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UBC Reports Jan 13, 1994

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Transparent Art
Charles Ker photo
Checking quality at an early stage in the artistic process, Gu Xiong, a print-making technician in the Fine Arts
Dept., holds a transparency to the light. He examined the transparency before the image was exposed onto a
metal plate, developed and etched in a nitric-acid bath.
Bronze chip yields Roman secrets
by Charles Ker
Stq£f writer
From a corroded sliver of bronze the
size of a floppy disk, UBC Classics Prof.
James Russell has pieced together a sizeable chunk of Roman military history.
For 23 years this specialist in Roman
archeology has excavated a site in southern Turkey and displayed his findings at
a nearby museum. In 1990, the museum's curator casually pulled an unimpressive object from a desk drawer and
asked the professor his opinion.
"He told me it was found by a farmer in
the village of Kalin Oren but he had no
idea what it was," said Russell. "I recognized it at once."
The bronze fragment turned out to be
one of a handful of remaining military
diplomas granted to veterans who served
in the eastern provinces of the Roman
A mere seven square centimetres, the
tiny sheet was nonetheless engraved with
lettering on both sides. Representing only
a quarter of the original tablet, it took a
year of dogged detective work before
Russell could translate and reconstruct
the missing portion of this particular
veteran's story. Here's what he found.
The certificate belonged to Papas, son
of Cillis, who was honourably discharged
from his regiment in the former province
of Judea around the year 137. His father's name betrayed his descent from
rugged coastal pirates who caused the
Romans a good deal of trouble a century
or two earlier.
Having dutifully served more than 25
years with the Roman army. Papas, now
in his 40s, was looking forward to retirement. The final years of his soldiering
career had been particularly busy.
Since 132, he and roughly 20,000
other auxiliary militiamen had been suppressing a fierce Jewish uprising called,
after its leader, the 'Bar Kokhba Revolt.'
Following this bloody, three-year conflict. Hadrian promptly expelled the Jews
from Jerusalem and renamed the province Syria-Palestine as further punishment.
Papas, a widower with four children,
did not think it a good idea to remain in
the war-torn region. While most of his
contemporaries married local women and
settled in the area of their last posting, he
applied to Rome for his military diploma.
This bronze fragment, part of a
military discharge diploma, provided
Classics Prof. James Russell with
insight into Roman military history.
The document enabled his family to return to the Turkish coast opposite Cyprus.
Russell surmised that the diploma
probably hung on a wall in the soldier's
Kalin Oren home where he retired with
status and a healthy pension.
Through a painstaking process of
cross-referencing the Kalin Oren fragment with others found in Europe and
elsewhere, Russell was able to reconstruct the entire auxiliary army of Palestine in the half century after the Bar
Kokhba revolt. As the only major conflict
of Hadrian's reign from 117-138, this
military operation sowed the seed for
today's Middle East tensions.
Romans were such precise record-
keepers that Russell says it isn't necessary to have a document perfectly intact.
Most follow the same formulaic pattern.
Discharge diplomas served much the
same purpose as modern-day passports.
They provided proof of citizenship for the
soldier, his wife, his children and their
descendants. They also contained an
elaborate list of the reigning emperor's
titles and offices as well as the name of
the soldier's unit and his commanding
"If anyone wanted to travel, as our
man did, he'd have to apply for a copy of
the original record in Rome," said Russell.
"Of course, he'd have to buy it much like
our passports today."
But it is the lives of ordinary citizens
which most interests Russell. By reconstructing the biographies of many ordinary people rather than one emperor,
Russell says historians get a much clearer
idea of life at the grassroots level.
Russell presented a report of this new
find at the last annual meeting of the
Archaeological Institute of America. The
institute is the largest organization in
North America devoted to archeology with
a membership of more than 11.000 and
89 local societies in Canada and the
United States.
Russell recently became the institute's
first Canadian president in its 114-year
Centre to
focus on
Joint venture boosts
microbe research
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
A new research centre at UBC will seek
to identify previously unknown microbes
and find out whether they have unique
traits that can be used to make new drugs
or help clean up pollution.
The West East Centre for Microbial
Diversity is ajoint venture between UBC's
Dept. of Microbiology and the National
University of Singapore's Institute of
Molecular and Cell Biology. The two universities recently signed an agreement
formally establishing the centre.
A $2.3-million grant from Singapore's
National Science and Technology Board
will largely fund the centre's initial three
years of operation. UBC will provide a
site, equipment and scientific staff.
The combination of Singapore's excellence in molecular biology and UBC's
expertise in biotechnology and microbiology will result in a first-class international research centre, said Robert Miller,
UBC's vice-president, Research.
'This project will open the way for
many new collaborative opportunities
between Canada and Singapore and will
stimulate the joint development of the
pharmaceutical industry in both countries," Miller said. This collaboration is
an excellent example of the importance
we place on partnerships with the countries ofthe Pacific Rim."
The centre, which will open early this
year, will be headed by Julian Davies,
head of UBC's Dept. of Microbiology and
Researchers under his direction will
look for novel ways of identifying different
species of microorganisms. Although
microorganisms play a crucial role in
biology of all ecosystems, scientists have
identified only one per cent of the total
number of species, Davies said.
Researchers hope that some newly
identified microbes will provide source
materials for new pharmaceuticals.
Metabolites produced by microbes are
responsible for most antibiotics already
on the market.
Another use of microbes the centre will
Nobel Ware
Offbeat: UBC's Nobel Prize winner brings it home on a plate
Asymmetric Approach
Forum: Prof. James Steiger critiques a recent survey of female faculty
Threatened Species 7
Four universities join forces to study the declining sea lion population
Fire & Water 12^
Profile: Susan Kieffer has always been driven to probe below the surface 2 UBC Reports January 13, 1994
Gavin Wilson photo
The West East Centre for Microbial Diversity will be headed by Julian Davies, head of UBC's
Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology. The centre, scheduled to open early this year, will
seek to find ways in which microbes can be used to clean up pollution or to make new drugs.
Establishment of the centre is a joint venture between UBC and Singapore's Institute of
Molecular and Cell Biology.
Continued from Page 1
investigate is bioremediation —
a technology by which microbes
can restore polluted soil or water
by consuming contaminants and
metabolizing them into non-toxic
The centre will encourage the
commercialization of technology
and will actively seek collaboration with industry partners in
both countries, including joint
ventures, technology licensing,
commercial spin-offs and contract research.
A third goal of the centre will
be to undertake fundamental
research. Topics will include the
study of evolutionary relationships between different microbes
and microbe gene exchange and
transfer in the environment.
The importance of plant and
animal   bio-diversity  is   well
known, but no one talks about
the bio-diversity of microbes,"
Davies said. "Yet without microbes there would be no plants
or animals."
Davies compared today's
knowledge of microbes to that of
particle physics in the 1930s.
Then, scientists knew that subatomic particles existed, but had
a limited knowledge of what form
they took and what they did.
Japan can
learn from UBC
I'm on the administrative
staff at Kansai University,
which is one of the biggest
private universities in Japan,
and recently completed three
weeks of research at UBC. The
theme of my investigation was
concerned with lifelong education and I found that the
University of British Columbia
has a quite wonderful continuing studies program.
The number of enrolments
— 25,000 in credit programs
and 15,000 in non-credit
programs and more than
80,000 non-credit registrants
on the database — is amazing
and about 10 times more than
our enrolments. In Japan, it is
more common that companies
provide these kinds of non-
credit programs. Though there
is different background
between UBC and Kansai
University, UBC's way of
thinking and strategy of
continuing studies are really
attractive to students.
In Japan, the number of 18-
year-old students is declining.
For this reason, Japanese
universities have to look for
another student market
segment. A similar situation
occurred in North America
about 10 years ago, and North
American universities dealt
with this problem quite
successfully.  Now we need to
study their strategies and
tailor them to our programs.
Distance education is also a
study system that we could
learn.  I understand the
demand for this sort of education is growing in B.C.  In
addition, I observed great
facilities in Media Services to
support the distance education.  In Japan, for example,
CATV is not so common a
medium but we are thinking of
utilizing some new medium
such as packaged videotapes
and satellite systems.   Some of
the Japanese adult students
have very little time to study,
so we should develop strategies to accommodate them.
When I attended one of the
continuing studies class, I was
able to see some questionnaires completed by the
students.   One question was
"Why have you decided to take
this course?" Some of the
answers were "Because UBC
programs have a good reputation."  It appears that continuing studies at UBC are successful.
Community support is the
most important ingredient for
success.  Needless to say,
there are a lot of aspects of the
UBC program that we can
learn from.
Yoshifumi Arahori
Kansai University
Osaka, Japan
2' Floor
2174 Western Parkway
Vancouver. B.C.
s 224-6225
FAX 224-4492
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all Authors!
Are you the author of a book
published between
January 1993
and December 1993?
If so, we would like to hear
from you!
On March 16, 1994
President David Strangway
and University Librarian
Ruth Patrick
are hosting the
4th Annual Reception
for UBC Authors.
If you're a UBC author,
please contact
Margaret Friesen
or Pauline Willems
Main Library
(822-4430 I 822-2083)
by January 31, 1994
The University of British Columbia
Dates:            April 15 & 16, 1994
Location:        Coast Plaza Hotel at Stanley Park
For:                Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dentists, social
workers and all other health professionals who are
interested in Bioethics.
For further information please call: Toll free within B.C.: 1 -800-663-0348
Local and outside B.C.: (604) 822-2626 or 822-4965
Fax:      (604) 822-4835         	
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Mondays, Jan 17 to Feb 28,4 to 7pm
or Wednesdays, Jan 19 to Mar 2, 6 to 9pm
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Learn to work effectively with supervisors, TAs and students,
develop teaching skills and refine your use of English. Call 822-
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Follow-Up Pronunciation Workshops
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Fridays, January 21 to Mar 4,2 to 4 pm
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Open only to present or past participants in the International TA
Training. Identify areas of strengths and weakness in pronunciation, develop compensation strategies and work on improving areas of difficulty. Co-sponsored by the Intercultural Training and Resource Centre,
Inequity in the Classroom
January 20, 1 to 4 pm
Brock Hall 204D
Using the video "Inequity in the Classroom," participants will
consider how some behaviours can contribute to a classroom
climate which is not entirely favourable to optimal learning.
Issues include teaching and learning as they relate to gender and
culture, and the impact of stereotyping in the classroom.
Open to students only. Limit 20. Call 822-2415 to register.
Facilitators: Begum Virgee and Sarah Dench, Women Student's
UBC Reports is published twice monthly (monthly in
December, June, July and August) for the entire
university community by the UBC Community
Relations Office, 207-6328 Memorial Rd., Vancouver
B.CV6T 1Z2.
