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1995 President's Report on Social Sciences and Humanities 1995

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Array President s Report
On Social Sciences
and Humanities 1995
President's Report
on Social Sciences and
Humanities CELEBRATING   DIVERSITY   IN
UBC's President David W. Strangway.
When asked for an attribute that great
civilizations share, British art historian Kenneth
Clark replied "a sense of permanence.'
In a world driven by science and technology,
humanities and social sciences create this sense of
permanence by emphasizing the importance
of human diversity. Through them we learn the
values, norms and collective intelligence of
society, and deepen our understanding of material,
social and cultural phenomena.
There is a tendency to acknowledge that the world
is in deep distress and then to proceed as if that
information were of no immediate concern. That
distress includes ecological crises, overpopulation,
starvation and famine, serious inequalities in
the distribution of wealth and health, ethical conflicts and anarchy or near-anarchy in many
regions of the world. In our own country, unemployment levels are high and the gap between the
rich and poor has increased over the past decade.
Democracy, if worth defending, needs eloquent
partisans in such a world. Faculty members in the
humanities and social sciences provide research
Celebrating  Diversity  in  Scholarship and instruction upon which advanced industrial
democracies depend.
The major issues of our time are social. Even
problems in the physical and biological sciences
have strong social dimensions. The development of
new drugs, for example, must take into account
cost, medical ethics and the relationship between
patients and doctors. Likewise, the development of
new materials depends on the organization of
production, aesthetics and tastes of consumers.
The collaboration of arts and social sciences with
the physical sciences is critical, and a fundamental
part of UBC's mission. One such collaborative
effort is centred in UBC's Westwater Research
Centre. The Tri-Council Secretariat awarded $2.4
million to 27 faculty from the natural, social,
applied and medical sciences to examine issues of
sustainability in the 500,000-hectare Lower Fraser
Basin. Interdisciplinary initiatives such as this
challenge orthodoxy and promote dynamism in the
development of scholarship.
More than 25 years ago, UBC's Faculty of Arts
introduced the Arts One Program. It has been
widely copied elsewhere. Arts One challenges
undergraduates to struggle with big ideas by
choosing courses in history, philosophy, anthropology, classics, English literature and other
literatures in translation. The program instills
in students the skills of critical and independent
thinking. Arts One is one of more than 60
interdisciplinary units on campus spread across the
faculties of Arts, Law, Education, Commerce
and Graduate Studies.
In 1992, UBC produced the first inventory of
its research in the humanities and social sciences.
The purpose of the report was to stimulate
communication among faculty who share common
research interests and to show the university
community and beyond the magnitude and range
of these research activities.
More than 300 faculty members in the faculties
of Arts, Education and Law are involved in
humanities research. Together they cany the
heaviest teaching responsibilities and expectations
in addressing, among other things, Canada's
literacy deficit.  The solution to the literacy
problem is not simply a matter of grammar and
spelling. It lies in the areas of critical thinking,
inspired ideas and persuasive communication
more than one language and culture.
UBC has been particularly vigilant over the last
four decades in nurturing expertise in Pacific Rim
studies. (See President's Report, Towards the
Celebrating  Diversity  in  Scholarship Pacific Century) The university recently established five centres devoted to Chinese,
Japanese, Korean, South Asian and Southeast
Asian research.
Humanists contribute to the rich world
of thought, imagination and experience through
interpretations of American, Asian, European
and other traditions. Their ultimate goal is
the creation of a more humane, tolerant and
rational society. A prominent UBC professor
noted recently that humanities research
demonstrates how the relationships between
knowledge, reality and value "construct cultures,
direct history, permeate social customs and
affect individual lives." He also pointed out the
value of humanists in encouraging students to
read and evaluate language and their culture in
context: to ask questions about why things
are said and events take place, to enquire into
the validity and the consequences of various
choices, to examine their own responsibilities and
those of others, and to consider the
ramifications of actions and arguments.
Both humanists and social scientists toil in highly
competitive and demanding arenas of enquiry,
discovery, reporting and criticism in their respective disciplines. The image of a gentle scholar pursuing esoteric or eccentric subjects remote from
the demands of students, peers or the public is no
longer relevant. As British Columbians heed local,
provincial, national and international concerns,
they frequently seek the opinions of the province's
academics. Seldom does a day go by without one
of UBC's economists, historians, literary critics,
education or law professors providing the media
with informative articles or interviews. Whether it
is the essentials of the Canadian Constitution,
the breakup of the Soviet Empire, the works of
Margaret Atwood or English-as-a-second-
language programs, UBC humanists and social
scientists can be tapped for insight. This report
provides a glimpse of their expertise.
Celebrating  Diversity  in  Scholarship V-
.  A Deans
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FACULTY OF ARTS
ARTS AND  THE  CANADIAN
LANDSCAPE
' The Literary Landscape
The Political Landscape
■ The Urban Landscape
ARTS AND  THE   ECONOMY 13
' Economic Theory 13
' Testing Theory 14
Influencing Policy 15
MIXING   POLITICS.
ENVIRONMENT
AND  THE   ECONOMY 1*
Resurrecting
Political Economy 17
ARTS AND
FIRST   NATIONS U.
First Nations and Language        23
NG
ND  OTHERS      25
■ Understanding Through
Psychology 25
■ Understanding Through
Literature 29
■ Understanding Through
Religion 31
■ Understanding Through
Classics 32
ARTS AND  TECHNOLOGY
■ Technology and Language
■ Arts and the Net
CONSIDERING  GENDER
IN THE ARTS
■ Women in Literature
■ Gender, Jobs and
Social Change
MAKING  INTERNATIONAL
CONNECTIONS
' Arts and the Pacific
• Arts and Europe
• Arts and the Americas
FUNDRAISING
G. E. Robinson (1916-20)
H.T.J. Coleman (1921-29)
Daniel Buchanan (1929-49)
S.N.F. Chant (1949-64)
Kaspar Naegele (1964-65)
Dennis Healy (1965-69)
John Young (1969-70)
Douglas Kenny (1970-75)
Robert Will (1975-90)
Patricia Marchak (1990-) FACULTY  OF
Arts
Within a Faculty of Arts one should be able to study human history and
language, the nature of the arts including literature, philosophy,
mathematics, and the diverse spheres of society from the economy to the
polity. One should in the fullest sense be free to study human lives,
sometimes one at a time, sometimes the interplay among them, sometimes
human accomplishments considered in their own right...
A Faculty of Arts with this study of mankind as its enduring mandate
must sustain more than one kind of intellectual effort. Unlike a
Faculty of Science it is bound to be intellectually pluralistic, and, out of
strength and not out of weakness, must be equally hospitable to a
scholar observing children and to one studying French-Canadian literature.
To maintain coherence about this diversity is itself part of the distinct
task of a Faculty of Arts."
Discipline and Discovery—fit Proposal to the Faculty of Arts of the University of British Columbia, 1965
Before UBC opened on September 30,1915, President     "Anything which divides faculties too definitely into
Frank Wesbrook summoned a meeting of all faculty        groups which have a tendency to grow away from
members to outline administrative policy. It was his       each other is to be discouraged."
view that until the university was larger and required
a measure of decentralization it would be unwise
to hold separate faculty meetings. Said Wesbrook:
On opening day, a UBC press release proclaimed an
enrolment of 379 students studying 42 subjects in
123 classes. Of those enroled, 318 students were
5
acuity of Art; listed under Arts and the remainder Applied Science.
Not until President John Macdonald's tenure a half
century later did the original Faculty of Arts and
Science split, a move described in the Alumni
Chronicle as "in the interests of increasing intellectual stimulation and encouraging growth in blocks of
related studies."
The founding arts and science faculty was certainly
no stranger to growth. As with all great universities it was considered the core of the institution.
Within its first decade, the faculty established
departments of nursing and health, forestry and
education. Course selection swelled to include Asian
languages, fine arts, music, law, home economics,
commerce and a two-year social service diploma
course. By the early 1950s, the departments of
Pharmacy, Education and Commerce had been granted faculty status while Physical Education, Social
Work and Nursing were formed into schools.
The latter two enterprises, together with the School
of Library, Archival and Information Studies, now
form a strong professional component in what might
be termed the applied social sciences.
With almost 500 faculty belonging to 19 departments
and three schools (Social Work, Music, Library,
Archival and Informational Studies), today's Faculty
of Arts is a vast and varied research enterprise.
Seventy-four faculty in Creative and Performing Arts
are spread among four departments or schools:
Creative Writing, Fine Arts, Music, and Theatre and
Film (See President's Report on Creative and
Performing Arts, 1990). The six social science departments (anthropology and sociology, economics,
geography, linguistics, political science and psychology) have approximately 170 faculty members who
teach close to 3,000 undergraduates. Humanities
research is carried out by 108 faculty based in the
departments of English, History and Philosophy.
Likewise, 84 scholars in Language and Literature
Studies (Asian Studies, Classics, Religious Studies,
Russian Studies, French, Germanic, Hispanic and
Italian) seek to preserve and transmit knowledge
created over centuries in many lands.
