at all levels ofthe program, some
of whom provide employment as part of
the sponsorship.
Most Shad Valley graduates conclude
the program with a five-week work session
at various government and private-sector
job postings. 8 UBC Reports ■ June 17, 1993
Close to 180
children and 40
staff from UBC
Child Care
Services took part
in a parade along
Osoyoos Crescent
in May to
celebrate Child
Care Month. The
finished their walk
with a picnic in
Acadia Park.
^h irlf , Ker photo
3,300-year-old Mexican home
yields clues to past societies
by Charles Ker
Staff writer
Michael Blake strides
purposefully down the narrow
corridor outside his office, spins
around and gestures back to the
exit sign 22 paces away.
"That's the length of dwelling
we're talking about," he says.
"It's enormous."
Situated on a swampy coastal
plain about 30 kilometres up the
Mexican coast from Guatemala,
the open-concept bungalow
features 220 square metres of
living space, a solid clay floor,
two fireplaces and an impressive
view of the local volcano.
Definitely the ritziest
residence in Paso de la Amada,
the 3,300-year-old home is one
of at least six similar structures
buried one on top of the other.
Blake thinks the lot belonged to
a succession of village chiefs who
shared the houses with several
wives, children and younger
"Each house has the same
oval shape, the same orientation
and probably the same family
lineage spanning generations,"
said Blake, a UBC associate
professor of anthropology who
has been excavating the site for
close to a decade.
The dig started in a two-metre-
high mound of earth in the middle
of a corn field. In 1985, Blake
dug a small test pit in the centre
of the mound and discovered
remnants of six, superimposed
clay floors. The top three floors
were excavated immediately, but
it wasn't until five years later
that the most exciting discovery
was unearthed.
It was while uncovering the
fourth floor in 1990 that Blake's
research team came across a
perfectly preserved clay-walled
building believed to be the most
elaborate residence yet found in
Together with graduate
students Vicki  Feddema  and
Located in one of Mexico's oldest known permanent villages,
this elaborate residence is one of six houses buried one on
top of the other. The man at the top left of the photo puts
the size of this ancient house in perspective.
Warren Hill, Blake returned this
past winter to expose the fifth
and sixth houses in the
sequence. It took 25 workers two
weeks to remove 80 centimetres
of dirt below the floor of the
fourth house. As with the
previous clay layers, which
resembled modern-day brick
patios, the fifth floor had an
almost identical ring of holes
around its perimeter where posts
would have supported a huge
thatched roof.
Once fully exposed, the entire
floor was painstakingly
excavated in centimetre-thick
layers and the scrapings passed
through a fine mesh screen.
Among the "micro artifacts"
trampled into the floor were
carbonized beans, corn and
avocado seeds, pottery
fragments, volcanic glass used
for making knives, and fish and
other animal bones discarded
from meals.
"It's the same kind of debris
we generate in our own
households." said Blake. "What
we collected on the house floor
can still be found in the area
today  so we  know they were
practising horticulture in
addition to harvesting the swamp
The presence of jade, volcanic
glass and fancy pottery, some of
which match fragments found
as far down the coast as El
Salvador, supports the theory
that residents ofthe house were
the village's key players in local
trade and politics.
The findings indicate villagers
were developing complex social
and political systems two or three
centuries earlier than previously
expected. Until Blake's work, the
oldest known permanent
residences in Mexico which come
close in size to those at Paso de
la Amada were built around
1,000 BC.
"These large houses have
forced us to reconsider how and
when social and political
inequality emerged and how
much of a role agriculture played
in economic development," he
Blake plans to return to the
site in 1995 when he will excavate
some smaller mounds for more
clues about the social hierarchy
of the times.
The classified advertising rate is $ 15 for 35 words or
less. Each additional word is 50 cents. Rate includes
GST. Ads must be submitted in writing 10 days before
publication date to the UBC Community Relations
Office, 207-6328 Memorial Road, Vancouver, B.C.,
V6T 1Z2, accompanied by payment in cash, cheque
(made out to UBC Reports) or internal requisition.
Advertising enquiries: 822-3131.
The deadline for the July  15,   1993
issue of UBC Reports is noon, July 6.
