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UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Library News Sep 30, 1971

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Volume IV, No. 7 September, 1971 Vancouver, B.C.
This newsletter is published as an information service for UBC faculty, students and other readers outside the Library. It
contains feature articles and news about developments in the library system which we feel will be of interest or concern to the
larger community. The News welcomes all comments, criticisms and suggestions for future articles.
Since the fall term started two weeks ago, the librarians responsible for student orientation have had a busy time. Public
service desks throughout the Library system have been distributing printed guides and brochures to all comers. In the Main
Library the experimental "do-it-yourself" tour guides are being picked up almost as fast as the new student handbook, and there
is a steady demand for the information handouts available from Sedgewick and some of the larger branches.
Students who prefer to be shown through the library have been able to choose from two different types of tour. Group tours
lasting 20 to 25 minutes are being offered at 3 p.m. every weekday until October 15. Morning tours, beginning with a 15-minute
audio-visual show, will be given at 11:30 on weekdays until October 1. Tour schedules and assembly points are advertised on
large posters at the main entrances to the Main and Sedgewick Libraries. Personal copies of the schedules may be picked up from
the boxes mounted on each poster.
All in all, though, the most relevant and successful form of library orientation is the class visit. This allows librarians to relate
all information directly to the work a particular class will be covering during the next few months. Beginning on October 1, the
Information and Orientation Division will be offering subject-related tours of the Main and Sedgewick Libraries to all 1st and
2nd year classes. Students will be shown the main areas they will be using this year, and examples from the course will be given
to illustrate the use of the card catalogues and basic reference material. Please call the Information Division at local 2076 or
2077 to set up a tour for your class or to find out more about the program.
The'Humanities, Science and Social Sciences reference divisions are always willing to speak to upper level and graduate
students about advanced library research in the subject areas covered by their courses. Please contact a librarian in the
appropriate division to arrange for a class visit or a tour of the library.
Most branch libraries are able to offer special subject tours as well. Please inquire about the nature and extent of this service
at the branch you are interested in visiting.
DATE:       Wednesday, September 29, 1971
TIME: 1:00 p.m.
PLACE:      Psychiatry Lecture Theatre,
Health Sciences Centre Building
MEDLARS is an acronym for Medical Literature Analysis and Information Retrieval System. It is a computerized
bibliographic system developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, and it has been in operation since January, 1964. The
system covers 2,300 of the world's biomedical journals in 38 languages.
Three levels of service are available in connection with MEDLARS: demand searches, backfile searches, and a current
awareness service providing monthly printouts.
Those who attend the seminar will also be given a brief summary of the other tapes available on a current awareness basis from
Canada's National Science Library. These include;
Chemical Titles
Chemical Abstracts Condensates
INSPEC (Physics Abstracts)
BA Previews (Biological Abstracts and Bioresearch Index
The seminar will be presented by Mrs. Ann Nevill, Canadian MEDLARS Service, Health Sciences Resource Centre, National
Science Library, Ottawa. For further information, please call the Woodward Library at local 2473. MORE ACHIEVEMENTS FOR CRANE
It's been a productive summer at the Crane Library for the Blind. Besides gaining full borrowing privileges from North
America's largest library for the blind (see the May-June Library News), Crane has added nearly 300 tape-recorded books to its
collection. Most of this material was produced by 70 volunteer readers at the rate of 8 miles of tape a week.
Just before the start of classes, Crane received a particularly valuable gift. The Consul-General of France presented the library
with 155 beautifully bound volumes of French literature in braille, worth nearly $1,000.
Because of growing public interest in the Crane Library and the students it serves, both were recently featured on the
University's television program, UBC Now. Those who saw it may have been surprised to learn that there are now 50 blind or
sight-restricted students on campus. Taping material for a group this size is a continuing job, and Crane is looking for even more
part-time readers. If you would like to volunteer one hour a week, please call the library at local 2373.
Almost everyone would agree that open access to library stacks allows readers to make more effective use of collections. The
right to browse through the shelves, or to work at a carrel within easy reach of the books one wishes to consult, is accepted
today by readers and librarians alike as an essential feature of academic library service.
