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UBC Reports Jul 16, 1992

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Photo by Charles Ker
DIGGING THROUGH TIME: It took UBC archeology students four weeks to uncover the remains of what
they believe to be a territorial chief buried under one of 35 ancient burial mounds found near Mission.
Sacred burial sites unearthed
On a wooded slope where the
Harrison and Fraser rivers meet,
Michael Blake proceeds to give his
visitor the lay ofthe land.
'To the left is a residential zone,"
says the UBC archeology professor,
gesturing to a series of rectangular
depressions in the earth. 'To the
right, we have a sacred burial area
stretching in one great, long row."
The burial sites, unmistakable
mounds of earth hugging the hill
side, range in size from small rock
cairns to huge swells three metres high
by 12 metres across.
Inside two of the larger mounds,
teams of third-year archeology students quietly dig for human bones.
Soil acids may long since have eaten
away any remains, but the excavators
are sure the stone crypts still have a
unique story to tell.
"This might be one of the most important sites in B.C. because of what it can
tell us about the prehistory of the Fraser
Valley," said Blake. 'It has the potential to explain a great deal about how
complex societies evolved here."
Three days later, the UBC archeology team unearthed the most
elaborate human burial yet found in
the province: human bones, copper
discs, abalone shell pendants and
hundreds of tiny beads cut from
dentalium shells all wrapped in cedar bark and blankets probably
made from mountain goat wool.
See FIND on Page 2
baraof tliaQsuyi'ai'jIiy Dept;
Mtow the evolution of the
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Hm science of ecology. Pro-
scientist DavW akin* puts
forth a new sofealon to the
constitutional question.
Ashworth wins Alumni
Award of Distinction
Professor Emeritus Mary Ashworth
is this year's winner of the Alumni
Award of Distinction.
Internationally renowned for
her work as an English as a second language teacher, Ashworth
(MEd '67) was one of five individuals recently recognized by the
Alumni Association for distinguished service as alumni, faculty or volunteers.
Lloyd Douglas Hayward, professor emeritus from the Dept. of Chemistry, received the Faculty Citation for
outstanding service to the community
outside a faculty member's teaching
and research duties.
The Blythe Eagles Volunteer Service Award for exemplary service to
the association went to Robert Clark
(BA '42), a professor emeritus from
the Dept. of Economics.
Michael Goldberg, dean ofthe Faculty of Commerce, received the Honorary Alumni Award for non-alumni
active in association affairs.
Basil Peters (PhD '82), chairman
of Nexus Engineering, was the Outstanding Young Alumnus Award
Faculty contract
'sensible' says
association head
"We are particularly pleased that
this ... contract... has been reached
through the process of negotiation,
without recourse to arbitration."
The new contract agreement
signed recently by UBC faculty members compares favorably with other recent
settlements at Canadian universities,
says Faculty Association President
William Bruneau.
"Ontario universities, faced with a
one per cent overall budget increase in
the current year, are negotiating agreements of between zero and one per
cent, and considering rollbacks in a
few instances," he said.
The UBC 	
ratified    in
June by 92 per
cent of members of the association and "^^™"""
the Board of Governors, includes salary increases and improvements to maternity leave and the career progress
increment plan.
It covers about 1,900 faculty members, librarians and program directors
with the Centre for Continuing Education.
"We are particularly pleased that this
is the second consecutive contract agreement with the Faculty Association that
has been reached through the process of
negotiation, without recourse to arbitration," said Dr. William Webber, associate vice-president, academic.
The two-year agreement includes a
3.5 per cent general wage increase retroactive to July 1,1991, and a one per
cent general wage increase (based on
salaries at June 30,1991) retroactive to
April 1, 1992.
There are no further general wage
increases in the second year of the
Bruneau said the association reluctantly accepted the salary freeze in the
second year in recognition of the "extraordinary difficulties faced by the
Although Bruneau said negotiations
were complicated by the provincial
government's Compensation Fairness
Act (intended to control wages in the
public sector, the act has since been
rescinded), the settlement permits extension of career progress increments
to more Faculty Association members
than in past years.
"We are not happy with the direct
interference of the provincial government or with the effect of an absolute
limit of zero per cent," he said. "But,
recognizing the difficulty facing gov-
  ernments and
the public right
across the
country, we
feel it is a sensible agree-
""^~"'"■"—~"^ ment."
As well as the general salary hikes,
another three per cent of the total faculty salary base was made available,
starting July 1,1991, for discretionary
increases including merit, anomaly
and inequity, and career progress increments.
Similar increases totalling three per
cent took effect as of July 1,1992, with
a further $250,000 allocated to topping
up salaries of those in the bottom 20 per
cent of their salary range.
Most faculty can expect to see retroactive pay increases appearing on July
Improvements to maternity leave,
some of which will require the approval of the Unemployment Insurance Commission, are also part of the
new agreement.
Bruneau said the agreement also
reaffirmed a minimum salary scale for
sessional lecturers and extended the
number of years that full professors are
eligible for career progress increments.
As well, the two parties agreed to
discuss the administration of the faculty pension plan and the possibility of
transfer of tuition waivers to spouses.
- Olympic snapshot-
Q: What well-known UBC
professor played on the
1948 Canadian Olympic men's basketball
Read our special report
on UBC at the Olympics
on pages 4 and 5 of this
(answer: Pat McGeer) 2    UBC REPORTS July 16.1992
Geographers pen rich account of Vancouver
When he arrived on campus two
years ago, publisher Peter Milroy was
admittedly "uneasy" about a project
he inherited at UBC Press.
The task involved publishing a
richly illustrated book produced by 19
geographers working in the same department in about half the normal turnaround time.
"Like all publishers, I have learned
to be wary of collaborative works,"
said Milroy, UBC Press director.
"They can often involve an unforeseen clash of personalities and always
present the opportunity for an exponential expansion of Murphy's Law."
Milroy's anxiety was put to rest
earlier this summer with the launch of
Vancouver and Its Region, an all-
encompassing look at Vancouver's
past, present and future.
Produced entirely by UBC's Dept
of Geography, the book is a unique
collaboration bringing together schol
ars whose research interests range from
the humanities to the natural sciences.
Written for a general audience, its
nine chapters chronicle the social,
demographic and technological transformations that have helped shape the
city, while examining the ecological,
economic and political challenges that
lie ahead.
Graeme Wynn, historical geographer and associate dean of Arts, said
the book was prompted by a growing
uneasiness that as geographers and
other academics become more specialized, their research also becomes
more isolated from the public.
As chief editor, Wynn wrote in the
book's preface: "From the first, we
strove to develop an integrated set of
accessible essays that would convey a
sense ofthe broad range of fascinating
and distinctive perspectives that Geography offers for the understanding
of places while demonstrating the sub-
ject's capacity to put the increasingly
fragmented pieces of modern scholarship together in a compelling and
informative manner."
Professor Timothy Oke, co-editor
and head ofthe Geography Dept., cited
accessibility as one ofthe key aims of
the project.
"Some of the scientists found it
difficult to interpret technical material
for the general public but we had to
make it readable," he said. "Our goal
was to try and get people connected to
this place, to realize that they are a part
of it and that the region is changing
very quickly."
Vancouver and Its Region was initially funded by a grant from the Royal
Canadian Geographical Society which
allowed the appointment of several
graduate research assistants to work
on the project.
Its launch coincided with the annual conference of the Canadian Association of Geographers hosted by
UBC in May.
Impressive headgear
Photo by Joe Najpl
Giantantlers ofthe extinctIrish Elk appearto loom overM. Y. Williams Geological Museum curator foe
Nagel. The antlers, which span three metres, were on display for just one day earlier this month.
