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UBC Library News 1976

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Volume  9,   No.   1 Spring,   1976 Vancouver,   B.C.
Intersession hours  of opening  for all campus   libraries  are posted and available by
telephone.     The  Main Library.is  open  from 9  a.m.   to 5  p.m.   Mondays,   Thursdays,   and Fridays,
-   and  from 9   a.m.   to  10  p.m.   Tuesdays   and Wednesdays.     The Sedgewick  Undergraduate  Library  is
open  until   11 p.m.   Mondays   and Tuesdays.     The Woodward Biomedical  Library  is  open  until
10 p.m.   Tuesdays  and Wednesdays.     All  libraries  are  closed on weekends,   and on Monday
May  24th  and Thursday  July  1st.
As has been pointed out in this newsletter and elsewhere,   one significant cause of the
Library's   financial woes  is  the increasing cost of^serials  subscriptions.     Serials  now consume
approximately 60%  of the  collections budget.     The quality of the  Library's  monographic
collection  is being eroded.
Before  the new budget was  announced,   the Library undertook a serious analysis of its
subscription lists.     The idea was  to figure out which  titles  might have  to be  dropped in
order to save  enough money  to maintain a balanced collection.     Other economies were  also
investigated -  cuts  in public service,   for instance - but,   sp as  to be prepared for the worst,
the various  subscription-originating branches  and divisions  started a comprehensive serials
review exercise,  examining  their  lists  and establishing priorities.
Serials  titles were  divided into 8% blocks,   the  first category  representing the most
expendable  titles,   the  fourth  category including titles which could only be  cut in extreme
circumstances.     32%  of the total subscriptions expenditures had been set as   the maximum
recoverable.     Intrinsic value,   use   (as revealed by circulation data),  and the availability
of titles  through interlibrary loan,  were  the bases  on which assignments  to particular
categories were made.
Most branches and divisions  reported that determining the make-up of the  first and fourth
categories was  not terribly difficult   ...   the assortment of relatively dispensable  titles
which had attached themselves  to the  collection in boom times was easily identifiable,   as
were  the absolutely indispensable  titles.     The intermediate  categories were  rather more
difficult to constitute.     Work on the exercise was  finished just before the new budget was
announced,   in time  to serve  as  guidelines   for a rational policy.
The Library's  share of the budget, better than  expected,   is  sufficient to prevent
drastic deterioration of the  collection.     It is estimated that about $30,000 worth of serials
subscriptions will have  to be  dropped;   this  is  substantially less  than many had feared would
be  needed.     It represents  about 4%  of the current subscriptions  list.     Titles  to be  cancelled,
then,  will be drawn from the most expendable  category of the exercise.
The work of choosing specific titles   for cancellation is now underway.     Faculty members
have been or will be  consulted before   journals  in their fields  are  dropped.
In another,   related,   development,   the so-called  'quid pro quo'   periodicals policy,
whereby each new subscription was  tied to a cancellation, will be discontinued.     The policy
has been in force,  on  and off,   for about two years,   intended to hold down serials  spending.
The Library has never felt entirely comfortable with  the policy and now, with a whole slate of
potential cancellations  as  a result of the serials  review project,  such strictness  seems
The Library inaugurated its new,  somewhat controversial,   loan policy January 19th and
now,   some months  later,   it looks  like  a success.     The  rate of returns  is  up sharply  from last
year as borrowers  try to avoid steep  fines   for overdues.     Requests  for extended loans -
whereby borrowers may receive  loan periods  longer than the usual one or two weeks  - have been
coming in at a steady,  but not excessive  rate.
The success  appears  to bear out the  reasoning on which the new regulations were based,
namely,   1)   that more severe penalties   for late  returns were necessary  to ensure  that all
borrowers  could get hold of needed materials within a reasonable length of time,   and 2)   that
long,   relatively unrestricted loans were not required for most books.
