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UBC Reports Mar 31, 1971

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 h t
REPORTS
VOLUME   SEVENTEEN,   NUMBER   SEVEN
MARCH    31,    1971,   VANCOUVER   8,   B.C.
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SIX AND SEVEN His Nature Sorts
With His Vocation
The following tribute to President Walter
Gage was written by a friend of more than
25 years, Dean Emeritus Sperrin Chant,
who was-head of the Faculty of Arts and
Science and the Departments of Philosophy
and Psychology at UBC from 1947 to
1964. Following his retirement. Dean
Chant was for many years the chairman of
both the Academic and Advisory Boards
established by the provincial government In
the wake of the report on the future of
higher education In B.C. by UBC's former
President, Dr. John B. Macdonald. Dean
Chant was also a member of the committee
which aided Dr. Macdonald in the
preparation of the report.
By SPERRIN CHANT
Although it was written nearly 400 years ago, I
know of nothing that more aptly epitomizes a
tribute to Walter Gage than the following
quotation from Francis Bacon's Essays. "They are
happy men whose natures sort with their
vocations . . . .Whatever a man commandeth upon
himself, let him set hours for it; but whatsoever is
agreeable to his nature, let him take no care for
any set times, for his thoughts will fly to it, of
themselves."
Walter Gage's way of life affirms the truth of
SPERRIN CHANT
Bacon's statement. His nature "sorts with his
vocation" more fully than for any other person I
know.
Above all else, Walter is a teacher; not a
pedagogue; but a teacher in the perceptive,
humane sense. That he- has the intellectual
capacity to have become a distinguished scholar is
apparent to all who know him. But he has used his
special field of study, mathematics, principally as a
language for his teaching. His versatility is such
that he could equally well have moulded some
other subject to that purpose. His place in the
annals of this University attests to the fact that
great teaching, such as his, is as creative a form of
scholarship as is original research or the writing of
belles lettres.
As a teacher, Walter has never shown eager
enthusiasm for novel pedagogical devices or
classroom  techniques.   He does  not need them;
because his teaching goes much beyond mere
expertise. He belongs to the small communion of
born teachers. Even in this impersonal age of vast
institutions the oft repeated remark, "a university
is a student at one end of a log and Mark Hopkins
at the other," retains its metaphoric meaning when
Walter's name is inserted. He makes education
personal. To him students are individuals, never
masses. He recalls each by name, whether as a
member of his class or a graduate of many years
ago.
No chronometry can measure the time Walter
devotes to the University, "for his thoughts fly to
it, of themselves." He takes "no care for any set
times." Even so he is never tardy. Being prompt on
all occasions, he often has to wait for others. He
feels no personal need for mid-term breaks as do
some others who become wearied by having "set
times" for what they "commandeth upon"
themselves. He does not look forward to holidays
with pleasant anticipation, or to weekends of
relaxation. His students don't like him to be away,
and he practically never is; because conferences
that would take him from the campus are not to
his liking. He has never applied for a leave of
absence, and I doubt if he ever will.
SENSE OF HUMOR
Walter is naturally friendly, but not overly
sociable in a "party-going" sense. His friendships
are direct and personal rather than collective. He
has little patience for inconsequential chit-chat,
grandiloquence, or palaver. Yet he has a ready
sense of humor and a witty turn of phrase that at
times is even consonant with the absurd.
His generosity is manifold, but completely
unpretentious. I doubt if he ever thinks of his
open-handedness as generosity. To him it is just
another way to help students. When he sends
lovely wedding presents to his former students he
does not look upon them as gifts, but as tokens of
continued regard. Is it any wonder that no one
ever forgets him?
No other person can ever match his knowledge
of the University. He knows both its past and its
present. His viewpoint, however, is always
contemporary and is based upon a practical insight
into educational values. He is not given to
reminiscing about the good old days, or to tedious
reviews of former events that may have a remote
connection with current happenings.
A natural outcome of all this is that he became
drawn into administrative affairs. He never tried to
escape that fate, because he is keenly aware that
every feature of the scene affects in some way the
University's scholarly achievements. Nevertheless,
he has never looked upon university
administration as his vocation, or as an end in
itself. To him it is but one feature of a united
effort directed toward making the University a
place of learning and enlightenment. Of course, as
with others of us, he had the uniquely valuable
experience of serving for many years with that
most sagacious of all university presidents. Dr.
Norman MacKenzie.
Walter, by his own intent, gave up much in
order to serve the University — his pleasure in art,
literature and theatre, his deep and knowledgeable
appreciation of music, even his interest in baseball.
Whatever he may appear to have lost, the
University has abundantly gained. I have had the
privilege of being associated with Walter for more
than 25 years and I am perfectly clear, that he
chose aright. He has fulfilled himself, perhaps not
in many ways, but in the way he chose: the way
he knew was the most important and challenging
course for him. In the years to come the
University will ask again and again "when comes
such another."
AGE OF
Veteran UBC-watchers would be hard-pressed tc
name an individual who is held in higher esteem and
affection by present-day students and graduates than
Walter Gage, who completes his fiftieth year of
association with UBC this year.
Even before he became UBC's sixth president in
1969, Walter Gage was known as "dean of
everything" at Point Grey and the additional burdens
of UBC's top office have failed to diminish his
enthusiasm for teaching, overseeing the awarding of
millions of dollars annually in scholarships, bursaries,
prizes and loans to students, and attending to a
multitude of administrative duties, including chairing
UBC's Senate.
Most universities wait until a highly-regarded
faculty member is decently retired before honoring
him. Not so UBC.
STANDING  OVATION
In 1958 — 11 years before he was named president
— Walter Gage was awarded the honorary degree of
doctor of laws for his contributions to campus life.
Those who were present at the ceremony remember
that he got a standing ovation which stopped UBC's
Congregation in its tracks for fully five minutes.
Considering his life-long concern for students, it
seemed singularly appropriate that the first message
of congratulations to President Gage on his 50 years
of association with UBC came from Tony Hodge, the
president of the Alma Mater Society.
In a letter to the president in January he wrote
that "The respect that you have earned from students
as an extraordinary teacher, able administrator, but
most important, warm friend, is indeed without
equal. It has appropriately been suggested-that here at
UBC we live and learn in the 'Age of Gage'." Similar
2/UBC Reports/March 31, 1971 Happiness is having Walter Gage, UBC's sixth
president, for an instructor in mathematics.
The President's classes are usually swelled by
additional students who have an instinct for
seeking out first-class lecturers. Before getting
down to the serious business of teaching,
President Gage loosens his students up with a
few anecdotes. In spite of a punishing
schedule that includes 11 hours of teaching
each week, the President still marks the
papers and examinations of the some 500
students he teaches annually. Photo by David
Margerison. UBC Photo Department.
GAGE STARTED IN 1921
messages of congratulations were received from the
UBC Faculty Association and individual well-wishers.
The Age of Gage for the University of B.C. began
in September of 1921, when Walter Gage, a recent
graduate of South Vancouver — now John Oliver —
high school, was handed a calendar of courses in the
registrar's office of the University's temporary
quarters in the shadow of the Vancouver General
Hospital in the Fairview district of the city.
TOOK DISTINCTION
In those days there were no counsellors on hand to
guide students through the intricacies of choosing
academic courses and planning a career. Walter Gage
went home, read the calendar thoroughly, and signed
up for English, French, mathematics, chemistry and
physics in his first year.
He also decided to take a "distinction" in
mathematics and chemistry, which in those days
meant the student took extra lectures each week and
covered additional topics. It also meant that he came
in contact with Daniel Buchanan, one of the three
men who had the most influence on Walter Gage as
an undergraduate.
Prof. Buchanan, described by the president as a
"remarkably energetic man whose lectures sparkled
with wit and humor," had joined the faculty a year
earlier and was to be associated with UBC until 1948,
when he retired as head of the Department of
Mathematics and dean of the Faculty of Arts and
Science. Walter Gage was to be his assistant as dean of
Arts and Science during the last three years of Dean
Buchanan's career at UBC.
A second major influence was Garnet G.
Sedgewick, a diminutive, dapper English teacher,
famed   for   his   Shakespeare   courses,   who   made
students feel that "they were studying things that had
been written that very day," according to Walter
Gage.
The English lectures given by Prof. Sedgewick
until he died in 1951 and the mathematics courses
which Walter Gage gives today have at least one thing
in common — they are swelled by visiting students
who have an unerring instinct for seeking out
first-class teachers.
The third major influence on Walter Gage as a
student was Leonard Richardson, a graduate of the
University of London and a UBC faculty member
from 1916 until his death in 1943.
Prof. Richardson is described by Walter Gage as a
"modest, unassuming man with an amazing
knowledge of mathematics." He told Walter Gage,
one day in his third year, that the work he was
handing in indicated that he would be a successful
teacher. "This praise from someone I admired so
much spurred me on and gave me great
encouragement," the president said recently in an
interview.
TEACHING  CAREER
During the 1930s, Prof. Richardson and Walter
Gage collaborated to produce a textbook entitled
Elementary Analytic Geometry, which was in use in
B.C. for many years.
Even before he entered UBC Walter Gage knew he
was going to teach. "I had in mind that I would be
teaching high school," he said recently, "and a career
in a university had never entered my head." In his
second year he considered specializing in chemistry,
but he changed his mind after a year of quantitative
and qualitative analysis. "I found I wasn't particularly
enamored of the procedures involved," he said, "and
so I came back to mathematics. I've never regretted
my choice."