Former Dean Kaspar Naegele championed the
Discipline and Discovery proposal arguing
that, above all else, the degree of Bachelor of Arts
should make two requirements of every student:
"mastery of some sphere of knowledge, and awareness of other areas of thought and activity, an
awareness that includes a responsiveness to the
unique qualities of other human beings and to those
forces of vigour and greatness that underlie and
relate all meaningful intellectual efforts." The
proposal's call for coherence amidst diversity can
be found in a number of key areas of research
performed across the faculty.
ARTS AND THE CANADIAN   LANDSCAPE
Cole Harris, a long-time resident of British Columbia,
understands the Canadian landscape better than
most. One of three UBC geographers named to the
Royal Society of Canada (25 per cent of all
Canadian geography fellows), Harris is perhaps best
known for editing Volume One of the Historical
Atlas of Canada. The atlas, published in 1987, outlines Canada's development from the end of the
last ice age to the year 1800.
Harris is considered by many peers to be the best
historical geographer in North America. He has
devoted his career to understanding the expansion
of European settlement in Eastern Canada before
1800 and in British Columbia since the gold rushes.
After completing the atlas, Harris, along with colleague Robert Galois, took on the daunting task of
writing a historical geography of B.C. from the beginning of European contact in the 1770s to the eve
of the railway in the early 1880s. At the heart of
their research is the dramatic clash of colonial power
and aboriginal culture that took place along the
lower Fraser River during the Gold Rush of 1858.
"The worlds that ran into each other could
■
^
Faculty of Arts hardly have been more different," said Harris, who
joined the geography department in 1971. "It
was a huge collision of values and ways of life."
Harris' work is the first broad interpretation of early
B.C. written in the last 30 years and the first written
from a geographical perspective. Past research
on the roots of early B.C. has been divided among a
number of academic disciplines. Harris' goal was
to pull some of these different strands together and
present them in a more integrated regional framework. To do this, he and Galois combed through
reams of resource materials including archaeological
records, Hudson's Bay Company files, CPR surveys,
and journals of early traders and missionaries.
They also coded and analysed the nominal census of
British Columbia of 1881, learning in the process how
land was apportioned lot-by-lot. The census also
showed the demographic characteristics of the early
ranching society in the Nicola Valley, and Chinese
railway workers in the Fraser Canyon.
But it is the underlying aboriginal presence, together
with the European influx, that intrigued Harris
most. He explains that aboriginal ways dominated
life along the Fraser River until 1858 and then were
quickly marginalized. The miners who poured into
the new colony contributed to this, but the more
decisive influence was a new regime of land ownership, backed by laws, courts, jails and, if necessary,
gunboats. First Nations protests were not heard. By
the time of the Indian Reserve Commission of 1878,
the agricultural lands of the lower Fraser Valley had
been allocated to whites. By then, writes Harris,
"moving seasonally as they could through land
they no longer controlled, Natives were everywhere
and nowhere."
Related research:
■ Exploration of the historical geography of the
Maritime provinces from 1755-1955 (Graeme Wynn)
THE LITERARY LANDSCAPE
William New has helped open the doors to Canadian
and Commonwealth literature as a research discipline. That Canadian and Commonwealth writings are
major areas for scholarly investigation seems obvious enough; such recognition, however, came late
and owes much to the insight of New, who was one
of the earliest scholars to appreciate the critical
significance of these fields. Long before it was fashionable to do so, he was pointing to the vitality
of Canadian fiction and poetry and identifying
the national and regional forces that characterize the
work of Canadian writers.
He has been associated with the major journal of
literary criticism in the country, the quarterly
Canadian Literature, for more than two decades.
The journal, affiliated with the Faculty of Graduate
Studies, was first published in 1959 under the editorship of noted Canadian author George Woodcock,
then an associate professor in the English department. Woodcock believed that the publication's
first task was to keep readers informed about what
was happening from year to year in the Canadian
literary world. As Woodcock once said: "We have
no intention of promoting the kind of cultural
nationalism which suggests that being Canadian
is an initial virtue in a piece of writing." New
credits Woodcock, from whom he took over as
editor in 1977, for establishing Canadian Literature
as the foremost journal devoted to the study
of Canadian writing.
New's dedication to the field of Canadian and
Commonwealth literatures is evident in his
own publication record. His first important book,
Articulating West (1972), was a landmark in its
charting of a regional consciousness in western
Canadian writing and is cited in the Oxford
Companion to Canadian Literature. New extended
his influence when he edited the six volumes on
Canadian writers for the Dictionary of Literary
Biography, volume four of the Literary History of
Faculty of Arts pp.
■
Canada, and when he published his History of
Canadian Literature (translated into Chinese in 1994).
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of
Canada in 1986.
After earning his Master's from UBC and a PhD
from the University of Leeds, New was invited
back to Point Grey in 1965 to set up a course in
Commonwealth literature. When he was a UBC
undergraduate, he took a double major in English
and Geography and it is geography to which he
has returned for his latest research project.
New is authoring Land Sliding, a book he says is
"about why Canadians have for so long been
fascinated by distance and scenery, property and
region, their own part of the world and their
own place in it." New says the book, which focuses
on English-Canadian writing, demonstrates how
differing approaches to these various concepts of
land help illuminate Canadian cultural practice.
Like New, English Prof. Sherrill Grace is currently
engaged in a cross-Canada project. Grace's
work draws upon literary and other texts to explore
the representation and significance of the
Canadian north over approximately 150 years.
According to Grace, Glenn Gould's idea of North has
been dominant in Canada for a long time.
Canadians have constructed themselves as a northern nation through advertising, tourism and international affairs and have expressed this through
literature, theatre, arts and film. Yet despite the
pervasiveness of this northern notion, Grace
contends that exactly what north means, where it is
located and how it is used to shape both cultural
identity and government policy has not been
thoroughly examined. Moreover, the role literature
plays in the creation of a mythology of north is
not well understood. By bringing together and
analysing a wide range of writing and other materials, Grace aims to isolate key elements in the
construction of Canada's cultural identity.
The study serves not only to identify and chart
a fascinating body of material for the first
time, but also to demonstrate that the Canadian
north is as enduring a myth of broad cultural
and national significance as West has been
for the United States.
Shortly after coming to UBC in 1977, Grace
established herself as a major critic of Canadian
literature, with books on Margaret Atwood
and the life and work of British-born author Malcolm
Lowry. Her doctoral work on Lowry culminated
in a well-received book, The Voyage That Never
Ends: Malcolm Lowry's Fiction (1982), part of
which was reprinted in an English critical anthology
on Lowry in 1987. In addition to editing a 1992
anthology of critical essays on Lowry, Grace, a fellow
of the Royal Society of Canada, recently completed
a two-volume critical edition of Lowry's collected
letters. It is the largest enterprise of its kind
dedicated to this writer. After four years of digging
through private collections, British, American and
French libraries and UBC's own Lowry Special Collections, Grace eventually gathered together more
than 800 letters. Published for the first time, the
letters range from elaborate discussions of literary
form, philosophy and politics to passionate love
letters and pleas for help.
By far Grace's most important publication to
date is Regression and Apocalypse: Studies
in North American Expressionism (1989). This work
examines the influence of German Expressionism
on the art, theatre and fiction of 20th century Canadians and Americans.
Related research:
• Rejean Beaudoin and Andre Lamontagne from the
French department have set out to establish a
collection of Canadian critical texts written in English
on Quebecois literature from 1867-1989. The
goal of their three-year project is to find out whether
this critical reception coincides with the existing
8
Faculty  of Arts
■ canon of Quebecois literature and to assess the
similarities and differences between the readings of
Quebecois writers made in English Canada as
opposed to the readings made by Quebecois critics.
Except for a very few well known authors such
as Roch Carrier, there has been no such study to
date examining the critical reception of Quebecois
literature in Canada.
■ Eva-Marie Kroller is producing a cultural history of
20th century Canadian travel abroad, drawing
on sources in English and French, and on selected
sources in German and Italian. A sequel to her
book Canadian Travellers in Europe, 1851-1900
(1987), the research focuses on changing perceptions of Europe following World War One and
charts the increasing attraction of non-European
destinations. A major goal of the study is to determine characteristics of Canadian national identity as
they were expressed in contact with other societies.
Contacts in the areas of arts, politics, religion, and
ordinary daily life are documented in the travel narratives of writers, painters, musicians, actors, theatre
directors, journalists, lawyers, missionaries and
average citizens. Kroller was appointed editor of
Canadian Studies in July, 1995.
« Cross-border comparisons of literature provide
the basis for studying several North American
regional cultures. British Columbia, Washington and
Oregon share many geographical features and have
economies based on similar natural resources.
By comparing stories and poems from both sides of
the 49th parallel, English Prof. Laurie Ricou
defines and elaborates on some primary characteristics and national differentiations of Pacific
Northwest culture.
THE POLITICAL LANDSCAPE
Interests of the 24-member political science department range from comparative politics, international relations, political theory, public policy and
political behaviour. Geographically, interests
encompass Japan, China, North America, Southeast
Asia, South Asia, Africa and the former Soviet Union.
Fully half the department's scholarship revolves
around Canada.