DO IT RIGHT! Statistical and
methodological consultation;
data analysis; data base
management; sampling
techniques; questionnaire
design, development, and
administration. Over 15 years of
research and consulting
experience in the social sciences
and related fields. 433-7807.
professionals and others
interested in science or natural
history are meeting through a
North America-wide network. For
info write: Science Connection,
P.O. Box 389, Port Dover, Ontario
NOA } NO or call 1-800-667-5179.
EUROPE Only $269 US from West
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negotiable .Phone (604) 738-3412
or write 2475 W. 10th Ave.,
Vancouver, BCV6K2J4.
BOWEN ISLAND Quiet four-
bedroom furnished house.
Fireplace, two bathrooms, water
view, trees, beach access. Under
one hour to downtown
Vancouver. Sept.-June. $950 plus
util. N/S, no pets. (403) 439-0233.
KINGSTON, Ontario. Furnished
three-bedroom house in
residential neighbourhood.
Central location, near Queen's
University, schools and shopping.
Available Aug. 1993-Jufy 1994.
$ 1050 plus util. Phone 222-8560 or
WE'RE LOOKING for a temporary
home for our parents and their
mini-van camper while they visit
Vancouver. Late June to mid-
August, flexible. Prefer False
Creek area. Dr. Michael Klein,
VANCOUVER Furnished three-
bedroom house in Oakridge area
for July-August. N/S, N/P. $2250/
monthly. Utilities and service maid
included. Phone 261-4310.
For Sale
mixograph by renowned
contemporary Mexican artist
Rufino Tamayo. 90 cm x 60 cm.
"One Man With Courage Makes
The Majority." Appraised value
$25,000 US, but open to offers.
263-2145, 4:30-9:00 pm.
Summer Hours of Operation
June through August, 1993
ARTS 200
JULY 5 - AUG 13
Mon - Fri 8 am - 1:30 pm
Mon - Fri 7:30 am - 3:30 pm
JULY 5 - AUG 13
Mon - Fri 7:30 am - 2 pm
Mon - Fri 8 am - 11 am
& 6 pm - 11 pm
Sat - Sun 6 pm - 11 pm
Mon - Fri 8:15 am - 3:30 pm
JUNE Mon-Fri 7 am - 7 pm
Sat - Sun 7 am - 3 pm
JULY  -AUGUST Daily     7 am - 7 pm
Mon - Fri 7 am - 3:30 pm
Mon - Fri 11 am - 2 pm UBC Reports ■ June 17,1993 9
Scientist fights ancient foe
by Abe Hefter
Staff writer
In his efforts to help eradicate
one of the most serious tree
diseases in the British Columbia
Interior, Forest Sciences
Associate Prof. Bart van der
Kamp is up against a foe that
has a definite head start.
Armillaria ostoyae — a type of
root disease — has attacked
conifers of all ages, worldwide,
for an estimated 5,000 years.
The disease, which is costing
B.C. 20 per cent ofthe productive
capacity of forested land in the
southern Interior, is easily
It thrives underground and
spreads from tree to tree mainly
through root contact.
The first visual evidence of
Armillaria ostoyae at work would
be dying trees," said van der
Kamp "But by then, it's too late.
'The disease has probably
already been around in the area
for a generation and growing
peripherally at a rate of 25
centimetres a year."
There are several ways the
disease can be dealt with, and
van der Kamp is researching their
effectiveness at the Alex Fraser
Research Forest at Williams Lake.
"There is an area covering 25
hectares at the forest which
harbours the organism. It has
become the ideal laboratory
setting for students and
professional foresters to study
the disease," he explained.
Van der Kamp is working on
several approaches to halt the
spread of the fungus.
One involves pulling stumps
from the ground after the trees
have been harvested, although
small roots are left behind.
In another section of the
forest, van der Kamp and his
research team will plant pure
hardwoods in an infected area.
Hardwoods don't appear to be
susceptible to the root disease.
However, van der Kamp stressed
prudence is necessary with this
"Birds and other animals need
dead trees for nesting areas and
other needs. These patches of
land may be infected, but they still
play an important role in the
biodiversity ofthe region," he said.
Van der Kamp says it may
take as long as 25 years to
determine which treatment is
most effective.
The Penticton & District Retirement Service invites applications for the
society provides a continuum of services for adults encompassing Recreation,
Housing, Adult Day Care and Intermediate Care.