In May, 1925, Walter Gage graduated with
first-class honors in mathematics. In the following
winter session he completed the master of arts degree
course with first-class honors in all subjects and was
promptly hired by UBC as an assistant in
mathematics for the academic year 1926-27 at a
salary of $1,200. He taught eight hours a week in
first-year mathematics and conducted two hours of
tutorials in applied science calculus.
TEAM MANAGER
During his career as a student Walter Gage was
active in community affairs and as a marker of class
exercises for two UBC professors. Three or four
nights a week and on weekends he worked with
groups of boys at a church in the Cedar Cottage area
of Vancouver. "I was the world's worst athlete," he
said recently, "but I was reasonably good at running
soccer and basketball teams as a manager." As a
marker, Walter Gage was paid $15 a month in his
final year at UBC and $25 a month during his first
year of graduate work.
This involvement, he said, prevented him from
taking an active role in the Great Trek of 1923, a
protest by the students of that day against the
provincial government's failure to complete the UBC
campus on Point Grey. Although he marched in the
Trek and took part in all the meetings, he assumed
what he describes as a "spectator attitude" toward
the event.
At the end of his first year as a lecturer at UBC,
Please turn to Page Four
See PRESIDENT
UBC Reports/March 31, 1971/3 PRESIDENT
Continued from Page Three
Walter Gage enrolled for graduate work during the
spring and summer quarters at the University of
Chicago, where he first came into contact with Prof.
E.T. Bell, whom the president describes as "a unique
and remarkable man."
Prof. Bell, a prolific author of mathematical
research papers and fiction — he published the latter
under the pen-name of John Taine — encouraged
Walter Gage to undertake research and to publish the
results in learned journals. "I would like to say that
my research papers had great merit, but that is not
the case," President Gage says modestly. "From time
to time I still strive to solve problems which Prof. Bell
suggested and which I have uncovered because of his
urging."
President Gage spent the summers of 1927, 1928
and 1930 working in Chicago with Prof. Bell, who
also persuaded him to accept a teaching fellowship at
the California Institute of Technology in 1939-40. So
far as is known, these are the only "holidays" Walter
Gage has taken from his work at UBC, although he
was "ordered" to go to a Commonwealth Universities
Conference in England in the 1940s, he recalls.
During the summer of 1927 in Chicago Walter
Gage received without warning a telegram from the
Board of Trustees of Victoria College, then an
affiliate of UBC offering the first two years of arts
and science, offering him a teaching post. For the
next six years he was, according to a College student
of that time, "the mainspring of life at Victoria
College."
HAPPY YEARS
He advised students, directed plays and, when the
registrar of that day became ill, organized timetables,
registered the students and collected the fees in the
capacity of registrar and bursar. He guided "student
activities in ways that encouraged energy without
violence and exuberance without folly — all this in
addition to inspired teaching and scholarly
publication," according to the same student.
Walter Gage was, in those days, the entire
mathematics department of the College, lecturing 20
hours a week in the magnificently panelled dining
room of Craigdarroch Castle, which housed the
College.
With a student of that day. Prof. Robert Wallace,
who retires this year from the University of Victoria
faculty, Walter Gage organized the first "theatre
night" at the College, and with Margaret Ross, now
the wife of Prof. William Robbins of the UBC English
Department, he one Saturday afternoon catalogued
the entire Victoria College Library of several hundred
books with the aid of a Dewey Decimal Reference,
the standard library cataloguing system.
Walter Gage says his six years at Victoria College
"are among my happiest memories," partly because
of his association there with the principal of the
College, Percy Elliot, whom the president describes as
"one of the most modest men I've ever met, but one
of the most profound."
Principal Elliot, in addition to giving Walter Gage
"unforgettable encouragement," was a man of "deep
understanding of philosophy, religion and science and
was well read in all branches of literature."
In the spring of 1933, Dean Buchanan invited
Walter Gage to return to his alma mater as assistant
professor of mathematics at a salary of $2,400 a year.
Since his return he has held just about every teaching
and administrative post which the University has to
offer, a situation which led to him being referred to
as "the dean of everything."
At one time or another he has been responsible,
among other things, for all financial awards to
students (he has been chairman of the awards
committee since returning to UBC in 1933 and
continues to hold the position to this day), student
housing, relations with the Alma Mater Society and
4/UBC Reports/March 31. 1971
UBC's engineering students are particularly-
fond of President Gage, probably because he
has taught mathematics to most of them.
Each year, to mark his March 5 birthday, the
Engineering Undergraduate Society invites
him   to a  luncheon  in   the Student   Union
fraternities and sororities, athletics, travel grants to
faculty members and the University calendar and
timetable. The positions he has held are legion and
include director of the Summer Session, dean of
inter-faculty and student affairs, acting dean of the
College of Education (just before it became a
faculty), deputy president and acting president. He
has been a member of UBC's Senate for some 40
years, more than any other faculty member.
The number of committees which he has either
served on or chaired is multitudinous. Some 20 years
ago, he recalled recently, he chaired one that
recommended the abolition of Christmas exams at
UBC, but which included a proviso that faculty
members could hold such exams by obtaining
permission from Faculty deans. The result was that so
many faculty members applied for permission to hold
Christmas exams that the recommendation to abolish
them became meaningless. "It was the most thorough
sabotage job I've ever had done on me," he said.
SPECIAL COURSES
During the Second World War he taught
mathematics to a group of Royal Canadian Air Force
radio mechanics who were taking special courses at
UBC and later was co-director of Canadian Army
Course No. 2 for potential officers. Among his
students in the latter course were Arthur Erickson, the
noted architect, and Hugh Wilkinson, now a professor
of commerce at UBC. Instruction of students in both
these courses was carried on in addition to his regular
teaching and administrative duties and, in addition,
he spent four or five nights a week coaching students
over and above the day-time lectures.
Hir "apacity for advising students on everything
from courses of study to their personal lives is
legendary and occasionally has reached ludicrous
proportions. Prof. Ranton Mcintosh, now director of
the secondary division in UBC's Faculty of
Education, remembers hearing a newscast on his car
radio while driving through Montana in September of
1953 which announced that UBC "expects a
registration  of  55,000   (sic)   students, over half of
Building. On the occasion of his 65th
birthday In 1970, pictured above, they
presented him with a giant birthday card and
a metal gavel. This year their gift to him was a
carved wooden plaque picturing Lady Godiva,
a sort of EUS mascot over   the years.
whom will be personally interviewed by Dean Gage."
Interwoven with what is often described by his
colleagues as a crushing work load, Walter Gage has
also managed to take an active part in the work of the
Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (he was
president of the Vancouver branch in 1935), the B.C.
Academy of Sciences, the Canadian Mathematio^^.
Congress and as a member of the board of directo^^
of the Vancouver Symphony Society for two years.
On the campus he has served as honorary president of
the Players' Club and the Musical Society, activities
which, a friend once wrote, "bring to mind a vivid
picture of a wildly gesticulating figure back of the
curtain on opening night guiding a grateful chorus
through 'Robin Hood' or 'The Gondoliers'."
The president's contributions to UBC life have not
gone unnoticed. In 1953 the students gave him their
highest honor, the Great Trekker Award, and in 1969
he was named UBC's first Master Teacher, an award
established by the then chairman of UBC's Board of
Governors, Dr. Walter Koerner, and designed to
recognize and encourage good teaching.
Characteristically, Walter Gage returned the $5,000
cash prize that goes with the award to the University
to purchase books for three campus libraries.
Students in the Faculty of Applied Science have
always had a special regard for President Gage,
probably because most of them have been fortunate
enough to have him for mathematics. On March 5, as
they have done for several years in the past, the
Engineering Undergraduate Society marked his
birthday with a luncheon in the Student Union
Building. Their gift to him on his 66th birthday — a
carved wood plaque picturing Lady Godiva, a
much-admired engineering mascot over the years.
To mark his 50 years of association with UBC,
President Gage will be honored at a private University
dinner in the Faculty Club on April 2. UBC's students
will pay tribute to him at a reception to which the
entire student body is invited on April 7 at 4 p.m. in
the Student Union Building.
The punishing pace which Walter Gage has set for
himself results in a day that begins at 6:30 a.m. when
he parks his car outside UBC's old Administration {,
Building and strides to his office for a couple of hours
of work before meeting his 8:30 a.m. class five days a
week.
He works at UBC every Saturday and, until
recently, every Sunday as well. In recent years, he
confesses, he hasn't come in every Sunday, but has
taken work home with him.
Visitors to his somewhat austere office in the old
Administration Building are sometimes perplexed to
find that he is a "clean desk man." If they happen to
visit his other office in the Buchanan Building, where
the business of supervising financial aid to students is
carried on, they will find him surrounded by mounds
of paper and documents.
LEGENDARY MEMORY
His phenomenal memory for present-day students
and graduates is legendary. A chance introduction or
reference to a student will often bring a recounting
by the president of a family history ("His father was
a student here in 1939, a very bright person, works
for International Nickel now"), the number of
scholarships awarded to father and son and the
standing of each in their respective classes.