In 1993, Alan Cairns became the first holder of the
Brenda and David McLean Chair in Canadian Studies,
an appropriate choice of a person widely
considered to be one of the foremost political
scientists on Canadian politics and the Constitution.
His credentials for the position are impressive:
fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, recipient of
the Canada Council Molson Prize (1982), a founding
editor of the International Journal for Canadian
Studies; William Lyon Mackenzie King Visiting
Professor of Canadian Politics, Harvard; visiting
professor of Canadian Studies, University of
Edinburgh; past president of the Canadian Political
Science Association.
An author of 12 books on Canada's Constitution and
political health, Cairns' publications record is
studded with articles that have had a fundamental
impact on Canadian political science scholarship.
He was the first to understand the effect Canada's
electoral system has had on the party system,
helping to accentuate regional divisions in political
loyalties and shaping the national policy agenda.
He is credited with developing the concept of
province-building, having recognized long before
other scholars that post-war expansion of health,
education and welfare programs was contributing
to the development of strong provincial governments that would one day challenge the federal
government in economic and social policy-making.
Cairns began his term as chair (which New assumed
in July of 1995) exactly 33 years from his first
appointment to UBC as professor of Canadian
politics and federalism. Soon after joining the then
joint Dept. of Economics and Political Science
in i960, he was chosen a senior research associate
for a two-year government study looking into
the social and economic conditions of
Faculty  of Arts Canada's aboriginal peoples. His Oxford thesis on
pre-imperial race relations in Central Africa caught
the eye of Harry Hawthorn, UBC's first professor of anthropology, who was heading up the
federal project. Cairns acted as one of three
research directors for the Royal Commission on the
Economic Union and Development Prospects
for Canada for two and a half years in the mid-
1980s. The commission produced a three-volume
report and 71 volumes of research laying the
intellectual groundwork for, among other things, the
Canada-U.S. Free Trade agreement.
The Constitution has been Cairns' overriding obsession for the last two decades. Cairns introduced
the notion of Charter Canadians, arguing that the
entrenchment of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms
in Canada's Constitution has enhanced the
political profile of women, ethnocultural minorities
and others, as well as the citizenry at large.
Several parliamentary committees sought his advice
while wrestling with constitutional reform in the
buildups to both the Meech Lake and Charlottetown
accords. How to resolve the basic conflict between
competing concerns of the governments of
federalism and citizens in formal constitutional
change remains a primary research focus.
Says Cairns, "We're in the midst of an ongoing
attempt to discover who we are as people,
as Canadians, and what we have in common."
Polling has become an inescapable fact of election
campaigns. In Canada, nobody knows more
about the polling process and its effects on the
electorate than Richard Johnston. According
to Johnston there are generally two types of polls
that emerge during a campaign: commercial
polls for profit and those crafted for political gain.
As principal investigator for a half-million dollar
study of the 1992 federal election, Johnston
promised the truest account of the election
proceedings. To deliver on his promise, Johnston
and colleagues used a computer-assisted
telephone survey to determine how voters were
influenced during the course of the campaign.
The wide-ranging survey included questions on
Canada's social structure, attitudes towards
the U.S., the union movement, the size of
government and specific party policy. Johnston
concedes that private pollsters may have talked
to more Canadians during the campaign, but
none talked to respondents for as long or were
as consistent in their questioning.
By analysing the response of about 3,700
participants, Johnston got a sense of what issues
affect the vote, the effect of media use during
the campaign, an evaluation of the leaders, expectations of a party's chances of success and voter
intentions. Close to half of the total sample
also took part in two waves of interviewing during
the 1992 referendum.
The project was the eighth such study funded by the
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
since 1965. Johnston, who directed the 1988 survey,
says the purpose of the studies is to record an
important part of Canadian political history, the data
from which are made available to election
researchers worldwide. Johnston added that information gathered by the federal election studies
filters down to the taxpayers and makes them more
aware of vote-getting tactics used in campaigns.
Johnston used results from the 1988 National Election Study to co-author Letting the People Decide:
Dynamics of a Canadian Election. The book,
winner of the 1993 Harold Adams Innis Prize, has
become required reading for political journalists and
party organizers throughout the country. An
earlier work by Johnston, Public Opinion and Public
Policy in Canada: Questions of Confidence
(1986), used various survey data dating back to i960
to provide a 25-year analysis of Canadian public
opinion on political institutions and policies.
■
■
10
Faculty  of Arts
■ Johnston, the 1994 visiting professor of Canadian
Studies at Harvard, is preparing a new
manuscript titled The Challenge of Democracy: The
1992 Canadian Referendum.
Says Cairns, "We're in the midst of an
ongoing attempt to discover who we are as people, as
Canadians, and what we have in common.'
Related research:
• Viewing Canada as a multi-national federation, Philip
Resnick has explored the identity of Canadians
who are neither Quebecois nor aboriginal. His book,
Thinking English Canada, looks at the state of
English-speaking Canadians who are often grouped
under the general heading "rest of Canada." Building
on his earlier writings on Quebec and Canada,
Resnick analyses the dialectic of region and nation,
jurisdiction and power and how Canadians define
themselves. Resnick won the Harold Innis
Book Award for The Masks of Proteus: Canadian
Reflections on the State.
• Analysis of the differences in political attitudes and
behaviour of public and private sector employees
in western democracies (Donald Blake)
THE URBAN LANDSCAPE
UBC can lay claim to a number of distinctions
with its research and teaching of geography.
The discipline at UBC actually began as a half-year
course in physical geography offered by the
Department of Geology and Mineralogy in 1915.
Today, that same course is the oldest continuing
geography course in any Canadian university. In 1922,
the introduction of a course in meteorology and
climatology also became a Canadian first, as was
the decision to make geography a separate academic
division. Despite the growing number of subspecialties over the years, the goal of geographers remains
constant: to describe how the physical environment
affects humankind and vice versa.
UBC geographers approach the interactions
between people and places from a number of perspectives: through climatology/atmospheric
science, physical geography (hydrology and geo-
morphology), historical, cultural, economic
and regional geography. Perhaps nowhere do these
diverse interests come together more than in
urban matters, whether through transportation planning, resource management, housing, labour
market segmentation or social movements.
This was shown in the 1992 publication, Vancouver
and Its Region, a collaborative project involving
19 of the department's 26 full-time faculty. Written
for a general audience, the book chronicles social,
demographic and technological transformations
that have helped shape the city. It also examines
the region's extraordinary environmental setting and
looks to the ecological, economic and political
challenges that lie ahead.
Graeme Wynn, historical geographer and associate
dean of arts, said the project was prompted by
a growing uneasiness that as geographers and other
academics become more specialized, their research
11
Faculty of Art: becomes more isolated from the public. As Wynn
noted in the book's preface: "From the first,
we strove to develop an integrated set of accessible
essays that would convey a sense of the broad
range of fascinating and distinctive perspectives
that geography offers for the understanding of
places while demonstrating the subject's capacity
to put the increasingly fragmented pieces of
modern scholarship together in a compelling and
informative manner."
Department Head Timothy Oke has helped make
the field of urban climatology more accessible.
Arguably the world's leading urban climatologist,
Oke pioneered studies of energy and water
balances in urban areas and how they differ from
surrounding countryside. He and his students
developed the first numerical models to simulate
urban evaporation rates and heat storage, and
developed algorithms to express the influence of
city size and weather controls on the heat islands
(excess warmth) of cities.
When he entered the field at the end of the 1960s,
urban climatology was essentially a descriptive
field of study. Oke successfully introduced rigorous
experimental methods to the subdiscipline, methods
which treated city climates as an aspect of
general atmospheric boundary layer physics, and
helped transform the field into a respected
research enterprise.
A majority of Earth's population lives within urban
climates which consist of intricate mosaics of
energy, moisture and material exchanges. A major
focus of Oke's research has been the remarkable
changes induced by the presence of heat islands
within cities. To study the extra warmth of
Vancouver, Oke attached a thermometer and other
measuring instruments to a pickup truck and drove
across the city at night, when the phenomenon
is best displayed. Air temperatures differed by as
much as 11 degrees Celsius between areas in
the delta and the city centre during the summer.
Said Oke: "When you spread it out over a whole
year it might only come to a one degree difference
but that's the kind of difference we're concerned
about in global warming." For other studies, Oke
has placed instruments atop towers in Vancouver,
Mexico City, Tucson, and Sacramento to measure
exchanges of heat, water vapour and momentum
between the city surface and the atmosphere.
The resulting measurements illustrated how
the surface uses heat from the sun to heat the
atmosphere and evaporate water.
The importance of Oke's work cannot be
overstated in view of the rapid process of global
urbanization and the associated deterioration
of the atmospheric environment. He says that while
the real and potential dangers of human
effects on the global environment receive much
public attention, effects on the urban climate
may be even more significant. For more than 20
years, Oke has helped spread information
about urban climate issues as a consultant for the
World Meteorological Organization.
Related research:
• Together with atmospheric chemists at York
University, Douw Steyn is developing a computer
model capable of predicting when, where and in
what concentration low-level ozone appears
in B.C.'s Lower Fraser Valley. This will provide
scientists with a tool to predict the effectiveness of
various emission-reduction strategies proposed
by government or industry.
