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UBC Reports Nov 16, 1972

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By Peter Thompson
Pressures to change university research policies
grew stronger last week with publication of Quest
for the Optimum by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada.
The book, a report of an AUCC commission to
study the rationalization of university research, is
controversial. It was debated for two-days at the
annual meeting of the AUCC in Ottawa in early
November. Few delegates seemed happy with the
report, according to UBC representatives at the
Written by Louis-Philippe Bonneau, immediate
past-president of -the AUCC and vice-rector of
Laval University, and J. Alexander Corry, former
principal of Queen's University, the report differs
in important respects from others on science and
research policy that have come from the Science
Council and various federal government agencies in
recent months. *
It goes much further in its recommendations on
university research policy. It includes research in
the humanities and social sciences rather than
dwelling exclusively on- the physical and life
sciences. It is the only such document written not
by a government agency but by a national association representing the universities themselves.
Finally, the report is by far the most gracefully
and thoughtfully written of the recent crop.
The first part of the report, mostly written by
Dr. Corry, explains why universities should adopt
research policies. His explanation boils down to
The federal and provincial governments, which
provide the bulk of funding to university researchers, are in the process of adopting more
precise policies which will effect university research.
Universities had better put their own house in
order before the government does it for them, the
report says, in effect.
To some extent, the report says, the process is
already under way. Federal granting agencies have
initiated negotiated development grants, contracts
and other methods of guiding major research
efforts by universities. "Centres of excellence" and
other large research commitments are being
accepted by major universities. Universities without research policies have no way of deciding
whether accepting a particular research commitment is in its best interests or not.
Arguments against universities adopting any
research policy are usually based on the laissez-
faire attitude that the best interests of mankind lie
in allowing individual researchers to pursue whatever research they want. What Dr. Bonneau and
Dr. Corry are saying is that laissez-faire research is
already being eroded and that it is far better that
universities adopt a substitute than have an alternative imposed on them by someone else.
After justifying itself on that basis, the report
Please turn to Page Four
Vol. 18,No. 15/Nov. 16,1972/Vancouver 8,B.C.
For the second time in a year UBC's Senate has
been urged to take steps to expand continuing
education programs to enable students to earn
academic degrees on a part-time basis.
The most recent statement on the subject has
come from Mr. Gordon Selman, director of UBC's
Centre for Continuing Education, whose report on
the Centre's 1971-72 activities was received by Senate
at its regular monthly meeting last night (Wednesday,
Nov. 15).
Mr. Selman concludes a 51/2-page foreword to his
report by warning that if UBC does not respond with
some "vigorous new initiatives" in this area it will:
• Suffer unwarranted criticism from other sections of the educational community and from many
interested members of the general public; and
• Be in danger of losing its hard-earned and
much-cherished position of leadership in providing
educational opportunities for the adult citizens of
Much of Mr. Selman's bluntly-worded foreword
echoes the report of a 10-member Senate Committee
on Degree Programs for Part-time Students, chaired
by Prof. Peter Pearse, of the UBC Economics Department, which reported to Senate in March.
One of the conclusions reached by the Senate
committee was that the question of accommodating
part-time students is "important and urgent."
It is apparent that "a serious shortcoming" exists
in UBC's present arrangements for part-time students,
the report says, and that "action on the part of the
University is needed, action which involves careful
preparation and planning."
Four recommendations made  by  the committee
Please turn to Page Two
MIRROR-LINED MAZE creates some startling visual
effects in an unusual multi-media presentation
entitled "Inner Dialogue" which opens in the Art
Gallery in the Student Union Building tonight
(Thursday) at 7 p.m. Gallery Curator Rory Ralston is
reflected in one of the mirrored walls of the maze.
Students in Architecture, Applied Science, Fine Arts
and Commerce have pooled their talents to create the
show which features paintings and sculpture by
Father Dunstan Massey, of Westminster Abbey seminary, Mission City. The show will run for three
Committee Calls for
Nominees for Awards
Members of the University community have been
asked to nominate candidates for the 1972-73 Master
Teacher Awards by Dec. 1.
The awards, established in 1969 by Dr. Walter
Koerner, a former chairman and member of UBC's
Board of Governors, in honor of his brother, the late
Dr. Leon Korener, are intended to give recognition to
outstanding teachers of UBC undergraduates.
Winners of the 1972-73 awards will share a S5,000
cash prize contributed by Dr. Koerner.
Dr. Robert M. Clark, UBC's Academic Planner and
chairman of the 12-member committee that screens
nominations for the awards, said the committee
wished to begin as soon as possible the task of
assessing nominees who are eligible for the award.
At least two members of the screening committee,
which includes four students, visit the classroom of
each eligible nominee, and department heads and
deans are asked for an assessment of each candidate
in terms of a list of stringent criteria.
Regulations governing the awards and the list of
criteria are available at the Office of Academic
Planning in the Main Mall North Administration
Building, at the Woodward Biomedical, Main and Old
Sedgewick Libraries, at Room 270 of the McMillan
Building, at the AMS business office in the Student
Union Building, at the Dean's office in the Faculty of
Please turn to Page Two
Continued from Page One
were approved by Senate and the report was referred
to UBC's 12 Faculties, which were asked to review
their existing policies regarding opportunities for
part-time study and report back to Senate by March,
The recommendations adopted by Senate were:
1. That Senate adopt an explicit policy of encouraging the development of opportunities for part-
time study toward degrees where this is academically
and financially feasible;
2. That Senate request each Faculty to undertake
a careful examination of obstacles to part-time study
and prepare a positive statement giving guidance for
part-time studies for inclusion in the Calendar, and
that each Faculty report back within a year explaining changes made and justifying remaining
3. That Senate inform the Faculties and the
Registrar's Office of its policy toward part-time
studies and encourage them to assist applicants in
taking advantage of opportunities; and
4. That Senate initiate planning for the institutional, administrative and curriculum changes needed
to develop opportunities for part-time students.
Both the Senate report and Mr. Selman's foreword
point to a number of current trends in education
which create a sense of urgency on the question of
part-time studies.