When he assumes the role of teacher President
Gage bounds to the front of the room, loosens up his
students with a few anecdotes and then settles down
to the serious business of teaching, pausing frequently
to look over his class and ask, "Does everyone
understand that so far?"
After his 11:30 a.m. Monday-to-Friday lecture is
finished and he has dealt with the inevitable group of
students who want to linger over a knotty problem.
President Gage usually lunches in the Faculty Club.
Most of the time he stands patiently and
^anonymously in the basement cafeteria lineup and
^eats his soup and entree at a large table with whoever
happens to have got there ahead of him.
There was a time when Walter Gage and tobacco
were inseparable, so much so that columnist Eric
Nicol noted in a column that the ashes from his
cigarettes tumbled so freely down his front that the
buttons of his jacket "were solidly buried in a
greenish lava." Some years ago President Gage gave
up cigarettes and his suits now sport only the mark of
the classroom lecturer — smudges of chalk dust.
Occasionally he chews gum, furiously.
Just as President Gage prefers to indulge in
individual or small-group relationships with students,
he also prefers to maintain a low profile when it
comes to dealing with the difficult problems of
administering a modern university. He is reluctant to
intervene in faculty disputes, in keeping with his
belief that academic decision-making should be made
^^t the departmental and faculty level. As a result,
^President Gage spends a great deal of time attending
campus meetings of various kinds and consulting with
trusted advisors and friends throughout the
University in an attempt to determine what faculty
and students want.
Walter Gage's style of operation is reflected in his
personal views of the qualities which a university
president should possess. "He needs to have
enormous patience, to understand people and to be
willing to accept and listen to people with whom he
may disagree, providing he knows they have the
interests of the institution at heart."
He also believes that the president should have a
good deal of academic experience. "I don't think a
university can be properly administered by a man
who doesn't have a strong academic background,
including some teaching experience. The important
thing is to have the confidence of fellow-academics if
the institution is to be stable."
NO PUSH-OVER
He rejects the idea that a president has to spend
much of his time being a public relations man for his
university. "In this day and age the public sometimes
has contempt for a person who spends too much time
away from his institution."
All these principles apply as well to relationships
with students, the president believes. "The president
has to recognize that the student's point of view may
be different from the president's. He has to be
sympathetic, but not a push-over."
On the whole, he is not overly sympathetic to the
criticisms which are levelled at the University about
its size in general and the size of classes.
He agrees that there may be some truth in the
generalization that the smaller university of the 1920s
and 1930s embodied qualities which have been lost in
the so-called multiversity.
"My own opinion," he said recently, "is that in a
large institution one can find groups of people with
whom you can communicate and I don't see any
reason why that should lead to the feeling that life is
less personal.
"People often forget the advantages of being part
of a large institution. It enables the University to
develop special lectures, bring to the campus
outstanding lecturers and stage special events —
activities which just aren't possible on most small
campuses.
"As for teaching,, I think the size of the class has
to be tailored to the individual lecturer. Some
individuals, Sedgewick was an example, are unhappy
unless they have a large class to lecture to. Other
people are at their most effective in a small lecture or
seminar. Every department head should try to give
each teacher the size of class he or she can best react
to and not worry about class sizes."
The president's own classroom needs are relatively
simple. "I insist on a room where everyone in the last
row can hear me without a microphone and where
every student can see the blackboard without a
mechanical device. I like a classroom where I can take
in all the students at a glance."
Despite the fact that he lectures 11 hours a week
to almost 500 students. President Gage still marks all
his own term papers and examinations. "Last year I
had a marker for my fourth-year engineering class
who did a good job, but I wasn't very happy with the
arrangement.
"You see, in marking papers, I get a good deal out
of it too. I find out what the student doesn't know,
either because he hasn't worked or because I haven't
done a good job."
GOOD REASON
President Gage believes there is a good reason why
UBC has not been subject to the same degree of
unrest which has characterized life at many American
and Canadian campuses in recent years.
"I think it stems from the pattern which was set in
the early years of the University when it was assumed
that students would accept responsibility for the
management of their own affairs. With very little
assistance from the University, students in 1915 drew
up a constitution for the Alma Mater Society. It has
undergone numerous changes since then, but the
basic premise of that document, responsibility by the
students for their own actions, has been preserved to
this day.
"In many instances, students at other universities
nave been endeavouring to gain the kind of autonomy
that our students have had since UBC opened its
doors. This relationship between the University and
its students has helped to stabilize the atmosphere on
the campus and to prevent confrontation."
When President Gage is asked about the needs of
the University, his answer is couched in terms of the
needs of students and teachers. He wants to see the
applied science faculty, now scattered about the
campus in several buildings, brought together in one
area, it bothers him that the students and faculty
members in the Institute of Oceanography, "which is
so important for this part of Canada," still work in
several old army huts on the West Mall, and he wants
more done for students in terms of reading rooms and
a better library as well as ensuring that classes don't
become too large. But his main concern is that the
University hold and attract men and women
dedicated to teaching and research and to the welfare
of their students.
He also hopes that UBC's Center for Continuing
Education will be able to do more for communities
throughout B.C. "I have in mind a situation where
the communities do a great deal of the groundwork
and the University provides resource people and
material," he said.
Since his appointment in 1969, President Gage has
been on a year-to-year contract. In 1970, when he
reached the normal retirement age of 65, the Board
of Governors said he would continue to serve on a
year-to-year basis for a period of from three to five
years.
"The only condition I made when I accepted the
presidency," he said, "was that I be allowed to
continue to teach. I have a time in mind to retire, but
I prefer not to say what it is. It isn't this coming year.
"After I retire, I have hopes that I will be allowed
to continue teaching."
A great many students hope so too.
Walter Gage 's 1925 graduation picture
' Walter Has
Original
Humor'
Many of the qualities for which
President Walter Gage is noted in 1971 —
including his wizardry with mathematics
and his spontaneous humor — were
already apparent when he was a student
at UBC from 1921 to 1926.
Here is the personal note on him that
appeared in the Tenth Annual of the
University of B.C. when he graduated
with the degree of bachelor of arts with
first class honors in mathematics in
1925:
"Walter is a wizard at mathematics.
He can do trigonometry backwards,
geometry sideways and calculus upside
down. When he is not juggling with
increments and probabilities, he engages
in philosophical discussions, and after
winning a victory he celebrates — by
playing the piano. Walter has original
humor. It is abrupt, spontaneous and
unsuspected. Socially, he is reticent, a
fact that probably accounts for his
dazzling averages at examination times.
In the future Walter hopes to be an
authority on Einstein."
The following year Water Gage
| completed the master of arts course in
mathematics, again with first class
standing in all subjects taken.
Among his contemporaries in the
1925 graduating class were: the late
Albert E. "Dal" Grauer, who became
president of the B.C. Electric; Phyllis
Gregory, who as Mrs. Frank Ross was
Chancellor of UBC from 1961 to 1966;
Joyce Hallamore, who recently retired as
head of the Department of German at
UBC; Arthur Laing, now Minister of
Public Works in the federal government,
and Kenneth Caple, now Chancellor of
Simon Fraser University.
UBC Reports/March 31, 1971/5 GIVEN A CHOICE, UBC ST
BY FRED CAWSEY
Examinations — that old student nemesis — are once
again just around the corner, and they seem to be one
tradition destined to stay with us.
Generations of UBC students have, at one time or
other in their university careers, sat through a
three-hour, formal, sit-down, final examination in the
Armory or one of the many lecture halls on campus.
But it's more than tradition. Examinations, or
student evaluations, are tied to the historical concept of
the very first universities, which were only examining
institutions and did not concern themselves with how
the knowledge was acquired.
Evaluation of students is also tied to the basic
philosophy that North American universities, at least,
should be professional training institutions as well as
educational institutions, a philosophy that most UBC
faculty members seem to adhere to. And in a
competition-based society such as ours, where there are
more degrees than jobs that require them, it is
important, apparently, for students to know exactly
where they stand.
More specifically, formal three-hour exams are
necessary in some courses because of another
philosophical tenet of North American universities
which says we must give the opportunity of higher
education to as many people as possible. What this
means, in pragmatic terms, is that there are an awful lot
of people attending Canadian and American universities.
At UBC it means that in some first- and second-year
courses, and even some third-year courses, there are 200
to 300 students, and for them there is really no viable
alternative to the final exam.
This is not to say that all courses at UBC require final
exams. In fact, many third- and fourth-year courses and
most graduate courses do not require them.
It is important, when considering examinations, to
realize that most students, when offered an exam or
some alternative, will take the exam. This was recently
illustrated in a course in the Theatre Department when
the students were offered the choice of a final term
essay or a sit-down exam.
They voted unanimously for the exam.
SIMPLE CHOICE
"The choice," one girl said later, "was really simple.
An exam is over in three hours, and you usually have
some idea how you did. But you can slave for weeks on
a term paper and still be unsure."
Other alternatives to the three-hour sit-down are the
take-home exam; the sit-down, open-book exam; and
research projects. But these devices are really only useful
in smaller, advanced courses where the student can be
given more individual attention. In the large courses they
are simply too unwieldly.
The subject of exams has caused some controversy
over the years, but the effect has been negligible. The
tradition continues and in the last couple of years even
the critics seem to have given up.
UBC's registrar, Jack Parnall, says the number of final
exams scheduled has remained roughly the same — about
900 — in recent years. He said there are slightly more
scheduled this year, but he attributes this to the large
number of half-term courses which have been set up.