»Interactions between clouds and the global climate
are explored through models and satellite and
aircraft measurements of cloud properties. These
properties include reflexivity, precipitation and
cloud cover. (Philip Austin, Geography)
• A study of the implications of climate change
for surface hydrology and water quality in B.C.
(Olav Slaymaker, Geography)
Faculty  of Arts For two decades, David Ley has concerned himself
with the development of inner cities, that ring of
neighbourhoods which surrounds a downtown core.
Specifically, he has been investigating the movement of middle class professionals into older neighbourhoods, a process otherwise known as
urban gentrification. What began with two interpretive papers on Vancouver soon mushroomed into
a national study looking at the inner cities of Halifax,
Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto and Edmonton.
The focus for Ley's work throughout the mid-1980s
was threefold: to define and measure the phenomenon using census data; to extend the statistical
explanation of gentrification into a broader theoretical discussion of urban restructuring; and to examine
the creation of new urban landscapes, the erosion
of low-cost housing, and the intersection of gentrification and civic politics.
Since the process first gained prominence as a
research field in the late 1970s, emphasis has shifted
from studies of single cities or neighbourhoods
to looking at gentrification as a key element in a
broad range of social processes. This shift has
led Ley, author of The New Middle Class and the
Remaking of the Canadian City, to examine
the restructuring of downtown labour markets, the
status of the new middle class and the accompanying politics of consumption. In Vancouver, this
has given rise to what Ley calls leisure-based landscapes, exemplified by the new sports arena or
the proposal for a waterfront casino.
ARTS  AND  THE  ECONOMY
Research from UBC's Department of Economics
provides insight into how various sectors of
the economy operate and how governments can best
achieve their economic objectives. These insights
are gained through studies in macro- and microeconomics, game theory, economic development,
public finance, econometrics as well as international,
comparative, labour and monetary economics.
Research by the 39-member department has led
to new methods of measuring the extent of
inequality and poverty and to innovative approaches
to estimating demand and supply functions.
Faculty have also made fundamental contributions to
international trade theory, natural resource
economics and taxation theory and policy. Apart
from its research and policy-making expertise, the
department has been a leading supplier of
professors and professional economists to academia,
industry and government.
ECONOMIC THEORY
Much of the credit for UBC's reputation for
outstanding research in economic theory goes to
Erwin Diewert. Born in Vancouver, Diewert
received a Bachelors and Masters degree from UBC
and a PhD from the University of California at
Berkeley. After two years of teaching at the
University of Chicago, he returned west to his alma
mater in 1970. Diewert's pathbreaking work
since then has been credited with turning microeco-
nomic theory from a textbook exercise into a
practical tool for applied economic research.
On the international scene, Diewert is easily among
the best known and most highly cited Canadian
economists. His first major professional accomplishment was the development of flexible functional
forms, an approach which has come to dominate
applied work in modeling producer and consumer
behaviour. Diewert's approach provides a means
of understanding the complex relationship between
prices (the key element outside a firm's control)
and how much labour and materials (input) firms use
to make a product and the quantity (output) they
produce for maximum profit.
Diewert's second major contribution is to the theoretical and practical use of index numbers, a tool
used to measure general trends in the economy.
13
Faculty  of Arts His 1976 paper on exact index numbers for flexible
functional forms was the first to indicate how statistical information on prices and quantities could
be processed to construct price indexes (such as the
consumer price index) in a manner more consistent
with economic theory; that is, Diewert suggested
price indexes would allow for the fact that consumers tend to substitute away from more expensive
goods. The approach itself has influenced the construction of systems of national accounts in Canada
and the United States and promises to become the
dominant method for practical construction of price
and quantity index numbers. One of Diewert's
most recent papers was used by the head of the
U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics to analyse possible
biases in the U.S. consumer price index.
In the last decade, much of Diewert's attention has
been focused on applied welfare economics. He has
used duality theory—a method of determining how
levels of production or demand for factors of production vary with prices—to measure inefficiencies in
the economy due to taxation or tariffs. Given that
taxes benefit or harm different groups in society,
Diewert has helped develop methodologies for identifying beneficial changes in tax and tariff rates.
Recognizing the importance of his theoretical contributions in the area of measurement, Statistics
Canada has utilized Diewert's expertise on two of its
advisory committees as well as on the National
Statistics Council. He is also a research associate of
the U.S. National Bureau of Economic Research.
TESTING THEORY
It has been said that most economists either specialize in theory and risk divorce from reality, or
concentrate on particular industries and are lost to
the profession as consultants. UBC's Margaret Slade
is among the few economists who have combined
technical and modeling skill with a willingness to undertake detailed analyses of particular
industries based on best-practice economic
and statistical theory.
After finishing a BA and MA in Mathematics, Slade
earned a PhD in Economics from George Washington
University in Washington, D.C.
Prior to joining UBC in 1981, she was employed by
the U.S. Geological Survey for 12 years and
spent a year as an economist at the U.S. Federal
Trade Commission.
Much of Slade's early academic work dealt with
natural resource economics and issues of
recycling and resource taxation. The principal thrust
of her research, however, was devoted to
testing theoretical models of resource-commodity
pricing. In particular, she assessed how prices
changed over time and attempted to reconcile this
change with the principal theories of resource-
price formation. This work led to examinations of
the producer-pricing system, major commodity
exchanges and other institutions that underlie price
formation. Slade believes that traditional
theories of price formation, based mainly on supply
considerations, are inadequate for explaining
resource-price behaviour.
Slade is also one of the first to apply game-theoretic
models to Industrial Organization (IO) research, a
field which has come under attack for being too theoretical. Although her work in this area has many
strands, one that stands out is her investigation of
price competition in markets involving limited
competition between a small number of producers or
sellers. A common theme in this area is that economic interactions in imperfectly competitive markets
can be modeled as games. Economists have
developed game-theoretic models (models in which
decision-makers must act strategically because
the outcome depends on the actions of all parties)
14
Faculty  of Arts to understand the give and take between players.
Since data of this sort is hard to come by,
Slade collected her own detailed data sets from a
number of markets including nonferrous metals,
packaged foods and, most notably, Vancouver's
retail gasoline market.
An important aspect of the organization of
markets is the relationship between manufacturers
and retailers. Recently, Slade has been assessing when manufacturers choose to do their
own retailing through an integrated subsidiary and
when they choose to franchise or to sell
through independent outlets.
Related research:
> The theory of auctions and bidding behaviour has
been the subject of considerable theoretical
research in the past decade. Since 1985, Ken
Hendricks has been using field data from oil and
gas explorations to test predictions of game-
theoretic models. His pioneering work with these
models, particularly as they relate to oil
auctions, is regarded as the most innovative and
influential anywhere. Hendricks is an expert
in modern, noncooperative game theory which has
been used by economists to model a variety
of economic conflicts such as price wars and strikes.
Most recently, Hendricks, along with colleagues
Michele Piccione and Guofu Tan, has analysed the
economics of the hub-spoke configuration of
airlines. This issue has gained increasing importance
with airline deregulation and has significant
implications for Canadian policy.
INFLUENCING POLICY
UBC economists have played a significant role in
advising governments on policy or acting as participants in public debate on economic and social
issues. Three scholars of note are Robert Evans, John
Helliwell and Jonathan Kesselman. Recognized as
Canada's premier health economist, Evans was a key
contributor to the B.C. Royal Commission on Health
Care and Cost. Helliwell, one of Canada's leading
applied economists, was instrumental in drafting
the final report of the Royal Commission on National
Passenger Transportation. Kesselman is one of
the country's best known experts in tax policy and
income security programs.
Joining this distinguished company is department
head Craig Riddell, who in the mid-1980s
served as a principal research coordinator for the
Royal Commission on the Economic Union and
Development Prospects for Canada (the MacDonald
Commission). As a labour economics specialist,
Riddell co-authored a major text on the subject titled
Labour Market Economics: Theory, Evidence and
Policy in Canada. His more recent publications deal
with the economic effects of unemployment insurance in Canada (with colleague David Green) and
a comparative analysis of unemployment in Canada
and the U.S. The latter study, undertaken with
Princeton economist David Card, sought a better
understanding of the reasons behind Canada's
high levels of unemployment during the 1980s and
the implications for the country's unemployment
insurance scheme. This study was the inaugural winner of the Douglas D. Purvis Memorial Prize for a
work of excellence in Canadian economic policy.
During the 1980s, unemployment in Canada increased
sharply relative to previous decades and relative
to the United States. Riddell and Card found that the
amount of time Canadians and Americans spend
working in a year is remarkably similar. However,
Canadians who are not employed are more likely to
be looking for work, while non-employed Americans
are less likely to report that they are seeking work.
"The gap," says Riddell "is associated with the
different ways Canadians and Americans spend their
non-work time." The researchers also discovered
that an unemployed worker in Canada is more than
three times as likely to receive unemployment
insurance benefits than an unemployed American.
15
Ity  of Arts Riddell's future research will use data from a national survey of literacy skills used in daily life to
determine whether the education system is providing
young people with the literacy and numeracy skills
needed in the modern workplace.