Managing Editor: Steve Crombie
Editor: Paula Martin
Production: Stephen Forgoes
Contributors: Connie Filletti, Abe Hefter, Charles Ker,
Gavin Wilson
Editorial and advertising enquiries: 822-3131 (phone)
822-2684 (fax).
UBC Reports welcomes the submission of letters and
opinion pieces. Opinions and advertising published in
UBC Reports do not necessarily reflect official
university policy.
Material may be reprinted in whole or in part with
appropriate credit to UBC Reports. UBC Reports • January 13,1994 3
Action Agenda
Jack Wong photo
Actor Tom Jackson, co-star of the hit CBC television series North of 60,
hosted a "Celebration of Cultures" night recently at the First Nations
Longhouse. The event was part of a three-day conference called Action
Agenda for Self Government which was designed to help define the future
relationship among First Nations, governments and private business.
by staff writers
John Chong photo
Michael Smith brought two place settings home from last month's
Nobel Prize banquet in Sweden.
It was a feast for the eyes. And Michael Smith couldn't resist the temptation.
UBC's Nobel Prize winner for chemistry bought two place settings
used at the banquet in Stockholm, Sweden on Dec. 10, held in honour of
1993's award recipients.
The place settings were commissioned in 1991 to commemorate the
90th anniversary ofthe Nobel Prize and to promote Swedish craftmanship.
Smith hopes his daughter, who has a brochure describing the china in
more detail, will donate it to his collection of Nobel memorabilia.
"I picked up everything I saw. I don't know how I missed that one," he
Smith's other prized mementoes include the autographs of each of the
other Nobel Prize winners, including South African President F.W. de Klerk
and African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela. They shared the
Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
"It was the first time in the history of the award that all of the winners
were together in the same room," Smith said, the excitement still evident
in his voice. "I heard that de Klerk was leaving early so I grabbed him." In
addition to the place settings, autographs and, of course, the Nobel Prize
itself, Smith amassed invitations, menus, programs and photographs from
a whirlwind week of activities surrounding the award presentation ceremony.
Smith has already taken many of the items on a roadshow — literally —
transporting them to and from campus in the back seat of his car to show
to his UBC friends and colleagues.
After savouring the goodies a while longer, he plans to donate the
collection to UBC for permanent display.
Talks clear path for
dispute resolution
Informal discussions help keep the peace
among claimants of the Spratly Islands
by Charles Ker
Staff writer
Visitors to Ian Townsend-Gault's office often stop and ponder a defaced
picture of retired U.S. General Norman
Schwarzkopf pinned to the door. A beard
and hair are scribbled onto the full-page
newspaper ad that proclaims "His War,
His Book, His Life."
Colleagues in UBC's Faculty of Law
agree that, with a few alterations, the two
men do look vaguely similar. They also
point out the office's location on Military
Road. Then they note each man's involvement in complex security matters on the
other side of the globe.
Of course, the major difference between the two is that while the brash
army general was waging war in the gulf,
the UBC associate professor was promoting peace at sea.
Since 1989, Townsend-Gault has quietly helped ease tensions in the South
China Sea where no less than six governments - China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Brunei,
Malaysia and the Philippines - have staked
claims to a curious outcropping of reefs,
shoals and sand banks called the Spratly
Islands. Jurisdictional friction over these
so-called islands is based on an unsubstantiated notion that they hide rich gas
and oil reserves.
Of international concern, especially to
the neighbouring countries of Laos, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore, is that
the islands (identified  on  charts  as
Ground") lie danger- """""^^^^^
ously close to a major shipping lane
linking the Indian
and Pacific oceans.
The combination of
factors adds credence to the belief
that after Cambodia,
this 1,000 square
kilometres of storm-
swept sea is the region's next military,      	
For  Townsend-
Gault, the situation
posed an intriguing mix of environmental, international, marine and resource-
based law, all areas in which he teaches
and does research.
Outside his academic work as director
of UBC's Centre for Asian Legal Studies,
he has acted as a petroleum legal consultant for First Nations groups, Texaco,
Mobil Oil, Dome Petroleum and a United
Nations consultant for the government of
Vietnam. So, when it was suggested he
help get the various Spratly claimants
together for some constructive dialogue,
he jumped.
"The key is to downplay the whole
Spratly aspect in favour of broader issues
that can only be addressed in a regional
context," he said. "If a tanker runs aground
off someone's coast, there has to be a cooperative mechanism in place to respond."
Townsend-Gault used an initial series
of grants from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) to
spark interest among potential participants.
This eventually led to his successful
pitch to CIDA for $960,000 to fund a
UBC-based project called Managing Potential Conflicts in the South China Sea.
Now entering the fourth and final year
of this phase of funding, the project has
spawned four "informal" workshops and
two "technical" meetings on marine scientific research and resource assessment
and ways of development. Two more tech-
"If a tanker runs
aground off someone's
coast, there has to be a
mechanism in place to
- lan Townsend-Gault
Charles Ker photo
For four years Associate Prof. Ian
Townsend-Gault has been working
to keep the peace among nations
claiming rights to the Spratly Islands.
nical meetings are scheduled early in the
new year followed by a fifth workshop
next summer.
Despite keen interest from Australia,
the U.S. and Japan, Canada is the only
non-regional participant allowed at the
meetings. Townsend-Gault and his associates   look   after
funding   and   re-
^^^^^^^^^^^        search      support
across a range of international   ocean
law and  policy  issues. They also add
an element of continuity  to  the  talks
which often feature
a different set of faces
at each meeting.
To create a sense
of common purpose
around  the  table.
         there  are  no  flags
identifying the various  delegations  of
bureaucrats,   ambassadors and legal policy experts. And
none of the discussions are binding.
"It's all in pursuit of maintaining the
fiction that everyone is there in their own
personal capacity," said Peter Tyedmers,
a graduate student and member of the
six-member UBC project team. 'The moment people start wearing hats you get
polarization and less chance of agreement."
Townsend-Gault hopes principles discussed in the informal workshops will be
adopted formally in future meetings of
the countries concerned. But the time for
such formal discussions has not yet arrived.
As the current phase of the South
China Sea Project proceeds, two further
CIDA-sponsored opportunities have
cropped up for Townsend-Gault.
First, he will use an $800,000 grant to
help the Vietnamese government draft
laws governing many aspects of their
marine legislation from fisheries to environmental protection to marine traffic.
Specific plans include the establishment
of a marine law and policy research centre in Vietnam where people from all
resource sectors can meet and exchange
information and ideas.
Through a second grant, the professor
will help Vietnamese officials use the
legal system to protect human rights as
the country moves toward a market
economy. 4 UBC Reports January 13,1994
Grad student confirms map discrepancies
by Charles Ker
Staff writer
Forest company officials have
always had more than a sneaking suspicion their annual harvest projections are based on
maps that aren't altogether accurate. Now their suspicions
have been mapped out in colour.
As part of his master's thesis
in geography, graduate student
Michael Joy used advanced computer technology to combine
three sets of maps of an Alberta
forest into one. The government-
supplied maps (two sets based
on aerial photographs and one
on satellite images) were produced over a 20-year span and
purport to contain the same information about the forest's composition.
Using a sophisticated computer system called a GIS (geographic information system), Joy
overlaid the maps with dramatic,
and graphic, results: yellow denoted agreement of a decidedly
deciduous lot; green represented
the government's certainty of a
coniferous stand and grey
marked areas where the maps
disagreed. Almost half of Joy's
map was grey.
"We found a great deal of uncertainty with the information,"
says Joy. "If you are uncertain
about the composition of an area
to be logged and your company
only has rights to a specific species, then it's hard to make projections about volumes you intend to cut."
Joy's work is part of a UBC
project looking into broader issues of GIS technology and the
accuracy of spatial information
on which it operates.
Spatial data, explains Asst.
Prof. Brian Klinkenberg, refers
to roads, rivers, mountains,
buildings, lakes - anything that
takes up space. Historically,
these features have been illustrated on paper maps.
What makes GIS technology
special, the UBC geographer
says, is its ability to turn maps
from simple descriptive products
into prescriptive tools. Apart from
overlay capability. GISs allow
planners in all professions to
construct "what-if scenarios by
applying forecasting models to
maps that have been digitized
into a computer.
As a tool, GIS has revolutionized municipal planning and resource management.
Klinkenberg estimates that close
to 80 per cent of all government
information is spatially referenced and could be used in a
GIS. Not only do the systems
identify map features in a manner that makes geographic sense,
but they can relate these features to whatever the user wants.
In California, for instance,
planners use a GIS to examine
topographical characteristics
such as slope and soil in a search
for potential landslide areas. In
Canada, New Brunswick legislation makes it mandatory for forestry companies to store GIS
maps showing their harvesting
News Digest
Prostate disease specialists and patients gained a new
provincial resource with the recent opening of the UBC
Prostate Clinic, the first of its kind in western Canada.
Located at Vancouver Hospital, the clinic is a
multidisciplinary, co-operative effort combining the research,
resources and expertise of the hospital and the university with
the B.C. Cancer Agency and St. Paul's Hospital.
"The advances in prostate disease treatment have been
remarkable in the past five years, and it is difficult for urologists
to keep up with the changes and provide their patients with
current information," said Dr. Larry Goldenberg, a clinical
associate prof, of surgery and director of the new facility.
"This clinic will be a place where they can turn to for the latest
research reports and for updates on treatment options."
Funding for the UBC Prostate Clinic was provided by Vancouver Hospital and through private donations.
• • • •
Patscan, UBC's patent and trademark search service, is
holding it second annual Green Innovation contest, challenging B.C. post-secondary students to come up with
innovative solutions to environmental problems.
Entries must consist of a novel, workable and commercially
viable device or process that can be used in the clean-up,
protection or conservation of the environment. The scope of the
contest is very broad and education products such as games or
toys may be entered.
Students are eligible to enter in one of two categories: graduate and undergraduate or college. First and second prizes of
$1,000 and $500 will be awarded in each category. The contest
is sponsored by Shell Canada's Environmental Fund.
Deadline for entries is March 15, 1994 and winners will be
announced in May. For more information, call Ron Simmer at
Transcription services from print to braille are once again
available from the Crane Library and Resource Centre.
Translation of documents from print to braille, manually
or by computer translation program, will be carried out by
Theresa Andrews, braille and technical support technologist.
The first priority of the service is to look after the braille
document needs of Crane's visually impaired student, faculty or
staff clients.  However, the service is available on a fee basis to
other UBC departments as well.
Translation into braille entails analysis and assessment of the
print document, scanning of the text by print scanner, reformatting the material manually to eliminate graphics and other
non-translatable items, and to ensure adherence to North
American standard braille formats and translation by computer
into grade two standard braille.
and silviculture plans over a 10-
year period.