"I don't see any swing one way or other," Parnall
said. "There have always been some courses which have
no sit-down written exam, but this year is essentially no
different from any other.
"I haven't noticed any trend over the years, though
i've been looking for one. There seems to have been
more furor about exams in the past than there is now.
"Some people used to say we're entrenched in exams,
that there were too many, but after one fuss a few years
ago we ended up with more than we had before. It was
the old case of stirring up the pot and uncovering a lot
of things. Some professors would say they haven't been
giving exams, and others in their department would say
they'd better, because everyone else was. But it all
evened out."
Two trends which have developed in recent years are:
a decrease in set Christmas exams; and a decrease in
emphasis on final exams.
Results of final exams are often only one of several
6/UBC Reports/March 31.1971
means of evaluating the student's progress, and are
becoming less important in determining the final grade.
While the subject of exams is not a current topic for
public debate, people still hold varying views on their
value. Following are comments by senior faculty
members — both for and against examinations.
Dr. David Suzuki, professor of zoology, sees a
loosening up in how exams are written, but says this
isn't enough because grades finally don't mean a thing in
terms of the student's interest or ability.
"To change procedures slightly but to still be
committed to the exam procedure is no change at all. I
think it's really time to ask the questions 'Does an exam
allow you a very critical insight into how well a student
can think?' and 'Does a grade that you obtain on the
basis of an exam really mean anything in terms of that
individual?'
GIVE   LIP  SERVICE
"I personally don't think grades mean a goddam
thing. I don't see why we're so hung up about grading
people, anyway. We all give lip service to this idea of
maintaining quality, but that's a complete myth because
if you really wanted to achieve quality, I'd say 60 or 70
per cent of all kids here would get booted out.
"That's because in terms of really being here for the
academic reasons, I think the great bulk of kids really
couldn't care less. They don't really understand what
education is about.
"They're here for a piece of paper that will either give
them status or position, and I think it's clear the piece of
paper no longer guarantees a job in any way, so the
sooner kids realize this and realize it's a waste of their
time, then I think maybe they'll get out.
"Then, once you get over the crippling numbers, I
think exams are totally irrelevant because you can tell
how good a student is just by knowing him well.
"And I think we should go into a pass-fail system; as
long as we're stuck with big numbers I'd just as soon
pass everybody. It's only the kids that are really
interested in the subject, regardless of grades, that I'm
interested in."
Given the system he has to work in. Dr. Suzuki has
tried various alternatives to what he calls the Orwellian
conditions of 400 students trying to perform a year's
work in three hours in the cold, dusty Armory.
When he first arrived at UBC several years ago, his
genetics class was small. So he instituted night exams on
a night his students chose.
"They could come in any time starting at about 7
o'clock, and it would be in a classroom where they could
sit around and be more comfortable, and they could
come out and have a smoke or go to the bathroom or go
out anytime they wanted and I sat outside so if they had
any questions they could come out and ask them.
"It was completely on the honor system. If they
wanted to cheat they could. They could take as long as
they wanted and then hand their papers in and leave. If
they wanted to go out for coffee they could. It didn't
matter.
"When the class got bigger some kids started taking
hours and hours to finish and a lot of kids started
complaining that I was setting five-hour exams because it
took them that long to do them.
"This reached Dean Okulitch third-hand and he sent a
note around to heads of departments saying there will be
no more night exams with unlimited time.
"I suspect the loudest complainers were invariably
the people who were doing poorly.
"The consequence of all this was that some students
got really annoyed and they took up a petition. And 96
per cent of the 280 kids in the class signed this petition
stating that they approved of the unlimited-time exam
and that they wanted it reinstated. And the dean
reinstated it.
SOLVE  PROBLEMS
"The following year, I instituted take-home exams,
because I'm not concerned with how much information
students can store in their heads. They can all read. I was
only concerned with how well they can use that
information to think out problems.
"That worked out really well, I think.
"The following year, I felt that the difference
between a 78 and an 81 is trivial and no one can
convince me that someone with an 81, which is a
first-class mark, is better than someone with a 78, which
is a second-class mark. So I gave out marks in blocks of
ten, 70s, 80s and so on. And I gave several 100 per cents
that year.
"And the next thing I said is I'll give everyone a pass
grade, regardless of what you do, if you want to take the
course. I'll pass everybody, you will not fail.
"So I was just going to give a P or C for credit. And
the class just went up in arms because some said they
wanted to get into med school or grad school and that
mark didn't have any meaning. They wanted a grade.
"So   I   said,  okay,   I'll  give everybody  in the class [JDENTS OPT FOR EXAMS
first-class honors, so then it won't go against you. And
they took a vote and rejected it five to one.
"Now, the thing that's sick, and the thing about
exams that I think people don't realize, is that our
system feeds on competition. What these students were
saying was that they were not interested in learning
something for their own sake, but in fact the only way
that they felt important or that it was worthwhile was
when they knew where they stood relative to others.
"And I think the sickness of the exam system is that
"   people begin to judge you as a person by whether you're
a first-class student. Somehow people believe that if I'm
a first-class student I'm a better human being than
someone who's got a C or a pass. It only reinforces the
whole thing we're trained to believe from the time we
get into grade school, that grades are the absolute
judgement of your human value."
Dr. Suzuki said there is another thing about
examinations that has been worrying him recently: the
whole system is geared for males.
UNDER STRESS
"There's a phenomenon I've just become familiar
with, and it's called pre-menstrual tension. It is an
interval prior to the menstrual period when women are
definitely under physiological stress because of the
hormone balance. And numerous tests indicate that
women, by any criterion you want to use, perform much
more badly in this premenstrual interval. So 50 percent
of the population at some point goes through this
interval and yet we have absolutely nothing set up to
take this into account. We force them to take exams
when everybody else does, which means anywhere from
one-quarter to one-fifth of all the females may be
undergoing this stress at the time the exam is written.
We've got to account for the fact that our population is
heterogeneous."
Dr. Suzuki does feel that exams can be worthwhile as
a teaching tool.
"An exam is a time when a student is faced with a
completely new situation and he's got to ask himself
how well he really understands this information. Can he
really use what he knows to solve a completely novel
problem? That's what my exams try to do, but the great
bulk of exams are not that way.
"I think exams can serve a very valuable function, but
I think to use exams as the sole or primary means of
evaluating the student is really bad. It should be
considered part of the student's learning process, but a
trivial part of the student's grading process."
Prof. Malcolm McGregor, head of the Classics
Department, says he is a proponent of examinations in
the proper context.
"In small, advanced courses," says Prof. McGregor, "I
think examinations are very often not necessary, and
nearly always they're not necessary at Christmas.
"In the lower-year class, it would vary a great deal
with its nature and its size. If you're teaching language
to 30 students its desirable to have an examination, for
their sakes.
"It gives them an opportunity to conduct a
systematic review, and if a student is going to write an
exam he does the review. If you say 'I won't bother you
with an examination, but go home and review,' he may
or may not review, because he'll be busy with other
examinations and will be spending his time on those.
"Examinations are a form of assessment, and there
must be a form of assessment at a university, because a
student is coming to a university not merely to attend,
to listen and to read and so on, but also to acquire a
degree. And if the degree is to mean anything at all, then
the university has to be in a position to say that the
student has reached a certain standard of knowledge. So
we must assess.
WRITE ESSAYS
"In my first-year language course I can make my
assessment during the term because work is coming in
two or three times a week, and by December I know
very well what they are doing, what they have done,
what they know.
"So from my point of view an examination is
unnecessary to assess them. For the last three years I
have given them the choice, and the vote has been
unanimously in favor of examination.
"But in a large lecture course of 200 students, it is
extremely difficult for the professor to know the
students and what they've been doing and, therefore, the
level they've achieved. They've all written an essay,
perhaps, but the essay is not sufficient because it's a
different sort of thing. You have to make a distinction
between the kind of knowledge an essay represents and
the kind of knowledge you display in the writing of an
examination without books and references handed to
you.
"So, in that course, I give them an examination; they
do not have a choice. This is my decision.
"An exam tests memory, but it should also test the
ability to organize,to think, to make judgments as well.
The use of memory is part of education. You can't
understand history without using your memory. How
are you going to understand history without knowing
dates, the chronology of events?
"As a student becomes a senior, and goes on to
advanced courses, more and more the greater proportion
of the examination tests the ability to organize."
Dr. McGregor doesn't see the need for alternatives to
examinations as long as examinations are set properly.
"They should never be used by an instructor to air his
learning. If you are using the examination as an
educational device, you give the student a chance to
show off what he knows."
Dr. McGregor said normally students in his survey
course have a pretty fair idea of what some of the
questions on the final exam are going to be.
"And I know they know and I don't care, because if
they suspect that I'm going to ask them a given question
which is central to the course, to the whole
understanding of Greek civilization, they go and read
and learn about it and come to the exam full of
knowledge. Then I've accomplished my purpose."
Dean V.J. Okulitch, head of the Faculty of Science,
said he was personally exposed to several European
systems of university examinations when he was a
student, and he sees our system as the fairest of them all.
He, too, feels it is the University's duty to certify
competence as well as to educate, especially in
professionally-oriented schools such as engineering and
medicine.