As access for readers has improved, however, the problem of "missing" books has increased. Any regular user of the library
knows that there may be several explanations for the fact that a book is not on the shelf: it may be out on loan, in use
somewhere in the stacks, mis-shelved, even hidden or stolen by another library user. Whatever the reason, those of-us who work
in the Library recognize the frustration that results. Each year we spend a substantial amount of time and money trying to
ensure that books are where they ought to be, and trying to retrieve those that are not. Through "call-in", tracing, shelf-reading,
exit checks, security devices (see the May-June News), interlibrary loans, and as a last resort, through the ordering of
replacement copies, we attempt to improve the reader's chances of getting the books he needs.
Although many books are found before replacement becomes necessary, a substantial amount of money is spent every year in
■replacing missing books. Your assistance in identifying those books which should be replaced is essential, since the size of the
main stack collection makes an annual inventory impossible. When the book you need is neither on the shelf nor signed out,
please report it to the staff at the main circulation desk. They will attempt to trace the item. If it cannot be located after
thorough searching, you will be notified and the book will be declared missing. (Of course, if it is found the staff will let you
know immediately.)
If the book cannot be located within a month, immediate replacement will be considered if the book is in print. If it is out of
print, attempt at replacement will be delayed for another month in hopes that the book will reappear, which frequently
Since this process may take too long to be of any immediate assistance to you, you may wish, after the first week of
searching, to have the Interlibrary Loan Office borrow another copy for you. They will do their best to give your request
priority, and to obtain the book quickly from a local source.
In addition to letting us know about missing books, we would also appreciate your assistance in informing us of missing pages
from books or journals. Staff at the Main Loan Desk should be notified so that replacement pages can be obtained and bound
into the original volume.
In just ten years, copying machines have become an almost indispensible part of the modern academic library. Faculty and
students are beginning to rely on them for quick reproduction of notes and readings. In this era of mass education, most library
departments would be unable to give efficient service without high-speed mechanical copiers. There is every reason to believe
that the volume and range of their use by both staff and patrons will continue to grow.
Is this a threat to Canadian publishing? Authors, publishers and booksellers claim that it is. They maintain that photocopiers
are often used illegally to duplicate material protected by copyright, and that this severely damages sales. Some groups have
asked that royalties be charged for Canadian material copied on library machines.
These arguments would carry more weight if they could be backed up by figures. Until now, however, almost no research has
been done on library copying and its side effects. The first large cross-Canada survey was organized this spring by the University
Librarian, Basil Stuart-Stubbs. Detailed results of this study have now been published and distributed to all members of the
Canadian Association of College and University Libraries. Some highlights from the report are reprinted below.
Answers were sought to the following questions:
How many copying machines are there in Canadian university libraries?
How many copies are being made on these machines?
What is being copied?
For whom are copies being made? In order to answer these questions, a survey was conducted in two parts. The first part of the survey was intended to establish
the dimensions of copying. A questionnaire was mailed to each member university library of the Canadian Association of College
and University Libraries ....
The second part of the survey was intended to examine the content of copying. In order to obtain the desired information,
participating libraries were asked to fill in a form ... for every item copied on every machine, up to an established sample level.
Survey returns were analyzed and tabulated by computer.
Forty-one out of the total of forty-six member libraries answered the questionnaire, and thirty-seven participated in the
second part of the survey. This high level of participation assures the validity of the results....
The libraries were asked to determine the number of copying machines at each of their universities, and to report on the
number of machines within library jurisdiction.
The forty-one libraries which responded to the questionnaire reported a total of 1,160 copying machines at all of their
universities, of which 246 or 21.2% were within library jurisdiction. The average number of machines per library was ... 6, with
the highest number 22 and the lowest 1; the median was 4.
Of the 246 machines in libraries,. .. 60.6% were customer-coin-operated, and the remaining 39.4% ... were operated by staff
To determine the amount of copying, the libraries were asked to report the total number of copies made on all machines for
all purposes during a recent twelve-month period ....
The total number of copies reported was 14,725,946. This will be referred to as the Grand Total.
Of this Grand Total, 7,099,628 or 48.2% were made on customer-coin-operated machines, and 7,626,318 or 51.8% were
. made on staff-operated machines.