At  first,,  in January,   there was  some   confusion in implementing the  new policy.     A great
stack of overdue  notices  -  8,743  for the Main Library;   14,056  for the whole system - had to be
mailed and followed up.     Inevitably,  there were errors,   and complaints.     And there were
transitional problems with  the computers.     Eventually,  things were ironed out and the
procedures  began to work  tab re  smoothly. ' ,..,■'-•
A study of. the new policy will be carried out later in the year to determine if the
revised rules  should be maintained.     Copies  of the one-page outline of the new regulations
are' still  available   at most public service  desks. .. CLASSIFICATION   REVISION
The system of call numbers -  the classification scheme or schedule by means of which
books  are  arranged in a logical order -  is  the user's key  to finding library materials.
U.B.C,   along with most large   libraries  in North America,   employs  the  U.S.   Library  of  Congress
classification scheme,   as being the most efficient for substantial,   specialized collections.
The sharing of a single system by many libraries has  greatly  facilitated users'   access  and
institutional cooperation over the years,  but Canadian libraries have  long realized the
inappropriateness of LC   (as   it is  frequently abbreviated)   schedules  for certain specifically
Canadian subject areas.
In 1941,  W.  Kaye  Lamb,   then U.B.C.   University Librarian,   devised an alternative  to  the
existing LC schedule  for Canadian history.     The new scheme - involving the F 5000 numbers -
went through  four revisions,  each one  of which,   unfortunately,  was  adopted by different
groups of libraries.     Legend has  it that,   as  Dr.  Lamb  traveled from Vancouver to Ottawa in
1948 to take  up office  as National Archivist,  he tossed out the  train window his  various
drafts  for the schedule,   and where each different draft fell,   it was  applied.     Whatever the
story,  by  1970,   four versions  of the F 5000  schedule  were   in  use  in  Canada.     None  of  them
was  officially sanctioned by  the National  Library,   though  one was   in  force  there.
In  1972,   the   Canadian Task  Group on  Cataloguing Standards   recommended that  "the  National
Library  appoint two experts   ...   to  revise   completely  its   F 5000  schedule".     After  some
discussion,   it was   decided that  a revision was  not enough;   an entirely  new schedule was
needed.     T.R.   McCloy,  retired chief librarian of the Glenbow-Alberta Institute Historical
Library was   assigned the  job.     He  devised  a scheme  around the  call  letters  FC,   and  copies
were  distributed in 1974.     The National  Library has  blessed  the new scheme  and will maintain
At U.B.C,   the  Cataloguing Divisions  began assigning FC numbers   last November.     Thus
far,   about 20  titles have been so  classified.     For now,   and probably  for some  time  to  come,
older works,   classified in the  F 5000's,  will remain where  they  are.     This  is  clearly  a
hindrance   to browsers,  but  changeovers  of this  sort always   create  some problems;   presumably
future benefits  outweigh the  disadvantage.     The  TRIUL   (Tri-University Libraries,   i.e.,   U.B.C,
Simon Fraser,   and U.  Vic.)   Subcommittee on  Cataloguing intends  to investigate  the possibility
of  a  cooperative project to reclassify existing collections.
In  February,   librarians   in the Sedgewick  Undergraduate  Library,   with  the help  of students
from the School  of Librarianship,   conducted a  "term paper  clinic".     This  was   an extended
reference  service   for students writing  term papers.     Interviews were  done,   in which  student
and  librarian,   together,   clarified the  topics   to be  explored.     Appointments were  set  for
further meetinqs,   and in between  the  librarian examined available reference  sources  in the
subject and prepared outlines which guided students  to the relevant material.
While  some have  argued that  this  method of  library  instruction  robs   the  student of
initiative,  others point out that,   given the complexity of information sources  today,   a
step-by-step orientation is worthwhile  and indeed necessary if students  are ever to manage
independent research.     Presumably,   once  the  route has been traveled with a competent guide,
students  are more able  to  find their own way.     Certainly,  students  seem to respond more
enthusiastically  to an offer of concrete help with  term papers   than to traditional offers  of
unadorned reference service.