"I am personally familiar with various kinds of
examinations. I was exposed to some extent to the
European system of oral examinations, which were very
hard on the student. And I am familiar with even more
cruel systems where the student is examined only at the
end of his four years, when he feels ready.
SYSTEM   KIND
"The system we follow at UBC, I've always felt, is
rather kind. You are examined in little sections of the
course, in a written examination, which at least has one
advantage — everybody is exposed to the same
questions.
"Therefore it seems the most fair system. And I
think, on the whole, the system is a good one.
"Now, there are some American universities which
have gone away from examinations and people are
simply graded somehow by their professors. I suspect
this can be a most unfair system. Obviously someone
who appeals to you may be graded better than someone
whom you dislike.
"Also, if we leave our students completely ungraded,
and they want to go somewhere else, how are they to be
judged for admission? We are facing this problem now in
the graduate faculty. Some people coming from the U.S.
will bring essentially a blank record. They've been
recommended. And in a competitive situation where we
can admit only so many, how do you make your
selection?
"I realize that examinations are not pleasant, and it's
easy to make mistakes, and it's even possible to misjudge
a person with a written answer. But I don't know of any
better alternative."
Dean Okulitch does not like true-and-false
examinations because they don't give e ■-jgh
information, and he doesn't like open-book
examinations because too much time can be wasted
looking up the material.
"I dislike questions that rely entirely on memory.
That's the main criticism of a regular three-hour
sit-down, but then again, some of the courses are mainly
information. You have to remember certain things; you
have to remember that 9 times 9 equals 81."
Dean Okulitch agrees with Dr. Suzuki that many
students are only at UBC for a "union ticket" and are
not really interested in learning. "But then again, how
can you condemn people who come and say 'my goal is
to get a degree?
"So they do the best they can, even if at times they
only memorize certain passages to be able to pass an
examination.  It's very difficult to separate people who
Please Hint to Page Nine
Sec EXAMS
UBC Reports/March 31, 1971/7 ••••
•   • •
••
•»•
•••••
• •.
"Vancouver takes up a quarter of British
Columbia; Ontario and Quebec occupy
two-thirds of Canada, and areas like the
Northwest Territories have practically
disappeared."
A political upheaval,- or a population
explosion to equal a science-fiction horror
story?
The answer is neither. For the past 10
months, a team of cartographers, working within
UBC's School of Community and Regional
Planning, have been plotting instead a new kind
of map.
NEW LOOK
Called an isodemographic map, which means
"equal population," it is based on people instead
of land. And it gives a new look to much of
Canada.
The map is chiefly the work of John
Robertson and Louis Skoda. The idea behind it
stemmed from the Department of Energy, Mines
and Resources' Dr. Ian Jackson, head of the
Economic Geography Section. Jackson felt that,
because the disparity between land area and
population distribution in Canada was so great,
there was a real need to have a base for plotting
social and economic data on which the area of
Canada was^ directly proportional to its
population ... "I have become increasingly
disenchanted with such devised as proportional
circles and whatnot. . ."
Robertson apprqached Skoda, then a
cartographer at Simon Fraser University, and
together they convinced Jackson that it would
be  entirely  feasible  to  construct such a base
jcWrec
map. A research proposal prepared by SkodWed
to a contract between EMR and UBC to prepare
the map, under the auspices of Dr. H. Peter
Oberlander, director of the School of
Community and Regional Planning.
Simply, each square inch of Canada — on the ;
map —  represents the  same  population.  Less
simple   is   the   means  of   arriving   at   such   a
solution, and some innovative and very unusual
means   to   cartography   are   being   employed,
including   use   of    260,000   small    steel   ball
bearings.     Each ball bearing represents a given
number of people and the balls are assembled"
into a model of Canada on an eight feet by six "
feet    platform.    The   construction   site   is   in
converted offices in the University's Armory.
Before anyone could begin playing marbles,
however, hours of research were necessary,
including digitization in terms of latitude and^
longitude of 50,000 points in Canada — all
recorded on individual IBM cards, and stored on
tapes for calculation of their new positions on
the isodemographic map.
First, a population scale of about 9,000
people-per-square-inch, or approximately 140.
per ball, was selected. Then a conventional map }
of Canada was broken down into census
divisions and census tracts. British Columbia, for
example, has 1.0 census divisions; Greater
Vancouver is broken down into about 113
individual tracts.
COMPUTER  HELPED
The computer took each census division or
tract and  calculated  from its population   the
area   it should occupy on the isodemographis-^
map and the number of balls it will take to fill
8/UBC Reports/March 31. 1971 - Canada has taken on a new look in the
Isodemographic map, shown at left,
constructed by cartographers John
Robertson, far left, and Louis Skoda. The
map, based on people instead of land, was
built over a period of ten  months and is
'    designed to aid the study and presentation of
economic  and  social  data  and in regional
planning studies. Photo by David Margerison,
UBC Photo Department.
~    that area. Divisions were thus either blown up or
t      reduced, and areas like Vancouver's English Bay
high-rise   apartment   complex   with   very   high
population    density    took    on    far    greater
proportions than its neighboring tracts.
"This," said Robertson, "is where the fun
began. We took these shapes and made models
. of them. Outlines of the provinces and the
various census units were constructed of thin
strips of brass — and these shapes were then
filled with eighth-inch diameter steel balls.
"And this is the reason for the steel balls; to
re-fit these shapes back together in their relative
positions they had on the standard map, while
* maintaining their new enlarged or reduced area.
s. "We  pushed  the  models together,   and the
steel balls adjusted to their new relationships,
shaping themselves into continuous
configurations. In other words, the map is a
jigsaw puzzle in which originally the pieces
don't fit. But when pressure is applied from all
», jflfedes to the model the pieces reshape themselves
^%d each other.
MAP  DISTORTS
"Admittedly, our map is a little difficult for
i the average viewer to adjust to, since there are
some strange distortions. But any map, on any
type of projection, is a distortion of reality.
"Ours is still a map, not merely a census scale;
cities, boundaries and other map items are all
* there, and viewers will be able to find Highway
401 or the Fraser River. They just might not be
where you think they should be — or have quite
the same shape, but it would be reasonably easy
to find ones way on the map.
Uses of this new map could be varied, but it
- should prove most beneficial in the study and
1      mjesentation of economic and social data. Crime
^Pbs, birth, unemployment.. .any time the
basis of a study is people, it will be possible to
plot data on the map and draw immediate
comparisions, because every square inch on the
map will represent the same population.
Dr. Oberlander said the map will be invaluable
in the development of regional planning studies.
"It will substantially help us to represent
effectively the man-to-resource ratio in a study
of consumption and development.
"It makes a great deal of sense in B.C.
generally, where we are dealing with vast natural
- resources but a very small population."
Once completed, the result will be a map of
Canada about 30 by 40 inches as well as 12
larger scale maps showing urban centres with
. population greater than 200,000 people. The
maps and a technical report describing the
project will be published and copyrighted by the
* Canada Department of Fisheries and  Forestry
►     which, in its recent reformation, inherited the
project from the Department of Energy, Mines
and Resources.
IIHH Volume  17, No. 7-March 31,
11 HI      1971.      Published      by      the
llllll University of British Columbia
^^■^^^ and    distributed    free.    UBC
REPORTS
Reports appears on Thursdays
during   the   University's  winter   session.   J.A.
Banham,    Editor.    Linda   Adams,    Production
Supervisor. Letters to the Editor should be sent
to    Information   Services,   Main   Mall   North
Administration   Building,   UBC,   Vancouver 8,
B.C.
EXAMS
Continued from Page Seven
just want degrees from the genuine student. And there is
no assurance that later on in life, or later in university,
he will not develop a serious interest."
Dr. Okulitch said there is a possibility that good
science students could be turned off by a bad exam, but
he said this probably only affects a minority and only on
an occasional exam.
"Exams are a proper function of the university. They
also have a practical aspect. All of us are human and
lazy, and if yoti have a deadline, you do it, and if you
don't, you proscrastinate. An examination is such a
deadline.
"The danger of something like Arts I is that it doesn't
subject the student to this very necessary self-discipline.
When it started, I felt Arts I was too unstructured, too
indefinite. But a tremendous amount of good intentions
went into it, and probably it serves a good purpose for
the serious student. It is one way of getting a very broad
education.
"On the other hand, if you are trying to avoid work it
also gives you an opportunity to avoid it; that's the
danger.
"In previous times, the universities were primarily
examining institutions, and how the student gained his
knowledge was immaterial. Now, in our more organized
age, we have set up regular lectures and examinations to
make it easier for more people to get a university
education.
"But if we are going to open up the university to as
many people as possible, I see no other way of going
about it than the way we have it organized. It is really a
matter of individual choice, the university isn't for
everybody."
Dean Douglas Kenny, head of the Faculty of Arts,
sees the problem of student evaluation from the
overview of psychology.
"In general, most people find it very painful to have
others assess them. No one likes to be assessed,
psychologically, unless you're going to be placed in the
top category, because if you're told that you're down
on the bottom, that will inevitably be a blow to your
self-esteem. This leads to opposition to exams and other
student evaluations.
NEGATIVE   REACTION
"In addition, the youth of today are finding that our
society is very competitive, stemming from competition
in the arms race and competition up the educational and
business hierarchy. And they view exams as embedded in
that societal structure. This is where the opposition is
coming from.