Cited are rapid social and technological changes
and the need for retraining of people of all ages, the
changing attitudes of young people towards education and employment, the desire of married women
to return to education after the demands of children
Two Sales
UBC's Lost and Found Service is planning two
sales of unclaimed items during the academic year to
help support a 13-year-old boy and his family in the
Last year nearly $400 was sent to the family as the
result of two sales of unclaimed items plus money
found in unclaimed wallets. The funds were sent to
the family by Phrateres, the women's fraternal
organization, which assists at the sale of unclaimed
Mrs. Sandy Godard, a fourth-year Arts student and
superivsor of the Lost and Found Service, said she
plans to organize the first of two sales in the 1972-73
academic year before the Christmas break.
Last year the Lost and Found, which is located in
Room 105A of the Student Union Building, received
more that 840 items but was able to return only 315
to their owners.
Found items range from valuables such as watches
and jewelry to umbrellas, scarves, books, slide rules,
keys and lighters.
The Lost and Found is open weekdays from 12:30
p.m. to 2:30 p.m. Lost items should be sent to SUB
indicating, if possible, the location and date the items
were found.
If the Lost and Found is not open, goods can be
left in the SUB proctor's office, Room 100C.
Forms Available
Application forms for the $5,000 Queen Elizabeth
II B.C. Centennial Scholarship for 1973 are now
available at the University's awards office. Room 207
in the Buchanan Building.
The annual award, established to mark the visit of
the Queen to B.C. in 1971, is designed to enable
British Columbians, who have graduated from a
public university in B.C., to take further studies at
approved universities in the United Kingdom.
Applicants should be persons of "unusual worth
and promise." A committee which will screen applications will make its selection on the basis of "academic
achievement, demonstrated aptitudes, personal qualities and character, interest and participation in
university and community affairs, and proposed
programs of study."
Other regulations governing the award are available
with application forms.
2/UBC Reports/Nov. 16,1972
are reduced, and the increasing amount of leisure
time available to individuals.
Both documents point to the rapid development at
other B.C. universities and elsewhere of the availability of degree-credit work and of degrees themselves
on the basis of part-time evening study.
Mr. Selman, in his foreword, writes: "The general
observation which should be made about the program
at UBC is that in this area . . . UBC has fallen badly
behind both community need and the general educational developments in North America."
In spite of limitations in the UBC program, Mr.
Selman reports, enrolments have grown considerably
in recent years, but have not kept pace with national
trends. Part-time extension credit enrolments at UBC
have risen from 2,438 in 1967-68 to 3,206 in the
current year, approximately one-quarter of the
national rate of increase, he says.
Both documents point to the "assumption or
intention" on the part of the University that a
student would not earn a degree entirely by taking
correspondence courses or by enrolling in the May-
July Intersession for evening credit courses.
The report of the Senate committee says the UBC
Calendar "does not invite" part-time candidates and
adds: "Probably more important . . . are the
administrative obstacles that are encountered by
students who apply for part-time programs."
The Senate Report also deals at some length with
alternative institutional changes that would be
required to deal with part-time students. Possibilities
• An Evening College, an arrangement which
involves a separate institution with its own faculty.
• A Faculty of Part-Time Studies, which would
offer the advantages of facilitating the integration of
regular faculty members and special administrative
and curriculum arrangements for students, and the
disadvantage of a tendency to isolate part-time
• The Overload system, which now exists to a
limited degree at UBC and involves regular faculty
members teaching extra classes for extra remuneration. (Commenting on this system in his foreword,
Mr. Selman says faculty members are often criticized
for choosing to teach an evening course because "it is
felt by their department head that they are neglecting
more urgent and important matters such as their
research work").
• The Extended Day, a system under which
course offerings are simply spread over a longer
University day, including evenings and perhaps weekends. Faculty members would maintain a normal
teaching load.
Mr. Selman, in his foreword, favors the last
possibility set out in the Senate Committee's report
because it would be possible "to offer a regular and
representative program of courses in the evening
This would mean, Mr. Selman continues, that the
faculty of the University would have to be increased
in size to cover the additional teaching load.
"If, however, the universities are facing a period of
falling enrolments, it may be possible to undertake
some additional teaching of this kind without adding
staff," he says. "A mixed system of overload and
part-of-load teaching has been found satisfactory at
many institutions."
Open House
Needs Help
Intensive planning has begun for UBC's triennial
Open House which will be held on March 2 and 3 in
A joint student-faculty committee chaired by Mr.
John Keating, a fourth-year Commerce student, is
making plans for the event, which is designed to allow
the general public and elementary and secondary
students to see University buildings and research
"The committee badly needs voluntary student
assistance at this point to undertake the organization
of tours and guides and to co-ordinate Faculty
displays," Mr. Keating said.
Interested students are asked to contact Mr.
Keating in Room 230A of the Student Union
Open House will begin on Friday, March 2, at 3:30
p.m. and continue until 10 p.m. On Saturday, March
3, the campus will be open to visitors from 10 a.m. to
10 p.m.
Continued from Page One
Law   Building,   at  the   UBC   Bookstore  and   at the
Biomedical Branch Library, 700 West 10th Ave.
To be eligible for the award, faculty members
must have held a full-time teaching appointment at
UBC for at least three years and must be currently
teaching on the campus. During this period, candidates must have taught undergraduate courses in a
Winter Session.
Nominations may be made by students, faculty
members and alumni and should be sent to Prof.
Clark in the Office of Academic Planning. Last year a
record 35 nominations — 25 from students and ten
from faculty members — were received.
Those nominating candidates should offer an
evaluation with the following criteria in mind:
Having a comprehensive knowledge of the subject;
• Being habitually well prepared for class;
• Having enthusiasm for the subject, and the
capacity to arouse interest in it among students;
• Establishing a good rapport with students both
in and out of class;
• Encouraging student participation in class;
• Setting a high standard and successfully motivating students to try to attain such a standard;
• Communicating effectively at levels appropriate
to the preparedness of students;
• Utilizing methods of evaluation of student
performance which search for understanding of the
subject rather than just ability to memorize;
• Being accessible to students outside of class
Winners of the 1971-72 awards were Prof. Moses
W. Steinberg, of the Department of English, and Dr.
Bryan R. Clarke, a member of the Faculty of
Education and director of a training program for
teachers of deaf children.
Other past winners are: Prof. Sam Black, Faculty
of Education; Dr. John Hulcoop, Department of
English; Prof. Peter Larkin, Zoology; Dr. Floyd B. St.
Clair, French, and Dr. Walter H. Gage, UBC's President.
Members of the selection committee are: Prof.
