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UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Library News May 31, 1972

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Vol. 5, No. 4
April - May, 1972
Vancouver, B.C.
This newsletter is published as an information service for UBC faculty, students and other readers outside the
Library. It contains feature articles and news about developments in the library system which we feel will be of interest
or concern to the larger community. The News welcomes all comments, criticisms and suggestions for future articles.
As usual, all but the largest campus libraries will be closed on evenings and weekends during intersession. Because of
evening extension classes, the Main, Sedgewick and Woodward libraries will remain open on Tuesday and Wednesday
evenings. Staffing after 5 p.m. will be minimal, however.
The following hours will be in effect until Tuesday, July 4:
MAIN, SEDGEWICK AND Monday 9 a.m. -   5 p.m.
WOODWARD LIBRARIES Tuesday - Wednesday 9 a.m. - 10 p.m.
Thursday — Friday 9 a.m. —   5 p.m.
Saturday - Sunday CLOSED
Monday — Friday
Saturday — Sunday
9 a.m. — 5 p.m.
Monday — Friday
Saturday — Sunday
5 p.m. — 11 p.m.
Please note:     All campus libraries will be closed on the Dominion Day holiday (Monday, July 3).
Traditionally, summer has been the time for sweeping changes in the campus libraries. This year promises to be a
little different:  this time the alterations and collection shifts began in late spring, and some are likely to extend into the
winter session.
The libraries most affected are the three largest ones: Woodward, Sedgewick and the Main Library. All are preparing for the opening of new areas or services, as follows:
WOODWARD is now directly linked to the new Instructional Resources Centre, which will be in full operation by
Summer Session. Because the two buildings open into each other, a Checkpoint security system has been installed. This
should ensure that Woodward material does not travel into the IRC without being checked out in the normal way.
Woodward's main public service and reference area is now being reorganized for easier use. Readers will find that
the card catalogues have been moved and the reference material reshelved. By Summer Session order should have been
restored; until then, please bear with us!
SEDGEWICK is not expected to move into its new building until early fall. The official opening ceremony is
scheduled for September 1,
The "old" Sedgewick Library will continue to give service in the Main Library's south wing through Summer
Session. It is not likely that any major collection moves will be carried out until at least August.
MAIN LIBRARY changes to date have involved just one area: the Main Card Catalogue. During April the entire
Subject File was converted to a date filing system. Although the drawers still list subjects in alphabetical order, the cards behind each subject heading are now arranged by date. The most recent book on the topic is filed in front, and
so on back to the earliest book UBC holds on the subject.
This filing system, recommended for large university libraries, is currently used by Woodward and Sedgewick.
The change will make no difference to those who select their books by title, and will greatly aid those who are only
interested in recent material or in books written during a certain period. It is expected that subject filing will also be
speeded up.
Other Main Library plans call for moving reference materials presently shelved on stack level 5 back into the
Ridington Room. This would allow the Main Stack book collection to expand up to level 5.
Although no further changes are expected in the Main Library before August, readers can expect a series of
collection shifts once Sedgewick moves out. The Recordings Collection will be transferred to the new Sedgewick
Library, freeing that area of the north wing for Fine Arts stacks. Before 1973, Asian Studies and the Map Division will
move to the lower floor of the south wing. This will give Special Collections users some much-needed reading space,
and will allow Government Publications and Microforms to expand into the rest of stack level 6.
One more move deserves mention here, though it is still a long way in the future. On May 20 the federal government
presented UBC with a $2.5 million cheque toward construction of a new anthropological museum. Construction is expected to start before April 1, 1973, and the building is to be completed and open by April 1,1975.
Among other things, the new museum will house UBC's outstanding collection of Indian art, valued at nearly $10
million. Until 1975 this collection will remain in the basement of the Main Library, where it has been stored for so
many years.- But in three more years, both the museum and the Library will gain the floor space they so badly need.
The March News announced the start of a Local Initiatives project in oral history. Entitled "Cultural Communities
in B.C.", its aims were to tape-record and transcribe interviews with some of the oldest living members of B.C. society.
Of particular importance were those members of minority and ethnic groups who were unlikely to leave a written
account of their experiences. All tapes and transcripts would become the property of the UBC Library's Special
Collections Division.
Since April the project's staff has grown to 16. Besides administrative work, interviewing and taping, they
handle all phases of transcript production (cataloguing, binding, copying, etc.) Each completed transcript includes
artist's sketches of the person interviewed.
The project originally aimed at producing 200 tapes and transcripts, totalling as much as 10,000 manuscript pages.