Find tells of structured society
Continued from Page 1
Blake said the discovery gives irrefutable evidence that the people living there were part of an elaborate
hierarchy and not members of some
egalitarian hunting and gathering society.
"Without a doubt, this demonstrates
that the present day Scowlitz people
are descendants of ancient chiefs,"
said Blake, who noted that the skull
features and jewelry found in the grave
indicate a chiefs burial.
Lying opposite the Scowlitz Band
reserve on the Harrison River east of
Mission, the archeological treasure
sits on land owned by Canadian Forest Products Ltd. It had been surveyed in 1963 but nothing, aside from
10 small cairns, was noted.
During the first few days of a five-
week, summer field school, UBC researchers hacked out a 200-metre
swath of bush and uncovered an unprecedented 35 burial mounds and 25
house depressions.
Significant for the mounds alone,
the site has also produced a myriad of
historical artifacts including clay
pipes from the Hudson's Bay Co.,
musketballs, spearheads and other
stone tools.
On a reconnaissance visit to the
site in March, graduate student Brian
Thom found a perfectly preserved slate
fishing knife packed in clay and submerged in shallow water.
Called a kwetsel by the Scowlitz,
the knife is believed to be the only one
of its kind found with a wooden handle still intact. The knife has since
been sent to the Canadian Conservation Institute in Ottawa for preservation treatment and a minute sample
sent to Florida for radiocarbon dating.
Along with the kwetsel, Thom and
Kathryn Berwick, a "wet-site" specialist, also found bits of basketry and
cedar-bark matting, again perfectly
preserved in the river bank.
"It was amazing because we literally tripped over all this stuff," said
Thom, who will devote his master's
thesis to the site. "A lot of it was just
hanging out from the bank."
Blake said the village is one of
about 20 known archeological locations in the province to have these
water-logged, organic deposits. In
addition, there are also four, giant
crater-like depressions on an adjacent island which are of interest
because they resemble Salish
pithouses more commonly found in
the Interior.
As for the mounds, Gordon Mohs,
heritage consultant forthe Sto:lo Tribal
Council, said the team's findings rep
resent one of the most important discoveries in B .C. archeology since most
similar sites were bulldozed long ago.
The last burial mound excavated in the
province was during the Second World
War at Cowichan Bay.
It is believed high-status people were
entombed underthe larger mounds, lesser
classes under the smaller ones and countless hundreds of common citizens buried
in unmarked graves scattered along the
"Whether they were built up in
one shot or incrementally, we don't
yet know," said Blake. "Perhaps they
were part of an annual renewal ceremony."
Working 12-hour days, five days a
week, the 11 members of the UBC
field school excavated the mounds
with metal pails and trowels, carefully
cataloguing all they found.
Before leaving, the human remains
were put back and a special ceremony
was conducted by elders from the
Scowlitz Band to consecrate the
Together, all the artifacts and structural features indicate the site was an
important village occupied continuously for some 5,000 years up unti 1 the
late 1800s. To" Blake and Mohs, it
represents decades of future archeological research.
Original painting by Jim McKenzie
An illustration from ihe book Vancouver and Its Region portrays the
site of the present city of Vancouver as it would have looked in 1792.
UBC students rank
high in number of
fellowships granted
Forty-three UBC students have
been offered doctoral fellowships
by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
(SSHRC) to study at the university
in 1992-93.
An additional two students have
been awarded fellowships to study
elsewhere while three more awards
will go to incoming scholars.
UBC's fellowship total of 48 is
second only to the University of
Toronto's 72. Other totals include
the University of Montreal, 44,
McGill University, 32, McMaster
University, 24 and the University
of Western Ontario with 20 fellowships.
Olav Slaymaker, associate vice-
president of research for the humanities, interdisciplinary initiatives and social sciences, said
UBC's excellence in these areas is
often overshadowed by research in
the natural, applied and health sciences.
"The fact is that UBC has consistently been among the top universities when it comes to social
science and humanities scholarship," he said.
The council selected a total of
626 Canadian doctoral students
from a list of 3,126 applicants for
the fellowship awards. Each award
is valued at $14,436 a year.
Representing about 45 disciplines in the social sciences and
humanities, the recipients will either start or continue full-time studies leading to a doctorate from a
Canadian or a foreign university.
As the primary federal funding
agency for research and training in
the social sciences and humanities,
SSHRC will invest $92.4 million
for research grants, fellowships and
programs this year.
The breakdown of doctoral fellowship awards by discipline at
UBC for 1992-93 is one each for
philosophy, interdisciplinary studies, art history, religious studies,
history, anthropology, english literature, musicology, theatre and
linguistics, two in comparative literature and economics, three in
administrative studies and English-
Canadian literature, four in sociology and geography, five in political
science, seven in psychology and
eight fellowships in education.
How to be a Local Hero
L.OOK for ways you can volunteer and make your community a
better place to live. Find out where your friends and neighbours
are giving their time and money and join in. r^_ -^^±
Be a Local Hero. . T&iF^5
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giving and volunteering
A new spirit of giving
Advertise in
ubc Reports
Deadline for paid advertisements for the
August 13 issue is noon, August 4.
For information, or to place an ad,
phone 822-3131 UBC REPORTS July lit. 1992       3
Art and science to
join hands in forest
Four Vancouver artists have embarked on a project to develop a
unique British Columbia tourist
destination which blends culture
with nature in the Malcolm Knapp
Research Forest.
The Enviro-Art project is the
brainchild of controversial Vancouver artist Rick Gibson who,
several years ago, planned to squash
a rat, on canvas, with a cement
brick in the name of art.
He didn't follow through, however, because of the public outcry
that ensued.
What he will do at the Malcolm
Knapp Research Forest should be
far less controversial. Gibson,
Kempton Dexter, Caroline Figol
and LyciaTrouton plan to combine
contemporary art with nature and
science in a project patterned after
the Grizedale Sculpture Forest in
"The village of Grizedale hosts
150,000 tourists throughout the
year, where hikers encounter art in
a modern research forest," said
"I was fortunate enough to be
among them three years ago and
approached UBC to see if the university would be interested in developing a similar project."
Don Munro, director of the
Malcolm Knapp Research Forest,
said the university embraced the
government-funded idea as a
chance to meld science and art.
"Those opportunities don' t come
around too often," he said.
Munro said Gibson and the three
other artists will be given room to
create from materials found in the
"Scientists and researchers at the
forest are excited about the project
and the chance to work side by side
with local artists," said Munro.
The finished works will be left
on permanent display within sight
of the hiking trails and will not
require maintenance. Gibson believes the project, funded through
the community tourism employment training program, will add a
new cultural dimension to the Maple Ridge area.
One project Gibson is looking at
is a sculpture that deer can eat. He
is currently researching their eating
habits and has discovered they feed
on tree seedlings, lichens and apples.
If he goes ahead with the idea,
Gibson will take periodic photos
of the exhibit as it is being eaten
by the deer. The photos would
eventually form the basis of his
Gibson said the other three artists are still looking at a variety of
possible projects. He hopes the
Enviro-Art project will be completed by the end of autumn.
Head injury sufferers
Manual to help caregivers
"We have the technology to keep
people alive, but where is the support
for quality of life in the long-term?"
It's a question that Sonia Acorn, an
assistant professor of Nursing at UBC,
has asked herself for a long time. Now
she has an answer.
Acorn is producing, with colleagues
Julie Flather and Judy Little, the country's first education and support
manual for family caregivers of head
injury survivors.
