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[Meeting minutes of the Senate of The University of British Columbia] 1962-08-08

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 Wednesday, August 8, 1962  3136
A special meeting of the Senate of the University
of British Columtoia was held on Wednesday, August 8, 1962,
at 8:00 p.m., in the Board and Senate Room, Administration
Present:  President J.B. Macdonald (in the Chair),
Mrs. H.F. Angus, Mr. W.M. Armstrong, Dr. J.C Berry,
Mrs. T.R. Boggs, Mr. F.L. Burnham, Mr. K.P. Caple, Mr. A.W.R.
Carrothers, Dean S.N.F. Chant, Mr. M. Collins, Dr. I. McT.
Cowan, Dean G.F. Curtis, Mr. A.P. Dawe, Dean B.A. Eagles,
Dr. G.R. Elliott, Mr. C.A. Emery, Dean W.H. Gage, Dr. W.C
Gibson, Mr. C.C. Gourlay, Mr. G.C. Hacker, Dr. W.H. Hickman,
Mr. W.E. Ireland, Dr. R.D. James, Dr. F.H. Johnson,
Dr. J.E.A. Kania, Dr. J.L. Keays, Mr. L.J. Ladner, Mr. S.L.
Lipson, Dean H. McCrae, Dean J.F. McCreary, Dr. J.R. Mcintosh,
Dean E.D. MacPhee, Dean A.W. Matthews, Mr. F.A. Morrison,
Dean D.M. Myers, Mr. N.T. Nemetz, Mr. E.P. Nicol, Dean G.N.
Perry, Dr. A.J. Renney, Mr. J.V. Rogers, Dean N.V. Scarfe,
Dean F.H. Soward, Mr. E.C.E. Todd, The Honourable Mr. Justice
D.R. Verchere, Mr. A.A. Wetoster, Dr. R.W. Wellwood,
Mr. H.C. Wilkinson, Dean T.G. Wright, Dr. S.H. Ztoarsky,
Dr. J.K. Friesen, Mr. J.F. McLean and Dr. J. Ranz.
Messages of regret for their inatoility to toe
present were received from Rev. J. Blewett, Rev. E. Garvey,
Major H.C. Holmes, Mr. J.S. Keate, Mr. F.M. Knapp, Dr. H.
McLennan, Mr. D.F. Miller, Dr. W.N. Sage, Dr. R.F. Sharp
and Dr. G.M. Volkoff. Wednesday, August 8, 1962  3137
President Macdonald expressed his great pleasure
at meeting with the Senate so soon after his arrival on the
campus of the University. The rapid growth of the University
in facilities and diversity of programmes as well as students
and staff was an indication of its vigour and youth, and of
the increasing demand for higher education throughout the
western world; and a recognition of the key role which
higher education was playing and would increasingly play in
years to come. The Senate was facing great challenges and
great opportunities, and would have to make momentous
decisions with respect to the course of education in the
province of British Columtoia.
Introduction of New Members
The President introduced the following new members
of Senate:  Mr. F. L. Burnham, replacing Mr. Gillie as
representative of the High-School Principals and Assistants,
and Mr. T. G. Wright, newly appointed Dean of the Faculty
of Forestry.  Dr. J. Ranz, new Librarian, was in attendance
as an otoserver.
Mr. Hyland had submitted his resignation as one
of the representatives of the Board of Management of the
Alumni Association, and had toeen replaced by Mr. D. F. Miller.
Dr. S. Wah Leung had recently toeen appointed
Dean of the new Faculty of Dentistry, tout was not yet
resident on the campus. Wednesday, August 8, 1962  3138
Honorary Degrees
The Committee on Honorary Degrees had requested an
opportunity to bring recommendations to this special meeting
of Senate, since Dr. Barzun, Dr. Conant and Dr. Pusey, who
had toeen invited to accept honorary degrees at the October
Congregation, 1962, had regretted that they would be unable
to attend, and Sir Philip Morris had been seriously ill and
did not yet know whether he could make the journey. The
fifth of the group approved at the previous meeting of Senate,
Dr. English, expected to toe atole to accept the degree
Associating the installation of Dr. Macdonald and
the opening of the touilding for the Faculty and College of
Education with the Congregation ceremony, the Committee
recommended that the following honorary degrees toe conferred
if the proposed recipients could attend:
Dr. Claude T. Bissell, President of the University of
Toronto - LL.D.;
Lord James of Rusholme, Vice-Chancellor, University of
York, England (alternates, Sir Ronald Gould,
Secretary of the National Union of Teachers, Great
Britain; Professor I. A. Richards from the United
Kingdom, now on the staff of Harvard University) -
Sir Charles Dodds, Middlesex Hospital, London
(alternate, Dr. I. Michael Lerner, graduate of
U.B.C. now on the staff of the University of
California) - D.Sc.