Clark; Prof. Roy Daniells, University Professor of
English Language and Literature; Prof. Larkin; Prof.
W.A. Webber, Medicine; Dr. Ruth L. White, French;
Dr. E.K. Fukushima and Mrs. Mary Wellwood, representing the UBC Alumni Association; Mr. Gordon
Blankstein and Mrs. Karen Vickars, nominated by the
Students' Council, and Mr. Stan Persky and Mr. Greg
Oryall, representing the Graduate Students'
Outdoor Recreation
A panel featuring ice skater Karen Magnussen,
UBC football coach Frank Gnup and Mr. Cor
Westland, Director of Recreation Canada, Ottawa,
will be one of the highlights of a noon-hour series on
Outdoor Recreation on the University of B.C. campus
next week.
The series, which runs from 12:30 p.m. to 1:30
p.m. Tuesday, Nov. 21, through Friday, Nov. 24,
utilizes slide presentations, panel discussions and
lectures to focus attention on different aspects of
outdoor recreation. It is sponsored by the Education
Students' Association of UBC.
The panel discussion will be held on Thursday,
Nov. 23, in Room 100 of the Education Building, on
the topic "The Schools and Preparation for Leisure."
Moderator will be Prof. Lome Brown, Faculty of
Education, UBC.
Layton  Reads
Controversial Canadian poet Irving Layton will
read selections from his own work in the Frederic
Wood Theatre tomorrow (Friday) at 12:30 p.m.
Mr. Layton, who is the author of more than 20
books, teaches in the English department of York
University in Toronto.
■ ■■A^fc Volume 18, No. 15-Nov. 16,
ll^lffl 1972. Published by the
lllala University of British Columbia
MawMw^m and distributed free. UBC
REPORTS Reports appears on Thursdays
during the University's winter session. J.A.
Banham, Editor. Louise Hoskin and Wendy
Coffey, Production Supervisors. Letters to the
Editor should be sent to Information Services,
Main Mall North Administration Building, UBC,
Vancouver 8, B.C. National Highway Problems Studied
A massive series of studies on the problems and
prospects facing the Canadian highway system is now
being done by Prof. V. Setty Pendakur of the
University of B.C.'s School of Community and
Regional Planning.
Prof. Pendakur's assignment, as project manager of
the Canada Highway System Study for the federal
Transportation Development Agency, is to:
• Discover what highways are of national concern
or are likely to become so in the next 10 years;
• Determine what changes in transportation technology and population growth are likely to affect
national priorities in highways; and
• Determine what social and cultural effects
future highways could have on isolated communities,
especially in the North, and what ecological boundaries should be respected in highway construction.
Prof. Pendakur is on leave from UBC's School of
Community and Regional Planning from January,
1972, to July, 1973, with the federal Ministry of
He said that one reason for the study was that
Ottawa's involvement in current highway construction was coming to an end. Out of some $2
billion spent on roads and highways in Canada last
year, about $400 million came from municipalities
and about $180 million was supplied by Ottawa. The
remaining $1.4 billion or so was provincially
Another reason for the study is that highways
aren't a federal responsibility under the Canadian
constitution, though as the senior government,
Ottawa has taken on some responsibility to ensure
that highways are economically efficient and responsive to social needs.
"In the past," Prof. Pendakur said, "Ottawa
entered into transportation ventures, reacting to the
needs of the moment without any broad policy. Our
first job was to find out what common themes guided
Ottawa's decisions in the past.
"Why did Ottawa initiate the Trans-Canada Highway? Why did it build bridges? Why does it design
and build 90 per cent of the highways and roads in
the Yukon and Northwest Territories if roads aren't
its responsibility? Why does Ottawa pick up the
deficit for the ferry systems linking Newfoundland
with the mainland of Canada?
"We discovered that one of the last considerations
in Ottawa's decisions was the classical motive of
highway engineering: build a highway to meet traffic
demand. Virtually every other reason apart from
demand stimulated federal involvement in highway
"The Trans-Canada Highway wasn't necessarily
justified from the point of view of traffic engineering.
It was built for national unity. Nor can the proposed
Mackenzie Highway, announced by the federal
government six months ago, be justified by traffic
volumes alone.
"Ottawa has built highways for reasons of national
unity, for national defence, to protect national
sovereignty. In some parts of the country Ottawa has
used highway construction to try to stimulate economic activity and to reduce regional economic disparity. And excellent highways have been built from
Canadian cities to the United States border with an
eye to the balance of payments. The roads were seen
as an inducement to American tourists to come and
spend American dollars in Canada.
"Ottawa has used highway construction to support
and complement other national goals."
With this theme disentangled from the long history
of federal involvement in highways dating back to
1904, Prof. Pendakur set about deciding which
highways in Canada were of national interest. He did
this with the co-operation and assistance of the
provincial hiqhways departments.
He began by rejecting the usual criteria of traffic
volume - "by that standard nothing 200 miles north
of the border would be of national interest" - and
instead tried to find the cities and towns that are
economic or social centres for their surrounding
"In Canada this is very hard to do. A city of 4,000
people in southern Ontario is insignificant, for
example, but a city of that size in Alberta or New
Brunswick is a metropolis to its surrounding region,"
Prof. Pendakur said.
"Halifax is much -more important to all of the
Maritimes than Victoria is to B.C. Yet Halifax is only
slightly larger than Victoria."
His eventual compromise, accepted by the provincial governments, was to consider, as important
centres, communities larger than 5,000 in the
Windsor-Quebec corridor, communities larger than
500 north of 55 degrees latitude in the Western
provinces and north of 50 degrees in the Central and
Maritime provinces, and communities larger than
2,500 people elsewhere.
This identified about 400 centres. They are linked
by about 45,000 miles of highways, out of the total
of 500,000 miles of roads across Canada.
The next step was to find out what changes are
likely to occur in the next 10 years that would affect
highway use to these centres.
"We chose about 15 impending new technologies
that could have an effect on transportation to these
centres," he said. "They included automated highways, container unit trains, reduced air fares, large
UBC's Traffic and Security Department plans a more stringent enforcement
of car impoundment regulations as the
result of a growing disregard by drivers
for traffic and parking rules approved by
the Board of Governors.
Effective immediately, cars may be
impounded if they are impeding or
obstructing traffic or parked on University property without authority, or if an
unauthorized vehicle is occupying a
reserved parking space.