"Increased trauma care means that
head injury survivors can now be expected to live as long as anyone else,"
said Acorn. "Unfortunately, most of
their care must be provided at home,
which is not always the appropriate
place for the type and extent of care
they require."
Acorn attributes the problem to a
scarcity of professionals with the necessary expertise and training — particularly in smaller communities—to
cope with the increasing number of
"As a result, there is great potential
for burn-out, exhaustion and social
isolation for families who provide head
injury survivors with care at home,"
she said.
Acorn based her findings on a
province-wide survey of families
who were caring for a head injured
survivor at home. The majority of
the participants were mothers caring for their sons, usually in their
teens or early 20s, who suffered
head injuries as a result of motor
vehicle or industrial accidents.
Her research indicates that, in addition to the physical care needs of
head injury survivors, the greatest
problems they face are behavioral,
intellectual and with their communication skills.
Typically, they experience short-
term memory loss and fatigue, and
become easily agitated.
"They go home after rehabilitation
and find that they can't live by themselves," Acorn said. "They can't function outside the structure ofthe hospital where they have been cared for
around the clock. Very simple things
throw them in a tizzy."
Currently, the only alternative to
home care is for the head injury survi
vor to be placed in an extended care
facility with predominately elderly
patients. Paid at home caregivers are
Acorn hopes the manual will help
family caregivers increase their understanding of the needs of the head-
injured family member, and improve
their ability to cope with caring for
him or her.
Designed in modules, the manual
covers such topics as impact on the
family system, impact on the
caregiver, balance and life tasks, community resources and special issues.
Production of the manual, which
will be available next January, was
funded by the B.C. Health Research
Photo by Media Services
Sonia Acorn hopes to address the difficulties facing family members
trying to cope with caring for head injury victims.
Don't blame Rio: summit defined issues, Rees says
"Hey, how do you know all
this? " I wondered.
"Bill Rees," he said
- Stan Persky in a Vancouver
Sun column on ozone depletion
When talk turns to the environment, often the first name on
people's lips is Bill Rees.
Next to David Suzuki, he is
UBC's best-known advocate for
the environment.
A professor of resource ecology in the School of Community
and Regional Planning since
1969, Rees investigates the ecological basis for economic development. His research has
taken him from the Peruvian
Andes to the Arctic.
Rees was a founding member
of Pollution Probe, established in
1969 as one of Canada's first environmental groups.
He was also a key member of
the City of Vancouver's task
force on atmospheric change,
which two years ago produced
the landmark report, Clouds of
Change. He has served as an
environmental consultant for
more than 20 years.
His outspoken, often chal-
"We, as a planetary civilization,
are now confronting the first
shock of planetary angina."
lenging opinions have made him
a notable public figure, whether
he is speaking in a church basement in Dunbar, at a major conference in Washington, D.C, or
in the media.
Despite all of this, Rees rejects the
environmentalist label.
"Environmentalism tends to be too
ideological. I consider my-
self to be
a scien-    ____^______
tist,    an
ecologist," says Rees, who began his
academic career in zoology. He holds
a PhD in bio-ecology from the University of Toronto.
Until the mid-1980s, the major focus of his work was the
impact of development on the
Canadian north. Since then, his
attention has turned to global
environmental trends and the idea
of sustainable development.
That much-debated concept does
not mean — as some would have it
— that we can maintain our current
economic system, he says. Our
economy requires continuous
growth, and as presently structured,
this is based on the "liquidation of
our natural assets."
Humanity today consumes more of
nature's goods and services than are
produced by the world's ecosystems,
threatening a global crisis.
Rees points out that the signs are
everywhere: the collapse of once
abundant fisheries, the depletion of
agricultural soils, disappearing forests,     desertification,   the
thinning of the
ozone layer.
'These are all
—————    related symptoms ofthe same
problem — over-consumption by excessive human populations," he says.
Rees compares current concerns  with the environment to
people who abuse their bodies
all their lives and then, suddenly
suffering angina, start worrying
about their health.
"They go through a whole lifestyle change. They stop smoking, they stop drinking, they stop
eating fat. That's what we, as a
planetary civilization, are now
confronting — the first shock of
planetary angina."
He believes humankind must recognize that it is dependent on the
natural world, and that the earth's
ecosphere is the source
of all energy and matter.
"The economy is
simply the mechanism
by which we have organized to extract the
products of photosynthesis, as well as mineral resources, for human use.
"We like to think of
ourselves as the great
producers, but in thermodynamic terms, we
don'tproduce anything
— we just consume."
Despite the failure  at  the  recent
Earth Summit in Rio
de  Janeiro  to  address the key issues
facing the world today  — over-consumption in the developed world and over-population in developing countries —
Rees believes it was a worthwhile
It is important to think of Rio as
the "second major step in global
consciousness-raising," he said, the
first being the publication of the
Brundtland report, which popular-
ized the concept of sustainable
development in the mid-1980s.
But at least the Earth Summit
crystallized the issues, Rees says,
and soon we will see increasing
sophistication in the environmental debate and in pressure put on
governments to "come to grips
with reality."
1 4    UBC REPORTS July 16.1992
Snecial Renort:
The men's coxless four
from UBC earned a gold
medal for Canada at the
1956 Olympics.
Athletes sweat it out
in Barcelona
Barr's advice to endurance
athletes is: drink up.
Two litres an hour.
It has nothing to do with speed
or distance on the playing field.
Yet it is a measurement that could
play a critical role in determining
the success of endurance athletes at
the Summer Olympics.
Endurance athletes, like marathon runners and long-distance cyclists, can lose up to two litres of
fluid an hour during competition.
With temperatures expected to
reach the 40 degrees Celcius in
Barcelona during the games, failure to replace lost body fluids could
be disastrous.
"Dehydration can result in heat
stroke, which can leave a person
comatose and can even result in
death," said Susan Barr, an associate professor in the School of Family and Nutritional Sciences.
The importance of
dehydration during
has been recognized for some time,
said Barr. However, she added, the
recent development of
hyponatremia (low blood sodium
levels) in a few ultra-endurance athletes has led some experts to suggest that athletes limit their fluid
Hyponatremia can occur either
as a result of excessive losses of
sodium through sweat, or through
diluting blood sodium levels by
drinking and retaining more fluid
than is lost.
"It is a serious condition which
can result in confusion, vomiting
and convulsions," said Barr.
Barr studied eight subjects to
determine the effects of different
types of fluid replacement during
endurance exercise over a moderate time period—longer than most
Olympic events will take, but
shorter than ultra-endurance events
such as ironman triathlons.
They each took part in three,
six-hour cycling trials in a temperature-controlled heat chamber
set at 30C.
During one set of trials, the subjects replaced lost fluids with equal
amounts of water. During another
set, they replaced lost fluids with
equal amounts of a saline solution
containing sodium in amounts similar to those found in commercially-
available sports drinks. During the
third set of trials, they completely
restricted fluid intake.
"When drinking either water or
saline solutions, the subjects' blood
sodium levels did decrease, but
remained within the normal range,"
said Barr.
"Water did the job just as well
as the saline solutions because there
wasn't enough salt in the saline
solution to maintain pre-exercise
blood sodium
——————   levels."
when the sub-
 _____ jects completely restricted fluid intake, both body temperature and heart rate increased
steadily and only one subject was
able to finish the trial.
"Five subjects quit because they
were too exhausted to continue and
another had to quit because his
heart rate reached 95 per cent maximum capacity."
Barr said fluid intake kept the
heart rate stable at around 70 per
cent of maximum — an appropriate level for the exercise being done
—and body temperature down to a
near-normal 38C.
Barr's advice to endurance athletes is: drink up.