Related contemporary and historical research:
> Assessment of a Direct Consumption Tax to replace
the Goods and Services Tax
■ Analysis of the Child Tax Benefit that replaced the
Family Allowances and other child-related tax
provisions in 1993. The study examines reforms in
terms of their effects on the distribution of
benefits as well as their practical operation. It also
discovers important deficiencies of the reformed
system and suggests methods to correct them.
■ A detailed examination of the key economic, structural and operational aspects of the four provincial
and one territorial payroll taxes. In the provinces
that operate them, payroll taxes are now the
third or fourth largest source of taxation revenues.
(Jonathan Kesselman)
■ An evaluation of Canada's immigration policy which
is targeted towards selecting immigrants with
occupational skills perceived as matching needs in
the Canadian economy. Findings indicate that,
with the possible exception of engineers, there is no
strong evidence of difficulties in immigrants getting
recognition for educational credentials obtained
outside Canada. Immigrants also appear to shift
occupations more readily than Canadian-born
workers. (David Green)
• Angela Redish analyses the causes of the Depression
in Canada. Her work adds to an understanding of
both macroeconomic behaviour in general, and the
Canadian economy in particular.
- Ron Shearer and Donald Paterson are working on a
macroeconomic history of mid-i9th century Canada.
Their study involves collecting quantitative evidence
about the aggregate economy and encompasses
topics such as the spill-over effects of the U.S. Civil
War on Canada, growth of the Canadian money
supply, investment in the new railway sector, the
cyclical behaviour of the economy and the evolution
of export trades and financial markets.
MIXING  POLITICS,   ENVIRONMENT
AND THE  ECONOMY
"...the environmental crisis we now confront is
quantitatively and qualitatively different
from anything before, simply because so many
people have been inflicting damage on the
world's ecosystem during the present century that
the system as a whole-   not simply its
various parts—may be in danger.
Historian Paul Kennedy in Preparing for the
Twenty-First Century
A number of UBC political scientists are shedding
light on the politics of environmental regulation and
the economic impact of environmental policy.
Kathryn Harrison first came to the political science
department in 1988 armed with two Master of
Science degrees, in chemical engineering and political science, from the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology. After graduating from MIT she worked
as a policy analyst for both the U.S. and Canadian governments looking at how environmental
control technology could be applied to issues
like acid rain and ground-level ozone. Harrison made
the switch from engineering to political science when
16
Faculty of Arts she realized that solutions to these problems
weren't lacking technological input, but political will.
"Often it's not that we don't know how to
solve environmental problems, rather we don't want
to spend the money to do so," says Harrison,
who received her doctorate from UBC in 1993. In the
Canadian context, she believes a study of federal
and provincial regulation of pulp mill effluents clearly
illustrates that the provinces are reluctant to
strengthen environmental standards for fear of placing local industry at a competitive disadvantage.
The majority of Harrison's research has dealt with
comparative analyses of Canadian and U.S.
environmental policy. Harrison recently wrote a book
with departmental colleague George Hoberg
comparing the regulation of toxic substances in the
U.S. and Canada through case studies of seven
controversial substances suspected of causing cancer
in humans: the pesticides alar and alachlor,
urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, radon gas, diox-
in, saccharin and asbestos. The work explores the
very different approaches to decision-making amid
pervasive scientific uncertainty in the two countries.
Harrison plans to continue her examination of
these varying regulatory approaches with an aim to
finding out which is more effective.
Hoberg shows why regulatory convergence is not
inevitable in countries as closely tied as Canada and
the U.S. in his paper. Sleeping With An Elephant:
The American Influence on Canadian Environmental
Regulation (delivered at the 1990 annual meeting of
the American Political Science Association). Still,
Hoberg emphasizes how important the American
experience is for setting the Canadian environmental
agenda. Hoberg is at work on a book comparing forest policy conflicts in British Columbia with those in
the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Alaska.
Related research:
> Resource economics theory is used to document the
process of economic development within the
Fraser Valley basin and how it has influenced the
area's ecosystem structure and function since
the era of European settlement. The objective is to
provide an economic model describing why the
valley developed as it did, and what effects current
land-use policy may have on the future environmental composition of the valley. (Ron Shearer and
Anthony Scott, Economics)
■ Examination of environmental risk perceptions, levels
of trust and confidence in environmental leaders,
and views of ecological policy tradeoffs among members of various publics (Neil Guppy, Sociology;
Donald Blake, Political Science)
RESURRECTING POLITICAL ECONOMY
In the late 1920s, political economist Harold Innis
began a Canadian research tradition based on
a better understanding of Canada's place on a continent dominated by the United States. For the
past two decades, sociologist Patricia Marchak has
helped re-establish this tradition. Like Innis,
whose first major work dealt with the Canadian fur
trade, Marchak has dedicated much of her
academic career to investigating those industries
which form the backbone of Canada—forestry
and fisheries.
Marchak edited the Ubyssey as an undergraduate.
An invitation from Harry Hawthorn, then head of
anthropology and sociology, brought Marchak back
to campus for graduate work in the mid-1960s and
an eventual teaching position.
Marchak quickly established herself as a leading
figure in the generation of Canadian social scientists
specializing in the sociology of Canada. Her first
book, Ideological Perspectives on Canada, is a major
work on Canadian political ideologies in an international context and was instrumental in orienting
the field of Canadian sociology. She began research
on Green Gold (1983) in the late 1970s, at a time
17
Faculty  of Art when both the forestry profession and the industry
were much less interested in the social impact
of forestry than they are today. Identified as one of
the outstanding academic books of the year and
winner of the John Porter Memorial Prize, Green Gold
examines the historical changes in forest technology, the organization of production, marketing
strategies and ownership, and the nature of
the labour force and communities dependent on
forestry. Marchak used the research strategies
developed during the writing of Green Gold to help
produce another seminal publication called Uncommon Property: The Fishing and Fish Processing
Industries in British Columbia. This work, co-edited
with UBC sociology colleagues Neil Guppy and
John McMullan, charts the relationship over time of
the processing companies, the fishing and cannery labour forces, fishermen's associations, ethnic
communities, banks and government agencies
at all levels. Research of this "fish and ships" group
also challenged the idea of common property in
the fishery as well as the value of the tragedy of the
commons (overfishing) argument in accounting
for the industry's history.
In her most recent book, For Whom the Tree
Falls, Marchak analyses changing investment, trade
and labour force data in pulp and paper and
other forestry sectors in Japan, Indonesia, Thailand,
Brazil, Chile, Australia and New Zealand. This
research probes the rise of fast-growing eucalyptus
and pine plantation industries in the south,
their impact in indigenous peoples and tropical
forests and the effect on global markets.
Related research:
Geographers Trevor Barnes, Geraldine Pratt and
Daniel Hiebert are investigating economic
restructuring, social polarization and international
labour migration through three case studies,
each focused on a different employment sector
within the Greater Vancouver Regional District
(GVRD). The GVRD is experiencing several fundamental changes reflecting broader national and
global patterns: an increasing internationalization
of its economy and society; the introduction
of flexible labour strategies, including the use of
temporary and subcontracted workers; and a
growing demand for both consumer (i.e. restaurant)
and producer (i.e. construction) services.
The growing polarization of the labour market is
a primary focus of the study, particularly those workers in marginal, often service sectors of the
economy, who have little or no chance of advancement. The three case studies look at foreign
domestic workers, and those in the building and
tourist industries.
■ Combining an interest in industrial archaeology,
interdisciplinary studies and Canadian social
and economic history, historian Dianne Newell's
present research lays the groundwork for a
major book on the history of technology in Canada.
This work will address issues ranging from
Canada as a wholesale borrower of innovations,
to the impact of new technologies on women
in the workplace to the international contributions
of Canadians such as Ursula Franklin, Glenn Gould,
Harold Innis and Marshall McLuhan. Since 1984,
Newell has been researching West Coast fisheries,
particularly the economic history of the salmon
canning industry.
• Using Census data, sociologist Neil Guppy examines
trends and future challenges facing education in
Canada including current levels of education, international comparisons of education and training, recent
historical trends in the Canadian educational system
and opportunities and obstacles facing all Canadians
in achieving higher levels of schooling.
ARTS AND  FIRST  NATIONS
The origins of First Nations research at UBC can
be traced to the arrival of Harry and Audrey
Hawthorn in 1947. Soon after completing his PhD
studies at Yale University, Hawthorn received an
invitation from President MacKenzie to establish a
n
18
Faculty  of Arts separate department from the then combined
enterprise of economics, political science, anthropology, sociology and criminology. The latter three
subjects broke away and formed an entity in 1956.
Hawthorn's mandate also included setting up a
museum to house an ethnographic collection of
some 700 items, mainly from Oceania. Before
occupying the magnificent Arthur Erickson-designed
building in 1976, the Museum of Anthropology
(MOA) operated in the basement of the university
library under the supervision of its first curator,
Audrey Hawthorn.
The museum's involvement with First Nations artists
and culture has shaped its own history. The
Hawthorns' interest in salvaging totem poles, cedar
houseframes and massive carvings, aided by
such benefactors as Walter Koerner, led eventually
to a renaissance of First Nations art in British
Columbia. It began with the great Kwakwaka'wakw
(Kwakiutl) chief Mungo Martin who came to
campus in 1950 to repair old totems that the
Hawthorns had gathered, and to carve new poles.