"It's more true in the U.S. than in Canada, in that the
U.S. is far more an achieving society, an evaluative
society, than Canada, and for that reason the strong
negative reaction against examinations has not taken
place in Canada, and I don't think it will.
"The need for evaluation stems from our concept of
the university. Somehow, when a student leaves after a
given course, he should be a changed person. And how
do you evaluate whether or not he is a changed person?
"Examinations of the traditional variety provide one,
but only one, means of assessing that. If there were the
resources available at the University, one should use
more than one means of assessing whether the student
has changed in the direction you want him to change, in
terms of his educational attainment.
"But I would suggest that it would be very expensive.
Sure, use oral examinations, use small seminars, use
essay work, other measures of creativity and so on, but
you don't have to pinpoint it to just one mode, such as a
final exam by itself.
"I think the reason it has been pinpointed to one
mode is that the dead hand of the past is pushing us, and
the other ways tend to be rather expensive."
Dean Kenny doesn't believe a lot of UBC students are
here mainly for a union ticket.
"There may be a small fraction of students who
should not enter the University, but it's very small.
There you're getting into a value judgment of what
function a university serves in society.
"I think most of those who enter UBC belong here. If
you assume that knowledge is a powerful resource, and
that those who possess this knowledge are likely to
control society, then knowledge should spread as widely
as possible. It frightens me when people talk of allowing
only a select few to receive a higher education. What
they're implying is that only a select few should run
society.
"In the Faculty of Arts the weight given to the final
exam is gradually decreasing; in other words, it's only a
small fraction of the final mark that's assigned to the
student. And that's probably right.
"I think there's flexibility within the faculty and
within the University on the way of assessing people,
and I think the more the better, as long as instructors do
not opt out of the problem of assessment."
Those are the opinions. There seems to be some
agreement and, of course, some disagreement, but these
views seem fairly representative of faculty members at
UBC.
Now to a man who is looking into the problem of
student evaluation in a factual way. He is Prof. Robert
Clark, director of Academic Planning for UBC, and
currently chairman of the President's committee on the
evaluation of undergraduate student performance, which
was formed just before Christmas.
HISTORICAL   REVIEW
The majority of its 16 members are faculty members.
There are three students, a representative of the Alumni
Association and an assistant registrar.
The work has been assigned to four sub-committees,
Dr. Clark said.
"The first one is providing a historical review of
systems of evaluation in use in higher education. In
other words, what are the alternatives available to us?
"The second and largest sub-committee is looking at
the philosophical issues regarding the university system
of evaluating performance, and what ought to be done.
We have to ask ourselves in the first place what
education is for, because the answer to that question
obviously influences whether or not it's desirable to have
evaluation."
Once they've decided this, Dr. Clark said, they have
to decide if there is any justification for evaluation, and
if so, what kind - examinations, term papers, projects?
"It's no sufficient answer to say other places evaluate,
therefore we ought to. If there is to be any evaluation at
all there needs to be a basic philosophical justification
for it.
"Our third sub-committee is looking at the effects on
individuals of various evaluative systems. And that's
going to be a study of empirical evidence.
"Now, we have developed fairly extensive
bibliographies, and we're in the course of tracking these
down, reading the relevant articles and books and so on.
"For instance, we want to examine the pass-fail
system which has been advocated for Arts I, and which
we already have at this University to a very limited
degree.
"There has already been extensive literature
developed on experiments with pass-fail systems of
various types in the U.S. We're getting this evidence and
we'll be able to take it into consideration in arriving at
our conclusions.
"The work of the fourth sub-committee has been
temporarily deferred. We shall be looking at variations in
marking, for instance, between various sections of the
same course, or different courses in the same
department, and among the different disciplines. For
instance, the Faculty of Law has had a tougher system
of grading than other faculties in the University. We
want to compare the marking standards of this
University with other leading universities.
"We intend to make recommendations to the
President. These, in turn, will doubtless be considered by
the Faculties and the Senate, which has the ultimate
authority on these matters."
Dr. Clark said there is no deadline for the report. It
certainly won't be completed before the summer
holidays.
Dr. Clark said he had personally noticed two things in
recent years which have probably had an effect on
evaluation methods at UBC.
IMPROVED   RATIO
One is the higher entrance standard UBC now has —
raised last year to 65 per cent — which has caused a
significant drop in the proportion pf students failing.
The other is UBC's improved staff-student ratio,
which Dr. Clark said has improved appreciably over the
last four years. He attributes this partly to the increased
entrance standards, and partly to the development of
regional colleges, which take a number of people who
might otherwise have wanted to come here.
The last personal observation he made was that
although his committee hasn't solicited opinions from
faculty members on UBC's exam system, the contact
he's had with them as Academic Planner suggests a good
deal of support for continuing the present system.
UBC Reports/March 31. 1971/9 ORIGINAL
FACULTY
DIES
Professor Emeritus Harry T. Logan, one of
the original members of the UBC faculty, died
suddenly on Feb; 25, eight days before his 84tfj;>
birthday.
When Prof. Logan retired from teaching at
the age of 80 in 1967, he ended a 52-year
association with USC as teacher, author, editor,
administrator and member of UBC's Board of
Governors and Senate.
During that time he received just about
every honor that UBC could bestow, including
an honorary doctor of laws degree in 1965 arid*
the Alma Mater Society's Great Trekker Award
in 1960.
RHODES SCHOLAR
Born in Londonderry, Nova Scotia, in 1887,
he received his early education in B.C. and took
his bachelor's degree with honors in classics at
McGill. A Rhodes Scholarship took him to
Oxford University, where he took another
bachelor's degree and added a master's degree.
As a student at McGill, Prof. Logan
captained the track team and at Oxford
participated in track and lacrosse. He continued
his Interest in athletics while teaching at UBC
and a quarter-mile track in UBC's south campus
athletic complex is named for him,
. Prof. Logan was appointed a lecturer in
classics at McGill University College, UBC's
forerunner, in 1913 and helped to organize the
Canadian Officers' Training Corps at the
College in 1914.
In the summer of 1915, a few months before
pBC,opened its doors. Prof. Logan worked
with a small group of students in drafting the
constitution of the Alma Mater Society. When
UBC's classes started that fall Prof. Logan was
on leave of absence for service overseas. He,
served first with the 72nd Seaforth Highlanders
and later transferred to the Canadian Machine
Gun Corps and in 1919 wrote the Corps'
official history.
In 1920 Prof. Logan returned to the UBC
campus to resume his career as a teacher of
Latin and Greek. In 1936, he again took leave
of absence to become principal of the
Fairbridge Farm School for underprivileged
British children at Duncan on Vancouver
Island. He returned to UBC in 1949 to head the
Department of Classics.
BECAME EDITOR
After retiring as head of the classics
department in 1953 he became editor of the
UBC Alumni Chronicle, the graduate magazine.
He was editor until 1959 and at the same time
wrote an authoritative, 268-page history of the
University, entitled Tuum Est, which appeared
in 1958 to mark UBC's 50th anniversary.
Even after giving up the headship of the
Department of Classics, Prof. Logan continued
to teach as a special lecturer, giving courses in
alternate years on the Greek philosopher Plato
and the Roman poet Vergil.
-Prof.  Logan  was a member of the UBC
'Senate from  1930 to 1947, and again from
1955 until 1961. He was elected to the Board
of Governors by the Senate in 1941 and served
on the Board until 1946.
UBC NEWS
IN BRIEF
A COLUMN FOR UBC GRADUATES
ROUNDING UP THE TOP NEWS ITEMS OF
RECENT WEEKS. THE MATERIAL BELOW
APPEARED IN MORE EXTENDED FORM IN
CAMPUS EDITIONS OF 'UBC REPORTS.'
READERS WHO WISH COPIES OF CAMPUS
EDITIONS CAN OBTAIN THEM BY WRITING TO
THE INFORMATION OFFICE, UBC, VANCOUVER
8, B.C.
CANADIAN   NAMED
Canadian-born Dr. Muriel Uprichard has been
named head of UBC's School of Nursing. Dr.
Uprichard, who comes to UBC from the nursing
school at the University of California at Los Angeles,
will take up her appointment on July 1.
Born in Regina, Dr. Uprichard is a graduate of
Queen's University in Ontario, where she received the
bachelor of arts degree; Smith College in
Massachusetts, where she was awarded the master of
arts degree, and the University of London Institute of
Education, where she received her doctorate in
educational psychology.
Before joining the UCLA faculty in 1965, Dr.
Uprichard was an associate professor of nursing at the
University of Toronto.
She was a consultant to the Canadian Royal
Commission on Health Services and was honored for
her teaching ability in 1969 when she was nominated
by students and staff of the UCLA nursing school for
the alumnae award for distinguished teaching.
(Edition of March 11, 1971).
SPEECH  HALTED
John Turner, Canada's Minister of Justice, was
prevented from making a speech at UBC on March 6
by an estimated 50 demonstrators who disrupted a
meeting of the Vancouver Institute, a non-University
organization which meets weekly on the campus
during the winter for a series of lectures designed to
improve "town-gown" relations.
The focal point of the demonstration was the War
Measures Act and the regulations passed under it as
well as the subsequent Public Order (Temporary
Measures) Act, the legislation invoked by the federal
government to deal with the "apprehended
insurrection" in Quebec last fall.