Cars owned by individuals who ignore
traffic offence notices will also be
impounded in future.
Mr. Hugh Kelly, superintendent of
UBC's Traffic and Security Department,
said there has been a growing number of
violations of University regulations in
recent months which cause inconvenience to members of the University
In some cases, he said, there has been
complete disregard for regulations and,
as a result, the Traffic and Security
Department must now begin to enforce
impoundment rules.
"The traffic office," he said, "will do
everything possible to assist members of
the University community with parking
problems and I invite individuals to
discuss problems with me at any time."
Mr. Kelly urged individuals to finalize
outstanding traffic offence notices as
soon as possible. Copies of University
Traffic and Parking Regulations are available at the Traffic and Security Department's offices on Wesbrook Crescent
between the Tenth Avenue Extension
and the 16th Avenue Extension.
freight aircraft and short take-off and landing aircraft,
among others.
"Our conclusions were that they wouldn't have
any appreciable effect in the next 10 years."
Two other studies are now being completed. One
investigates the impact of highways on northern
communities. The other tries to outline what environmental limits should be observed in highway construction in the North.
"Pushing a highway into a northern community is
really a cultural intrusion on that community. The
highway is being built for the benefit of people to the
south, as are railways, gas and pipe lines and other
connections. But do the northern communities want
the highways?
"We want to find the social effects of highways on
remote communities and, in another survey, what are
the limits of elasticity in the environment within
which highways must be built. In some regions there
is some stretch in the environment. In others there
isn't any at all.
"Caribou, for example, have a very defined pattern
of migration. If the cows are disturbed within a few
days of calving, the herd disperses and the calves run
the chance of dying of starvation since the calves and
their mothers can't recognize each other.
"Little is known of the Arctic and until we do
know what we're doing, we shouldn't do it."
Prof. Pendakur has begun two further studies. One
is on the impact of greater leisure time on highway
use. The other investigates the costs and benefits of
highways to the public and governments.
The reports that have flowed out of Prof.
Pendakur's work are available to the public.
"I believe very strongly that the fundamental
technical information should be public documents,"
he said, "so that people have a chance to look, listen,
see, hear, write, call, talk to the elected representatives so they can make policy decisions in a more
rational way."
Construction of a new electrical sub-station which
supplies pwer to UBC's main academic buildings has
begun on the Tenth Avenue Extension opposite the
new Physical Education gymnasium complex.
A high-voltage structure and two transformers will
be moved to the new sub-station site from their
present location adjacent to the Psychiatric Unit in
the Health Sciences Centre.
The cost of constructing the new sub-station —
$561,000 - is being shared by the B.C. Hydro and
Power Authority, UBC and the federal Health
Resources Fund.
It is expected that the new sub-station will be
operative sometime in the coming winter. There will
be no interruption of electrical service on the campus
when the changeover takes place, since the transformers will be moved one at a time.
A spokesman in UBC's Department of Physical
Plant said the new sub-station would be modern in
appearance and characterized by a "low profile."
UBC decided to move the transformers from their
present site because of their unsightly appearance and
because they produced a monotonous hum that was
disturbing to patients in the adjacent Psychiatric
Not all the equipment on the existing site will be
moved to the new sub-station. Remaining on the site
will be relatively quiet switching equipment, which
controls voltage.
In addition, UBC has agreed to purchase the
sub-station equipment from B.C. Hydro, which will
mean a cheaper rate for the power supplied to the
Deputy President William White said it is estimated
that the new rate will enable UBC to recover its share
of the cost of constructing the new sub-station within
seven years.
UBC Reports/Nov. 1.6, 1972/3 REPORT
Continued from Page One
tries to put research into perspective against other
university activities. The report comes down on the
side of teaching as the primary university function.
Research, the report says, can be and is done in
other institutions. But the university is our only
institution that passes on our cultural heritage from
one generation to another.
"The open society which makes room for initiatives to come from many quarters, the beliefs and the
social, economic and political structures which
buttress the open society, the determination to
master nature and use it for human purposes, the high
value put on the persistent search for truth, the doubt
that today's truth is the whole truth, freedom of
inquiry to express the doubt, are all part of the
culture," the report says.
"If the educated public does not understand the
linking of these elements of the culture and value
them, we are likely to lose them. Those that think
that free research is vital to our welfare should make
it their first concern to see that university teaching
transmits the elements of the culture which has
stimulated and protected that pursuit.
"It will not do to take teaching for granted and
assume it will be looked after somehow."
With this distinction and interrelation between
teaching and research spelled out, the report turns to
differences between various types of research. The
traditional divisions — basic, fundamental, pure,
applied, mission-oriented, curiosity-oriented,
problem-oriented — are confusing and have a science
prejudice. The report promotes two general classifications: frontier research and reflective inquiry.
Frontier research is empirical research and any
intellectual attempt to analyse the empirical evidence.
Reflective inquiry is intellectual synthesis. "When
we turn from the digging up, the verifying and the
assembling of what we know, to consider the larger
meaning of what we know and what is worth looking
for and what is worth looking at, we have moved into
an almost entirely intellectual activity," the report
"We are no longer putting Nature on the rack to
be interrogated . . . We are not digging in specialized
depth on the frontier: we are in the study or at the
chalkboard, reflecting on the known knowledge,
including the latest reports from the frontier.
"We are reflecting on what is conceivably know-
able, on hypotheses about man and his world, often
moving back and forth across the boundaries of
specialized study and observation."
Reflective inquiry is not synonymous with scholarship since scholarship is usually empty of synthesis,
the authors say. Good reflective inquiry produces
theories and hypotheses and benefits frontier
research. Scholarship doesn't, except by accident.
Without good reflective inquiry frontier research
can run into a blind alley. Reflective inquiry out of
touch with the frontier often becomes vacuous
Albert Einstein and J. Maynard Keynes spent most
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR of Creative Writing at
UBC, Mr. George McWhirter, has been named co-
winner for 1972 of the Commonwealth Poetry Prize
for his volume entitled Catalan Poems, which revolves
around characters in Catalonia, Spain, where the
author lived for a year before coming to B.C. in 1966.