By coupling digital maps with
any number of external
databases, Klinkenberg says the
GIS has done for geography what
the microscope did for biology.
"Just as the microscope lets
us see a world we hadn't viewed
before, GIS allows us to explore
relations we wouldn't have been
able to otherwise because computers can handle so much more
information," says Klinkenberg.
'There's no end to its application."
But with the seemingly endless array of applications comes
a great potential for error.
Klinkenberg, Joy and forestry
graduate Steve Cumming are
trying to develop models which
will give planners some idea of
the level of uncertainty in spatial
information. Just because information is stored in computer
format, says Klinkenberg, people mistakenly assume that it is
"People invariably discover
that when one agency's map
showing roads is compared to
another agency's map showing
bridges, the roads and bridges
don't line up," he said.
While Joy's "uncertainty" map
ofthe Alberta forest took close to
three months to make, the techniques he developed in producing it will make similar analyses
of other forests much quicker.
His research might be strictly
academic right now, but Joy
believes his uncertainty maps
will help forestry planners make
better-informed decisions in the
Along with issues of accuracy, Klinkenberg is also investigating how GISs can be made
more accessible. Currently, spa-
Chartes Ker photo
Michael Joy, a graduate student in geography, used a
geographic information system to combine three sets of
maps into one. His colour-coded map shows discrepancies in
forestry data.
tial data is not easily shared
because users must not only
have a thorough knowledge of
GIS, but environmental modelling and remote sensing too.
Klinkenberg is trying to come
up with a common user interface which will allow people to
take knowledge of one system
and use it in another.
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^O^MlW'U-J&J^e/r&Tt O N S UBC Reports ■ January 13,1994 5
Survey of female faculty
yields asymmetric picture
by James Steiger
James Steiger is a professor in the
Department of Psychology.
Connie Filletti's article ("Survey:
climate chilly for female faculty") and
the companion interview with survey
author Florence Ledwitz-Rigby in the
Oct. 28 UBC Reports  served as a
marvellous discussion piece for a
recent meeting of my Psychology 317
class in research methods.
Filletti's article described a survey
of all 344 tenure track female faculty
at UBC by Florence Ledwitz-Rigby,
special advisor to President
Strangway on "gender" relations at
UBC. I recognized instantly that the
article had value as a teaching tool.
As an exercise, I distributed copies of
the article to the students, and asked
them what they thought. I began by
soliciting their opinion of vice-
president Dan Birch's interesting
statement.  This survey reminds us
all that many
"Perhaps men too find
UBC a less than perfect
place to work. Perhaps
men find their female
colleagues occasionally
chilly. Who knows?"
- James Steiger
women experience
this campus quite
differently from
men...No matter
how much has
been achieved,
there is much
more to be done
to provide a
nurturing environment for work
and study."
My class and I
then examined (as
best we could
from the details provided) Ledwitz-
Rigby's methodology and conclusions.
Let's begin with Birch's statement.
The students quickly concluded that,
since Ledwitz-Rigby never asked men
how they experience the campus, the
Birch comment had no empirical
foundation. Perhaps men too find
UBC a less than perfect place to
work. Perhaps men find their female
colleagues occasionally chilly. Who
knows? Perhaps Birch feels he is in a
position to speak for everyone.
Ledwitz-Rigby apparently thinks
she can understand problems in
human relations by polling only the
women on campus. There is a thinly
veiled message in Ledwitz-Rigby's
asymmetry. The message is that the
problems women face relating to men
in the workplace cannot be solved
directly - they require intervention by
special agencies. Men are guilty
oppressors, women helpless victims,
so any solution must be imposed on
men from above.
This is a variation of the arguments for asymmetry in other areas:
(1) women prison guards can be
trusted to strip search men prisoners
(always, if you believe women correspondents to the Vancouver Sun,
with perfect professional sensitivity)
while men guards cannot be trusted
to strip search women prisoners; (2)
UBC staff should withdraw from
"men's clubs" that refuse entry to
women (this is disgustingly sexist
behaviour), while women writers can
prohibit men reporters from attending
their conferences at UBC because the
male presence would be "threatening," (3) women sports reporters
should be allowed to enter men's
locker rooms, while men reporters
cannot be allowed to enter women's
locker rooms etc., etc.
My view is that this "asymmetric"
approach to working out human
problems is doomed to failure,
because (a) it is based on the finger-
pointing, name-calling variant of
feminism that increasing numbers of
women are rejecting, and (b) it invites
the inevitable backlash from men who
are smart enough to know what
reverse discrimination in the
workplace is costing them. Moreover,
the asymmetric approach sells women
short. The women faculty I know have
no need of Ledwitz-Rigby or her
survey. They are doing just fine on
their own.
Many other aspects of the work
are questionable, and were found by
my students in a few minutes. For
example, Ledwitz-Rigby appears to
reach campus-wide generalizations on
the basis of her work, but she reports
no breakdown of her results by
faculty and/or department. This is
especially treacherous when only 58
per cent of her population responded.
Perhaps every woman in Department
A feels the atmos-
^^^■^■m^^^h     phere is "chilly,"
while none of the
women in Department B even
responded. Does
Ledwitz-Rigby not
think this is
Reports articles
seem slanted
toward a particu-
      Iar conclusion. For
example, Filletti
states that "almost
40 per cent of the respondents said
that they were often the target of two
or more of the 14 inappropriate
behaviours listed in the questionnaire, ranging from the devaluation of
scholarship about women to persistent emphasis on sexuality." It is
impossible to evaluate the meaning of
this statement, because we don't
know what the "14 inappropriate
behaviours" are. Filletti lists only two.
The juxtaposition of these two behaviours with the phrase "two or more"
might lead one to believe that these
two behaviours are typical of the
entire list of 14. This belief might be
unwarranted. Perhaps the list of 14
behaviours includes some relatively
innocuous ones. Perhaps we should
withhold judgment until we see the
entire list.
I could go on, but I hope I have
made my point. As the father of two
daughters, I am acutely aware that
there are biases against women in
our culture, and on our campus. The
fact is, there are also many biases
against men. Current fashion,
symbolized by the efforts of Ms.
Ledwitz-Rigby, is to present a
completely asymmetric picture of a
complex situation.  Many men,
aware of the problems women face,
prefer to give writers like Filletti and
Ledwitz-Rigby the benefit of the
doubt. Unfortunately, our tolerance
has given rise to a situation that now
borders on anti-male abuse.
I find myself forced to conclude
that the Ledwitz-Rigby survey, if as
described, is biased, not particularly
competent, and of little use. It is, on
the other hand, nicely symbolic of
what the Strangway administration
has unfortunately come to represent
to many faculty:  meaningless but
expensive bureaucratic "surveys" in
place of serious solutions to the
problems that plague our campus.
Westwater Research Centre photo
Hand-held antenna helps Tim Lissimore, a summer co-op student, track
individual sockeye salmon surgically implanted with radio transmitters as
they struggle up difficult passages in the Fraser Canyon.
Sockeye study
Salmon threatened
by global warming
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
The future of B.C.'s sockeye salmon
fishery could be in jeopardy if the findings
of two Westwater Research Centre studies are borne out.
The studies show that the Fraser
River sockeye fishery could decline significantly in coming decades due to environmental changes brought on by global warming.
The climates changes could result in
smaller and fewer salmon as well as lower
river levels and warmer temperatures,
which would make the salmon's already
exhausting journey to its spawning
grounds even more difficult, said
Westwater Director Michael Healey.
One recent Westwater study conducted
with the Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans
observed the early Stuart River sockeye
run on part of their 1.200-kilometre migration up the Fraser River.
About 30 of the fish were surgically
implanted with a radio transmitter the
size of a human thumb. With this Canadian-made technology, researchers were
able to track individual fish as they passed
a turbulent 30-kilometre section of the
river, from Yale to Hell's Gate, the narrowest point ofthe Fraser Canyon.
As well as the fish's exact location, the
transmitter also told them how fast the
fish was swimming, how much energy it
used and the temperature of the surrounding water — all key information for
determining fish survival on the arduous
Salmon stop feeding once they begin
river migration, and energy depletion may
cause many to die on route, said Scott
Hinch, a research associate at Westwater
who headed up the research team along
with Ron Diewert ofthe Dept. of Fisheries
and Oceans.
Information from the tagged fish also
identified places where passage is difficult.
There were a number of places it was
believed salmon have difficulty getting
past — Hell's Gate, Saddle Rock, Sailor
Bar and a number of others," Healey said.
"But these locations proved to be less
of a problem than was generally believed. Salmon migrate through fast
water by moving along the river bottom
or close to the banks where the flow is
slower and small crevices provide resting places.
'They can sneak up from back eddy to
back eddy or hug the slower currents
right against a rock face."
Instead, the researchers were surprised
to find that innocent-looking gravel bars
often posed a greater obstacle to upstream migration than formidable passages like Hell's Gate.
They believe there are two reasons for
this: gravel bars force fish to swim near
the surface, which they avoid if possible,
and do not offer the resting places found
in rocky canyons.
"One gravel bar near Yale, which extended across most ofthe river, proved to
be an enormous obstacle, especially when
water levels fell as they typically do in late
summer," Hinch said.
"All of the obstacles seem to be particularly difficult for smaller sockeye.
Larger fish sometimes breezed right
through to Hell's Gate," he said.
The researchers believe that anticipated changes in rainfall and snow-melt
patterns in B.C. caused by global warming could mean lower water levels in the
Fraser during the summer months.
This would expose more gravel bars
and create additional obstacles to sockeye
Another Westwater study, undertaken
by Hinch and Healey, found that if global
warming predictions prove to be true,
sockeye numbers and average weight will
both significantly decrease.
City's hospitals change names
University Hospital (UBC site) and Vancouver General Hospital will now be
known as the Vancouver Hospital and
Health Sciences Centre, hospital officials
announced recently.
The name change is the result of a
merger of the two hospitals last year after
University Hospital (Shaughnessy site)
was closed.
"Not only does the name signify the
merger and the corporate changes that
have taken place," said hospital chair
David Esworthy, "but it symbolizes our
commitment to being a hospital that provides the kind of care our patients deserve and our communities expect."
Esworthy said hospital mergers are
becoming commonplace in North America
as health care facilities try to reduce costs.
As part of a plan to reduce duplicaton
and optimize the use of hospital facilities,
reconstructive orthopaedics will be consolidated in the Koerner Pavilion at UBC.
Twenty-four-hour emergency service
will be maintained at both hospital locations — an issue that was of concern to
the surrounding community.
Hospital managers also said surveys
of public opinion showed that there was
little understanding of the hospital's
teaching and research roles, a perception
they hope to change in the near future.