Plans  are  to repeat the  clinic each  term,   so  long as  sufficient staff are available.
Crane Library:     A talking calculator,   for the blind.     Electronic  calculator which uses
computer modules which pronounce numbers  and functions  in a crisp,   clear
voice.     The device has  a 24-word vocabulary,   allowing blind,   or visually  impaired persons  to
hear the numbers  and  functions  they are pressing on the   calculator.     Part of  the  growing
collection of electronic,   optical,   and mechanical devices which  is maintained in this  special
branch library.     The library was  able  to acquire the  device with a grant from the Hamber '
Government Publications:     The  Mackenzie  Valley Pipeline inquiry,   on microfilm.     The  Inquiry,
conducted by Mr.   Thomas Berger,  began hearings in April  1975,  with
the purpose of providing a sounding board for everyone' interested in the proposed gas
pipeline in the North.     A looseleaf index is provided for easy access  to the  20,000 pages  of
transcript.     The film collection will be  updated as  the hearings progress.
Special Collections:     The  records of the Cariboo Quartz Mining Company,  Ltd.,   operators  of
the gold mine  at Wells,  B.C.   from 1933 to 1967.     The records   consist
of minute books,  documents,   reports,   correspondence,  news  clippings,   maps,   and photograph
albums.     Mr.   J.   Royden Morris,   former president of the  company,  donated the records  to the
University. v J
Fig. 24. Diagbam of the Anatomical Possibility of Connection
Between All Receptors and All Effectors
The interlibrary loan system in North America is one of the most valuable services
libraries provide  for researchers.     It was  developed in the  first years  of this  century.
Sixty odd years  of practice have extended and formalized the service but certain  crucial
administrative problems have  remained unsolved.     One of the  central issues,  particularly
problematic in these times  of  fiscal distress,   is  the undue  financial burden borne by
libraries which  lend more than they borrow.
Last year at U.B.C,   over 25,000  requests  from other libraries were  received and filled -
at an average cost to us of $8.00 per loan.     The total cost is  simply too much to bear within
a shrinking budget.     The realization that we  could no longer fulfill traditional interlibrary
responsibilities  to the provincial,   national,   and even international community,   and at the
same  time provide  adequate
service to local,   campus  users,
led to two undertakings.     One was
a comprehensive survey of inter-
library loans in Canada,
conducted and published in order
to alert funding agencies   to what
has become a threat to the whole
elaborate network of interlibrary
lending.     The other was  the
introduction of a fee schedule
for libraries which wish to
borrow  from U.B.C.
Interlibrary Loan in Canada,
A Report of a Survey,  and its
companion volume,  A Survey and
Interpretation of the Literature
of Interlibrary Loan,  were
prepared by  four U.B.C.
librarians,  B.   Stuart-Stubbs,
M.   Friesen,   D.  Mclnnes  and K.
Nichol.     The survey of interlibrary loan practices  gathered general information  from 352
libraries,   and then,   in a second stage,  more specific data from 127  libraries, between
March  1974 and March 1975.     Participating libraries  completed questionnaires on  the magnitude,
staff costs,   conditions, policies,   and content of their interlibrary loan traffic.     Among the
significant findings  of the survey were:
- that 240  of the  352  libraries  reported lending or supplying copies  of 515,095  items  in 1973;
260  libraries reported borrowing 291,789 items in the same year;
- that interlibrary  lending increased by  31%  in the years  1970-1973;
- that university libraries  in Canada account for about half of all interlibrary  loan activity;
- that university libraries  and the national libraries  are,  as  a group,   the major net lenders,
i.e.   libraries which lend more  than they borrow;
- that the  cost of interlibrary loan activity to the survey participants  in 1973 was  estimated
at $4,750,000.