The    Prize,    which    Mr     McWhirter   shares   with   a
4/UBC Reports/Nov. 16, 1972
Nigerian novelist and poet, is awarded annually by
the Commonwealth Institute for the best first book
of poetry published in the Commonwealth outside
Great Britain. The author, who was awarded an M.A.
degree in Creative Writing by UBC in 1970, is
currently working on a book of short stories and
another   book   of   poems   set   in   his  native   Belfast.
of their work in reflective inquiry.
Researchers involved in reflective inquiry are
crucial to good teaching. But those researching on the
frontier aren't and shouldn't be obliged to invest a
large part of their time in teaching.
The report recommends that universities recognize
this distinction between frontier research and reflective inquiry and accept the consequences.
The type of environment has an important effect
on the kind of research activity that goes on. The
university environment is most conducive to "basic"
research, much of which falls within the definition of
frontier research. "We believe," the report says, "that
a very substantial commitment to basic research is
vital to the progress and welfare of the country and
to the quality of the work universities do."
Universities should give the same weight to undergraduate teaching and reflective inquiry as is given to
frontier research and teaching graduate students when
judging faculty members for promotion and salary
increases, the report suggests.
Humanists have suffered more than any other
group from the concentration by universities and
funding agencies on frontier research. Since the
research of humanists, mostly reflective inquiry, is a
service to education through teaching, its main cost
should be covered by universities out of their annual
operating grants.
The Canada Council should continue to support
research in the humanities and social sciences on a
program which would give greater emphasis to projects in reflective inquiry.
Priority should be given to basic research in the
social sciences and humanities. The demand in
Canada and elsewhere for more and better social
science by government and other agencies is likely to
be greater than supply. More funding of frontier
research in the social sciences is needed.
Canada Council support for the social sciences has
been widely dispersed. ". . . if we are anywhere near
right about what lies ahead, much more funding will
be needed. But if it is to have the desired results in
any near future, much of it will have to be focused on
'good post-graduate centres' which, in their graduate
work and research, are going to be heavily oriented to
basic research.
"Very few, if any of the existing graduate and
research programs in Canadian universities have so far
shown this marked emphasis. So we are nearly in the
position of making a fresh start."
The report suggests an effort by Ottawa, in
consultation with the Canada Council and the Social
Science Research Council, to select experimentally
seven to nine graduate schools across the country that
have shown really good quality in graduate work in at
least two of the main social science disciplines, for
concentrated basic research funding.
Federal granting agencies should make direct
payments to the operating revenues of universities to
cover overhead costs of research. Failing a federal-
provincial agreement on the amount (since provincial
governments pick up the overhead costs of federally-
funded research through operating revenues) the'
amount should be 45 per cent of the value of each
The last and possibly most important recommendation of the report is that rationalization of university research have the following elements:
1. "Particular universities seeking to articulate
policies and objectives for themselves which keep in
mind local, provincial and national problems that
research can help to solve;
2. Time limits set on the discussions for this
purpose at and between the several universities;
3. Enough limits on the flow of research funds to
make it imperative to plan the best use of scarce
resources, and keep the universities in a locality or
region straining to co-operate and co-ordinate on this
4. Provincial governments identifying areas of
research of special interest to them, offering some
inducements to take them up;
5. Efforts at the national level by the federal
government, federal granting agencies, and discipline
associations in the several disciplines to identify areas
needing research, to define and list projects, to
stimulate the competent to undertake them on terms
and inducements that favor development of centres
of excellence and centres of specialization." UBC Research Fund Allocations
For Three-Year Period 1969-1972
Grants Total
More than
$13 Million
University of B.C. faculty members received
grants totalling $13,098,863 for research in the
1971-72 fiscal year, which ended March 31. This
was an increase of only $309,951 over the total
for the 1970-71 fiscal year.
Grants from agencies of the federal government declined by $56,537, from a high of
$9,988,471 in 1970-71 to $9,931,934 in 1971-72.
The decline was offset by increases in research
fund allocations from the provincial government,
from private and industrial sources in Canada and
from University funds.
Figures on research fund allocations at UBC for
the three-year period 1969-72 are compiled by
UBC's Office of Research Administration, which is
under the direction of Dr. Richard D. Spratley, a
former member of UBC's Chemistry Department.
Reproduced at right are tables which show the
sources of UBC research funds as well as the
source distribution and percentages for the last
three fiscal years.
Despite a decline in federal government
spending, Ottawa remains the largest single contributor to research at UBC. In 1971-72 federal
funds made up more than 75 per cent of the total
received by UBC.
The table on sources of research funds prepared
by the Office of Research Administration shows
that the provincial government more than doubled
its contributions from $199,917 in 1970-71 to
$553,436 in the last fiscal year.
Dr. Spratley pointed to the significant amounts
of money which were received by the University
during the 1971-72 fiscal year for research in the
fields of ecology and the environment.
The federal and provincial governments are
supporting extensive projects in the fields of water
resources and pollution control. Annual grants
over the past three years of approximately
$200,000 from the Ford Foundation are aiding a
training program and research projects in the
Institute of Animal Resource Ecology.
He also emphasized that the University has a
policy which prevents the carrying out of "secret"
or "classified" research by faculty members.
One of the functions of the Research Administration office, he said, is to examine applications
for research support to make certain there are no
restrictions on the publication of results.
In a few isolated cases, he said, the University
accepts funds for projects which involve a delay,
for a specified period, in publication of results. He
cited one project on the future development of
parks adjacent to highways in northern B.C. for
the provincial government.
Premature publication of the results of the
study could result in land speculation in areas
where parks are planned. Dr. Spratley said.
$     81,000
$     82,935
$     33,700
Atomic Energy Control Board
Canada Council
Central Mortgage & Housing
Energy, Mines and Resources
Energy, Mines and Resources — Water Resourcest
Defence Research Board
Fisheries Research Board
Indian Affairs and Northern Development
Industrial Relations
Local Initiatives
Medical Research Council
National Defence
National Health & Welfare
Health Grants
Welfare Grants
National Research Council
President's Emergency Research Expenditure Fund
Special Grants
National Cancer Institute
Penitentiary Service
Science Council
Other Federal
Total Federal Grants
t Department of Environment
* Department of Fisheries and Forestry
$ 73,695
$ 52,500
$ 68,000
Fish and Wildlife
Pollution Control
Health Services
Lands, Forests & Water Resources
Other Provincial
Total Provincial Grants
Grants From Canadian Sources	
Ford Foundation
U.S. Air Force
U.S. Army
U.S. Navy (Office of Naval Research)
Other U.S.