The demonstrators — including some UBC and
Simon Fraser University students, women's
liberationists, hippies, Yippies and assorted street
people — prevented Turner from reading his prepared
speech by chanting slogans such as "No free speech
for the Quebecois, No free speech for Turner" and
"Free Quebec."
The disruption of the lecture was made easier for
the protestors by the no-longer-silent majority at the
meeting. By trying to shout down the demonstrators,
Turner's supporters added to the din and prolonged —
and perhaps exacerbated — the uproar.
I nstitute President Patrick Thorsteinsson, a
Vancouver lawyer, and Turner himself tried vainly for
almost 45 minutes to get the meeting underway. The
response from the demonstrators was a renewal of the
slogan-chanting, which led to rebuttal from Turner's
supporters and contributed to the general uproar.
At one point a brief fist fight broke out near the
front of the room when a young man forced his way
into a group of demonstrators and struck Mordecai
Briemberg, a suspended member of the faculty of the
Political Science, Sociology and Anthropology
Department at Simon Fraser.
At 8:55 p.m., almost 45 minutes after the
scheduled start of the Institute meeting, the minister
broke off his attempts to read his address and many
members of the audience rose and left the room.
Turner remained in the room for an additional 35
minutes, talking to radio and newspaper reporters and
a handful of radicals. The bulk of the demonstrators
huddled in small groups among the desks throughout
the lecture hall and did not leave until Turner
departed at 9:30 p.m.
Early in the week following the disruption the
presidents of the UBC Faculty Association and the
Alma Mater Society issued a joint statement
deploring the disruption of the meeting.
In their statement. Faculty Association President
Peter Pearse and AMS President Tony Hodge said the
incident "represents an alarming interference with the
principle of free expression which we can only hope
will not recur."
(The edition of UBC Reports for March 11
contains a more detailed report of the meeting as well
as the full texts of Mr. Turner's speech and the joint
statement of the presidents of the Faculty
Association and AMS. Readers may obtain a copy by
writing to the Department of Information Services at
UBC. See Letters to the Editor column on Page
Eleven also).
HEADS   RESIGN
Three department heads in UBC's Faculty of
Science have resigned effective June 30, but will
continue as full professors in their departments.
They are Prof. G.H. Neil Towers of the
Department of Botany, Prof. W.H. Mathews of the
Department of Geology and Prof. William S. Hoar of
the Department of Zoology.
Prof. R.F. Scagel will relinquish his appointment
as associate dean of the Faculty of Science to succeed
Dr. Towers. (Edition of March 11, 1971).
SENATE   GETS   FLAG
UBC's Senate is now the proud possessor of a
Canadian flag, thanks to Students' Council.
The flag was presented to Senate Feb. 24 during a
good-natured interruption of Senate by a group of 24
students, most of them members of Students'
Council, led by AMS President Tony Hodge.
The interruption of Senate came shortly after
Senate had approved without debate the following
motion on Canadian content in UBC courses:
"Whereas members of Senate are concerned that
students, in their academic progress, should have
broad opportunities to understand the Canadian
heritage and assess the future of Canada:
"Senate recognizes our continuing commitment to
encourage Canadian as well as international outlooks
and urges faculty to renew its concern to ensure that
Canadian content and illustrative material are
available to students where appropriate to the
academic objectives of the courses offered."
Mr. Hodge told Senate, in a short address, that the
students had come to present "a gift we hope will
bridge the gap of generations and at the same time
remind the Senate where it is geographically located."
At the conclusion of the flag presentation
President Walter H. Gage, as chairman of Senate,
remarked that Senate was "about ten minutes ahead
of the students," since it had already passed the
Canadian content motion. (Edition of March 11,
1971).
ADDITION   OPENED
A $750,000 addition to the Thea Koerner House,
UBC's graduate student centre, was officially opened
March 19. The addition includes a dining room
seating 208 persons, a multi-purpose room for
meetings and social events, a library and committee
rooms and offices. Construction of the building was
financed by a bank loan being repaid through a $14
increase in Centre membership fees.
*       #       *
This is a reminder that anyone wanting seedlings
grown from seeds from the original Hippocratic tree
on the Greek island of Kos should telephone
228-2727 or 228-2273.
Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, is
believed to have taught under the original tree — a
plane or eucalyptus tree — some 2,500 years ago.
There will be no charge for seedlings picked up at
UBC. But a small donation towards construction of
the $300,000 east-west meeting place for world
medicine being built on Kos by the International
Hippocratic Foundation would be welcome.
10/OBC Report#March'31, 197T   ' UNIVERSITY PRESS ESTABLISHED
The University of British Columbia has
announced the establishment of a scholarly press
which plans to publish ten books in its first year of
operation.
The University of British Columbia Press will
emphasize four general areas in its publishing
program — Asia and the Pacific, Canadian
literature, western Canada and international law.
While the output of the press will be primarily
of value to scholars and students, it is hoped that
general readers will also be interested in .many of
the regional books, text books, reference books
and academic journals which will be published.
Mr. Basil Stuart-Stubbs, UBC's librarian and
chairman of an advisory committee on the UBC
Press, emphasized that establishment of the Press
does not mean that the University plans to
purchase printing equipment.
The printing of books will be done by
independent printing houses outside the
University. The press offices on the UBC campus
will include editorial and promotion facilities for
the books it publishes.
The Press is the successor to the UBC
Publications Centre, which has been the publishing
department of the University since 1961.
BETTER SERVICE
Mr. Stuart-Stubbs said the change of name and
the expanded publishing program reflect the
University's interest in increasing its involvement
in scholarly publishing.
A reorganization and expansion of the Centre
has been carried out in the past 18 months and
will enable the Press to provide better and more
efficient service to authors and book purchasers.
The reorganization of the Publications Centre
and planning for the new press has been carried
out by Mr. Anthony Blicq, a Canadian who joined
UBC 18 months ago as executive director of the
Publications Centre.
Mr. Blicq, who came to UBC from the Oxford
University Press in England, will serve as director
of the UBC Press.
Serving as staff editor is Mr. Ken Pearson, a
Canadian formerly associated with the firm of
McGraw-Hill.
"The announcement of the establishment of a
UBC Press comes appropriately at a time when
interest in original Canadian publishing is
increasing," Mr. Stuart-Stubbs pointed out.
"The existence of a university press on the west
coast will provide a greater opportunity for the
research and the work being done in this region to
be made known ancl available internationally," he
said, "and will serve as a stimulus to scholarly
study of many aspects of western Canada."
In addition to publishing some of this research,
the Press will advise and assist authors in the
preparation and placing of manuscripts for
publication with other publishing houses.
A major source of revenue for the Press will be
the sale of the books it publishes. However,
because greater emphasis will be placed on
academic merit than commerical viability when
selecting manuscripts for publication, the Press
requires and will receive some financial and other
support from the University. However, it is
anticipated that government agencies and private
foundations will provide major assistance.
One of the primary functions of the Press will
be   to   act   as  a   regional   publisher  of  material
pertaining to the west coast of North America and
to western Canada generally.
One of the first books to be released under the
imprint of the Press will be The Royal Navy and
the Northwest Coast of North America, 1819 to
1914, a volume which will be of interest to both
scholars and general readers.
Other titles to be issued in the future in the
fields of history, the humanities and the social
sciences will reflect the commitment of the Press
to publishing works dealing with this geographical
area.
PUBLISH COMMENT
Within the category of Canadian literature the
Press will publish comment, criticism and analyses
of both English and French-Canadian literature. .4
Reference Guide to English, American and
Canadian Literature, and other resource and
reference works will also be published in the near
future.
When the journal Pacific Affairs transferred its
headquarters from New York to UBC in 1961, the
University also obtained the distribution rights for
books published by the former Institute of Pacific
Relations. This provided the impetus for the
establishment of the Publications Centre that same
year. The Press will continue to publish books on
topics related to Pacific affairs.
The fourth area of Press emphasis is
international law. At present the Canadian
Yearbook of International Law is published by the
Press in co-operation with the Canadian branch of
the Internationa' Law Association. With Canada's
growing importance in this field the Press plans to
increase its program in this area.
TO THE  EDITOR-LETTERS  TO THE  EDITOR* LETTERS TO
Dear Sir:
I have read with much interest the article by Dean
Ian McTaggart Cowan (UBC Reports Feb. 25, 1971),
on the wealth of Canada above the 60th parallel. It
was a clear scientific description of this wealth.
However, the Dean said nothing about whether or not
this future wealth would belong to Canada or the
next generation of Canadians. He ignored entirely the
ability of Canada to resist military invasion by an
overcrowded world of the Orient drilled to military
precision of warfare and fanatical in their beliefs that
fctheir low standard of living is due to democracies of
"the Western World. The Canadians and Americans,
professors and others, are living in a dream world
withdrawn from reality. In this respect they resemble
the holy men of India who prefer to talk about
philosophical religious happiness and ignore the
cruder realistic facts of life. In the not too distant
future the Canadians, and Americans, will wake up to
grim reality as the over-crowded nations of the Orient
feel the need for oil and iron, and furthermore, are
willing to sacrifice their lives in warfare for these
luxuries.
The time has come for us to ask the question of
whether this wealth will belong to us, or our children,
or  to  the  invader.   If this wealth  will  continue to
belong to Canadians there has to be a drastic change
in military preparedness. If this is ignored we shall be
pushed aside, most likely brutally, as were the Indians
and Eskimos by the white man in his search for gold.