Esworthy said the physical application
ofthe name change 1,700-bed institution—
on signage, stationery, and logos — will be
phased in over time as costs permit 6 UBC Reports January 13, 1994
January 16 through January 29
Monday, Jan. 17
English Lecture
The Chilly Climate: Women In
Academia. Sunera Thobani,
president, N.A.C. Asian Centre
Auditorium at 12:30pm. Reception follows. Call S.W.A.C. at
Plant Science Seminar
Management And Culture Of
Poplars By Scott Paper Limited.
Peter McAuliffe, Scott Paper Ltd.
MacMillan318Dat 12:30pm. Call
Astronomy Seminar
The Age, Formation Redshift/
Collapse Factor OfThe Milky Way.
George Lake. U. of Washington.
Geophysics/Astronomy 260 at
4pm. Coffee at 3:30pm. Call
822- 2267/2696.
International TA Training
Ongoing to Feb. 28. Learn to
work effectively with supervisors,
TAs/students: develop teaching
skills, refine your use of English.
Intercultural Training/Resource
Centre, MLO. Auditorium Annex
221 from 4-7pm. Call 822-9583.
Tuesday, Jan. 18
Animal Science Seminar
Factors Reflecting Calcium Assimilation In Growing Squabs.
Sulernan Bhatti, PhD student.
MacMillan 260 at 12:30pm. Call
English Seminar
Professional Development
Seminar On Feminist Research.
Dr. Veronica Strong-Boag, director, Centre for Research in Women's Studies/Gender Relations.
Grad Student Centre at 12:30pm.
Call Lara Perry at 822-3203.
Botany Seminar
Origin Of Chromista, The Third
Botanical Kingdom. Dr. Tom
Cavalier-Smith, Botany.
BioSciences  2000  from   12:30-
1:30pm.   Call 822-2133.
Lectures In Modern
Small (Molecules) Is Beautiful. Dr. Julian Davies, Microbiology. Chemistry 250 south wing
at lpm. Refreshments at
12:40pm.   Call 822-3266.
Oceanography Seminar
The Effect Of Seawater Flow
Velocity On Inorganic Nitrogen
By The Giant Kelp. Dr. Catriona
Hurd, Oceanography.
BioSciences 1465at3:30pm. Call
Wednesday, Jan. 19
UBC Board Of Governors
Held in the board room, second floor of the Old Administration Building, 6328 Memorial Rd.
The open session begins at 9am.
Orthopaedics Grand Rounds
Self Report/Pain Assessment.
Chair: R.W. McGraw. Speakers:
Drs. P.C. Wing/B. Hayes/C.
Solyom. Eye Care Centre Auditorium at 7am.  Call 875-4272.
Noon Hour Concert
Musick Fyne. Music Recital
Hall at 12:30pm. Admission $2.
Call 822-5574.
Canadian Studies Lecture
First  Nations  Writing/The
Problem Of Voice. Margery Fee,
English. Buchanan B212 at
12:30pm.   Call 822-5193.
Geography Colloquium
Evidence For Large Prehistoric
Earthquakes In Western B.C. And
Washington. John Clague, Geological Survey of Canada. Geography 201 from 3:30-5pm. Refreshments at 3:25pm. Call 822-5612.
International TA Training
Ongoing to Mar. 2. Learn to
work effectively with supervisors,
TAs/students: develop teaching
skills, refine your use of English.
Intercultural Training/Resource
Centre, MLO. Auditorium Annex
221 from 6-9pm.  Call 822-9583.
Thursday, Jan. 20
Women Students Office
/ Inequity In The Classroom.
Begum Virgee/Sarah Dench, WSO.
Co-sponsored by Multicultural Liaison Office. Brock Hall 204D
from l-4pm. Registration 20 students only.   Call 822-2415.
Physics Colloquium
Geologic Nozzles: Old Faithful.
Mt. St. Helens And The Colorado
River Rapids. S. Kieffer, Geology.
Hennings 201 at 4pm. Call 822-
Friday, Jan. 21
Paediatrics Grand Rounds
Approach To The Difficult To
Feed Child. Dr. Maureen
O'Donnell, MD, FRCPC, Developmental Pediatrician. Sunny Hill
Health Centre for Children. G.F.
Strong Auditorium at 9am. Call
Health Care/Epidemiology
Birth Of A Profession: Statutory Approach To Health Policy.
Dr. Arminee Kazanjian. assist,
prof.. Health Care/Epidemiology:
assoc. dir.. Centre for Health Services/Policy Research. James
Mather 253 from 9-10am. Call
Noon Hour Concert
UBC Contemporary Players.
Stephen Chatman/Andrew Dawes,
directors. Music Recital Hall at
12:30pm.   Call 822-3113.
Occupational Hygiene
Program Seminar
Comparative Risk Of Chemical/Manual Brush Control. Dr.
Frank Dost, prof, emeritus. Agricultural Chemistry/Forest Toxicology, Oregon State U. Chemical/Mechanical Engineering 1202
from 12:30-1:30pm. Call 822-
International TA Workshop
Ongoing to Mar. 4. Pronunciation Workshops For International
Teaching Assistants. Intercultural
Training/Resource Centre. MLO.
Open only to present/past participants in TA training. Buchanan
B118from2-4pm. Call 822-9583.
Chemical Engineering
Weekly Seminar
Fluid-Particle Separation By
Acoustic Resonance. Steven
Woodside, grad student. Chemical Engineering 206 at 3:30pm.
Call 822-3238.
Theoretical Chemistry
Aspects Of Moderately Dense
Gas Kinetic Theory. G.Wei. Chem
istry 402 central wing at 4pm. Call
Institute Of Health
Promotion Research Seminar
Moving Theory To Outcome
Measurement. Dr. P.H. Kate Long,
Stanford U.. CA. IRC #5 from 4-
5:30pm.  Call 822-2258.
Open House/Reception
Gathering to conclude Chilly
Climate Week. Grad Student Centre Thea's Lounge at 8pm. Refreshments/cash bar. Call 822-
Saturday, Jan. 22
Vancouver Institute Lecture
ComputerizingThe Oxford English Dictionary. President John
Stubbs, SFU. IRC #2 at 8:15pm.
Call 822-5675.
Monday, Jan. 24
B.C. Cancer Research Centre
Basic FGF Expression In Human Squamous Cell Cancer: Its
Relationship To Regional Tumour
Cell/Endothelial Cell Proliferation.
Dr. Susanne Schultz-Hector,
Institut furStrahlenbiologie, GSF,
Munich. B.C. Cancer Research
Centre Lecture Theatre at 12pm.
Call 877-6010.
Plant Science Seminar
Characterization Of The Cucumber Necrosis Virus Coat Protein Gene. Dr. Morven McLean,
Agriculture Canada. MacMillan
318D at 12:30pm. Refreshments.
Call 822- 9646.
Red Cross Blood Donor
From 3-9pm in the Mary
Murrin/Isabel Maclnnes Lounges.
Walter Gage Residences. Donors
are reminded to bring identification and to eat a substantial meal
1 -4 hrs. prior to donating. Call
Tuesday, Jan. 25
Animal Science Seminar
Follicular Regression In Cattle.
Mohan Mamkkam, PhD student.
MacMillan 260 at 12:30pm. Call
Botany Seminar
The Effect Of Seawater Flow
Velocity On Inorganic Nitrogen
Uptake By Giant Kelp. Dr.
Catriona Hurd, Oceanography.
BioSciences 2000 from 12:30-
1:30pm.   Call 822- 2133.
Lectures In Modern
How To Control Chemical Reactions With Lasers. Dr. Paul
Brumer, Chemical Physics Theory
Group, Chemistry, U. of Toronto.
Chemistry 250 south wing at lpm.
Refreshments at 12:40pm. Call
Oceanography Seminar
Removing The Effects Of Particle Fluxes With A Horizontal Component From Sediment Trap Data.
David Timothy, Oceanography.
BioSciences 1465 at 3:30pm. Call
822- 3626.
Graduate/Faculty Christian
The Word And The Words: Can
The Bible Speak To Our Present
Situation? Dr. Alan Reynolds, U.
Hill Congregation. Buchanan
Penthouse at 4:15pm. Coffee at
4pm.   Call 822-3268.
Wednesday, Jan. 26
Orthopaedics Grand Rounds
Dislocation OfThe Knee. R.N.
Meek. Eye Care Centre Auditorium at 7am.  Call 875- 4272.
Microbiology Seminar
Mechanisms Of Poxvirus Virulence. Dr. Chris Upton, Biology,
U. Vic. Wesbrook 201 from 12-
lpm.   Call 822-3308.
Noon Hour Concert
Natsuko Uemura, harpsichord.
Music Recital Hall at 12:30pm.
Admission $2.  Call 822-5574.
Centre For Japanese
Research Seminar
Weaving Workshops: Educational Processes/Leisure Pursuits.
Millie Creighton, Anthropology/
Sociology. Asian Centre Basement
Music Room from 12:30-2pm. Call
French Colloquium
Les Retouches Du Francais
Parle Par Les Enfants En Immersion Francaise. Marcia Santen.
Buchanan Tower 799 at 2:30pm.
Call 822-4025.
Geography Colloquium
The Lao Bai Xing Sector: A New
Trend In Chinese Urban Development. Michael Leaf, Centre for
Human Settlements. Geography
201 from 3:30-5pm. Refreshments
at 3:25pm.   Call 822-5612.
Women In English Meeting
Networkwithyourpeers. Please
bring a friend. Refreshments
served. Located at 3689 W. 11th
Avenue at 7:30pm. Call 224-6494.
Evening Theatre
The Jewish Students Assoc,
presents the play: The Night Of
The Twentieth by Joshua Sobol.
Asian Centre Auditorium at
7:30pm. Repeats Jan. 27th. Tickets $8 adults, $5 students /youths.
Call Hillel at 224-4748.
Thursday, Jan. 27
Opera Panel Discussion
Janacek's Jenufa In Context.
Susan Bennett, Vancouver Opera;
Marketa Goetz- Stankiewicz, German; Floyd St. Clair, French.
Dorothy Somerset Studio at
12:30pm.  Call 822-4060.
Symphony Concert
UBC Orchestra, Jesse Read,
conductor; Cherith Alexander, piano soloist. Old Auditorium at
12:30pm.   Call 822-3113.
Institute Of International
Relations Lecture
Megatrends For The Millennium. Margaret Catley-Carlson,
president, Population Council, New
York. IRC #2 at 12:30pm. Call
Philosophy Lecture
The Identity Of Indiscernibles:
Can It Be True Without Being
Trivial? Denis Robinson, Philosophy, Auckland U. Buchanan D348
from 1-2:30pm.  Call 822-3292.
Physics Colloquium
Physics At The Nuclear Drip Line.