Total U.S. Grants
UBC Funds                                    	
$12,021,216**   $12,788,912**
** Totals of research funds shown in this table for each of the three years are not comparable with totals
published in previous issues of UBC Reports. This is due to the elimination from the totals for each of the three
years of financial awards and fellowships made to students. An article on financial awards to students will
appear in a future edition of UBC Reports when figures on awards made in the 1971-72 fiscal year are available.
Federal Government
Provincial Government
U.S. Sources
University Funds
Federal Government
Provincial Government
U.S. Sources
University Funds
$ 9,271,555
$ 9,988,471
$ 9,931,934
UBC Reports/Nov. 16, 1972/5 A LETTER ON YOGA AND A REPLY
Dear Sir:
A great deal of correspondence has recently
been published in the Vancouver Sun, some of it
reflecting incredible ignorance and prejudice, on
the subject of yoga. Yoga is presently being
introduced in the secondary and even primary
school system, a policy which reflects a welcome,
though very belated realization by school authorities that not all of the wisdom of mankind was
produced in Europe. Indeed, there is nothing in
Western civilization which compares to yoga, the
science of integration of the physical with the
spiritual being. The purpose of Hatha Yoga is, by
means of a great variety of physical exercises —
most of which are simple, common-sense and
feasible for anyone, without consideration of
physical shape and condition — to achieve mastery
over one's senses and one's mind. Yoga does not
divorce the spiritual from the physical; this is why
it is even practiced today by some Christian
monastic orders: to practice yoga has nothing to
do with conversion to Hinduism. Like many
others, I can testify to the general feeling of
well-being the practice of yoga can generate in a
person's physical and mental health.
It is therefore inadmissible that in our day and
age Physical Education students, who will be
responsible for the health of future generations,
should remain ignorant of even what yoga is. It is
furthermore surprising that at a time when yoga is
being introduced in the curriculum of our schools.
it should be kept out of UBC, because of the
prejudiced opposition of one man. Yet, this is
what is happening. Dr. Bina Nelson, director of the
Vancouver Yoga Fitness Institute, has offered to
teach yoga in the School of Physical Education at
UBC. This spring she submitted a lengthy and very
detailed description of her projected course. I
understand that this course was approved by the
Curriculum Committee, but vetoed by Professor
Osborne, head of the School of Physical Education. I believe that Physical Education students
and the University community in general should
be informed of those facts: let them decide
whether this is fair and is in conformity with the
spirit of academic experimentation and freedom,
to which the university is dedicated.
Yours sincerely,
Rene Goldman
Asian Studies
N.B.  — This is a personal  letter and in no way
involves the department.
UBC Reports asked Prof. R.F. Osborne, director of the School of Physical Education and
Recreation, to comment on Mr. Goldman's letter.
His reply follows.
Mr. Goldman's observations regarding yoga are
interesting and would have been taken into consideration by the Curriculum Committee of the
School of Physical Education and Recreation if
they had been presented in a reasonable way
through the proper channels.
Personally, I welcome the suggestions of faculty
members from other departments of the University and appreciate their interest in our program.
However, we must function within certain constraints and cannot implement all suggestions
which we receive for expansion of our official
curriculum. For example, from non-university
sources last year we were asked to consider new
programs in judo, karate, wrestling, European
handball, educational gymnastics, and other forms
of movement. None of these was considered by
the Curriculum Committee of the School, because
formal presentations were not forthcoming from
faculty members, from official agencies such as the
British Columbia Teachers' Federation, or the
Canadian Association of Physical Education, or
from sports governing bodies.
As far as yoga is concerned the subject has not
been presented by the Curriculum Committee to
the faculty of the School, and so it has not been
on the agenda of the Council of the School which
submits its recommendations to Senate. This
information would have been available to Mr.
Goldman if he had taken the trouble to enquire.
His suggestion that the director could, or would,
veto a recommendation of the Curriculum Committee is an insult to the members of the
Committee, and indeed, to other members of
faculty. It should be noted also that the director
has not received any offers concerning the
teaching of yoga.
In contrast to alleged "prejudiced opposition" I
am on record in recent months regarding yoga as
1. "I am not opposed to Hatha Yoga as a means
of exploring one's personal awareness and as an
instrument which may contribute to one's health."
(Letter to Dr. S.R. Brown, with carbon copy to
Dr. Peter Mullins, chairman of the Curriculum
Committee, September 25, 1972).
2. "In the meantime I would think that the best
way to introduce yoga into the school system on
any kind of substantial basis would be through a
specialized in-service training program." (Letter to
Mr. J. Armour, co-ordinator, Physical Education
and Athletics, Vancouver School Board, May 23,
All well-considered presentations are referred to
our Curriculum Committee and their report is
assured of fair and full consideration by the
faculty of the School of Physical Education and
Yours truly,
Robert F. Osborne
A new organization designed to provide an
expanded program of athletic activity for UBC
students, faculty members and staff began operating
on the UBC campus on Nov. 1.
Recreation UBC, the name of the new organization, reflects a recent expansion of campus athletic
facilities and an increased demand on the part of
students and other members of the University community for spare-time recreational opportunities, said
Prof. Robert Osborne, head of UBC's School of
Physical Education and Recreation.
For the payment of an annual fee, members of
Recreation UBC will be able to book space for
informal athletic activities for periods varying from a
single occasion up to an entire Winter Session.
The organization will also provide equipment and
supervisory and instructional services for those individuals or groups which request them. Towel service
will also be provided for some sports.
Sports included in Recreation UBC are volleyball,
basketball, badminton, squash, handball, tennis,
skating, weight lifting, circuit training and gymnastics.
Almost every sports facility on the UBC campus
will   be   used   in   the   new  program,   including  the
6/UBC Reports/Nov.. 16,1972
recently-completed gymnasium complex adjacent to
the Thunderbird Winter Sports Centre on the Tenth
Avenue Extension.
More than 80 students have already signed up for
Recreation UBC. Because the program could not
begin at the start of the current Winter Session, the
1972-73 fee will be $3. Next year the fee will be $5
for the entire Winter Session.
A Recreation UBC official said the heaviest demand so far had been for space for tennis, volleyball,
basketball and badminton on the part of individuals
or Faculty and residence groups.