Dean Soward)
Dean Scarfe) That honorary degrees as indicated
toe conferred on Dr. Bissell, Lord James,
and Sir Charles Dodds, or the respective
alternates, at the Autumn Congregation,
1962, if they are atole to toe present.
Carried. Wednesday, August 8, 1962  3139
Higher Education in British
The President commented on the pressure from
various parts of the province for some consideratole time to
establish new institutions of higher learning - junior
colleges or regional colleges. There was also a desire on
the part of some memtoers of Victoria College Faculty and
Council, and of the Victoria community, that the College
should become an independent university. He felt these
pressures should toe met promptly toy an effective plan for
the development of higher education in British Columtoia.
Projections of population, and increasing interest
in higher education, indicated that toy 1970 the University
of British Columtoia would have an enrolment of 25,000;
Victoria College, 5,000. This would represent enrolment
in institutions of higher learning of 26$ of the 18- to
21-year-olds in the province as contrasted to the present
Distribution of student toody within the University
was an important consideration, apart from total numbers.
At present about 56$ of the student toody at the University
of British Columtoia was in the first and second years;
38$ in third and fourth years; 6$ in the graduate school.
This university was eighth out of fourteen Canadian
universities in respect to percentage of students in its
graduate school.
The most highly regarded universities in the
country were in general agreement that the division of Wednesday, August 8, 1962  3140
students should toe approximately equal among lower division,
upper division and graduate school. Chicago, Harvard, Yale
and Rochester Universities at present all had more than
one-third of their students in the graduate school. Among
the institutions under a public education system, the
University of Michigan, University of California, Rutgers
and the University of Washington had between 34 and 21$ of
their students in the graduate school.
The function of a university is not simply to
provide post-high-school education at an elementary level,
tout to produce true scholarship, opportunities for advanced
study for the most intelligent members of the community, and
to provide an opportunity for the staff to devote time to
advanced scholarship, research, investigation and creative
The University of British Columtoia could not
effectively plan for its own development without agreement
on the future of higher education for the entire province.
As a public institution, the University could not make
arbitrary decisions as to its size and functions. By the
University Act, it had a responsibility to the province
as a whole.
Dr. Macdonald stated there was general agreement
on the desire for academic excellence for the province,
and on the need for diversity of opportunity in higher
education. New fields of study and new techniques demanded
skilled personnel.  It was necessary also to provide higher Wednesday, August 8, 1962  3141
education for a greater percentage of young people, although
some at present enrolled in the lower division of the
University might toe toetter advised to take other forms of
There was now also general agreement that higher
education in British Columtoia should be dispersed. There is
good evidence, well documented by studies in California,
that a geographically centralized system is more expensive
than a dispersed, in terms of tooth capital cost and
operating expenditure. The California studies had shown
it was less expensive to educate a student in a junior
college than in a state college, and in a state college than
in a university. The deciding factor on whether or not to
develop a new campus was frequently the numtoer of students
to toe housed in residences.  Studies should toe undertaken
to determine whether this would apply in British Columbia.
Decentralization was desirable also to provide
the necessary stimulus for higher education in the remote
areas of the province.
The President toelieved there was a need for self-
determination in certain aspects of higher education:
objectives, goals, functions, standards, fields of competence,
curricula, programmes, staff, selection of students, types
of facilities. This had been characteristic of the finest
type of higher learning over the centuries. Wednesday, August 8, 1962  3142
In the United States, out of a total of thirty-two
states with fairly complex systems, seventeen had complete
independence for each institution in these respects; eight
had a single board or body for all institutions; seven had
composite organization, chiefly as a result of lack of
orderly planning. The provinces of Canada had not toeen
faced to any extent with a need to decide on jurisdictional
control of educational systems.
The United Kingdom was just in process of
developing seven new universities, independent in the
respects mentioned, in preference to developing new campuses
for existing universities.
One reason for such self-determination was the
difference in objectives and functions of institutions.
A more important reason related to the nature of good
education, particularly well expressed in a report prepared
by the State of Michigan:
"The first important principle is that a state*s
programme of higher education is strong only as the
individual institutions are strong and maintain
services of high quality in the programmes that are
offered. The primary purpose of a state system of
control and co-ordination should toe to encourage the
development of the greatest possible strength in the
individual institutions of the system.
"The second important principle is that the
presence of one or more strong institutions does
not add up to an effective state programme of
higher education. All the institutions in the
system must be strong if the service is to toe
effective.  This is particularly true in a state
of large area, because the students tend to go
to whatever college or university is close to
their home. Wednesday, August 8,  1962      3143
"The third important principle  is that  strength
in an institution  is closely associated with autonomy
in the making of essential decisions affecting the
institution's  operations.     It  is virtually impossible
to build a strong institution of higher education
unless it  is given the maximum of self-determination
in  its  operations."