S.Austin, U. of Michigan. Hennings
201 at 4pm.  Call 822-3853.
Faculty Forum
Computer-Assisted Control Of
Mobile Hydraulic Machines. Dr.
Peter Lawrence, Electrical Engineering. CICSR/CS 208 from 4-
5:30pm.  Call 822-6894.
Arts Lecture
Forensic Anthropology Applied To Historical Problems.
Owen Beattie, Anthropology, U.
of Alberta; Roger Amy, Pathology, UBC. Green College Dining
Hall at 8:30pm. Call Screening of
Franklin Expedition film. Frozen
In Time at 5:30. Call 822-9121.
Friday, Jan. 28
Paediatrics Grand Rounds
Latex Allergy: An Emerging
Problem. Wade Watson, MD,
FRCPC, asst. prof., Allergy/Clinical Immunology, U. of Manitoba.
G.F. Strong Auditorium at 9am.
Call 875-2307.
Health Care/Epidemiology
A Review OfThe International
Congress On Occupational
Health, held recently in Nice.
France. Dr. Joseph Nearing,
Occupational Medicine consultant. Worker's Compensation
Board. James Mather 253 from
9-10am.   Call 822-2772.
Economics Lecture
Privatizing Russia I. Andrei
Schleifer, speaker for the Vancouver Institute series: prof..
Harvard U. Buchanan 104A from
12:30-1:30pm. Call 822-4129/
Animal Science Seminar
Control/Management Of
Ovarian Follicles To Optimize
Fertility. MacMillan 260 at
12:30pm.   Call 822-4593.
Occupational Hygiene
Program Seminar
An Overview Of The Airborne
Spread Of Bacteria. Dr. Johr
Anderson, Pathology/Laboratory
Medicine. Chemical/Mechanica
Engineering 1202 from 12:30
1:30pm.  Call 822-9595.
Chemical Engineering
Weekly Seminar
Mechanical Properties Of Air
way Soft Tissues. Lu Wang, grac
student. Chemical Engineering
206 at 3:30pm.  Call 822-3238.
Theoretical Chemistry
Domain Decomposition Meth
ods In Computational Fluid Dynamics. Dr. H. Yang. Chemistrj
402 central wing at 4pm. Cal
Calendar items must be submitted on forms available from the UBC Community Relations Office, 207-
6328 Memorial Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T1Z2. Phone:
822-3131. Fax: 822-2684. Please limit to 35 words.
Submissions for the Calendar's Notices section may be
limited due to space. Deadline for the January 27 issue
of UBC Reports — which covers the period January 30
to February 12 — is noon, January 18. Calendar
UBC Reports ■ January 13,1994 7
January 16 through January 29
Saturday, Jan. 29
Continuing Studies Panel
Conflict In The Clayoquot: A
Comprehensive Analysis. Clark
Binkley, Gordon Weetman,
Hamish Kimmins, Forestry: John
Borrows, David Cohen, Lynn
Smith, Law; Gary Bowden, Resource Environ.: Carol Reardon,
West Coast Envir. Law Assoc;
George Hoberg, Poli. Sci.; W.
Stanbury. Commerce. Moderator: Vaughn Palmer, Vancouver
Sun. Scarfe 100 from 8:30am-
4:30pm. All welcome. Call 222-
Vancouver Institute
Privatizing Russia. Prof.
Andrei Shleifer, Economics,
Harvard U. IRC #2 at 8:15pm.
Call 822-3131.
Student Housing
The off-campus housing listing service offered by the UBC
Housing Office has been discontinued. A new service offered by
the AMS has been established to
provide a housing listing service
for both students and landlords.
This new service utilizes a computer voice messaging system. Students call 822-9844, landlords call
Campus Tours
School and College Liaison tours
provide prospective UBC students
with an overview of campus activities/faculties/services. Every Friday at 9:30am. Reservations required one week in advance. Call
Disability Resource Centre
The Centre provides consultation and information for faculty
members with students with disabilities. Guidebooks/services for
student and faculty available. Call
Women Students' Office
Advocacy/personal counselling
services available. Call 822-2415.
TOEFL Preparation
Jan. 18 through Mar. 10. ESL
course. $260 for an eight-week
session. Auditorium Annex 221
from 7-9pm Tues /Thurs. evenings.
Call 222-5208.
Duplicate Bridge
Informal game open to the public.   $2 person includes refresh
ments. Wednesdays at the Faculty Club. Play begins at 7:30pm.
Singles welcome but should arrive
early to arrange partnerships. Call
Steve Rettig at 822-4865.
French, Spanish, Japanese,
Conversation Classes
Ten-week sessions begin Sat.
Jan. 22 (9:30am-12:30pm), Tues.
Jan. 25 or Thurs. Jan. 27(7-10pm)
Buchanan D. Spanish immersion
program in Costa Rica (Feb. 27-
Mar. 19). Call Language Programs/
Services, CCE at 222-5227.
Ergonomics Workshop
Beginning January, 1994. A
Four Session Group Series: Problem Solving/Solutions/Brain-
storming. Presented by Occupational Therapy Students. UBC
Hospital. Times TBA. Call Lisa at
Depression/Sleep Study
Volunteers who suffer from both
depression and sleep disturbances,
age 18-55 required for study involving medication treatment.
Honorarium. UBC Sleep Disorders Program. Call Carolyn at
Psychology Study In
Couples with a 5-11 yr. old son
are wanted for a study on parenting
style. Families will be paid for
participating. UBC Parenting Lab.
Call 822-9037.
Clinical Research Support
Faculty of Medicine data analysts supporting clinical research.
To arrange a consultation, call
Laurel at 822-4530.
Psychology Cognition/
Emotion Study
Seeking participants ages 21-
60 for studies exploring the cognitive effects of emotions. Participation involves three 90 minute sessions spread over 1-2 weeks. Honorarium of $30. Call Dawn Layzell/
Dr. Eric Eich at 822-2022.
Drug Inter-Action Study
Volunteers at least 18 years
required for participation in Pharmacology/Therapeutics study.
Eligibility screening by appointment. Honorarium upon completion of study.   Call 822-4270.
Statistical Consulting/
Research Laboratory
SCARL is operated by the Dept.
of Statistics to provide statistical
advice to faculty/graduate students working on research problems.   Call 822-4037.
Surplus Equipment
Recycling Facility (SERF)
Disposal of all surplus items.
EveryWednesday, 12-5pm. Task
Force Bldg.. 2352 Health Sciences Mall. Call Vince at 822-
2582/Rlch at 822-2813.
Sexual Harassment Office
Advis ji s are available to discuss ques ons or concerns and
are prep d to help any member
of the UBC community who is
being sexually harassed find a
satisfactory resolution. Call
Margaretha Hoek at 822-6353.
Badminton Club
Faculty/Staff are welcome to
join in the fun at the Robert
Osborne Centre-Gym A, on Fridays now through Mar/94 from
6:30-8:30pm. Cost is $15, plus
library card. Call John at 822-
Nitobe Garden
Open weekdays  only  from
10am-3pm.   Call 822-6038.
Botanical Garden
Open daily from ll-5pm.
Shop In The Garden. Call 822-
Universities team up
to study sea lions
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
It's feeding time at the Vancouver
Aquarium and five Steller sea lion pups
are scrambling over each other, barking
and bellowing for their turn at the bottle.
In the midst of this squirming chaos,
UBC researcher Andrew Trites struggles
to get blood samples, fat measurements
and other growth indicators from the
rambunctious pups.
Sea lion populations in the North Pacific are dropping at an alarming rate and
Trites is part ofthe UBC-led North Pacific
Universities Marine Mammal Research
Consortium, which is trying to discover
These pups, captured off northern
Vancouver Island, will be closely monitored as they grow and develop, enabling
researchers to uncover facts about sea
lion physiology not possible to glean in
the wild.
But even studying captive sea lions is
not easy. A handful now at the age of
three months, they will soon grow into
enormous adults. Males can reach three
metres in length and weigh as much as
1,000 kilograms.
"We're trying to get as much information from them as possible because it's
not likely we'll be able to repeat this type
of study again," said Trites, who is director ofthe Marine Mammal Research Unit
at UBC's Fisheries Centre.
Alaska, home to 75 per cent of the
world's Steller sea lions, is where the
population decline is most serious. Since
1980, the Alaskan population has fallen
from 225,000 to 85.000 and is still plummeting. B.C.'s sea lion population is 7,200
and holding steady.
"By the mid-1980s it became apparent
that something was seriously wrong in
the North Pacific," Trites said. "Sea lions
were disappearing from areas where they
had once been numerous."
In response, U.S. authorities declared
the Steller sea lion a threatened species
and, fearing that commercial fishing was
to blame for depleting fish stocks sea
lions need for food, began to restrict
commercial fishing in the Bering Sea and
the Gulf of Alaska.
The move has sent shock waves
through Alaska's billion-dollar fishing
If sea lions are declared an endangered
species, the industry could face further
restrictions or complete fishing closures.
This despite the fact that studies have not
discounted other factors in their decline,
including natural predators, toxic pollutants, environmental change, diseases and
"If the fishing industry is the cause,
they want to know why," Trites said. "Is it
the type offish they catch, the location of
the fishery, the time of year, the gear they
To find out, the industry commissioned
a $400,000-a-year independent research
program. UBC University Prof. Emeritus
Peter Larkin was asked to put the consortium together. Other members include
the University of Alaska, the University of
Washington and Oregon State University.
'The consortium was our idea," Larkin
said, "and it was an idea that appealed to
the people supporting the research. Bringing together four universities allows us to
draw on more talent and expertise than
any one institution could muster."
Trites said there are three major aspects to the program.
The first involves monitoring the growth
and eating habits ofthe five captive pups,
who are now fed a formula specially developed for them with assistance from
Sheila Innis, an associate professor of
Once they are weaned, they will be fed
different types of fish to see how much
food they need and whether they have
Gavin Wilson photo
UBC researcher Andrew Trites, right, takes fat measurements from captive
sea lion pups as a Vancouver Aquarium volunteer distracts them with a
formula bottle. Trites is part of a team studying the pups' metabolism in an
effort to discover why sea lion populations are in rapid decline in parts of
the North Pacific.
preferred fish species. Scientists also suspect that the calories from some fish are
metabolized better than those from others.
The pups will be trained to breath into
a metabolic chamber so that their energy
requirements and metabolic rates can be
Researchers also hope to find techniques to pinpoint the seal lions' diet
using blood and feces analysis.
"If we can find techniques that are
proven to work with captive animals, we
can apply them to animals in the wild,"
Trites said.
This will help researchers determine
the quantities of various species of fish
that wild sea lions are eating, information
that will be used by U.S. officials in
setting fisheries regulations.