This goal was reached in late May, just as the Federal Government contributed $19,890 more to the program. The staff
will now be able to continue gathering material until the end of September. As before, all items will be contributed to
Special Collections.
Those who are interested in oral history, and particularly the B.C. project, should make a point of visiting the
Special Collections Division. Its 20-foot display case features background material on oral history, examples of work
done elsewhere, and some of the sketches and transcripts produced as part of the local program. The display will
remain up till mid-July.
Channel 10 will shortly be showing a one-hour documentary on oral history and its local applications. This will
be followed by a series on individual cultural communities in B.C. More details will appear in this newsletter as they
become available.
Interest in B.C.'s cultural history is not confined to the oral history staff and Special Collections. After six years
of negotiations, the Asian Studies Division has succeeded in what local researchers feel is a vital project. The National
Library has given UBC the financial support needed to microfilm all existing backfiles of Vancouver's three daily
Chinese-language newspapers. For its services, the UBC Library will be able to keep a set of the microfilms for its
own readers. The papers involved are the Chinese Times, the New Republic, and the Chinese Voice. The Times, Vancouver's
second oldest newspaper, has been publishing for over 65 years. The New Republic began in 1911, and the Chinese
Voice in 1952. The latter was founded specifically to preserve, propagate and introduce Chinese culture in Canada.
UBC's head librarian, Basil Stuart-Stubbs, spoke of the microfilmed backfiles as "possibly the single most important source of information about the Chinese community in Canada". The newspapers will be a valuable addition to
UBC's extensive collection of Asian Studies material.
CAN/SDI (Selective Dissemination of Information) is an information retrieval system operated by the National
Science Library in Ottawa for Canadian scientists and engineers. The system selects current references from journals,
reports, books, patents and conferences. This is done by means of a fully computerized process which matches an
individual's "interest profile" against a number of data bases covering most major sciences.
The system has been in operation since April 1969, and is currently producing well over 1,000 personalized
bibliographies for people working in universities, industry and government. At UBC there is a small but growing number
of subscribers, most of whom have expressed satisfaction with the results that the system can provide in helping them
keep up with the current literature.
The UBC Library offers assistance in the preparation of "interest profiles". It will also help with changes and
revisions if these become necessary.
To encourage users to experiment with the system, the Library will once again pay the $40 base fee for new
subscribers. This offer is open to UBC faculty members and graduate students. Each subscriber will have to pay the
balance of his account at the end of the subscription year. The exact amount will depend on use. It may be as low
as $5.50 for a 60-term profile based on the bi-weekly Chemical Titles tapes; $17 for a 60-term profile based on the
monthly Compendex (Engineering Index) tapes; or $77 for a 60-term profile based on the weekly ISI (Science Citation
Index) source tapes. The above are examples only; many other tapes on different subject areas are also available, and
the number of terms in an interest profile can be changed to suit each user's needs.
Within limits set by the Library's budget, the $40 subsidy will be available to new subscribers only on a first-come,
first-served basis. For further information, please call R.J. Brongers (Science Division) at local 3826.
With the rise of inexpensive mass photocopying, it was felt to be just a matter of time before an author or publisher challenged the right of users to reproduce parts of copyrighted works. So far there has been no test case involving photocopying in Canada. However, a 4-year legal battle in the U.S. ended this year with a decision in favour of
the publisher. Although the case is being appealed, it is likely to have far-reaching consequences for North American
libraries and their users. The most important points have been summarized below.
Among other things, the Williams & Wilkins Publishing Company publishes medical journals. In February 1968 it
charged the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM) with infringement of
its copyrights. Williams & Wilkins claimed that these institutions had made unauthorized photocopies of articles from
its journals.
The articles copied by the NIH had been made for its research staff in connection with their work. Those copied
by the NLM were used to fill interlibrary loan requests. All articles copied came from journals the institutions already
The case was heard by Commissioner J.F. Davis of the U.S. Court of Claims. The NIH and NLM were defended
by the U.S. Government. Some of the points raised should be of interest to Canadian readers.
1]      OWNER OF COPYRIGHT. As is often the case, the authors of the articles in question had not formally
assigned copyright to the publisher of the journal, nor had they received any compensation from the
publisher. The Government therefore held that the publisher could not be considered the real owner of
the copyright. This defense was disallowed. The main reason given by Commissioner Davis was that, in
the absence of evidence to the contrary, the transfer of a manuscript by an author to a magazine publisher
carries the copyright with it. 2]      SINGLE COPIES. Another main line of defense was that the making of a single copy is not an infringement of the Copyright Act. The Government argued that the monopoly granted by the Copyright Act is
restricted to printing and publishing, involving the making of multiple rather than single copies. But the
Commissioner held that the Act specifically prohibits copying, and that the defendant had not succeeded
in showing that it means something else. Nor was there anything in the Act to distinguish the making of
a single copy from making multiple copies.