"Elite endurance athletes competing in the Olympics don't have
to worry about taking in too much
fluid because it would pretty well
be physically impossible to stomach more fluid than they are losing
as sweat. The closer they can come
to replacing lost body fluids, the
better they'll be able to perform."
A proud Olympic history
"Citius, Altius, Fortius."
The first UBC athlete to take the
Olympic challenge —faster, higher and
stronger—was sprinter Harry Warren,
who represented Canada at the 1928
summer games in Amsterdam.
Since then, more than 160 UBC
students, coaches and officials have
worn Canada's colors in Olympic competition, resulting in 50 medals for
Canada. The latest will suit up in
Barcelona, Spain, at the games of the
25th Olympiad, which run from July
25 to Aug. 9.
Over the years, the rowing teams
have been the dominant UBC Olympic force. More than 50 rowers from
UBC have represented Canada in Olympic competition, according to UBC
Athletics historian Fred Hume, none
more successful than the 1956 four-
oared and eight-oared crews.
Thatyear, theUBCcampus was awash
in Olympic gold, thanks to the performance of the rowing team in Melbourne,
Australia. Under the auspices of coach
Frank Read, the men's fours came away
with the gold medal, while the men's
eights captured the silver.
Eight years later, in Tokyo, Roger
Jackson, who later became president of
the Canadian Olympic Association,
teamed up with George Hungerford to
capture the pairs gold. Jackson is one of
nine UBC athletes to compete in three
Olympics, having also appeared inMexico
City in 1968 and Munich in 1972.
UBC s most recent success in rowing came in Los Angeles in 1984, with
Pat Turner and Paul Steele among the
members of the gold-medal-winning
eights team. Tricia Smith, who appeared in three Olympics, was a silver
medal winner in the pairs that year.
UBC's Olympic hopes in rowing
this year rest on the shoulders of Megan
Delahanty and Cedric Burger.
Delahanty, a PhD candidate in the
field of biochemistry, will compete in
the women's eight, while Burger,
fourth-year physical eductation student, will take part in the men's coxless four.
UBC athletes have also excelled in
track and field, with more than 30
Olympic appearances. The 1972 season was a very good one for UBC
track and field, with six members of
the women's varsity track team and
five members of the men's team appearing in Olympic competition, along
with coach Lionel Pugh.
However, despite the numerous
appearances by UBC track and field
athletes in Olympic competition, no
medals have been won. The task this
year belongs to former UBC student
Graeme Fell, who will be returning
this fall, and Paul Williams, who will
be attending UBC in September.
Dr. Doug Clement, co-director of
the Allan McGavin Sports Medicine
Centre, is another three-time Olympian. He was on the 1956 Olympic
track team as a competitor and put in
an appearance in 1984 and again four
years later as a coach.
UBC has also been well represented
on the Olympic front in field hockey,
with more than two dozen appearances by UBC athletes and officials.
Several UBC Olympians have excelled at more than one sport. Perhaps
the most unique was Joy Ward Fera,
who, after a career at UBC as an outstanding performer with the ski team,
went on to compete in Montreal in
1976 as a rower.
On a winter note, Canada's Olympic
hockey team at Innsbruck in 1964 was
based at UBC, and featured former UBC
Athletics Director Bob Hindmarch, who
was the team manager.
UBC's latest taste of winter Olympic competition came earlier this year
in Albertville, France, where alum Rick
Amann suited up — for the German
hockey team.
Paige takes the big plunge
As a youngster, Paige Gordon always dreamt of taking part in the Olympics — as a gymnast.
Now, seven years after making a
decision to forego gymnastics in favor
of diving, Gordon will live out her
Olympic dream from the 10-metre
diving board at the 1992 summer
games in Barcelona.
"My sister, Megan, was the diver,"
reflected Paige, 19.
"One day I went to the pool, put on
my swim-suit, and dove. I'm not sure
I know why I stuck with it, but I did,
and began to do well in it."
For two years, Paige, now a
second-year Arts student, tried her
hand at both sports. Then, at the
age of 12, with pressure coming
from her coaches to make up her
mind, she made the decision to
drop gymnastics and concentrate
on diving.
"It was the right decision," she
said. "However, I started as a gymnast and I always wanted to be a
gymnast. Even now I regret quitting,
but, my prospects seemed brighter in
Paige is going to the Olympics following her first-place showing in the
10-metre diving trials in Winnipeg in
Megan, a 21-year-old entering her
fourth year in Commerce and Business Administration, needed a second-place showing to join her sister on
the Canadian team.
She finished third.
"Each competitor had to turn in 14
dives in Winnipeg," said Paige.
"Megan lost itjifst a bit on her third-to-
last dive and just couldn't make up the
lost ground.
"She came so close. It was a tre-
Paige Gordon takes flight
above the diving pool as
she prepares for the Summer Olympics.
mendous disappointment."
The Gordon sisters have been
competing together "forever," said
Paige. They were on the Canadian
team at the Pan American Games in
Cuba last summer and have performed in numerous international
meets together.
Megan will move on to several European meets before catching up to her
sister in Barcelona, as a spectator.
"Megan is the only one who knows
what I'm going through," said Paige.
"She can give me the kind of support
that no one else can. It's important for
me to know that she'll be in the stands
with my mother and father pulling for
Paige says none of this would have
been possible without the support of
her parents; her mother, Bonnie, an
assistant professor in UBCs School
of Physical Education and Recreation,
and her father, Terry.
"They have put so much work into
this moment," said Paige.
Although "this moment" doesn't
include Megan, Paige is hopeful that
the two will be back together again on
the diving platform.
And if history is any indication, she
may be right.
Another well-known Canadian
diving duo, Wendy and Debbie
Fuller, were confronted with similar
circumstances eight years ago. In
1984, Debbie qualified for the Los
Angeles Olympics while sister
Wendy failed to make the grade.
However, four years later, they both
qualified for the summer games in
Paige is confident she and Megan
can write a similar script.
"Hopefully, you'll see us both in
Atlanta in 1996." UBC REPORTS July 16.1992       5
UBC at the Olympics
Heat a factor for athletes
Medicine centre sets up shop in Barcelona
He was among the first. Now, he's
among the best.
Dr. Doug Clement, co-director of
the Allan McGavin Sports Medicine
Centre, along with four other members of the centre, will travel with the
Canadian team to Barcelona for the
Summer Olympics as part ofthe medical crew.
"When you put it all together," said
Clement, "Canada probably leads the
rest of the world in the degree of
medical coverage and expertise available to international class athletes.
"UBC's contribution, certainly
since 1984, has been huge."
Clement, recently awarded a lifetime achievement in sports medicine
and science by the Sports Medicine
Council of Canada, and centre co-
director Dr. Jack Taunton, both graduates of UBC's medical school, are
acknowledged pioneers in the field of
sports medicine.
They will be joined in Barcelona
by Dr. Don McKenzie, and physiotherapists Trish Hopkins and Clyde
Smith. Physiotherapist Ron Mattison
will accompany them to a pre-Olym-
pic training camp in France but will
not make the trip to Spain.
Like Clement, Taunton and
McKenzie have a wealth of international experience, Taunton with the
field hockey team and McKenzie with
the kayakers. Taunton and McKenzie
have been involved with their respective sports for more than 10 years and
were at the 1984 Los Angeles games
and the 1988 games in Seoul.
This will be the fourth Olympics
for Clement, a former Olympic runner
and a silver medallist at the 1954 Commonwealth Games.
His first taste of international sports
medicine came in 1970 at the Com
monwealth Games in Edinburgh, Scotland, when he was among the first
group of dedicated physicians assigned
to travel with Canadian athletes to
Olympic-style competitions.