Martin trained other carvers—his son and two
nephews—and later helped internationally recog-
Chief Mungo Martin pioneered the
re-creation of First Nations sculptures on campus.
m
J9_
Faculty  of Arts nized Haida artist Bill Reid. Both Martin and Reid
(who worked with Kwakwaka'wakw artist Doug
Cranmer) contributed to the re-creation of First
Nations sculptures on campus. In a wooded section
near the present Totem Park Residences, Martin
supervised the erection of a Kwakwaka'wakw house-
frame and 11 totem poles. Reid's yellow cedar
sculpture, The Raven and the First Men, is a
highlight for the museum's contemporary Northwest
Coast Indian collection.
While the Hawthorns were working to save living,
local cultures, pioneer UBC archaeologist Charles
Borden began a series of landmark excavations of
the prehistoric cultures of B.C. The archaeological
collections are also part of MOA holdings.
At any time, about 80 per cent of the museum's
holdings (except light-sensitive and archaeological
materials) are on display to serious students
or casual visitors who number more than 160,000
each year.
The MOA is, of course, a teaching museum devoted
to academic research. Research projects initiated
by Hawthorn early in his headship included the
Doukhobors of B.C., Indians of B.C., and Indians of
Canada (the latter co-directed by Marc Adelard-
Tremblay). Apart from gaining international attention,
these large-scale applied projects helped establish
working relationships with B.C. First Nations
artists and band councils—relationships which
continue today.
One such collaborative effort is the ethnographic
field school, introduced by Hawthorn in the
1950s and reintroduced by UBC anthropologists
Bruce Miller and Julia Cruikshank this decade.
At the request of local tribal councils, teams of UBC
faculty and graduate students work with First
Nations people to help with projects such as
documenting a tribe's oral and archival history. UBC
archaeologists have also been active in local
collaborative projects with First Nations groups. Two
such projects, both near Mission, have involved
excavating a semi-subterranean house dating back
5000 years as well as an ancient burial site
opposite the Scowlitz Band reserve at the confluence
of the Harrison and Fraser rivers. The museum
has also developed special training programs for
First Nations youth. The donation of the Walter
and Mariana Koerner collection of Northwest Coast
First Nations masterpieces was instrumental in
acquiring funds for the Erickson building. Dr. Koerner
worked closely with the Hawthorns from the
beginning, and continues to support the museum
to this day. The current Dept. of Anthropology
and Sociology has a compliment of 34 faculty, six
of whom are engaged in First Nations research.
One of the central challenges for cultural anthropologists is how to convey, in words, the experience
of another culture. This becomes increasingly
complex for anthropologists as people claim the
right to control images of their culture that are
presented to themselves and others. In the last two
decades, Julia Cruikshank's research and writing
about the Yukon has simultaneously contributed to
scholarly debates in anthropology and has made
the ethnography of the people of northwestern
Canada meaningful to the local people and relevant
to their concerns.
From 1969 to 1984, Cruikshank lived and worked
in the Yukon where she developed her own
collaborative research strategies designed to give
anthropology legitimacy in the Yukon communities.
Her writing describes the cultures of subarctic
peoples through biography and oral history with
particular focus on the role of aboriginal women,
the politics of knowledge and oral and scientific
approaches to knowledge.
In her first academic publication, The Potential of
Traditional Societies and of Anthropology Their
Predator (1971), Cruikshank argued that anthropo-
20
Faculty of Arts logists must integrate theory and practice, rather
than continue what she described as an essentially
predatory relationship with the people they study.
Her subsequent work with the Yukon Native
Language Centre contributed to documentation
of oral history, place names, genealogies, life stories
and to the development of Yukon school curriculum
which incorporated indigenous voices.
Since she became a fulltime faculty member
in 1988, Cruikskank has completed two books:
Life Lived Like a Story: Life Stories of Three
Athapaskan Elders, and Reading Voices: Dan Dha
Ts'edenintth'e. The former deals with the life
and culture of three women elders of the Tlingit and
Athapaskan people. The latter work represents
a major contribution to the developing field known
as anthropological poetics by blending aboriginal
and non-aboriginal texts and voices.
In 1993, Cruikshank was an invited speaker at two
government-sponsored workshops dealing with
indigenous oral tradition, the subject of her current
research. Specifically, she is preparing a comparative
analysis of the political use of oral traditions in
North America and Europe. Cruikshank explains that
interest in oral tradition emerges from romantic
nationalism or attempts to reconstruct a lost or vanishing cultural heritage in order to unify a nation.
This interest can, however, be appropriated as a tool
of the state to extend political control. Says
Cruikshank: "Examinations of how oral tradition has
been used in other countries and during other
periods of history suggests that models from elsewhere may provide some cautionary guidelines
about the elastic promise often attributed to oral
tradition in Canada."
Both Cruikshank's Master's and PhD theses were
supervised by colleague Robin Ridington,
whose work has set standards for Native American
ethnography, particularly his studies of the
Dunne-za and Omaha peoples. Through more than
30 years of close co-operation with these tribes,
Ridington has come to regard tribal elders as teachers who provide a perfect complement to the
formal training of the anthropologist. Like other
northern hunting people, the Dunne-za or Beaver
People of northeastern B.C. emphasize personal
experience as a source of knowledge.
Related research:
• A long-term study of the past and present adaptations of the Dene Indians in the Mackenzie
Mountains and the Mackenzie River Valley,
Northwest Territories. The goal is to understand
how hunting and gathering bands adapt to
mountain environments in the western subarctic.
• An evaluation of public perceptions of archaeological
research and the significance of archaeological
resources in contemporary society (David Pokotylo,
Anthropology and Sociology)
• Religious systems and expressive art forms among
the Coast Salish
• Organization of aboriginal economic activity and
ideologies related to natural resources in
Northwest coast and Plateau peoples (Michael Kew,
Anthropology and Sociology)
• An on-going analysis of Coast Salish social organization, history and ethnic relations (Bruce Miller,
Anthropology and Sociology)
• Exploration of the current and intended use of
land and resources by First Nations (Bruce Miller,
Michael Kew)
• A sociological study of conflicts revolving around
environmental issues such as access to natural
resources and the perceived effects of pollution.
A case study of the first issue is focused on responses to the Aboriginal Fishing Strategy and the
formation of a counter movement called the B.C.
Fisheries Survival Coalition. (Brian Elliott,
Anthropology and Sociology)
21
Faculty of Art "I clearly remember us being asked to go
up when I was five years old. We were
transported by the ship CD. Howe and I cried
all the way. When we arrived, it
was as if we landed on the moon it was
so bare and desolate."
Extract from a submission by an Inuit elder to the 1990 House
of Commons Committee on Aboriginal Affairs. She describes
being relocated 1,800 km north from Inukjouak, Quebec to the
remote arctic settlement at Resolute Bay.
The rationale for the 1953 relocation to Resolute
Bay, Cornwallis Island and to Craig Harbour
on the southern tip of Ellesmere Island is the source
on ongoing controversy today as the public refo-
cuses on the creation of an Inuit territory, Nunavut.
Government sources claim Inuit were moved to
address serious welfare problems and get them
back to economic self-sufficiency. Others believe
these people were pawns in a Canadian government attempt to secure sovereignty over the
Arctic Islands.
Frank Tester, who has researched this and
many other relocations following the Second World
War, says the truth lies somewhere in between.
"The civil servants who oversaw the relocations may
have had good intentions but they certainly
didn't have any understanding of the culture they
were dealing with," says Tester, one of 14 faculty
members with UBC's School of Social Work.
To increase understanding among Canadians today
of the Inuit's current situation, Tester has co-
authored a book, Myths: Responsibility, Welfare
and Relocation in the Eastern Arctic, 1939-1960.
For three years, Tester combed through archives in
Ottawa and Yellowknife, examined private
documents in attics and basements, and travelled
the Eastern Arctic talking to people about their
relocation experiences. "The analysis of government
representatives in the field as to what was going
on was pretty awful," Tester explains. "The economy
and lifestyle of the people of the Eastern Arctic
was put in total chaos as a result of their dependence on a faltering fur trade and the Hudson's
Bay Company." Officials in charge, however, didn't
see it that way. Instead, Tester claims that the
colonial attitude among bureaucrats, RCMP officers
and Hudson's Bay representatives branded Inuit
as lazy and indolent, a myth which was perpetuated
in the media. The standard Canadian image of Inuit
was one of a happy, furry people living blissful
lives in the cold north. As the 1950s developed,
these images were challenged by epidemics of
polio, tuberculosis and death by starvation.
Tester's book charts the history of the Canadian welfare state, starting with the Supreme Court of
Canada ruling in 1939 which made Inuit wards of the
Crown under the British North America Act. He notes,
paradoxically, that it is the 1939 decision recognizing
Inuit as Aboriginal people which made possible the
land claim involving the current Inuit state, Nunavut.