Allan Hemingway, UBC Class of 1925
Professor, University of California
Los Angeles
Dear Sir:
As a student concerned with the maintenance of
the University as an open forum for political views
and with the maintenance of free speech in general, I
was not in favor of the demonstration by the Free
Quebec, Free Canada Committee which confronted
Justice Minister Turner on Saturday, March 6. I also
wonder whether such an action was successful from a
tactical point of view; it seems that confrontations of
this sort alienate people both from the cause of the
Free Quebec, Free Canada Committee and from the
larger causes of educational and societal reform.
I am even more concerned, however, with the bias
shown by the press in general, and by UBC Reports in
particular, concerning the demonstration. The idea of
free speech, for example, was gouched on- in depth
only from Mr. Turner's perspective. Yet the whole
point of the demonstration was to emphasize that,
for a large number of Canadians, free speech no
longer exists. Mr. Turner, if not directly responsible
for the War Measures Act and the Public Order Act,
certainly, in his capacity as Justice Minister,
represents responsibility for them. And these acts are
used to arrest and detain persons, without formal
charge, because of what they say or have said. The
Public Order Act is a far superior method of silencing
free speech than any demonstration; Mr. Turner's
speech probably received more exposure through the
media bending over backwards to be fair, to restore
his deprived rights. But what about the Quebecois?
They can be imprisoned, not just stopped from
speaking, because of what they previously believed
and said. Remember the Inquisition? The Salem
witch-hunts? The Test Acts?
It further concerns me that UBC Reports, which
probably shares my aforementioned concern for the
maintenance of the University as an open forum for
political views, only talked to Mr. Turner and some
members of the Vancouver Institute. Had Mordecai
Briemberg, Dick Betts, or others on the Free Quebec,
Free Canada Committee been interviewed, they
would have been able to present their views in
opposition to those of Mr. Turner. No attempt, from
what I can gather, was made to conduct such an
interview. No other members of the Students'
Council,  except  for Tony   Hodge,  were  contacted
either, to my knowledge. The backlash which I fear
from confrontation tactics is increased from
one-sided reporting, even if done unintentionally.
This last complaint becomes more crucial when
one realizes that Mr. Briemberg was making a very
pertinent point when he was set upon by some
mesomorphic fan of Mr. Turner. Mr. Briemberg was
about to ask whether Mr. Turner would engage in
open debate (in a more hostile Quebec, which is, after
all, the only place where constructive dialogue can
take place) with any member or members of the
Quebec five (Messrs. Chartrand, Gagnon,
Larue-Langlois, Lemieux and Vallieres). If Mr. Turner
would agree, Mr. Briemberg was about to say, then
the Free Quebec, Free Canada Committee would
engage in an orderly, open debate with him. Mr.
Turner never got a chance to hear the whole question,
but could he really have agreed to talk openly with
"seditious" Quebecois, who would have pointed out
that this Minister of "Justice" had denied them their
supposedly sacred rights because of what they believe
and say?
Surely a decision on the morality of interfering
with Mr. Turner's rights to free speech can only be
legitimately made in view of the above points. Surely
anti-student and anti-Quebecois backlash can only be
eased through a better knowledge of the situation. It
is in the interest of these two points that I ask UBC
Reports to print this letter. Thank you.
Yours sincerely,
Rob McDiarmid
Vice-President Elect, AMS
Alumni Fund Wins  Award
The UBC Alumni Fund organization has won first
prize for the excellence of its alumni giving direct
mail campaign in a competition involving 47 similar
university organizations in the northwest United
States and Canada.
Mr. Ian C. Malcolm, director of the UBC Alumni
Fund, was awarded the citation for excellence at a
Pacific northwest conference on alumni giving,
publications and public relations held in Portland,
Oregon, Feb. 3-5.. The conference was sponsored by
district eight of the American Alumni Council.
The UBC Alumni Fund entry in the competition
comprised a series of pamphlets outlining UBC's need
for alumni financial assistance. A notable part of the
UBC Alumni Fund direct mail campaign involved a
set of pamphlets describing the new developments in
the various UBC faculties and pointing out their
financial handicaps.
While most of the competitors were from
American universities, it is noteworthy that Simon
Fraser University also placed in the top five in the
competition.
The competition involved alumni giving
organizations at universities in B.C., Alberta,
Saskatchewan, Washington, Idaho and Oregon.
UBC Reports/March 31. 1971/11 ^m^ UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
Contact
DR. DON MUNRO (right), assistant dean of forestry,
talks to a Nanaimo high school class about career
opportunities in forestry. In an Alumni
Association-sponsored tour, Dr. Munro and Dean of
Medicine Dr. J.F: McCreary recently spoke to public
meetings in Nanaimo, Alberni and Campbell River
about new developments in UBC forestry and health
sciences education. Bill Loiselle photo.
Summer Jobs Vital
EMPLOYERS URGED TO HIRE STUDENTS
Close to 10,000 UBC students will be looking for
work this summer. For many of them, the question
of whether they find a summer job or not will have a
decisive effect on their academic futures.
Summer jobs, of course, have traditionally been
vital for providing many UBC students with the
financial means to continue their studies. They are as
vitally needed as ever — perhaps more so.
Last year, UBC's Office of Student Services found
that 82 per cent of all undergraduates needed summer
employment to help them finance their way through
ARCTIC OIL TOPIC OF
COMMERCE MEETING
One of the most controversial topics on the west
coast today will be the subject of the feature address
at the Commerce Alumni Division's annual dinner
meeting on April 22.
Mr. E.C. Hurd, president of Trans-Mountain Oil
Pipeline Company, will speak on "Arctic Oil Pipeline:
Economic Necessity or Ecological Disaster?"
The dinner meeting will be held in the University
Club, 1021 West Hastings. The function begins with a
reception at 6 p.m., followed by dinner at 7 p.m. and
the address about 8 p.m. Tickets, at $6 per person,
can be obtained from the UBC Alumni Association,
6251 N.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver 8, B.C.
(228-3313).
All UBC commerce alumni are invited to attend
what promises to be a lively and informative evening.
PARKING
Alumni returning to study at UBC in the 1971-72
academic year may qualify for preferred parking
spaces.
Such parking is restricted to students who by Aug.
31, 1971, have completed at least three years study at
UBC or are enrolled in fourth-year or more senior
courses for 1971-72. Inquiries and applications
(together with a $1 fee) should be directed to the
Traffic Office, Wesbrook Crescent, University of B.C.,
Vancouver 8, B.C. starting April 1.
12/UBC Reports/March 31, 1971
University. Even so, the savings from such jobs for
many students were not adequate to fully meet the
cost of a year's education. A student living on campus
needs a minimum of $1,400 to support himself for a
year's education.
The tight financial position of many students is
readily apparent. For example, the median income
from jobs in 1970 was $1,275 for men and only $721
for women students. The student services office
found that male students could save on average only
$624, while female students could save only $396 of
their summer earnings. The gap had to be filled with
help from parents, part-time earnings in the winter,
bursaries and loans.
The need for summer jobs for students is clearly
crucial. It is for this reason that the UBC Placement
Office and Canada Manpower are working so
vigorously to find jobs for students and to encourage
employers to hire a student this summer. So far,
2,000 students have already registered with the
placement office for summer jobs.
Cam Craik, UBC's Placement Officer, pointed out
that many employers are surprised at the skills and
job experience that many students have to offer.
Many employers are already aware of the value of
hiring students in such fields as engineering, forestry,
science and geology.
Students from arts, commerce, even home
economics, have more difficulty finding summer
work. Craik said employers too often think such
students, particularly arts students, don't have their
feet firmly planted on the ground and so have
nothing to offer. On the contrary, he said they often
can be of considerable help in summer relief in such
fields as construction, office work, retail selling and
in the food and tourist industry. Decent-paying jobs
for women, however, are still a problem, he said.
Employers in the Lower Mainland who have
seasonal openings which could be filled by university
students are urged to contact the UBC Placement
Office at 228-4327 or 228-4328. Employers
outside the Lower Mainland are advised to contact
their local Canada Manpower office. A suitable
applicant will be referred promptly for the
employer's consideration.
MR. RALPH NADER
AN EVENING WITH
RALPH
NADER
Ralph Nader, noted American
consumer affairs crusader, will be guest
speaker at the May 19 annual dinner of
the UBC Alumni Association.
Nader will speak on "Environmental
Hazards: Man-Made and
Man-Remedied."
The author of Unsafe At Any Speed,
Mr. Nader is best known for his
campaign to have cars made safer. He
and his colleagues (known as "Nader's
Raiders") have also compaigned on a
variety of other consumer issues, from
the need for improved rest homes to
safer toys.
It is anticipated that about 800 UBC
alumni will attend the annual meeting
which will be held at 6 p.m., Wednesday,
May 19, in the Hotel Vancouver. Mr.
Nader will speak following the
completion of annual business, including
the election of the 1971-72 alumni
board of management.
TICKETS, PLEASE
Please send me tickets at $6.00
Enclosed is a cheque for $  	
Name	
Address  	
Phone Number	
Mail to: Alumni Association, 6251 N.W.
Marine Drive, Vancouver 8, B.C.

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