The California master plan stated that  individual
campuses needed a larger measure of initiative than they
presently had in operations.     Officers with state-wide
functions  should not have administrative line control over
local  campus function.
The  superficially attractive feature  of a
completely unified system was  the maintenance  of minimum
standards.    However,   if a small  college  in a remote area of
the province had the  same programme  as a large  university,
the atole    staff memtoers would toe attracted to the large
institution,   and inevitably the  quality and standards of
the  smaller  institution would suffer.     There would in
addition toe a ceiling on  standards.    Free transfer of
students  between institutions would mean that the standards
could toe no higher than those  of the parent  institution.
At the same time as dispersal and self-determination,
unification of the system was necessary.    This could be
achieved toy a co-ordinating council  interposed between the
institutions and the government,  and independent  of all
the  institutions.     Its major responsibility would consist
of making financial decisions  with respect to distribution
of funds among institutions,  tout  it  should not be able to
dictate to any institution what  it might do with these  funds. Wednesday, August 8, 1962  3144
The council should ensure that minimum standards
were met toy every institution eligible for government
funds, and should maintain criteria for such eligibility.
It should also conduct studies on a continuing basis to
provide all institutions of higher learning with such
statistical information as was needed to permit intelligent
planning for the future: population projections, needs of
students, needs of industry, needs of the secondary school
systems, deficient areas in education.
The Board of Governors at its recent meeting had
authorized the President's Office to undertake the necessary
studies to provide the Senate and Board with a detailed and
specific plan for the development of higher education in
British Columtoia. This would involve co-operation with all
groups interested in higher education throughout the
province. The President had suggested that these studies
could be completed toy the end of 1962, since much of the
information was already assembled.
The Board had also withdrawn its memorandum on
the development of higher education in British Columtoia,
to facilitate the preparation of an objective report
concerned only with the protolem of providing excellence in
education in the province.
With respect to the Committee on Revision of the
University Act, the Board had recommended that the
Committee should provide the President's Office with a
progress report on its findings to date, and should then toe
discharged. Wednesday, August 8, 1962  3145
The President had discussed his proposal with the
Victoria College Council, which had approved and had stated
it would postpone further action until the studies were
complete. The Executive of the Alumni Association and the
Committee of Academic Deans also had approved the proposed
Earlier in the day, the President had discussed
the proposed studies with the Minister of Education, and
understood that the Minister would recommend to the Premier
the endorsement of the project.
The President requested approval from the Senate
for his office to undertake these studies as approved by the
Board, and to produce a specific, detailed and comprehensive
plan for higher education in the Province of British Columtoia,
to toe submitted for consideration toy the Senate and the
Mr. Nemetz stated, for the record, that the
memorandum now toeing withdrawn had toeen approved by the
Board of Governors, tout the Committee on Revision of the
University Act had not expressed any opinions on it. Many
memtoers of Senate and of the "Vancouver community" were
apprehensive of changes in the educational pattern which
might affect the primacy of the University of British
The rise of educational institutions under a
variety of religious groups emphasized the need for an early
decision on the system of higher education. Wednesday, August 8, 1962  3146
Mr. Dawe called attention to the Kelowna Junior
College Survey toy Dr. Ann Dawe, published in 1959, and
stated that a draft act of incorporation for a junior college
in Kelowna had been prepared.
Mr. Nemetz explained that decentralization of
higher education in British Columbia had not been feasible
until the University had reached its present size. There was
no prospect of rapid increase in number of educational
institutions in British Columtoia in view of the high capital
Mrs. Angus reminded Senate of the definition toy
Mendes-France: "Gouverner, c'est choisir". The Senate and
Board of Governors, in common with the government and the
people of the province, would have to choose the most
effective allocation of the limited public funds available
for education.
Mr. Rogers reported that the Kootenay area had
been concerned about delay in formulating a plan for higher
education in the province, and was pleased that definite
action was contemplated.
Mr. Nemetz )
Dr. Elliott) That Senate authorize the President
to proceed with the preparation of a
report and plan for the development
of higher education in British
Columtoia, to be submitted to Senate
for consideration at the earliest
possible moment.
Carried. Wednesday, August 8, 1962  3147
In conclusion, the President reminded Senate that
the proposed plan would affect the future of education in
British Columtoia for many years to come. The greatest care
must toe exercised to ensure that decisions were the toest
for the entire province, without regard to immediate and
local interests.
The meeting adjourned at 9:35 p.m.


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