The captive sea lions will be studied for
five years, first at the Vancouver Aquarium's marine mammal research pool and
then at the Bamfield Marine Station,
before being returned to the wild.
A second part of the project involves
studying sea lions in their natural envi
ronment at two Alaskan sites, a healthy
colony on one island, and a declining one
on another.
Graduate students will observe feeding behavior, analyze feces and use radio
tagging to track the animals to sea to
determine where and what they are feeding on.
The third component of the project is
data analysis and lab studies. Ray Gosine,
an assistant professor of Mechanical Engineering and holder of an NSERC chair
in industrial automation, is overseeing
attempts to automate the counting of sea
lions using video images.
Eventually, researchers hope to expand the scope of the study to include
harbour seals, killer whales and other
species that are part ofthe same ecosystem.
"This project is in its early stages."
Larkin said. 'There are major changes
occurring in the oceanography of the
North Pacific associated with climate
trends and we want to learn more about
them." 8 UBC Reports January 13, 1994
Disability Resource Centre
January 13, 1994
Dear Colleague:
The Disability Resource Centre was established in 1991 to
facilitate the full and self-directed participation of persons with
disabilities in post-secondary education, particularly here at UBC.
Since that time, the Centre has been working with the faculty, staff
and administration at UBC towards the achievement of this goal. As
part of this process, CS/RESORS Consulting Ltd. was commissioned to complete an environmental scan.
The following document, an Environmental Scan - UBC Faculty
Survey, provides information on faculty awareness of activities ofthe
Centre and of disability-related issues. The results of this survey will
assist the University in developing new strategies to eliminate access
barriers for students with disabilities.
Comments on the results of this study are invited. Please contact
Ruth Warick, Director of the Disability Resource Centre, at 822-
K.D. Srivastava
Student and Academic Services
Presented to Disability Resource Centre,
University of British Columbia, prepared
by CS/RESORS Consulting Ltd.
- U.B.C. Faculty Survey
This report presents the findings of a
survey of faculty and staff of the University of British Columbia regarding selected issues related to students with
disabilities and the Disability Resource
Centre. It was conducted to supplement
the Environmental Scan - Directors of
Student Services' Offices and DRC Staff
completed by CS/RESORS Consulting
Ltd., in August, 1992. Both studies were
commissioned by the Centre.
The study was designed to obtain information and opinions regarding:
- the nature of faculty respondents'
interactions with students with
disabilities on campus
- the nature of respondents'
interactions with the DRC
- the awareness of current types of
classroom/laboratory accommodations for students with disabilities
- suggestions for future roles of both
the DRC and the University in order
for both to respond more effectively
to students with disabilities
The respondents were a randomly selected sample from the over 2,100 current members of the Faculty Association
of UBC. This approach was chosen over
sampling all faculties or departments/
schools within faculties, or stratifying the
sample to reflect the proportions of students with disabilities within the various
faculties. It was felt that this approach
would yield information from a broad
range of individuals and areas, representing those who have a great deal of
contact and/or knowledge ofthe Centre
as well as those who have not.
Letters of introduction (see Appendix I)
were sent by the Vice President, Student
and Academic Services and Vice President Academic and Provost to the random sample, comprising 190 faculty and
staff (the latter mainly composed of librarians) and 25 heads of departments.
These letters explained the purpose ofthe
survey and asked for their participation.
Interviews were conducted by telephone
with a total of 122 individuals (109 faculty and staff and 13 department chairs)
during March. 1993. (The list of interview
questions is presented in Appendix II.)
This represents 57% of the original sample, and 5% ofthe total number of Faculty
Association members.
The information from the interviews contained some quantitative data, such as
faculty position, primary responsibilities,
and whether or not the respondent had
any interaction with the Centre. This
information was aggregated to form a
series of frequency distributions. The
qualitative data, made up primarily of
respondents' perspectives of issues, was
subjected to content analysis in order to
determine commonalities and differences,
and to note significant anecdotes. The
findings of all respondent groups (faculty, staff, department chairs) are combined in this report because they do not
differ from one another to any significant
The survey was meant to be a snapshot of
faculty perceptions about access issues
for students with disabilities at UBC. It
was not meant to be exhaustive or necessarily conclusive, but nonetheless useful
in providing information for guiding the
Centre and the University in fostering
the participation of students with disabilities on campus.
The report on the findings is organized
according to the major research questions explored in the interviews. A brief
description of the types of respondents is
presented first. This is followed by a
discussion of respondents' experience
with and knowledge of selected disability-related issues. Also discussed are
findings involving respondents' interactions with the DRC and of any changes
they have noted since its inception involving students with disabilities. The
section ends with a summary of respondents' suggestions for priorities of both
the DRC and the University for facilitating the full participation on campus of
persons with disabilities.
A.  Respondent Profile
During March, 1993, a total of 122 interviews were completed. Table 1 indicates
the proportion of respondents within the
different faculties on campus, as well as
the number of different departments or
schools within those faculties that were
represented. The largest proportion of
respondents was from the Faculty of Arts
(26%) and represented 18 ofthe 23 different departments or schools within that
faculty. The second largest proportion of
respondents was from the Faculty of Science (22%) and represented 10 ofthe 11
different Science departments. The only
faculty from which there were no respondents was the Faculty of Dentistry.
Table 2 indicates the percentages of respondents in terms ofthe position(s) they
currently hold at the University. Full
professors made up the largest proportion of respondents (36%). The Other
category included those who worked as
librarians, library service coordinators,
library publication coordinators and education program coordinators.
Table 3 (next page) shows the nature of
the work respondents carry out at the
University. The majority of department
heads indicated their responsibilities included teaching, research, and administration. Teaching and research activities
were indicated most often by other faculty members. Significantly smaller
numbers of faculty indicated they had
only teaching duties, or combinations of,
for example, teaching and administration.
B.  Respondents' Experience With
and Knowledge of Disability-Related
Departmental guidelines for students
with disabilities	
Almost half of the respondents (47%)
were unsure about whether their department had formal guidelines for accommodating the needs of students with disabilities. Approximately 35% of the
respondents indicated their departments
did not have such guidelines, while the
remaining 18% said their departments
did have guidelines and/or that the department used those developed by the
DRC (i.e.. Teaching Students with Disabilities Guidebook).
While some faculties or departments have
formal guidelines for students with disabilities, this fact was not consistently
noted by all respondents from these particular faculties or departments. Those
who indicated their faculty had guidelines were from Law (e.g., "...special
elevators, power doors, schedule classrooms that are wheelchair accessible")
and several departments within Science
(e.g., "...formal, written policy
developed....keep doorways open, make
room for wheelchairs"), and from the
Department of English (e.g.,"...regular
procedure for exam accommodations").
Ten respondents made reference to UBC's
"general policy" regarding students with
disabilities. Although the nature or details of this policy were not pursued during the interviews, it is presumed that
respondents were referring to the state-
Table 1.   Respondents' Faculty/Centre and Number of Departments/Schools
within Faculties Represented in Sample
Number of Different
% of Total
Applied Science
The University Library
Commerce and Business Administration
Graduate Studies
Agricultural Sciences
Centre for Continuing Education
Pharmaceutical Sciences
*   Figures add to more than 100% due to rounding.
Table 2
Respondent's Position at UBC
% of Total Survey
Department Head
Associate Professor
Assistant Professor
7 UBC Reports • January 13,1994 9
ments contained in the UBC Calendar.
Further, it was often stated that regardless of any specific formal or   informal
guidelines, respondents would handle all
situations concerning students with disabilities on an ad hoc basis. For example:
" ...no formal guidelines.   If student
needs wheelchair accessible classroom,
an appropriate classroom would be
"Don't get many [students with
disabilities]....Deal with on an ad hoc
" Informal accommodations take place."
"Unwritten... try to accommodate these
students where possible."
"We will deal with students on an
individual basis."
Numerous respondents also commented
that the Guidebook developed by the
DRC was useful to them in understanding and responding to needs of students
with disabilities.  For example:
"I don't know if our department has
guidelines, but I've read the [DRC's]
'The very existence ofthe DRC and the
Guidebook has increased general
awareness and sensitivity to disability
'The Guidebook has been very
Experience in classes or other work
with students with disabilities	
Table 4 shows that over half of the respondents (56%) indicated they did not
have any students who asked for disability-related special assistance or accommodations during the past two academic
years. Of those that did, the majority had
responsibilities covering both teaching
and research or teaching, research, and
Of those respondents who did have occasion to assist students with disabilities in
one or more ways during this period of
time, Table 5 (next page) shows that most
interactions related to exam accommodations. Other accommodations often made
involved having sign language interpreters
in class and having students who used
tape recorders during lectures.
Adaptations mentioned once by respondents included:
- assistance in obtaining funding;
- referring student to the DRC;
- extending deadlines for project;
- allowing for absences;
- modifying laboratory requirements;
- providing tape-recorded material;
- referring student to Crane Library
and Resource Centre;
- assistance in preparing for exam; and
- adapting written material.
Fifty-seven per cent of those interviewed
indicated that they were aware that other
members of their faculty or department
had assisted a student with a disability
during the past two academic years. This
assistance most often involved arranging
for other formats for exams or exam
times for students. Changing a classroom to accommodate mobility aids was
another accommodation frequently indicated, as was permitting time extensions
for both class assignments and examinations.
Awareness of accommodations/
modifications for students with
disabilities at UBC	
As indicated in Table 6 (next page), respondents most often indicated an aware-
Table 3
Nature of Respondent's Work
Total Number of
Survey Respondents
Department Head
Other Facultv
Table 4.   Interactions with Students with Disabilities
Across Respondents' Responsibility Areas
Nature of Respondent's Work
Number R(
No Interaction
Department Head
Other Faculty
ness of accommodations or modifications at UBC regarding mobility aids.
Some of these modifications included:
retro-fitting older buildings with ramps,
elevators, washroom modifications, and
widening of doorways and aisles. In
addition, over half (35 of 60 individuals)
of these particular respondents had at
one time during the previous two years
either a) relocated to classrooms that
accommodated wheelchairs; b) supplied
computers; or c) provided special ex-
Other types of accommodations or modifications also were noted. Several respondents commented that most 3*u-
dents with visual and hearing impairments brought "their own solutions" to
the lectures (e.g., sign language interpreters, note-takers, tape recorders, guide
Other faculty and staff respondents indicated they have sometimes accommodated students who have psychiatric
disabilities or chronic diseases by referring the student to psychiatric counselling and allowing deadline extensions on
course assignments and  examinations.
Finally, when discussing learning disabilities with the respondents, the most
common learning disorder they had encountered among students was dyslexia.
Several faculty noted that this type of
disability was most concerning because,
according to one respondent, "so often it
goes tragically undetected by both the
student and [the faculty member], often
needlessly short-circuiting the student's
academic career."