Prior to that, there was no such
thing as a sports medicine doctor, explained Clement.
"It wasn't a service that was expected or necessarily supplied. Health
services were provided by someone
who was around at the time, and perhaps happened to be a doctor."
Then, at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico, one isolated incident
led to the establishment of an organization that would be responsible for
medical coverage of Olympic-calibre
athletes outside of Canada: A Canadian rower collapsed with pneumonia
during a race.
'That incident became a focus of a
royal commission on sport, which was
set up in 1969 to deal with the state of
the amateur sport system in Canada.
"The commission recommended
the establishment a group of dedicated
physicians who would travel with
Canadian athletes to international
multi-sport events."
In Barcelona, Clement will coach
the distance runners, as was the case in
Seoul. He will also likely be called
upon to provide medical services as
well, since the Canadian team won't
have a dedicated track physician.
Hopkins and Smith were selected
to the Canadian team through the
sports medicine division ofthe Canadian Physiotherapy Association after
writing a series of exams. They will be
part of the central medical staff provided by the Canadian Olympic Association and will work out of a clinic
that will operate around-the-clock.
Clement says the medical staff will
be especially concerned with the heat
and humidity in Barcelona.
'This is something western-based
Canadian athletes will have problems
adjusting to," said Clement. 'Temperatures could reach in the 40s and
will present quite a challenge in the
endurance events."
Canadian medical teams make a
habit of travelling with tonnes
of equipment to make sure they're
ready for any circumstances.
Jack Taunton knows what that's like.
As chief medical officer for the Canadian
team at the Pan American Games in Cuba
last summer, Taunton ensured that the
Canadian squad arrived in Havana with
44 tonnes of water in tow, since the water
in Cuba was unsafe for Canadian athletes
to drink.
"Like the athletes, Canadian medical team members must be prepared
for anything at these major international games," said Taunton.
"As was the case in Cuba, heat
and humidity will be an enemy
for the athlete in Barcelona. Early
adaptation and fluid-electrolyte
replacement will be high on the
list of priorities for the Canadian
medical team."
Canada's Olympic athletes benefit
from the experience of (from left)
Ron Mattison, Dr. Doug Clement,
Dr. Jack Taunton, Dr. Don McKenzie,
Trish Hopkins and Clyde Smith, of
the UBC Sports Medicine Centre.
Swimming duo gears up for life in the fast lane
Talk about mixed emotions.
The first thought that entered Kevin
Draxinger's mind after he had successfully qualified for the Olympic 200
metre backstroke was: "If I do this in
Barcelona, I'm going nowhere."
Draxinger and Turlough O'Hare
will represent UBC in swimming at
the Summer Olympics after posting
qualifying times at the national trials
in Montreal in May.
However, there were few high-fives
Swimmers O' Hare (left)
and Draxinger share a rare
moment of relaxation during training for Barcelona.
around the pool that day. Draxinger,
O'Hare and UBC swim coach Tom
Johnson came away from Montreal
with the sobering realization that there
was still a lot of work to be done before
'Turlough and Kevin are going
to have to swim much better at the
Olympics than they did in Montreal," said Johnson, who will act
as an assistant coach to the Canadian swimmers in Barcelona.
Physically, they were at their
peak at the trials, but mentally,
they were flat, he explained.
"At this level of competition,
you have be focused on nothing but
swimming.  The trials were very
early in the season and they could
have used a few more hard races
before then. But, they'll get that
chance before the Olympics with
meets in France and Fort Lauderdale, Fla."
Johnson believes O'Hare
and Draxinger are in the
prime of their swimming
:areers going into the Olympics.
le has coached both of them
or about eight years. Just as he
realizes that both need to
sharpen up, he is also convinced
they are at their peak.
"These two athletes have paid their
dues. They are experienced world-
class swimmers. There are no excuses."
Draxinger and O'Hare met in the
pool as youngsters and have shared
the ups and downs of competitive
swimming for a decade.
Draxinger, whose family resides in
Kelowna, has lived with the O'Hare
family in Richmond for the last five
years. Studying as an unclassified
student this year, Draxinger came away
with the Bobby Gaul award as the top
graduating varsity athlete last year after completing his Bachelor of Science.
After battling through an injury-
plagued Olympic year in 1984 and
failing to qualify for the 1988 games
in Seoul, Draxinger, 25, realizes this
is his last kick at the Olympic can.
However, at the same time, he's looking at it as just another meet.
"Simply advancing to the final is
going to be difficult enough," said
Draxinger. "There's no point putting
more pressure on yourself."
O'Hare, who turns 23 today, is
going into his fourth year in the School
of Physical Education and Recreation.
He finished 1 lth in the 400-metre freestyle at the 1988 Olympics in Seoul
and will swim both the 400-metre and
200-metre freestyle in Barcelona, and
perhaps the 4-by-200-metre freestyle
relay as well.
"The 200-metre freestyle is my
number one event, but I'm not going
to Barcelona with any false hopes. I'll
swim as fast as I can and hopefully
advance to the final. That's everyone's goal."
O'Hare points out that it's easy to
get caught up in the medal trap when
assessing an athlete's performance at
the Olympics.
"There' s more to Olympic life than
gold, silver and bronze," said O'Hare.
"I hope to break my current Canadian record in the 200-metre freestyle
in Barcelona. I'd also like to break
Peter Schmidt's Canadian 400-metre
freestyle record, which has stood for
12 years," he added.
Stories by
Abe Hefter 6    UBC REPORTS July 16,1992
July 19 -
August 15
Regent College Evening Public
Public Ethics In A Pluralistic Society?
Lessons From The Early Church. Dr.
Markus Bockmuehl, University Assistant
Lecturer in Divinity, U. of Cambridge.
College Main Floor Auditorium from 8-
8:50pm. Discussion follows. Call 224-
Library Tours
Tour Main and other libraries on campus
at 10:30am and 2:30pm. Main Library
Entrance Hall. Duration 30 minutes. Call.
Sheryl Adam at 822-2076.
Rehabilitation Medicine
Special Seminar
Undergraduate Physiotherapy Programs: Issues, Problems And Hopefully Solutions. Prof. Alain
Belanger, School of Physical Therapy, Laval U.
Koerner Pavilion Lab8from 12:30-1:30pm.
Call 822-7416.
VST Summer School Public
Loneliness: A Cradle For God's Loving
Word. Dr. Arnold D. Weigel, assoc. prof,
of Practical Theology, supervisor of Contextual Education, Waterloo Lutheran
Seminary. Vancouver School of Theology's Epiphany Chapel at 7:30pm. Free
parking. Call 228-9031.
Health Promotion Research
Considerations When Doing Research In
First Nations Communities with Dr. Jennie
Joe, assoc. prof./director, Native American and Training, U.of Tucsan, Az.; The
Self-Management Program For Chronic
Illness, Dr. Katie Long, sr. research scien-
tist/dir.. Patient Education Component, U.
of Stanford, Calif. The Arthritis Centre 3rd
Floor Meeting Rooms at 12:30pm. Call
Workplace Health Promotion: Strategies
For The 1990s. Dr. J. Allan Best, director
of Research/Health Promotion, Wilson
Banwell & Associates Ltd., Corporate
Health/Development Services. Family/
Nutritional Sciences 40 from 4-5:30pm.
Call 822-2258.
UBC Reports is the faculty and
staff newspaper of the University
of British Columbia. It is published every second Thursday by
the UBC Community Relations
Office, 6328 Memorial Rd., Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z2.
Telephone 822-3131.
Advertising inquiries: 822-3131.