Working closely with members, volunteers and the community, the Director
is responsible for the overall programming and coordination of activities within
the Sr. Recreation Centre. The philosophy promotes opportunities for older
adults to organize and participate in a wide variety of activities encompassing
physical, cultural, arts & crafts, educational, social and volunteering. A Seniors
Information Bureau to serve the community is being planned. Priorities of the
position will be to develop a secure financial base and to raise the profile of the
Centre within a community.
QUALIFICATIONS: Degree in Recreation, or recognized college programme.
Demonstrated successful experience in working with older adults essential.
Must have high energy level and excel in areas of interpersonal skills,
communication skills and public speaking. Course in Gerontology an asset.
Applications will be received until June 25, 1993. Include references and
expected salary.
Apply to: Administration
Penticton & District Retirement Service
439 Winnipeg St.
Penticton, BC
V2A 6P5
♦ plain 100% cotton,
canvas & muslin
♦ fabrics 36" to 120" wide
♦ fabric dyes & paints
♦ custom t-shirt printing
♦ plain t-shirts
♦ garment dyeing
♦ one-day workshops
- learn to print textiles
Hours: Mon.- Sat. 10:00-5:30
Sundays: Call ahead
■ a super natural textile store -
2031 W. 41st Ave.
V6M 1Y7
263-4483  • 263-4493
At UBC Bookstore
Wednesday, June 23rd,
8:30 am - 8:30 pm.
In appreciation for your continued support during our
renovations, we are offering 20% OFF on almost everything*
in stock, including sale items! For one day only, Save 20%
on all in-stock tradebooks, sportswear, electronics, arts and
graphics materials, office supplies and giftware.
3t    ,
6200 University Boulevard'Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z4
tr (604)822-2665(UBC-BOOK) Fax (604)822-8592
Exemptions: textbooks, computers, special orders, & postal items
Abe Hefter photo
Grounds for Murder
American actor John Ritter performs in a scene from the
made-for-television movie Grounds For Murder, part of
which was filmed earlier this month outside Sedgewick
Library.  The film co-stars Henry Winkler.
News Digest
UBC's Telecommunication Services is offering access to American
toll-free 800 numbers, which may not be available in Canada, on a
trial basis until July 31.
Harley Rea, UBC's Telephone Systems manager, said that
advertised 800 numbers in the United States often do not indicate
whether the number can be used north of the border.
The only way to find out is to dial the number and you will either
make a successful connection or get a recording advising that the
number dialed cannot be reached from Canada," Rea explained.
During the trial period, anyone needing help reaching specific
800 numbers that produce the recording may contact UBC
information switchboard operators for assistance at 822-2211
between 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday.
• • • •
The legal, regulatory, ethical and economic issues concerning
therapeutic applications of biotechnology will be explored at a
conference on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology July 31 to August 4 at
the Pan Pacific Hotel.
The four-day conference will include sessions on gene
manipulation, protein engineering and the future of pharmaceutical
biotechnology, as well as exhibits and poster presentations in the
Vancouver Trade and Convention Centre.
The conference will be held in conjunction with the annual
general meeting of the Association of Faculties of Pharmacy of
Canada, which is celebrating its 50th anniversary.
The Sausalito String Quartet from UBC's School of Music won the
Chamber Music Society Award for Strings at the recent 22nd
Annual Carmel Chamber Music Competition.
Run by the Chamber Music Society of the Monterey Peninsula,
the competition included the adjudication of tapes from 35 entrants.
Ten were selected to appear before a jury in April with the finals held
in Carmel, California.
As winners, the Sausalito quartet performed in the Winners
Concert Circle broadcast on Monterey's classical radio station. The
quartet consists of violinists Nicholas Lozovsky and Paul Nahhas,
violist Henry Lee and cellist Jeehoon Kim, all students of UBC's
chamber music program.
UBC will play host to the ninth World Transplant Games this summer.
From July 5 to 10, more than 1,000 transplant athletes from 30
countries will converge on Vancouver, the first Canadian city to host
the games.
UBC will be the venue for the opening ceremonies and four
sporting events: table tennis, swimming, tennis, and cycling. The
remaining events will take place around the Lower Mainland.
Some ofthe athletes will be housed at the UBC Conference Centre.
The Canadian team will include more than 35 heart, heart/lung,
liver, pancreas and kidney transplant athletes from British Columbia.