On the basis  of these  findings,  and taking into account the  fact that most of the  libraries
characterized as  net lenders  are   finding it difficult to  justify interlibrary loan expenses
while reducing staff size,  buying fewer books,   and cancelling subscriptions,   the report
recommended "that the  federal government,   through the  Canada Council,   the National Library,
or some other agency  capable of making direct grants  to or negotiating contracts with
individual libraries,   reimburse net lending libraries".
The recommendation is,   clearly,   a good one.     But few of the hard-pressed net lenders  can
or will wait for political action.     The survey report noted that "some   /librariesj  are
contemplating the introduction of a fee   /for loans  to other librariesj   ...     Its  introduction
by a few libraries would probably  lead to its proliferation in an uncoordinated way, with
different fees  and conditions being established by different libraries  in different places.
It would undoubtedly result in a diminution of interlibrary loan traffic,  which would simply
imply a lower standard of library service  to the  Canadian community.     But under existing
economic  conditions  the introduction of a fee system may be inevitable,   as  undesirable  and
retrograde  a step as  that might be."
At U.B.C,   on February  1st,   interlibrary  loan fees  for borrowing libraries were
introduced.     Canada Council had notified libraries  that they are  unable  to offer financial
support to  the  recommended scheme.     The National Library made no formal response  to the survey
and its recommendations but it seemed obvious  that no help  could be expected from that
quarter,   given the  federal government's economy drive.     The provincial government was
approached,  but again no funds were  forthcoming.
It was with regret and some  fear of the consequences  that the  U.B.C.   Library began
charging $8.00 per loan to libraries which submitted requests.     The  Library  felt it had no
choice if it was" to protect the collection and the needs  of U.B.C.   users who are  seen as
having a prior right to the Library's services.
Where  this  new fee policy will lead is hard to know.     One immediate and expected effect,
at U.B.C,  has been  the   flood of protest from libraries  across  Canada.     Mr.   Stuart-Stubbs,
the  University Librarian,   answered with  a form letter which included some hopeful news.     "The
Canadian Library Association," he wrote,   "in cooperation with provincial library associations,
is preparing a forceful brief directed to government.     A study of the  situation of academic
libraries  in B.C.  has been called for by  the provincial Department of Education.     I  am enough
of an optimist to think  that the  interlibrary loan  fee will prove  to be a passing,  but in its
time  necessary,  phenomenon."
Another possibility,  however,   is  that government financial  support for interlibrary  loan
will not materialize.     Then,   the entire system will be  threatened.
The  following computer-readable sets  are  new at the Data Library -
Canadian ERTS Multispectral Scanner Computer Compatible Tapes   (four images  of the Fraser
delta,  only) ;   Glenrose   /"DgRr 6J Artifacts  and Faunal Remains   (Matson) ;   Pornography Study   (IBR.
York);  Waterloo South By-election Study   (Wilson);   1971  Census of Canada-Public Use Sample
Tapes;  Elite  Interaction Study:   1968-1972   (Presthus);   Intergovernmental Organization Data:
1816-1964   (Wallace  s Singer);   Lau  /"Malaita,  Solomon Is. 7  Market Data   (Maranda) ;  Metropolitan
Toronto and Region Transportation Study-Home Interview Survey   (IBR.  York);  Surveys  of Consumer
Attitudes  and Behavior:   1953-1967   (SRC.   Michigan);   Surveys  of  Consumer Finances:   1947-1959
(SRC   Michigan);   Progressiviteit en  conservatisme   (Middendorp);   European  Community Study:   1973
(Inglehart  & Rabier);   Le  Dain    Drug Study   (IBR.   York);   American National Election Study:   1974
(Miller,  Miller & Kline);   Canadian National Election Study:   1974   (Clarke,   Jenson,  Leduc,
Pammett) ;   General Social Surveys:   1974  &  1975   (Davis);   The  Housing Game   (Bell   S
Constantinescu) ;   Anglo-Saxon Poetic  Records;   Canadian Institute  of Public Opinion Polls:   Jan.-
Oct.   1974   (Gallup) .     Anyone wishing further information concerning these data files  should
contact the Data Library,  local 5587.     Copies of the Data Library Catalogue  are  also available,
Reserve Lists
The Main Library Reserve    Book Collection is preparing lists  of books currently on  reserve   for a number of courses.