Research initiatives underway in the School of Social
Work (also see President's Report on Health
Sciences) deal with aspects of family violence, the
development of cross-cultural models for improving
health care delivery for disadvantaged populations
in the urban core, and numerous other projects
investigating multicultural, health and sustainable
development issues in community planning.
The first comprehensive analysis of the fur trade's
impact on First Nations peoples was undertaken
by UBC historian Arthur "Skip" Ray. Ray's first book,
Indians in the Fur Trade, examined the changing
environmental and economic conditions which
22
Faculty  of Arts the fur trade introduced to central and western
Canada and the wide-ranging responses which First
Nations peoples made in adjusting to them. Now
in its fourth printing, the work's most important
contribution is that it placed First Nations peoples at
the centre of its inquiry. In so doing it, it marked
a sharp departure from the Eurocentric scholarly
tradition of historical writing about native-European
relations, a tradition which stretched back well
into the 19th century.
For his second publication, Give Us Good Measure,
Ray drew extensively on the business records of
the Hudson's Bay Company, making him the first historian to analyse these sources in a systematic
way. The work explored the complexities of the fur
trade economy, both in its North American and
trans-Atlantic contexts. This work overturned longstanding, erroneous assumptions about the ways
in which a barter system of exchange was meshed
with the economic imperatives of European commercial capitalism. It also shed light on the economic
behaviour of both partners in the fur trade.
Ray's most recent book, The Fur Trade in the
Industrial Age, once more pushes the subject of aboriginal-European economic and cultural relations
into new territory. It begins in 1870, where all other
histories of the fur trade have stopped, and pursues
the subject up to 1945. During these years the
balance of power in the trade shifted increasingly
against First Nations peoples, making them
more marginal and dependent upon institutions
outside their societies. While it was not the author's
intent to address contemporary public issues, the
book provides valuable insight into the circumstances and aspirations of First Nations peoples in
Canada today. Ray's current research efforts are an
outgrowth of his earlier focus on First Nations as
consumers in the 18th century; specifically, gender
implications of fur returns and trade good sales
before 1763. In the course of surveying the Hudson's
Bay Company records in preparation for this
work, Ray noticed a number of debt books for
company posts in Northern Ontario for the latter
half of the nineteenth century. What he found
was that a sampling of these documents revealed
accounts for women. Using the accounting and
narrative records of the company, he plans to examine the economic roles that women played in Cree
and Ojibwa societies at the time of contact and how
this influenced their participation in the early fur
trade as producers, consumers and workers.
FIRST NATIONS AND LANGUAGE
The linguistic study of First Nations languages might
properly be placed among the faculty's social
sciences. Among linguists' primary research interests
are the role of language within a society, how
language reflects the culture, and how to encourage
the re-learning of First Nations languages. Another
linguistic interest is first language acquisition
in children; this is shared with psychology and units
in the faculties of Education and Medicine. However, linguistic enquiries also overlap with those of
language and literature departments in areas of language analysis and recording of traditional
oral literature.
UBC linguists develop theory about how language is
structured, especially sentence (syntax), word (morphology), and sound (phonology) structure. In terms
of specific languages, a large segment of departmental research centres around First Nations languages
of the northwest coast, in particular Salishan and
Tsimshianic languages. This area aims to contribute
both to the revitalization of these languages and to
a better understanding of the general nature of language. Apart from northwest coast languages,
aspects of Haitian, Creole, Latvian, Swahili, and
Yoruba are also investigated.
Patricia Shaw has been studying the languages
of Canada's First Nations since the mid-1970s and
marvels at their inherent richness, diversity and
complexity. This complexity is particularly manifest
23
Faculty of Arts at the phonological level where many Northwest
languages are characterized by unusual sequences of
consonants and large inventories of speech sounds.
She explains that most of our traditional understanding of how languages are structured, how they
function and what universal properties they
share was built on data from the world's so-called
major languages and classical languages of
eastern and western literary traditions. Consequently,
study of First Nations languages can contribute
significantly to defining a more broadly based model
of human language.
For example Tahltanan Athapaskan language now
spoken by fewer than 60 people in the Stikine and
Spatzizi area of northern B.C. has one of the most
elaborate and theoretically revealing consonant
harmony systems in the world.
Shaw says that understanding the tightly constrained
interactions within this system has contributed
in several ways to our knowledge of the appropriate
representation of speech sounds and characteristic constraints on how they can interact with one
another. Other B.C. First Nations languages such
as Nisgha (a Tsimshianic language, spoken in
the Nass Valley) and Bella Coola (a Salish language
spoken up the coast) are renowned for having
extraordinarily long sequences of consonants in
their words. Even more striking is the celebrated fact
that some words in Bella Coola have absolutely
no vowels.
Shaw became interested in linguistics after working
as a foreign student advisor with the Ontario
Institute for Studies in Education. Interacting with
foreign students, particularly those from African
and Southeast Asian countries, made her wonder if
different language structures resulted in different
modes of thought or cognition. This led to her realization that several of Canada's indigenous languages were not well documented and that many,
under pressures of imminent extinction, might be
lost with little or no record of the cultural and
cognitive heritage they embody.
For her PhD thesis at the University of Toronto,
Shaw examined the Canadian dialects of Dakota, a
language spoken in southern Manitoba, as well
as Assinaboine and Stoney dialects in Saskatchewan
and Alberta. She found Canadian dialects weren't
nearly as extensively recorded as some of their
American counterparts. In part, this is due to the
considerable linguistic diversity within Canada's
borders. British Columbia alone has close to 30
First Nations languages classified into eight distinct,
genetically unrelated language families. Shaw's
research comparing various Northwest coast
languages with each other and with other languages
having unusual syllable structure has two major
objectives: at a more specific level, ascertain the
form and role of syllables in organizing sequences
of sounds in languages with such unusual strings
of consonants; and at a more general level, integrate
these results into a coherent theoretical model
of universal grammar.
The revitalization of indigenous languages is a
major concern of linguists worldwide. Some experts
predict that close to 90 per cent of the world's
5,000 languages may disappear in the coming
century. The primary methods of keeping language
alive are documentation, archiving and compiling
dictionaries, grammars and texts, and implementing
teaching programs.
In the last 16 years, UBC anthropological linguist
Jay Powell has written 60 language books in
10 different First Nations languages for school
children. He has produced student readers, exercise
books and teacher training manuals for the Nitinat,
Nuuchahnulth, Musqueam, Shuswap, Quileute,
Kwakiutl, East and West Gitksan and Lillooet languages. He has also compiled two First Nations
language dictionaries and is at work on a third.
Related research:
> Retranscription, editing and formatting into a
contemporary form of a long, Upper Chehalis myth
cycle collected in 1927 by Franz Boas; the same
24
ty of Art; will be done for the shorter myth texts collected by
Boas and (later) Kinkade
■ Sorting and arranging the vocabularies of Salishan
languages into related sets toward reconstructing the
vocabulary of the ancestral language from which
the 23 modern languages have descended
(Dale Kinkade, Linguistics)
■ Learning Lillooet (Salish), analysing the syntax of the
language, and developing teaching materials for
use in the First Nations communities (Henry
Davis, Linguistics)
■ Learning Cree (Algonquian), analysing the syntax
of the language and studying the interaction
of Cree and French or English speakers (Rose-Marie
Dechaine, Linguistics)
UNDERSTANDING  OURSELVES AND  OTHERS
UNDERSTANDING THROUGH
PSYCHOLOGY
What makes people happy or afraid? How do
children learn a language and what is the effect of
having two languages spoken in the home? Why
can some people cope easily with enormous
amounts of stress while others have difficulty with
small changes in their lives?
UBC's Dept. of Psychology has an international
reputation for providing insightful answers to these
and other questions posed by today's changing
society. Close to one-third of the department's 103
graduate students are enroled in professional
programs in clinical psychology. Much of the practical training involved with clinical psychology
occurs in the department clinic which serves an average of 65 clients each year. Research among 43
full-time faculty is split evenly between social
science and medical or biological science (see
President's Report on the Health Sciences). Faculty
exploring social sciences are concentrated mainly
in the developmental, social/personality, clinical,
forensic and environmental areas.
Society faces a myriad of social and moral problems
of increasing complexity. While programs of moral
education in schools and correctional facilities help
young people cope with interpersonal and societal
challenges, the potential impact of other influences
on a child's moral development is often overlooked.
Janet Werker, left, continues to look at the
developmental changes that take
place in the perception of speech sounds from
infancy through adulthood. Her research
shows that in the first year of life infants
become attuned to the subtle but important
nuances of their native language.
Developmental psychologist Lawrence Walker is
grappling with the role parents and peers play in
childrens' moral functioning. He contends that while
both these sources of influence are powerful, the
mechanisms and processes involved in each may be
considerably different. Previous research by Walker
explored the impact of parental styles of interaction
and moral reasoning on children's development.