3]      FAIR USE. There is no mention of fair use in the present U.S. Copyright Act, which gives the copyright
owner the exclusive right to reproduce his work, without qualification. Over the years, however, American
courts have developed a "fair use" doctrine. This has allowed limited copying for socially useful purposes
where it was not likely that the commercial market for the work would be affected. Libraries and
educational institutions have generally held that this "fair use" concept covered single copies of copyright
material (including single articles in journals), proved the material was used for private study or research.
This argument was also discounted by the Commissioner. In his written report, submitted to the Court
of Claims, he explains:
"Whatever may be the bounds of "fair use" as defined and applied by the courts,
defendant is clearly outside those bounds . .. The photocopies are exact duplicates
of the original articles; are intended to be substitutes for .. . the original articles;
and serve to diminish plaintiff's potential market for the original articles .. .."
4]      MECHANICAL VS. HAND COPYING. It is often claimed that photocopies are essentially a substitute for
handwritten copies, and that no one would question a reader's right to copy sections of a work by hand.
The Commissioner pointed out that libraries copy substantially more material than scholars can or do copy
by hand, so that the impact on copyright holders is quite different. Unlike hand copying, mechanical
reproduction poses a real and substantial threat to the interests of the copyright owner.
5]      FREE FLOW OF INFORMATION. Libraries, research and educational institutions have expressed the fear
that copyright law, strictly enforced, would hinder the expansion of knowledge and impede the free flow
of information to which citizens are entitled. The Commissioner noted: "What defendant appears to be
arguing is that the copyright law should excuse . . . the kind of photocopying here in suit. That, of course,
is a matter for Congress, not the courts ..." He also pointed out that publishers had no wish to prevent
this type of copying, but simply to enforce their claim to royalties for the works reproduced.
On February 16,1972, Commissioner Davis submitted his findings to the U.S. Court of Claims. He concluded
that Williams & Wilkins were "entitled to recover reasonable and entire compensation for infringement of copyright".
This does not constitute a final judgement; both parties have an opportunity to file objections to the Davis Report before
the final decision, to be made by the full bench of the Court of Claims. Moreover, other interested parties may file
"amicus" briefs. Commissioner Davis' opinion has attracted the attention of many professional and educational
associations, such as the National Education Association and the American Medical Association, which will oppose
his recommendations. A decision by the full Court of Claims is not likely to end the matter either, since it still leaves
room for an appeal to the Supreme Court.
Meanwhile, the U.S. Copyright Revision Bill languishes in Congress. It may yet be changed to incorporate a "fair
dealing" clause and definition.
One year ago, UBC's head librarian ogranized a cross-Canada survey to gauge the effects of university library photocopying on Canadian publishing. Much of his report appeared in the Library News for September, 1971. Since the
survey findings led to conclusions that differ widely from those reached by Commissioner Davis, readers may wish to
have another look at the article. Reprints are available from the Editor (local 2076).
Thanks to News readers, the campus libraries are gaining more complete backfiles of journals. Response to our
"missing issues" ads has been most encouraging. This month's challenge:
B.C. Corrections Association.     Courier.
Vol.7 No. 4 (1970); Vol.8 Nos. 1-2, 4 (1970-71).
Anyone who might be able to donate these back issues to the Library is asked to call the Serials Bibliographer,
Mr. G. Elliston, at local 2304. AND FINALLY
Summer always brings its share of off-campus readers wanting to use the biggest research collection in the
province. Often they prefer to phone ahead and have the staff check for particular titles. One request went something like this:
I don't suppose the UBC Library has
much in the way of fiction?
Oh, we have a very strong collection,
actually. Was there a special book
you needed?
Yes, would you mind looking it up?
It's part of the Star Trek series and
it's called Spock Must Die.
Another one we don't have is the report listed on Library of Congress catalogue card number 73-272779. (This is
not fiction, it just looks that way):
Gt. Brit. Independent Committee to Make an Award on a
Question Which Has Arisen between the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Musicians' Union Concerning Minimum Fees for Casual Studio Broadcasts and to
Examine and Make Recommendations on Certain Other
British Broadcasting Corporation and Musicians' Union; report.
London, H.M. Stationery Off., 1948.
29 p.   24 cm.
We live in fear of the day someone asks for that over the phone!
Editor:  Mrs. J.E. de Bruijn
Information & Orientation Division


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