When faculty members in charge of specific courses  receive their lists,   R.B.C.   requests  that they reply immediately
with the information requested.
The  Reserve Collection is used for those books in great demand.     The books  are put on a short loan period,   2 hours
or 1 day.     Constant checking is necessary to make  sure books  are not kept on reserve when it is no  longer necessary.
Faculty Guides  to the Library
Departmental offices  take note:   copies of the 1975/76 Faculty Guide  issue of the Library News  are  available  for
new faculty members.     Intersession and summer session faculty should find these introductions  to the  U.B.C.   Library
system useful.     Contact the  Information & Orientation Services  Division,  Main Library,   local 2076.
The following items  are needed to complete  the Library's holdings:
AMERICAN  ANTHROPOLOGIST vol.76   no.3   (1974)
ATLAS;   WORLD PRESS   REVIEW vol.21  no.l   (1974)
BRITISH  COLUMBIA BUSINESS   JOURNAL vol.4   no.2   (March   1972)
BUSINESS   IN B.C.       (Now  B.C.   BUSINESS   MAGAZINE) vol.1 no.4   (1973)
CANADIAN  GEOGRAPHER vol.18  no.2   (1974)
CANADIAN  GEOGRAPHICAL  JOURNAL vol.86 no.2   (Feb.1973);   vol.87  no.3   (Sept.1973)
CANADIAN  JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS vol.7  no.l   (1974);   vol.8 no.l   (1975)
CANADIAN   MUSIC EDUCATOR vol.16  no.2   (Winter 1974)
COMMUNITY EDUCATION  JOURNAL vol.5  no.4   (July/Aug. 1975)
ENGLISH QUARTERLY   (Oromocto,   N.B.) vol.3 no.4   (Winter 1970);  vol.7 no.3   (Fall 1974)
FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC  REVIEW vol.83  no.   3   (1974);   vol.84  no.6   (1974)
FIRE CONTROL NOTES   (Canadian Forestry Assoc,  Vancouver) no.1-3,8,12-14
GEOGRAPHICAL MAGAZINE vol.45 no.10-11   (July-Aug.1973);  vol.46 no.4,10   (Jan.,  July 1974)
INSTRUCTOR vol.84  no.10   (1975)
JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH   IN  MATHEMATICS  EDUCATION        .   vol.5   no.4   (Nov.1974)
JOURNAL  OF BUSINESS  EDUCATION vol.47  no.1-2   (Oct.-Nov.1972)
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.     (Boston) vol.156 no.3   (Aug.1974)
MS vol.1 Introductory issue   (Spring 1972)
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE vol.146   no.3   (1974);   vol.147  no.6   (June   1975)
NEW STATESMAN vol.88 no.2263,   2274   (Aug.2,   Oct.18,   1974)
SCHOOL SCIENCE   AND MATHEMATICS vol.75   no.6   (1975)
SPECTATOR vol.233 no.7637   (week ending Nov.9,   1974)
TIMES,   LONDON.      LITERARY  SUPPLEMENT. Jan.3,10,   May  2,23,   1975    (no. 3800-3801,   3817,3820)
VENTUREFORTH   (formerly IT'S OUR BAG)   Saskatoon. vol.6  no.2   (Winter 1974)
VOCATIONAL ASPECT OF EDUCATION vol.26   (Spring,   Summer,   Autumn   1974)
VOGUE vol.164 no.4   (Oct.1974)
WORLD TODAY vol.30  no.7   (1974)
If you can supply any of these, please  get in touch with Graham Elliston,   local 2304.
Editor:    M. Kasper Information & Orientation Division


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