There is no correlation between the number of copies made at each institution and the number of faculty and students.
The average number of copies per machine was 59,862 for the twelve-month period ....
Libraries were asked to report the rates charged per copy ... A few libraries varied from the conventional five or ten cent
charge, offering variable rates for quantity or using differential rates for types of material. The average charge per exposure
would be $.07.
The reported rates were used to calculate ... the maximum potential revenue which could be realized, assuming that a
charge was made for every copy, which would not be the case, since much of the copying is for internal use. On this basis,
coin-operated machines would have collected $471,373 and staff-operated machines $620,046, for a gross national annual total
of $1,091,419. Since libraries reported that they were operating copying services at a loss or at cost, there is in fact little or no
revenue in excess of expenses.
A. The Sample
When returns from the first questionnaire had established the quantity of copying at each institution, forms were supplied to
the libraries for the purpose of investigating the content of copying.
The libraries were asked to determine ... the annual exposure rates of all machines within their jurisdiction; for each
machine, one percent of the annual total was estimated; 'and a form was completed for every item copied on every machine,
until exposures equal to the one percent figure had been taken. Staff members were trained to interpret the forms and the
replies .. . given by persons using the machines, and were stationed at the machines until the survey was completed. Thirty-seven
university libraries conducted this part of the survey in the last two weeks of March and the first week of April, 1971 ....
B. Materials Copied
Type of Material Copied
. . .Almost half of the material copied was not published; this material included library catalogue cards, invoices,
correspondence, student notes, and a variety of other personal and institutional items. To an increasing degree, copy machines
are being used by libraries for short-run duplicating, and are taking over from mimeograph and offset machines the production
of such things as newsletters and library guides.
Copies from books and periodicals accounted for 43.9% of the total. Because of the implications of this kind of copying for
publishers and authors, exposures taken from books and periodicals will be given close attention later in this study.
Ownership of Material Copied
In percentage terms, 60.4% of all material copied was library property, and 39.6% was not. Of the non-library property being
copied, non-published materials bulked large. Thirty-four percent of the library material copied was from periodicals, 27.2% was
from books, and 27% was of non-published material. In terms of the total, library-owned books and periodicals accounted for
37% of all copying.
Applying [these] results.. .to the Grand Total for copying at Canadian university libraries, it is possible to estimate the
number of exposures taken from books and periodicals.
All books and periodicals 14,725,946 x 43.9% = 6,469,690 exposures
Library-owned books and periodicals 14,725,946 x 37% = 5,448,600 exposures 4
C. National Origin of Copied Materials
It is known that most of the published materials acquired by Canadian libraries originate in Canada, the United States and the
United Kingdom. The form made provision for these countries, and for France; a space was added for material originating from
other than these four countries....
National Origin of All Published Material Copied
Canada       22,105 28.0%
U.S  37,118 47.2%
U.K  8,379 10.7%
France  2,664 3.4%
Other  8,404 10.7%
TOTAL  78,670 100.0%
P. The Age of Materials Copied
. The general rule for all types of published material.. .seems to be: the more recent the publication date, the more numerous
the copies. Of copies of published material, 67.9% bore dates later than 1959.
E. The National Origin and Age of Materials Copied
.. .From Canadian books published since 1959, 4,158 exposures were taken, or 2.6% of the sample total of 161,387.
From Canadian periodicals published since 1959, 3,644 exposures were taken, or 2.3% of the sample total of 161,387.
By applying these percentages to the Grand Total of 14,725,946, it can be estimated that 382,874 exposures and 338,697
exposures were taken respectively from Canadian books and periodicals published since 1959.
F. The Copying of Canadian Materials
.. .The average number of pages copied from books of Canadian origin published since 1899 was 7.7. The average number of
pages copied from periodicals of Canadian origin published since 1899 was 9. The greater number of pages copied from ...
books published prior to 1900 probably points to the use of the copying machine for reproducing out-of-print works.
G. The Users of Copy Machines
Well over half of the copies made by or for undergraduate students, university staff members and libraries were taken from
unpublished miscellaneous materials.
Undergraduate students copied books more frequently than periodicals, whereas faculty members and graduate students
copied periodicals more frequently than books.