Barriers on campus
The majority of respondents (88%) felt
the greatest barrier faced by students
with disabilities at UBC was the inaccessibility by wheelchairs of buildings, classrooms, and washrooms. The vast layout
ofthe campus was a close second, especially for those utilizing mobility aids.
One example, cited by eight different
survey participants, involved students in
wheelchairs attempting to move from a
lecture hall at one end of the campus to
another lecture hall at the opposite end
— in the ten minutes allotted between
classes. Apparently, this is quite a feat
for students without disabilities, let alone
students with disabilities.
Another significant barrier mentioned by
several respondents was the lack of awareness or education on campus about
disability-related issues on campus. Some
respondents commented that they
thought there was a fair amount of literature about disability issues available for
all those attending UBC (e.g., brochures
and materials from the DRC, statements
in the UBC calendar), but that much of it
seems to go unnoticed. That is, people do
not seem to be aware of disability issues
unless they become directly involved in
some way.
Further, a few respondents commented
that a student's refusal to identify a disability (learning or otherwise) to the
faculty or staff creates an unnecessary
barrier. This lack of communication
often leads to a frustrating relationship
for both the professor and the student,
especially  if the  disability could  have
been accommodated easily.
Other barriers mentioned by respondents included:
- a lack of braille in the elevators;
- poor lighting and sound systems in
lecture halls;
- heavy doors;
- lab tables that are too high;
- the heavy workload and rigid time
frames for some courses;
- the degree of competitiveness
common within certain departments;
- a lack of technology provided to the
student with a disability (e.g., braille
texts, portable computers, assistants).
Suggestions for additional services/
With few exceptions, respondents generally felt that UBC should continue its
efforts to improve physical accessibility
— to buildings, classrooms, laboratories,
washrooms, and elevators. This was
specifically suggested by 94% of respondents.
Some respondents (15%) suggested that
the University should direct its efforts to
increasing not only the awareness of
disability issues throughout campus but
to providing tangible solutions to many
of the difficulties experienced by students with disabilities. A few of these
respondents suggested that the most ef- .
fective manner to accomplish this goal
would be through the DRC developing
workshops, seminars, and forums where
people with and without disabilities could
meet to bridge the often "unspoken gap"
between the two groups.
Other respondents (25%) felt that a general sensitivity toward students with disabilities would go a long way in furthering the full participation of these students at UBC. This included awareness
of the fact that some students with disabilities will complete their work and
their university experience at a different
pace than others students.
Further suggestions from respondents
for UBC to give priority to included:
- increasing available technical
assistance (i.e., note-takers, signers,
mouth-operated computers, portable
computers, braille texts, video-taped
lectures and a large screen, public
access catalog);
- providing adaptations to laboratory
worktables (they tend to be too high for
students in wheelchairs); and
- developing a comprehensive fire safety
plan to assist people with disabilities
in the event of an emergency.
C.  Respondents' Interactions and
Perceptions Regarding the Disability
Resource Centre
Virtually all of the survey respondents
indicated an awareness of the DRC, although 77% have had no specific interaction with the DRC. Ofthe 23% who did
have contact, most involved the DRC
arranging special exams for students with
disabilities. Other interactions included
the Centre obtaining sign language interpreters, providing technical consultation
for using assistive devices (e.g., FM radio
system for students with hearing impairments), and outlining safety and evacuation procedures for persons with disabilities. Six respondents had attended
a workshop or seminar hosted by the
DRC. Each of these respondents said
they had found such presentations both
informative and professional.
Overall, respondents were generally positive about both their interaction with and 10 UBC Reports January 13,1994
the efforts ofthe DRC. Selected quotes
from respondents illustrate this attitude:
• "We appreciate the DRC's efforts
in raising the profile of disabled
• "The DRC is successfully
assisting disabled students achieve
self-esteem and self-believing
systems that will see them through
the many barriers that they will
confront on a daily basis at UBC."
• The DRC booklet is most valuable."
• The DRC is doing a good job and
needs to be complimented."
• "The DRC is providing services to
assist faculty in understanding
specific needs through their
seminars and publications."
• "The President's office has been very
good working in this area considering the financial problems UBC
faces at large."
D. Changes on Campus Regarding
Disability Issues
Approximately three-quarters of the respondents feel that the degree of awareness, sensitivity, and acceptance of persons with disabilities has significantly
increased in recent years. Approximately 10% of the respondents mentioned that the existence ofthe Disability
Resource Centre has gone a long way in
increasing awareness and acceptance of
students with disabilities, as has the
presence of Rick Hansen on campus.
Fifty-five percent thought that attitude
changes at UBC reflect an overall increase in the awareness of society in
general. They believe that even though
there have been positive steps taken to
ensure greater integration of students
with disabilities at UBC, much more remains to be done.
One-quarter ofthe respondents appeared
to be more sceptical ofthe attitude change
of those without disabilities and feel that
much of the apparent acceptance is superficial. Some commented that students with disabilities are often quite
invisible to the majority of the UBC
While most respondents agreed that
physical accessibility on campus was
certainly improving, just under one-
third thought these changes were not
happening quickly enough. It was mentioned, for example, that the older buildings are virtually inaccessible to most
students with disabilities, especially above
the first floors. Another example was that
the Main Library is inaccessible from the
front for persons using wheelchairs. Despite this, respondents noted that many
buildings have actually been retro-fitted
with ramps, automatic doors and elevators, and newer buildings are required to
be more accessible to people with disabilities. Outside, curbs have been lowered for easier and safer travelling by
those using mobility aids, and numerous
parking spots have now been designated
for the persons with disabilities.
Other than the Disability Resource Centre's Teaching Students With Disabilities
Guidebook and various bulletins and
notices, the respondents did not feel that
there was any significant increase in official actions or regulations vis-a-vis disability issues and persons with disabilities. Again, most adaptations to procedures made by faculty while dealing with
students with disabilities are informal
and handled on an individual basis.
E. Suggestions for Future Directions
Regarding Disability Issues
University priorities	
Respondents were unanimous in citing
Table 5
Types of Interactions Between Respondents
and Students with Disabilities
Number of
Monitoring exam (at Crane Library or DRC)
Extra exam time
Rescheduling of exam(s)
Use of sign language interpreter
Use of tape recorder
Modification of exam(s)
Individual assistance/tutoring
::V 4.   ;;:
Special written material
Use of FM system
Use of overhead projector
Presence of giiMe dog for blind students
Table 6. Awareness of Modifications/Accommodations Available for
Students With Disabilities at UBC
Type of Disability
Number of
Chronic Illness
Deaf and Hard of Hearing
increasing physical accessibility as UBC's
number one priority. Second to access
was an increase in education regarding
disability-related issues for faculty, staff,
and students at large. Several (7%) suggested that the University link up with
those at the Disability Resource Centre to
develop workshops, seminars, and forums where both people with and without disabilities could meet to discuss
concerns and  solutions.
Three survey participants would like to
see the University commit itself to providing additional technological support for
students with disabilities, especially those
who have visual and/or hearing impairments. They feel that it is these students
who are likely to have the most difficulty
in the academic environment on campus.
Several respondents also suggested that
the University:
- clarify fire safety procedures for
people with disabilities:
- improve the lighting and sound
quality in lecture theatres;
- supply the Disability Resource
Centre with additional funds for
research  purposes;
- supply sign language interpreters
and braille texts; and
- undertake a comprehensive needs
assessment for students with
disabilities to truly understand the
exact nature of the barriers faced by
these students each day at UBC.
Finally, it was suggested by two faculty
members that UBC develop an advertising campaign that would encourage secondary school students with disabilities
to attend university. The message should
note that sometimes the only real barrier
standing between the student with  dis
abilities and an academic education might
be the student's own perception of their
potential being limited.
Three respondents, however, expressed
some concerns about the degree of the
University's commitment to the DRC and
to students with disabilities:
• " Perhaps there is a disproportionate
investment in these people [students
with disabilities] already."
• "People with disabilities should have
access to the same education but
not if that means severely limiting
the activities ofthe abled."
Priorities for the Disability Resource
Just over 75% of those interviewed felt
the roles played by the DRC should be
that of mediator (between students with
disabilities and faculty), advocate, and
educator. Approximately 10% of respondents indicated that the DRC is in a
prime position to raise awareness
throughout UBC by the development of
workshops and seminars, and the dissemination of up-to-date literature. Often, too, respondents commented that
they see the DRC as a problem solver in
offering faculty members tangible options to help overcome the barriers faced
by a student with a disability.
In addition, some respondents suggested
that the DRC could provide emotional
support and guidance to students with
disabilities who may be finding the integration process difficult. Other respondents felt the DRC could play a role in
encouraging students to inform their
faculty or department about any disabilities in order to facilitate assistance.
Other activities for the DRC suggested by
respondents included:
-carrying out a needs assessment of persons with disabilities at UBC;
-identifying new technology to assist those
with specific disabilities (in other words,
staying on the leading edge of technology):
-monitoring the environment of acceptance, sensitivity and awareness throughout UBC;
-enrolling volunteers to assist students
with disabilities on campus; and
-continuing to facilitate, help and promote a supportive environment for those
disabled students studying at UBC.
Survey participants appeared to be generally knowledgeable about and sensitive
to the needs of students with disabilities,
while not always aware of specific programs and services. Although the majority of respondents had not had any such
students in their classrooms or offices,
they indicated an overall awareness of
what accommodations were available and
how to go about obtaining them.
The issue that most often appeared in
interviews with survey participants, regardless of the particular focus of the
question, involved physical accessibility.
For example, respondents frequently
noted an awareness of changes that have
occurred in many buildings on campus,
as well as the many barriers that still
exist. In addition, the majority of these
interactions involved physical access
issues, such as changing classrooms to
accommodate a wheelchair or arranging
an adapted exam. Further, increasing
physical accessibility was the issue suggested as the highest priority for University action related to people with disabilities.
This survey of UBC faculty was the first
such study conducted by the Centre, and
as such will provide a useful baseline of
information on faculty and staff awareness of the activities of the DRC and of
disability-related issues. As mentioned
at the beginning of the report, the study
was not meant to be exhaustive or statistically representative of the University's
faculty, but simply to provide a brief
picture ofthe general knowledge environment regarding disability issues in which
the DRC is operating.
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A national program to encourage giving and volunteering. UBC Reports ■ January 13,1994 11
The classified advertising rate is $ 15 for 35 words or
less. Each additional word is 50 cents. Rate includes
GST. Ads must be submitted in writing 10 days before
publication date to the UBC Community Relations
Office, 207-6328 Memorial Road, Vancouver, B.C.,
V6T 1Z2, accompanied by payment in cash, cheque
(made out to UBC Reports) or internal requisition.