Purchase of a membership card in Recreation UBC
does not restrict a student to participation in one
sport only. For instance, a student participating as a
member of a residence basketball team could also
book space for tennis or ice skating.
Two of the main features of the new program are
flexibility and informality, Prof. Osborne said. "A
fundamental difference between the new program
and the intramural program is that Recreation UBC
provides for unstructured activities on an informal
basis for individuals and groups who don't want to be
tied down to competing at stipulated times on a fixed
schedule," Prof. Osborne said.
The membership fee will enable the program to
provide equipment and supervisory and instructional
services, he said.
"Recreation UBC has been unfairly criticized in
some quarters as a scheme designed to obtain more
money from students to support athletic activity at
UBC," Prof. Osborne said.
"The real aim of the program is to provide a
service function which will enable more students to
take advantage of recreational opportunities in all
campus athletic facilities.
"With the completion of the new gymnasium
complex on the Tenth Avenue Extension we now
have the facilities to offer an expanded program. And
the individuals and groups who want to use the
facilities have indicated they are prepared to pay a
small annual fee for supervisory and instructional
services," he said.
Student clubs and other groups that wish to hold
single-occasion parties for, say, curling, will be able to
book a facility through Recreation UBC even if not
all those attending are members of the organization.
Some guest ticket privileges will be available for this
type of booking.
Recreation UBC is housed in Room 203 of the
War Memorial Gymnasium. Their telephone local is
By John Arnett
Geoffrey A.H. Pearson, career diplomat and son
of Canada's former Prime Minister, the Hon.
Lester B. Pearson, has come beck to university for
a year to help build a bridge.
"I suppose you could call it a bridge of
understanding between the Department of External Affairs and the university community," says
the greying, pipe-smoking father of five. .
"There has long been a feeling within the
Department of External Affairs that more should
be done to intensify contacts between those
responsible for implementing foreign policy and
people in universities who have the opportunity to
reflect on the broad, long-term consequences of
international events," Mr. Pearson told UBC
"One of the reasons that I am at UBC is to help
build a bridge between those on campus who deal
in theories about international affairs and those in
the department who are working on day-to-day
Mr. Pearson, who bears a close resemblance to
his father, has B.A. degrees from the University of
Toronto and Oxford University. He is one of three
Foreign Service Visitors to Canadian universities
this year from the Department of External Affairs.
The other two Visitors are at York University and
the University of Montreal.
An appointment as a Foreign Service Visitor is
actually a sabbatical on full pay for an academic
year, Mr. Pearson explained. "I can take any
course and do as much reading as I want in any
field, as long as it has some relevance to the
department and my work."
Mr. Pearson is also available to answer students'
questions about foreign service careers and to
conduct seminars, give lectures and generally act as
a resource person in international affairs.
In a 20-year career in the diplomatic service,
Mr. Pearson has had postings in Paris as Second
Secretary in the Canadian Embassy and in Mexico
City as First Secretary. He served with the NATO
Secretariat in Paris, on secondment from the
External Affairs Department, from 1958 to 1961.
For the past three years he has been Counsellor at
the Canadian High Commissioner's office in New
Delhi, India.
At UBC, Mr. Pearson is attached to the Department of Political Science ancl is also closely
involved with the Institute of International Relations.
"I am treated as a member of the faculty, but
actually I function as part faculty member and
part student," he said. "I receive no remuneration
from the University. No special office has been
made available to me; the one that I occupy is
normally held by a professor who is away on a
year's sabbatical."
The transition from a hectic schedule in the
busy Canadian Commission in New Delhi to a
quiet office on the fourth floor of the Buchanan
Building, and no particular schedule, takes some
getting used to, Mr. Pearson admitted.
First priority has been wading through dozens
and dozens of book titles to prepare a reading list,
a task he describes as "a challenge in itself,
considering the numbers of books that are available."
The books he has selected cover areas such as
the theory of international politics, studies of
decision-making and diplomatic practice.
Reading such material is an unaccustomed
luxury for a busy Foreign Service Officer, whether
he is stationed at home or abroad. But Mr. Pearson
believes it is necessary "because there is a real need
for research into decision-making and policy
options in the department."
Up to 1,000 telegrams can pour into the
department in Ottawa each day. "Decisions often
have to be made quickly with little time to give
much thought to the consequences or the reasoning behind them," he said.
University professors, on the other hand, have
time to sit back and take long, balanced looks at
problems of international concern and come up
with proposals and alternatives that can be of great
Career diplomat Geoffrey Pearson, third from
left, above, who bears a striking resemblance
to his father, former Canadian Prime Minister
Lester B. Pearson, listens intently to speaker
value to diplomats; in solving everyday problems.
"Actually, academics and Foreign Service
Officers have a lot in common," said Mr. Pearson,
who originally considered a teaching career before
opting for the foreign service.
"Just as a professor spends a lot of time writing
and preparing for lectures, the Foreign Service
Officer must write extensive reports for his government based on a careful evaluation of particular
"One man is sitting on campus preparing his
material from a scholarly point of view, the other
is in the field, writing from first-hand knowledge.
While the Foreign Service Officer has the benefit
of immediate facts, the professor can take a more
reflective approach."
As an example, he cited the FLQ crisis in
Quebec in October, 1970, which involved External
Affairs because of the kidnapping of British
diplomat James Cross. Later, the kidnappers asked
to be sent abroad. Lessons learned during the crisis
should be examined by academics as well as
officials of the External Affairs Department, Mr.
Pearson said.
Mr. Pearson, his wife Landon and three of their
five children have rented a house in Point Grey for
the academic year. Daughters Katherine, 16, Anne,
15, are at Lord Byng secondary and Patricia is at
Queen Mary elementary. Another daughter,
Hilary, 18, is a freshman at the University of
Toronto and son Michael, 13, is attending a boys'
private school in Ottawa.
Mrs. Pearson, who has a keen interest in
education (she is a former member of the Ottawa
School Board) is taking some teacher-training
courses at UBC.
World-wide travels notwithstanding, the
Pearsons immediately fell in love with Vancouver.
"It's the most beautiful city that I have ever
seen," Mr. Pearson said.
The return to university life, after a 20-year
absence, hasn't brought many surprises. "Things
don't seem to have changed that much since my
days at the University of Toronto," Mr. Pearson
"The students seem more politicized today, but
the same old causes — representation in university
government and the quality of teaching —are still
being fought.