Libraries copy books and periodicals more often for other libraries than they do for themselves.
Faculty and graduate students proved to be proportionately heavier users of copies of published material.
Copies Made By or For Faculty Members, Graduate and Undergraduate Students
Number of Exposures        Population Exposures
of Published Material 1969/70 per Person
Faculty 13,172 24,050 .55
Graduate Students 17,970 27,944 .64
Undergraduate Students 28,799 207,983 .14
The population figures represent the total number of faculty members, graduate students and undergraduate students at the
universities participating in this part of the survey ....
In summary, and in approximate terms, the study has established that:
- At present, Canadian universities have slightly over a thousand copying machines.
- About one-fifth of copying machines at universities are within the jurisdiction of libraries.
- Copying machines in university libraries produce about fifteen million exposures per year for all purposes.
- About half of these exposures involve published material.
- About a quarter   of published material which is copied is of Canadian origin.
- Slightly over a million exposures per year are taken from books and periodicals of Canadian origin.
- About half of these exposures were taken from materials published before 1965, and half after.
- The average number of pages copied from Canadian books was about 8, and from Canadian periodicals, about 9.
- Faculty members and graduate students copy published materials more often than undergraduate students.
- About one-twentieth of all Canadian books and periodicals copied are subjected to recopying.
- The average charge made by university libraries for an exposure from a copy machine is 7 cents.   .
It has been suggested that the making of photocopies is illegal, that it is injurious to the interests of publishers and authors,
and that a system for the collection of royalties should be instituted. The Canadian Copyright Act is not specific on the subject of copying. [Editor's note: The Act defines copyright as "the sole
right to^ produce or reproduce the work or any substantial part thereof in any material form whatsoever". However, it does
permit "any fair dealing with any work for the purpose of private research, criticism, review, or newspaper summary".]
There is no statutory definition of the ... phrase "fair dealing", which the Act states is not an infringement No legal
action has ever been taken in respect to this part of the Act, so no interpretation is available through case law. Librarians assume
that the making of copies of a few pages in lieu of hand copying or the taking of notes would be within the definition of fair
dealing. That the multiple copying of all or part of a work for the purpose of reserve reading or class use is within the definition
of fair dealing is questionable; but here librarians often find themselves torn by indecision when, for instance, large classes
descend upon a single periodical article, without any advance notice by the faculty member to permit the library to acquire or
explore the acquisition of additional copies of the original. It is in this area of urgent, heavy demand for many copies of a great
variety of periodical articles and extracts from books that librarians and publishers must seek together for new and mutually
satisfactory arrangements.
That the interests of authors and publishers are damaged by copying has not been demonstrated, although it has been
vigorously alleged. In the light of the information now available, it would seem impossible to demonstrate. The number of
individual items involved in copying is too large and the number of copies too small to show that any single Canadian author or
publisher has been materially affected.
A system for the collection of royalties, at present levels of copying, would be impractical and harmful to the broader
interests of society in providing access to information for educational purposes. No devices are presently available to
discriminate among materials being copied, to select those for which a royalty could be charged, or to identify the publishers or
authors to whom payments should be made. All copies would have to be individually scrutinized and accounted. The work of
collecting and distributing information and royalty payments would be enormous. Assuming that royalties could rightfully be
claimed on a million exposures a year, and that as much as ten cents were added to the cost of each exposure for this purpose, it
is improbable that much would remain of the $100,000 thus collected, after administrative costs were paid. Further, anything
remaining would have to be divided according to some formula between authors and publishers. Individual payments'would be
minuscule, and would do nothing to alleviate the financial problems which beset authors and publishers.
A study will be conducted by the Library this fall to determine what degree of success users of the Woodward Library meet
in obtaining journals when they need them. The study may also indicate why journals are sometimes not available when needed,
and it could therefore lead to review of loan regulations and internal library procedures.
The study will be conducted during a two-week period in late October 1971. More details will appear in the next issue of the
News. We hope that library users will assist us in gathering the information needed - our objective is to develop as complete a
picture as possible of the availability of journals during a period of fairly heavy library use, and your assistance with the study
would be very much appreciated.
Editor: Mrs. J.E. de Bruijn Information & Orientation Division .


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