Managing Editor: Steve Crombie
Ass't Editor: Paula Martin
Production: Bill Jamieson
Contributors: Ron Burke, Connie
Filletti, Abe Hefter, Charles Ker,
and Gavin Wilson.
f%    Please
€■<*   recycle
For events in the period August 16 to September 5, notices must be submitted by UBC faculty or staff on proper Calendar forms
no later than noon on Tuesday, August 4, to the Community Relations Office, Room207,6328 Memorial Rd, Old Administration
Building. For more information call 822-3131. The next edition of UBC Reports will be published August 13. Notices exceeding
35 words may be edited The number of items for each faculty or department will be limited to four per issue.
Regent College Evening
Public Lecture
The Spirit Against The Flesh: Another
Look At Pauline Perspective. Dr. Gordon
Fee, professor of New Testament, Regent
College. College Main Floor Auditorium
from 8-8:50pm. Discussion follows. Call
Academic Lecture Program
Current Perspectives Or Current
Treatments In Schizophrenia. Dr.
Gary Remington, head of research,
Neuropsychopharmacology, Research Unit, The Clarke Institute,
Toronto. Psychiatry 2NAB from 12-
VST Summer School Public
Dreaming Of A Place Not Like This One:
New Experiences Of Worship. Dr.
Marjorie Proctor-Smith, assoc. prof, of
Liturgy/Worship, Perkins School of Theology, Dallas. Vancouver School of
Theology's Epiphany Chapel at 7:30pm.
Free parking. Call 228-9031.
Regent College Evening
Public Lecture
Impressions From Recent Visits To Christian Churches In China: A Slide Lecture.
Prof. Daniel Bays, chairman, History, U. of
Kansas. College Main Floor Auditorium
from 8-8:50pm. Discussion follows. Call
VST Summer School Public
■■m—m Columbus To Cabot-What
^^^^ Is Their Legacy? Dr. Cecil
^^^^ Corbett, chancellor,
^■•y Charles Cook Theological
^^^^^ School. Vancouver School
of Theology's Epiphany
Chapel at 7:30pm. Free parking. Call 228-
Regent College Evening
Public Lecture
Matthew: The Gospel Of Fulfillment. Dr.
Richard France, New Testament teacher/
principal, Wycliffe Hall, U of. Oxford.
College Main Floor Auditorium from 8-
8:50pm. Discussion follows. Call 224-
VST Summer School Public
Jazz Homiletics. Dr. Eugene L. Lowry,
prof, of Preaching, Saint Paul School of
Theology, Kansas City. Vancouver School
« Theology's Epiphany Chapel at 7:30pm.
Call 228-9031.
Regent College Public Lecture
ThePuritansAndOurselves. Dr. J.I. Packer,
Sangwoo Youtong Chee professor of Systematic Theology, Regent College. College
Main Floor Auditorium from 8-8:50pm. Discussion follows. Call 224-3245.
Honorary Degrees Nominations
The Tributes Committee is now accepting
nominations for honorary degreesfor 1993.
Nominations or requests for forms should
be mailed to the Ceremonies Office, Room
214, Old Administration Building. Deadline for nominations is Aug. 30/92. Call
UBC Campus Tours
Free walking tours of the
campus are available
through Aug. 28. Drop-in
tours leave the SUB on
weekdays at 10am and
1pm and take about 90
minutes. Highlights include gardens,
galleries, museums and recreational facilities. Specialized/shorter tours for
seniors, children and others. Call 822-
Orientation '92
Campus orientation for new students. All
first year students, their parents, and college transfer students are invited to attend. Aug. 6-Sept. 4. Call School and
College Liaison Office at 822-3733.
UBC Bookstore's Annual
Sidewalk Sale
Now through Aug. 1 from 10am-4:30pm,
rain or shine. Call 822-2665.
Voices From The Picket Line
The Centre for Research in Women's
Studies/Gender Relations is interviewing
union women involved in the March strike
at UBC. Call Alexa at 822-9171.
International Conference
Ismar '92: Meeting Of The International
Society For Magnetic Resonance. IRC 2,
4, 6 on July 19-25 . Call 822-2293.
Fine Arts Gallery
Open Tues.-Fri. from 10am-5pm. Saturdays 12-5pm. Free admission. Main
Library. Call 822-2759.
Frederic Wood Theatre
The House Of Blue Leaves by John Guare,
directed by Simon Webb. In repertory
through Aug. 1. Frederic Wood Stage at
8pm. Adults $10, students/seniors $8.
Call 822-2678.
Musical Theatre
Cabaret. UBC Summer Players. Dorothy
Somerset Studio, every Thurs./Sat.
through Aug.1 at 8pm. Adults $10, students/seniors $8. Call 822-2678.
Statistical Consulting/Research Laboratory
SCARL is operated by the Department of
Statistics to provide statistical advice to
faculty and graduate students working on
research problems. Forms for appointments available in Ponderosa Annex C-
210. Call 822-4037.
French, Spanish, Japanese/
Chinese Conversation Classes
Aug. 4-21, Mon.-Fri. from 9am-12:30pm.
Call Language Programs and Services at
Sexual Harassment Office
Advisors are available to discuss questions and concerns on the subject. They
are prepared to help any member of the
UBC community who is being sexually
harassed to find a satisfactory resolution.
Call Margaretha Hoek at 822-6353.
Exercise/Weight Management
Sedentary female volunteers 25-49 years,
20-50 lbs overweight and tired of dieting
required to participate in a three month
exercise intervention study. Call 822-
High Blood Pressure Clinic
Volunteers (over 18 years) needed, treated
or not, to participate in clinical drug trials.
Call Dr. J. Wright in Medicine at 822-7134.
Seniors Hypertension Study
Volunteers aged 60-80 years with mild to
moderate hypertension, treated or not,
needed to participate in a high blood pressure study. Call Dr. J. Wright in Medicine
at 822-7134.
Drug Research Study
Male and female volunteers required for Genital
Herpes Treatment Study.
Sponsoring physician: Dr.
Stephen Sacks, Medicine/Infectious Diseases.
Call 822-7565.
Heart/Lung Response Study
At rest and during exercise. Volunteers
aged 35 years and up of all fitness levels
required. No maximal testing. Scheduled
at your convenience. Call Marijke
Dallimore, School of Rehab. Medicine,
Women, Work And Stress
Secretarial/clerical workers needed to
participate in a study investigating the
problems and methods of coping with
work related stress. Call Karen Flood in
Counselling Psychology at 822-9199.
Retirement Study
Women concerned about
retirement planning
needed for an 8-week retirement preparation seminar. Call Sara Cornish in
Counselling Psychology
at 931-5052.
Jock Itch Study
Volunteers 18-65 years of age are needed
to attend 5 visits over an 8-week period.
$100 honorarium to be paid upon completion. Call Dermatology at 874-6181.
Teaching Spouses Memory
If your spouse has memory problems and
you want to learn some techniques to
help, call Karen or Monica at 822-2140.
Stress/Blood Pressure Study
Learn how your body responds to stress.
Call Dr. Wolfgang Linden in Psychology at
Surplus Equipment Recycling
Facility (SERF)
Used rebuilt IBM Selectric II correctable
typewriters for $400, while supplies last.
Disposal of all surplus items. Every
Wednesday, 12-5pm. Task Force BkJg.,
2352 Health Sciences Mall. Call 822-
Botanical Garden
Open daily from 10am-6pm. Free admission Wednesday. Call 822-4208.
Nitobe Garden
Open daily from 10am-7pm. Freeadmission Wednesday. Call 822-6038.