Advertising enquiries: 822-3131.
The deadline for the Jan. 27,   1994
issue of UBC Reports is noon, Jan 18.
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VOLUNTEERS Do you have time
to make a difference in a child's
life? Become a reading tutor. The
Learning Disabilities Ass. -
Vancouver is recruiting
volunteers for its reading and
writing skills program for students
ages 7-13. Phone 873-8139.
SINGLES NETWORK Single science
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UBC Press
offers listing,
on Internet
This fall UBC Press became
one of the first publishers in
Canada to offer its current catalogue and books-in-print listing
over the Internet system.
This service offers librarians,
booksellers, researchers and
general readers the opportunity
to browse through a wide array
of material on forthcoming and
published titles.
Those with access to Internet
will be able to find general information on the author, book price,
number of pages, number of illustrations, and reviewers' comments.
Other features of the UBC
Press Internet listing include: an
introduction to UBC Press along
with a complete list of its employees; a list of recent book
awards; detailed book ordering
information; an electronic order
form which can be E-mailed to
UBC Press and instructions for
submitting manuscripts.
For more information on this
service call 822-4546.
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by staff writers
Oceanography Prof. Tim Parsons is the winner of the G.
Evelyn Hutchinson Medal from
the American Society of
Limnology and Oceanography.
Parsons received the award in
recognition of a career spanning many
aspects of oceanography.
In his research, he has tried to make
ecology predictable by finding and
accurately measuring parameters to
describe the relationships between
During his career he has influenced
some ofthe major changes that have
occurred in the theory, practice and
education of oceanography.
Bernard Bressler. head of the Dept. of Anatomy, has been
named a director of the Medical Research Council's
(MRC) newly formed regional network.
A one-year pilot project, the network was created to
strengthen links between the MRC and the health research
Bressler joined UBC in 1976 and served as associate dean
of research and graduate studies in the Faculty of Medicine
between 1987 and 1990 and as associate vice-president,
research (health sciences) for the past three years.
His areas of research include the biophysical and structural
alterations of skeletal muscle in neuromuscular disorders
such as Muscular Dystrophy.
• • • •
Honours Political Science student Laurel Baig, 22, is the
winner of a Rhodes Scholarship for British Columbia. The
1993 Wesbrook Scholar will use the award to study law at
Oxford University starting in September.
Raised in Ontario, Baig is one of 19 B.C. students who applied
for the scholarship and among 11 recipients from across the
country. Each winner has travel and study expenses paid for two
years with an option for a third year.
In 1990, Baig transferred to UBC's political science department from a general science program at the University ofOttawa.
As part of UBC's Education Abroad Program, she is spending the
current academic year at the Chinese University of Hong Kong
studying Mandarin. While overseas, she also volunteers as an
intern and research assistant at Asia Watch, a division of Human
Rights Watch.
An accomplished athlete, Baig has been a competitive cyclist
at the provincial and national levels. She has also been a member
of UBC's varsity rowing and cross-country skiing teams and
actively involved in theatre.
echanical Engineering Prof. Clarence de Silva has
been chosen to chair the Expert Systems and Artificial
Intelligence Committee of the Dynamic Systems and
Control Division, American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME). He is the
first person to serve in the position from
outside the United States.
De Silva is chair ofthe B.C. section of
the ASME and is also chair of the
Control Systems Society of the Vancouver section of the Institute of Electrical
and Electronic Engineers.
He is also the Natural Sciences and
Engineering Research Council Professor
of Industrial Automation in the Dept. of
de Silva Mechanical Engineering.
Ophthalmology Prof. Max Cynader has been named to the
eighth annual Maclean's Honour Roll, a salute to
extraordinary Canadian achievers by the nation's weekly
news magazine.
Cynader was cited for helping to unlock the secrets of the
human brain. He is internationally renowned for his research
on how the brain processes visual and auditory information.
Cynader is currently searching to identify the genes that
induce the brain to learn and,to copy their effect.
Robert Lewis, editor of Maclean's, said that the honour roll
was chosen by a panel of the magazine's editors who focused
on the singular acts of men and women working away from
the spotlight to better the lot of others.
• • • •
Keith Bowler, director of Purchasing, was recently elected
president of the Canadian Business Travel Association
The CBTA is dedicated to improving the standards of
transportation, accommodation and travel-related services for
the business traveller.
Bowler, who joined UBC in 1987, also serves as a board
member of the International Business Travel Association, a
leading advocate of passenger safety and improvement of the
global air transportation system. 12 UBC Reports January 13, 1994
Susan Kieffer
Looking below the surface
by Gavin Wilson
Staff writer
When people ask Geological
Sciences Head Susan Kieffer
how sne first became interested
in scientific research, she often tells the
story of a "slimy old ditch" in rural
As a young girl she passed by the
ditch every day on the way to school.
She'd stop by to probe its depths with
her hand or the nearest stick, but
could never reach the bottom. One day
her innate curiosity got the better of
her — and in she jumped.
"It never occurred to me that I
probably shouldn't be wearing my best
dress and brand new shoes when I did
this," she says now. "Whatever 1 found
at the bottom of that ditch was very
benign compared to what I found when
I got home."
The curiosity and risk-taking Kieffer
showed at an early age has stayed with
her, propelling an unorthodox, but
highly successful, research career that
recently brought her to UBC from
Arizona State University, Tempe.
A geological fluid dynamicist, she is
noted for her work on large and rare
geological events such as river floods,
meteorite impacts and volcanic eruptions from Mount St. Helens to the
moons of Neptune and Jupiter.
"My world," she says, "is a world of
boiling water and nasty, rock-laden
A woman in the macho domain of
miners, and a theoretician in a field as
practical as a pickaxe, Kieffer has
always been a bit of an outsider,
despite many years spent in experimental laboratories and in the field.
Her theoretical bent has forced her to
take chances and make intuitive leaps
of logic.
In the early '60s, when Doris Day
and June Cleaver were the paragons
of womanhood, Kieffer was studying
to be an astronaut. There was one
small problem: NASA only hired men
with military backgrounds. Her dream,
however, did lead to a summer job at
the Goddard Space Centre and a
graduate degree in geology and planetary sciences from Cal Tech.
It was while doing her PhD thesis on
Arizona's Meteor Crater that her
supervisor got her interested in the
fluid mechanics of volcanoes, a field in
which she had no expertise.
Later, while an assistant professor of
geology at UCLA, Kieffer found her
entree into vulcanology in an unusuaf
place — Ansel Adams' famous photo of
the Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone
National Park.
In the play of light and dark in the
photo she recognized surges in the
geyser's plume of boiling water and
steam. Her early training as a musician
told her that the conduit was acting
like an organ pipe and the surges
reflected the conduit's resonances.
"At that instant. I realized that I
could study volcanoes and volcanic
processes without knowing a thing
about rocks." she said.
Undeterred by a lack of credentials
in fluid dynamics or vulcanology. she
packed up her car one summer and
Martin Dee photo
"My world is a world of boiling
water and nasty, rock-laden gases."
- Susan Kieffer
drove to Yellowstone. With her nine-
year-old son acting as a research
assistant, she started gathering data by
filming Old Faithful's eruptions with a
super-8 movie camera.
"Unfortunately, I soon found that,
like that Pennsylvania ditch, the most
interesting things were happening
below the surface."
Undeterred, Kieffer learned some
seismology and lowered instruments
and cameras deep into the geyser's
There were setbacks — she broke a
leg slipping on black ice, and her
attempts to get samples from the
plume of boiling water that roared out
of the ground at 250 kilometres an
hour bordered on slapstick — but her
work paid off with major insights and
Based on her work at Old Faithful,
NASA scientists invited her to work on
a thermodynamic theory for geyser and
volcanic eruptions elsewhere in the
solar system. The Voyager spacecraft
had just discovered huge volcanic
plumes on lo, one of Jupiter's moons.
This study, and another conducted 10
years later when Voyager observed
eruptions on Neptune's moon, Triton,
gave an interplanetary perspective that
changed the way volcanoes are defined.
Her next chance to observe a
volcano was a little closer to
home. In the spring of 1980, an
obscure mountain in Washington State
— Mount St. Helens — had started a
series of small eruptions. Within hours,
Kieffer was on a plane, super-8 camera
in hand.
Prohibited from joining the official
group of geologists, Kieffer found her
own observation site. She drove a
rented car through a snowstorm and
set up camp in the darkness. The next
morning, her temerity was rewarded.
Kieffer awoke to the sound of
thunder, although the sun shone
brightly. She wriggled out of her
sleeping bag and emerged from the
tent. Before her. lightning flashed in a
huge column of dust and ash that
billowed from the mountain.
"There was lots of yelling and
screaming and thanking the volcano
gods. It was a joyous and fulfilling
experience to see a volcano erupting."
she said.
The euphoria turned to awe and
then to distress with the gargantuan
blast that blew the mountain apart on
May 18, 1980, killing 60 people and
causing widespread devastation. The
campsite she had left just six weeks
earlier lay buried under several metres
of ash.
What exactly had happened inside
that massive maelstrom of ash and
rock that caused such cataclysmic
destruction? Kieffer believed the
pattern of the trees on the ground,
blown over like matchsticks for hundreds of square kilometres, held the
She spent months doing fieldwork
and poring over aerial photos of the
region, studying the patterns of fallen
trees, trying to decipher what she calls
"the counter-intuitive world of supersonic plumes."
Kieffer's next major project was
investigating river hydraulics in the
Grand Canyon, where a six-metre
standing wave in the Colorado River
had become a hazard to boating. She
believed that the wave was not caused
by a boulder, as was widely believed,
but had more in common with the fluid
dynamics of the Mount St. Helens
explosion. Her hunch proved right.
Kieffer's research has earned her
major awards and honours over
the years, including the
Spendiarov Award from the USSR
Academy of Sciences and the Day
Medal from the Geological Society of
America. She is also one of about only
150 geologists invited to become
members of the National Academy of
Sciences and fellows of the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences.
At UBC, Kieffer intends to set up a
computing and visualization lab to
continue research into the role of fluids
in heat and mass transfer in the crust
of the Earth and on other planets.
She is delighted to be heading a
department filled with young, enthusiastic faculty members and to join the
large community of fellow earth scientists who work at UBC and in Vancouver.
It is an exciting, challenging time to
be a geologist, she says.
'The context of geology is changing
rapidly. In the past, society demanded
that we help develop resources and
offer protection from local hazards.
Now, as well as meeting those demands, our role as geologists is in the
larger global context of saving the earth
as a habitable planet.
"B.C. is a microcosm of these global
changes. It has a combination of the
minerals we need to sustain economic
growth and a spectacular environment
that people want to see conserved. It is
a fantastic challenge."


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