"Students are more outspoken and concerned
about the biases of their professors before
accepting what they have to say in lectures. There
at a seminar presided over by Dr. Mark
Zacher, head of the table, director of UBC's
Institute of International Relations. Picture
by the UBC Photo Department.
is far more dialogue between student and professor
than there was 20 years ago."
As for the often-touted differences between
Canadians in the East and the West, Mr. Pearson
says he has yet to detect any real differences
mainly because he is just getting used to living in
Canada again after a long sojourn in India.
Though Mr. Pearson is not required to come up
with any final papers or formal conclusions on his
work at UBC, when he returns to Ottawa at the
end of the academic year, he's been in the
diplomatic service too long not to produce the
inevitable written report based on his experiences
and observations.
"I will have to write something, otherwise my
ideas will have no real form," he said.
Dr. Mark W. Zacher, director of UBC's Institute
of International Relations, said the university is
particularly pleased to have Mr. Pearson on campus "because as an individual, he is much more
open to academic-type critical analysis of
Canadian foreign policy than a lot of others in the
foreign service whom I have met."
"He is interested in reading modern literature
on international affairs written by academics and
is willing to consider the relevance that these
materials have in the formulation of foreign
The Foreign Service Visitors' program is only
one of many activities that have been devised by
the Department of External Affairs' Academic
Relations Service in its attempt to promote better
relations between the department and the universities.
Professors are periodically invited to Ottawa to
give talks and take part in seminars and some
professors are employed, for limited periods,
either at headquarters in Ottawa or in missions
The first academic to work for a full year in the
Department of External Affairs under this program was Prof. Charles Bourne, of UBC's Faculty
of Law, who was employed in the Legal Operations Division from September, 1971, to August,
Academics are also retained to prepare research
papers, do surveys or conduct conferences on
subjects of particular interest to the department.
UBC's Institute of International Relations is
currently carrying out a survey for the department
on Canadian expertise on a number of current
programs susceptible to international regulation
and co-operation.
UBC Reports/Nov. 16, 1972/7 WHAT A
The following article by Prof. James A. Stegenga,
an international relations expert at Purdue
University, argues that a university is not, or
should not be, a hotel, restaurant, playground,
employment agency or growth industry for un-
scholarly bureaucrats. The article first appeared in
The Educational Forum published by Kappa Delta
Pi, an honorary education society.
By James A. Stegenga
A major reason many of our universities are
troubled is that they have diversified their
activities into fields that they ought never to have
gotten into, and have subsequently lost the respect
of their students and faculties as well as the
general public.
Universities ought to be exclusively educational
institutions. As such, they ought to accommodate
three types of activity, and no more.
First, scholarship: The faculty has a duty to
search for the truth, add to the accumulation of
knowledge, produce new cultural materials. The
university should hire and pay these intellectuals
as well as provide them with labs, libraries, offices
and studios.
Second, teaching: The faculty has an obligation
to pass on the knowledge and skills of the culture
to the next generation. It is critical that the
abstract knowledge of the traditional humanities
and sciences be disseminated, not only because
these fields include all the indispensable tools for
other kinds of learning but also because studying
these matters helps the individual to realize his full
potential and personality.
Universities should engage in vocational training
as well since mastery of such trades as medicine
and law requires a foundation in the traditional
humanities and sciences. To support these teaching
and training activities, university officials should
provide classrooms, labs and theatres as well as
invite visiting artists and lecturers to complement
the teaching done by the resident faculty.
Third, service to the community: Universities
owe the community some service. For the most
part, however, the university community ought to
restrict its "service" activities to developing more
complete and sensitive people; training useful
clerks, technicians and professionals; and producing knowledge and cultural materials that are
"useful" for solving community problems.
There are many activities that are so clearly
unrelated to the university's central roles that they
ought to be excluded:
1. There is no legitimate, that is academic,
reason why universities should be in the hotel
business. University-run dormitories, cafeterias,
restaurants, barber shops, bowling alleys, laundries
and candy counters should be sold to the hotel
2. Intercollegiate athletics have no persuasive
academic basis and should not be an official
university activity.
3. There is no academic reason why placement
centres should be located on campus and run by
university bureaucrats ....
4. An amazing variety of manufacturing and
service business that universities have gone into
should be sold to private entrepreneurs. Electronics factories, airlines, banks, real estate conglomerates, parking garages, convention centres, golf
courses and whatnot should not be run by the
bureaucrats of any university that hopes to be
taken seriously as an educational institution.
But what harm do all these non-academic
activities do? Or what would be gained by spinning
them off or rejecting them?
First, if universities devoted all their energies to
their primary missions, their image would be
dramatically changed, and I think for the better.
At present, all concerned — faculty, students,
administrators, trustees, alumnae, the media and
general public — think of universities as primarily
entertainment organizations or trade schools. The
serious and vital work of scholarship and learning
takes a back seat in this picture; and scholars who
persist in writing books or artists who insist on
creating works of art have to defend themselves
against frequent on- and off-campus anti-
intellectual charges of doing unimportant, or
"irrelevant," work. As universities become viewed
as something other than academic institutions,
academic pursuits are belittled.
Second, the multiversity with all its inappropriate subsidiary activities has become a giant bureau
cracy. As such, it is almost inevitably clumsy, rigid
and stultifying. Worse, in bureaucracies, bureaucrats reign.
Nominally educational institutions find themselves downgrading those who ought to be seen as
the key people on campus (i.e., scholar-teachers
and students) and exalting the bureaucrats who are
deemed important primarily because of their
management of superfluous and damaging
activities. Thus, an anti-intellectual distortion of
values and priorities that we can ill afford is
encouraged by illegitimate university diversification.
Finally, if all irrelevant activities could be
abandoned, scores of self-important bureaucrats
could be fired or sent back to the classrooms and
labs. Professors and students could take their
rightful place at the centre of a much less
bureaucratized scheme. Presidents could spend
most of their time on campus supporting academic
activity rather than taking business trips to oversee
the university conglomerate. Learning could come
first once entertainment and business enterprises
were sold off.
Who knows? Maybe more students would take
the learning experience seriously if they were no
longer almost compelled to hold the university's
entertainment speculators uppermost; they might
even become serious young adults earlier if the
university stopped promoting the indefinite extension of adolescence.
8/UBC Reports/Nov. 16,1972


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