Volunteers sought to
welcome overseas students
International House is looking for about 200 volunteers to welcome
overseas students to UBC.
Volunteers are needed from mid-July to the first week of September as
international students arrive on campus in preparation for the coming school
"Volunteers get a chance to meet new international students and play a
part in extending them a warm UBC welcome," said Diane Larsson, assistant
co-ordinator of the reception program.
Some volunteers will greet students at the airport and direct them to
waiting shuttle buses. Others are required to drive students as they look for
off-campus housing. Also needed is temporary accommodation on a standby, emergency basis for students who, for whatever reason, have nowhere
to stay when they first arrive.
All UBC faculty, staff and students are welcome to volunteer. For more
information, call Diane Larsson at International House, 822-5021.
k. UBC REPORTS July 16.1992
Baird awarded Order of British Columbia
Dr.        Patricia
Baird, a professor of
Medical Genetics, and
former head of the
Dept. of Medical Genetics, has been
awarded the Order of
British Columbia.
Established in
1989, the Order of
British Columbia recognizes outstanding
achievement, excellence or distinction in a
field of endeavor benefitting the people of
the province or elsewhere.
Baird was one of 13 British Columbians
honored from among 230 nominees.
Currently, Dr. Baird is chairing the Royal
Commission on New Reproductive Technologies. She is also a vice-president of the
Canadian Institute of Advanced Research.
Hospital since 1986, and was recently appointed
to the Human Rights Tribunal Panel of the
federal Dept. of Justice.
The 21-member governing council provides
guidance and direction for the management of
all NRC policies and programs.
Dr. Ian Tsang, a clinical associate professor of Medicine, has been appointed to the
governing council of the National Research
Council of Canada (NRC).
Tsang, who joined the Faculty of Medicine in 1980 specializing in rheumatology
and arthritis, is involved in continuing research studying back pain in astronauts.
He has served as chief of staff and as a
board member of Vancouver's Holy Family
Hugh Brock, an associate professor in the
Dept. of Zoology, has received the Young Scientists Award for 1992 from the Genetics Society of Canada.
Brock was invited to the society's annual
meeting at the University of Victoria to receive
the award and deliver a lecture on his research.
He studies how the structure of proteins found
on chromosomes regulates gene activity.
The award recognizes a notable paper or
series of related papers based on original research in genetics or allied fields and written by
a member of the society.
The research must be completed and published by the candidate in a refereed journal
during the 15-year period immediately following the completion of a first degree.
Russell is a founding member and former
president of the union, and has been active in
many other geophysics organizations, both in
Canada and abroad.
He has an international reputation as a scientist, especially for his pioneering work on isotope geophysics and, more recently, seismo-
electrical effects. He has also served as head of
the Dept. of Geophysics and Astronomy and as
UBC's associate vice-president, academic.
Russell received the medal in May at a joint
meeting of the Canadian and American Geophysical Union, held in Montreal.
Vestrup, a native of Nakusp, B.C., completed an honors B.Sc. degree in Physiology at
UBC, where she also received her medical
training. She won the Hamber Scholarship in
Medicine for first place standing in her graduating year.
The Justice Institute of B.C. develops and
provides training programs and educational
services for law enforcement professionals
and members of the community, which are
designed to improve public safety.
Vestrup was first appointed to the Faculty
of Medicine's Dept. of Surgery in 1981.
Setty Pendakur, a professor in the the School
of Community and Regional Planning, has been
appointed to the new board of directors of B.C.
The 19-member board, which oversees all
transit operations in the province, was announced
by Finance Minister Glen Clark in June.
Pendakur was also one of two ministerial
appointments to the five-member board of governors of the B.C. Real Estate Foundation.
Pendakur has taught transportation planning
at UBC since 1966.
Don Russell, a professor in the Dept of Geophysics and Astronomy, is this year's winner ofthe
J.Tuzo Wilson Medal, awarded annually by the
Canadian Geophysical Union in recognition of
outstanding contributions to Canadian geophysics.
Dr. Judith Vestrup, an associate professor
of Surgery, has been appointed to the board of
directors of the Justice Institute of B.C.
Forest Sciences Professor John McLean
has been appointed associate dean, graduate
studies and research, in the Faculty of Forestry.
McLean, who has
been with the faculty
since 1977 as a forest
entomologist, will be
responsible for administering all aspects
of forestry graduate
and post-baccalaureate programs.
In addition, he will
promote externally
sponsored research activities, particularly interdisciplinary projects
involving faculty from Forestry's three departments and the rest of the university.
Lecture series looks skyward
Space flights to Mars. The secrets
of the northern lights. A Canadian
experiment that is measuring wind
speeds 300 kilometres above the
Earth's surface.
These are some of the topics to be
covered in three public lectures to be
held on campus this month in conjunction with the 18th International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics.
Called Moving Lights and Satellites, the lectures will feature three distinguished researchers in space physics and space engineering. It is sponsored by the B .C. Ministry of Advanced
Education, Training and Technology
and is open to the general public as well
as members ofthe university community.
"This special public session is being
held to heighten the awareness of the
public, and especially young students,
about the opportunities for study and
research in the space sciences and aerospace engineering," said Bernard
Shizgal, a professor in the departments
of Chemistry and Geophysics and Astronomy who chairs the local organizing committee for the symposium.
The speakers and their topics are:
— Peter Bainum, Howard University, who will give an overview ofthe
past, present and future of the space
program, including the possibility of a
return voyage to the moon, the exploration of Mars, and mining of the
moon and asteroids for raw materials
— Gordon Rostoker, University
of Alberta, who will speak on the
aurora borealis, or northern lights,
which are caused by charged particles streaming away from the sun at
speeds of hundred of kilometres per
second and entering the earth's electromagnetic field. Known for their
great beauty, the aurora borealis also
disrupt satellite operations and electrical power grids on earth.
— Gordon Shepherd, York University, who will speak on the WEND
Imaging Interferometer, or WINDII,
a joint Canada-France project that
measures global wind patterns at altitudes of 80 to 300 kilometres. Part
of NASA's Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite, WINDII is providing the first climatic description of
this little-explored region.
The talks are scheduled to start at
1:15 p.m. on Wednesday, July 29 in
the Woodward Instructional Resources Centre, lecture hall #6. The
talks will be followed by a question
period and refreshments.
All three speakers are also taking
part in the Rarefied Gas Dynamics
symposium, which will be attended by
physicists, chemists, engineers and
mathematicians from more than 20
The symposium is the' world's
principal forum for reporting recent
advances in kinetic theory, transport
processes and nonequilibrium phenomena with applications to space
science and space engineering, plasma
processing of materials, aerospace
engineering, plasma physics, aerosol
dynamics, surface science and associated mathematical and computational methods.
Berkowitz & Associates
Statistics and Mathematics Consulting
• research design
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Jonathan Berkowitz, Ph.D.
4160 Staulo Crescent, Vancouver, B.C., V6N 3S2
Office: (604) 263-1508      Home: (604) 263-5394
Biomedical Communications
University of British Columbia    Fa
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full colour 35mm slides
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• Microscope lamps
On-campus warehouse to supply UBC
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prices include G.S. T.) Tuesday, August 4 at noon is the deadline for the
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Call Margaret250-3453or222-0061. 8    UBC REPORTS July 16,1992
Where should the majority rule?
Common to many ofthe federal government's proposals for Constitutional
change are at least two implicit assumptions.
First, activity in regard to the institutional changes will usually be
undertaken by governments, not by
individuals, groups, or other organizations. Second, whenever government action is a requirement, affected
groups which do not have control of
a provincial government will receive
less attention or be less able to block
actions by a national majority.