The first World Transplant Games were held in Portsmouth,
England, in 1978. 10 UBC Reports ■ June 17, 1993
"What we teach
here is a state of
mind. We help
students think
the process
- Jim Forbes, chair
ofthe Marketing
Division, Faculty of
Commerce and
Abe Hefter photo
Marketing Genius
by Abe Hefter
Staff writer
For 26 years, Prof Jim Forbes
has helped UBC marketing
students deal with Lhe
fundamental issue that
entrepreneurs and business people
face every day of the week:  how to
get people to buy their products.
However, marketing is more
than keying some figures into
a computer and tinkering with
spread sheets.
"What we teach here is a state of
mind," Forbes explains with a
distinctive baritone voice that would
surely make any student sit up and
"We help students think the
process through."
Forbes has been helping UBC
students "think the process
through" in the areas of retailing
and distribution systems and
consumer and agricultural policy
since 1967, when he joined the
Faculty of Commerce and Business
Administration after obtaining his
PhD from the University of
California in Los Angeles. A
Washington State University
graduate, he obtained his BSc in
1950 and an MBA from Harvard
University in 1959.
Forbes, division chair since 1990,
has spent his entire academic life in
marketing's loud environment.
"Marketing is a noisy
environment because there are so
many factors out there to deal with,"
Forbes explains.
"For example, we are being
bombarded by up to 2,000 different
commercial stimuli per day, from all
kinds of sources:  radio, television and
print among them.
"The question is: how can you make
your message stand out?"
To help students deal with key
marketing Issues, such as
distribution, pricing, quality,
promotion and execution, Forbes says
they are equipped with a set of tools
that they will use throughout their
professional lives.
Their "tool box" consists of courses
in accounting, finance, marketing,
organizational behaviour, general
management and decision making.
They are at the core of the marketing
program, says Forbes, and, along with
the faculty members who teach them,
help make UBC's undergraduate
business program among the best in
the world.
"Today, students coming out of high
school have a good grasp of the
computer technology that has surged
to the marketing forefront over the last
20 years," he says.
"In that respect, they are better
trained for what awaits them at
university. That leaves them free to
tackle marketing analysis in greater
Despite the improved technological
skills students now bring into the
classroom, Forbes says they generally
lack confidence in their problem-
solving abilities.
'These students are very unsure of
themselves, initially. They spend years
soaking in all this knowledge and
information in their primary and
secondary school years and now they're
expected to contribute to the decisionmaking process.
"That's where the faculty members
come in, by helping students develop
their critical thinking.  However, it's not
long before the students move on
confidently on their own."
For almost 10 years, Forbes himself
has had first-hand experience in the
marketing process as a wholesaler of
some ofthe finest Spanish wines in the
Along with his partner. Commerce
sessional lecturer Scott Fraser, and
Fraser's wife, Sonia, Forbes promotes
these wines to consumers and
restaurants through the British
Columbia Liquor Board.
"My wife and I spent several weeks
in Spanish wine country in 1985 and
we thought how wonderful it would be
if we could buy these wines in B.C.  So,
10 of us imported 25 cases of the wines
we had discovered, through the liquor
distribution branch. In trying to help a
friendly Spanish producer, I ended up
being a wholesaler a year later."
Three years ago, Forbes expanded
this "labour of love" by importing
Chilean and French wines as well,
while expanding distribution to include
Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.
The bottom line in this operation is the
marketing of high-quality products to
high-quality restaurants. In sharing his
experiences in the marketplace in the
classroom, his students seem to
appreciate the immediacy and firsthand knowledge that's available to
"It's a case of teaching and doing
going hand-in-hand." says Forbes.
"However, it's also a matter of
The overall balance in the
marketplace has shifted in
recent years, according to
Forbes.  Not only is marketing data-
driven, but it has also become
increasingly people-driven, which is
reflected in the classroom.
'There is more emphasis on the
importance of setting up and
managing sales teams and how to
integrate people into sales
"Getting the most from your sales
force by managing it more effectively
will enable you to market your
product more successfully."
Despite his heavy workload in the
faculty and the evenings and
weekends he spends on his business
interests, Forbes, a gregarious native
of Central America, finds the time to
lace up his skates once a week as a
member of the Thunderbird alumni
"Old Birds" hockey team.
"What does a guy from Panama
City know about ice skating? Not
much, believe me.   But I love it and
would like to be able to play a little
more often."
For Jim Forbes - educator,
division chair, wine wholesaler and
hockey player - there just aren't
enough hours in the day.


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