If one does not have provincial
status, as Aboriginals do not, or if one
does have it but believe that current
provincial powers are inappropriate,
as Quebec does, then one feels threatened by majoritarian institutional arrangements. Thus, the federal proposals can be evaluated from the perspective of who deserves their own
province and what powers these provinces need.
I propose to consider two hypothetical new provinces of a non-territorial
sort as an avenue towards uncovering
some implications of proposed constitutional changes. These two provinces,
I believe, would answer many of the
needs of two minority groups whose
ways of life are most threatened in
Canada — Aboriginals and French-
speakers outside of Quebec.
By non-territorial, I mean that the
minority cannot be given its own
exclusive territory without movement
of people on a scale we would regard
as dictatorial and insensitive.
Non-territoriality comes in at least
two forms in the case of cultural
minorities: some members of the minority do not reside in the territory
and so do not benefit from being part
ofthe majority there, and some members of other culture-groups do reside
in the territory and are thus "permanent" minorities there.
The first type of non-territorial
province would consist of
francophones where they live outside
of Quebec, and the second would
consist of Aboriginals across the country south of 60°.
The francophone province which
I hypothesize might be called "La
Francophonie" to distinguish it from
Quebec. It would consist of all
francophones outside of Quebec
wherever they might reside in Canada.
I assume that, whatever the criteria for being a francophone, one is
free to reside in La Francophonie or
not, as is the case with existing provinces.
La Francophonie would need very
special powers, not exactly like those
of a territorially based province.
Hence, one value of speculating about
this province derives from the need to
shift our focus from an exclusive
concern with federal and provincial
Instead, or in addition, we must
consider which powers can only be
administered by territorial governments or agencies and which services
could be delivered by institutions
without a territorial base.
For example, education is not inherently territorial, although we tend
to think first of neighborhood schools.
Yet, territorial provinces have parallel school systems, whether private
and public, or Catholic and non-sectarian. Thus, the two systems violate
the assumption of exclusive use of
The same applies
to taxes which can    	
be classified as direct or indirect and
also as territorial or
Regardless, one
can expect that La
Francophonie will find itself behaving in some ways more like a national
government than a provincial one.
Such a province will face the same
degree of regional diversity that the
federal government in Ottawa currently confronts.
Distances and regionally specific
situations might lead this new province to constitute itself as a federal
system. For example, Acadia might
conveniently be one unit, the Ottawa
Valley and the concentration of
francophones in eastern Ontario might
form another, and the West (including northern Ontario?) could become
a third unit. Of course, La
Francophonie would have only one
premier, even though it consisted of
several self-governing units.
The second type of non-territorial
Nor would First Peoples necessarily be continuous since there might
well be enclaves of non-aboriginal
settlement within at least some of the
larger parts of this province. And
certainly reserves today form "islands" within each province.
Although the reserves are exclusively for aboriginals at the present
time, they probably should not be so
restricted after the creation of First
For aboriginals and the French, Canada was, in
different ways, imposed on them: by conquest in one
case, by deceit and spread of settlement in the other.
Peoples. Furthermore, land claims
settlements may result in shared, nonexclusive use of territory, just as the
Cree and Inuit of northern Quebec
have fishing, hunting, and trapping
rights outside their reserves in areas
where Quebec has areas of jurisdiction.
Like Canada and like La
Francophonie, First Peoples would
be very diverse in language, cultures,
economic situations, and affluence.
It would therefore have a government
which felt the pressures of national
diversity currently felt by Ottawa.
Indeed, First Peoples might be organized as a federation of aboriginal
nations with quite varied local structures of governance.
Unlike La Francophone, its powers might be defined differently because of the peculiar combination of
would undoubtedly need to be shared
— for reasons of cost or efficiency —
between First Peoples and existing
Non-territorial provinces along
these lines would have many benefits
relevant to current constitutional proposals. Some benefits are:
— these provinces could participate directly in an elected Senate,
— First Peoples would solve in a
stroke the general is-
  sue of aboriginal self-
government and especially of letting
aboriginals themselves work out the
  details of those arrangements in their
own areas of sovereign provincial
responsibility, and
— First Peoples and La
Francophonie would also provide exact parallels to other provinces as an
avenue to participate in future constitutional deliberations, an important
demand by aboriginals in particular.
I have suggested that we often use
territorial organizations to deal with
social problems. Would creation of
First Peoples as a province for aboriginals constitute a step forward socially or would it be a form of apartheid?
For one thing, I have postulated
that La Francophonie and First Peoples would allow the same voluntary
mobility we now presume for existing territorial provinces. Each person
can choose where to live, whether in
a territorial province
or in a non-territorial association.
could be called First Peoples. Its basis would probably not be individual,
as with La Francophonie, but more
likely land based without assuming
exclusivity, contiguity and continuity.
If the base were existing reserves or
if it were the results of current comprehensive land claims, the result would be
similar in type, although different in
area. Neither basis assumes a single
contiguous territory. There are currendy
more than 2,000 reserves among over
600 bands, grouped historically into 40
to 50 nations.
territorial and non-territorial
Since some reserves are relatively
affluent and others very poor, equalization within First People would be
arranged as they saw fit. Existing
provinces shift resources (or not)
among their regions and municipalities, just as the federal government
transfers resources among provinces.
We should not, however, get hung
up here on the exact details of which
services would be provided by whom.
The broad point is that some services
My guess is that most
aboriginals now living on reserves
would remain and many who now
live in towns and cities would return
to the reserves. But not all of them.
Such openness and mobility in
Quebec has not so far resulted in an
entirely French province, and not all
francophones want to live in Quebec,
which is why I have hypothesized La
Francophonie. Why would we expect a significantly different equilibrium for First Peoples? If a similar
pattern arose, we need not fear that
First Peoples would become an emblem of apartheid.
If wholly homogeneous provinces
are not desirable and are unlikely to
occur anyway, need we be concerned
about a province which is predominantly aboriginal, or for that matter
predominantly French?
The short answer is "no". We do
not worry about the evil effects of
overwhelmingly English provinces,
so why worry about these other forms
of distinctiveness? Perhaps we should
worry about how English some provinces are, but until we do, we need not
worry how aboriginal First Peoples
might be.
The longer answer brings us back
to the central focus of my speculations.
The purpose of speculating about
— or advocating — non-territorial
provinces for aboriginals or
francophones concerns the perceived
need to give threatened minorities
their own place to be a majority, to
have a government that speaks on
their behalf, and thereby to remind all
Canadians of these aspects of ourselves.
But there are many minorities in
Canada. Why then should provinces
be created only for aboriginals and
For myself, aboriginals and
francophones are the groups which
deserve special consideration for a
related reason. For aboriginals and
the French, Canada was, in different
ways, imposed on them: by conquest in one case, by deceit and
spread of settlement in the other.
All other groups have come to
Canada "after the fact" as it were,
instead of having Canada imposed
upon them.
For at least 150 years, Canada has
wresded with the political implications of overlapping social distributions across its territory. At the
present, we face again the need to
think creatively about our institutions and about protection of rights
and ways of life.
Since the creative use of territory has not provided a permanent solution to our social problems, perhaps the next step in
our political evolution should be
to question our single-minded
reliance on territorial governments and institutions. To do this,
I have proposed two hypothetical provinces which are non-territorial in somewhat different
Whether or not these are practical
possibilities, fhey should help us to
gain some leverage on institutional
changes put forward in the constitutional debate.
David Elkins is a professor in
UBC's Dept. of Political Science. This
is an excerpt from a paper published
this year by the Centre for Constitutional Studies at the University of Alberta.
Illustration by Diana Cooper.


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