Having provided evidence of parental influence, he
25
Faculty  of Arts is now directly comparing these with those of
peers. He is also examining the role of family structure in this process by comparing one- and
two-parent families. The study involves 69 school-
age children, each of whom participates with
both a parent (father or mother) and a friend of the
same sex. Initially, each person is interviewed
separately and completes a questionnaire regarding
their relationships. Then, in joint, video-recorded
discussion sessions, pairings (either parent/child or
peer/child) are asked to discuss and resolve a
hypothetical moral dilemma and an actual moral
conflict which they have identified in their own
relationship. Participants' reasoning and behaviour
in these sessions are used to assess styles of
interaction, levels of moral reasoning and ego functioning. Walker intends to chart the changes in
children's moral reasoning by reinterviewing subjects
every 12 months over a five-year period. By
examining patterns of moral reasoning across these
sets of interviews, Walker hopes to determine
whether the developmental process is continuous or
marked by alternating periods of transition and
consolidation in moral functioning.
This research provides valuable insights into the
significant features of interactions within families
and between friends. Walker's findings should also
further our understanding of how to equip young
people to handle more effectively the demands of
living in a complex society.
Related research:
• Development of language and cognition during
infancy and very early childhood (Janet Werker)
• Development of children's reasoning about
both interpersonal and impersonal events
(Michael Chandler)
Processes of socialization including the impact of
television, attachment and gender role development
(Tannis MacBeth Williams).
Forensic psychology is a relatively new and rapidly
growing discipline. It involves the application
of behavioural science to problems and issues of
importance to the criminal justice system.
Robert Hare is one of the world's leading experts
in the field of psychopathic behaviour. The
UBC psychologist is author of The Hare Psychopathy
Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), an effective screening
device that could help keep violent psychopaths off
the streets. What started out in 1978 as a simple
mimeographed handout for research purposes at
UBC is now heralded as the best available method
for assessing the mental disorder.
A decade of research by investigators in North
America and Europe, involving thousands of prison
inmates and criminal psychiatric patients, has
shown the PCL-R to be a highly reliable and valid
measure of psychopathy. Prisoners diagnosed
as psychopaths by the checklist have shown to be
between two and four times more likely to
commit an offence after release than those diagnosed as non-psychopaths. Since decisions
about sentencing, treatment and parole are influenced by a prisoner's clinical diagnosis, the
PCL-R is increasingly being used to make predictions about which prisoners are most likely to
return to crime after release.
"It's not good enough for clinicians to say it's
their gut feeling that so-and-so is a psychopath,"
says Hare, whose research in the field spans
25 years. "The criteria for diagnosis and procedures
followed in making it should be explicit and
available for others to evaluate."
A PCL-R assessment, taking between two and four
hours, consists of a semi-structured interview
and painstaking cross-check of personal and criminal
histories. The clinician or researcher then rates
the individual on 20 items describing personality
traits and behaviours relevant to psychopathy. The
result is a score representing the extent to which
26
Faculty  of Arts a subject matches the prototypical psychopath. A
categorical diagnosis can also be given using a
cutoff score provided in the PCL-R manual. Hare says
about 20 per cent of prison inmates would rate a
psychopathic diagnosis using PCL-R criteria.
As yet, there is no known treatment for psychopathy.
Part of the problem, Hare explains, is that
psychopaths don't suffer from the sort of personal
or subjective distress that prompts others to
seek treatment.
Related research:
• An analysis of characteristics and personality traits of
chronic wife abusers (Donald Dutton, Psychology)
«A study to determine the nature of factors that
deter men from using violence against their
female partners
> Comparing the effectiveness of different approaches
to reducing levels of physical and psychological
abuse and increasing levels of psychological and
interpersonal functioning in groups of assaultive husbands (Mary Russell, Social Work)
• Individual, group and family therapy for male adolescents who have sexually offended and are victims of
abuse themselves
• Co-ordination of child sexual abuse services in rural
communities (Kathryn McCannell, Social Work)
• Assessing the accuracy and detail of accounts by
victims and witnesses of crime, including children's
eyewitness accounts (John Yuille, Psychology)
There are hundreds of terms in the English language
that serve to communicate, through correspondence
or conversation, important information about a
person's mood, temperament or interpersonal behaviour. Co-ordinator of the graduate program in
personality psychology, Jerry Wiggins studies the way
in which people use words—such as kind, shy, or
dependent—to describe themselves and their interpersonal relationships with others. Tests developed
by Wiggins examining people's use of interpersonal terms have been effective in determining
whether someone is extroverted, dominant,
submissive or competitive.
Detailed statistical analyses of these interpersonal
terms demonstrate that they are all related, in
different degrees and combinations, to the two fundamental concepts of agency (dominance) and
communion (nurturance). This finding led Wiggins
to develop psychological tests, based on interpersonal word usage, which effectively measure an
individual's level of agency or communion.
Among their many applications, the tests have
been used by psychiatrists to study posttraumatic stress disorder in United Nations troops
posted to Croatia and also in performance
evaluations of U.S. army helicopter pilots. On a global scale, Wiggins' tests of interpersonal traits
have been translated into Chinese, Dutch, Hebrew,
German, Spanish and Swedish. Within the
psychology department, Wiggins' work has been
applied to the study of interpersonal problems
(Lynn Alden), left-handedness (Stanley Coren), psychopathy (Robert Hare), social abilities (Del
Paulhus), emotions flames Russell) and individual
differences flames Steiger).
Related research:
• Study of children's understanding of emotion
• Cultural differences in emotional communication
flames Russell, Psychology)
• Examination of cues people use to estimate the
intelligence of others
• Analysis of the ways in which people deceive
themselves (Del Paulhus, Psychology)
• Self concept and self esteem
(Jennifer Campbell, Psychology)
27
Ity of Arts ' Social support for HIV positive men
■ Processes of social comparison (Rebecca Collins,
Psychology)
' Coping with stressful life experiences
■ Cross cultural comparisons of social cognition
(Darrin Lehman, Psychology)
Lynn Alden's research career at UBC involves two
stages. When the clinical psychologist arrived
at UBC in the early 1980s, a major thrust of her work
was to examine treatment programs associated
with alcohol abuse. From 1981 to 1984, Alden helped
set up one of the finest alcohol treatment programs
in North America for the City of Vancouver. Research
publications stemming from the project have been
a major influence on the development of institutional alcohol treatment programs elsewhere. While
her work has since branched out into the field of
interpersonal dysfunction, she continues to research
in the area of behavioural medicine looking
specifically at the effects of stress on cognitive
functioning and stress management techniques.
The primary focus of her current research is understanding why some people are chronically afraid of
social encounters. She has been a key player in
the international effort to describe, characterize and
treat the condition known as avoidant personality
disorder. Alden has studied how peoples' thoughts
about their own social behaviour cause them
to act in particular ways and to elicit particular reactions from those around them. Through questionnaires and observations of social interactions in a
lab setting, Alden has discovered that socially
anxious individuals have a distinctive set of beliefs
and expectations about what will happen in
social situations.
"These people are convinced that if they allow others access to their real selves, they will be
perceived as woefully inadequate and incompetent,"
says Alden. Moreover, to avoid social scrutiny, the
anxious person often becomes passive, noncommittal and nondisclosing, a manner which
often leads to them being overlooked or avoided in
social situations.The anxious person interprets this
neglect as a sign of rejection and further fuels his
or her sense of inadequacy.
Nor does praise help the anxiety problem. Alden's
research shows that positive feedback causes the
socially anxious person to worry about how much
harder they will have to work in order to avoid the
stigma of inadequacy. This research has changed
the understanding and treatment of dysfunctional
conditions such as shyness, non-assertiveness
and depression.
Related research:
• How couples cope collectively and individually
with daily stress. By assessing how well one individual's coping methods mesh with those of
an involved other, this research provides practical
insights into how to improve individual well-
being (Anita DeLongis, Psychology)
• Understanding interactions between parents and children with behavioural problems (Charlotte Johnston,
Psychology)
• An analysis of fear and courage under hazardous
military conditions (Stanley Rachman, Psychology)
• Understanding the social context of pain (Ken Craig,
Psychology)
28
Faculty  of Arts UNDERSTANDING THROUGH
LITERATURE
"For at the heart of the Humanities is
human behaviour, in all its differences, all its
enquiries into the odd and the ordinary,
and all its expressions of disaster and desire.
William New, Department of English, 1993
While psychology studies principles on which the
human mind works, English examines productions of
the mind and the way it expresses itself through
imaginative literary forms.
English represents the largest department in the
Faculty of Arts with some 65 scholars. Over the
last five years faculty members have published more
than 80 books. The list includes critical and biographical studies, scholarly editions of poetry, drama
and fiction, anthologies, grammars, literary histories,
language studies and works on folklore and
children's literature.
Apart from its acclaimed Canadian and Commonwealth literature group, faculty research covers
12 centuries of writing from the anonymous poet
of Beowulf to the latest works from Michael
Ondaatje, Margaret Atwood and Leonard Cohen.
Perhaps nowhere is this breadth of research better
exemplified than in the work of Ira B. Nadel
whose principal scholarly publications divide
into three categories: English literature of the 19th
century; forms and conventions of biography;
and studies of literary modernism, especially the
works of James Joyce and Ezra Pound.
Nadel's doctoral work was in the area of Victorian
fiction and his interest in the writings of the
Victorians is amply reflected in the many books and
articles he has produced on such figures as
Dickens, Thackeray, Wilkie Collins and even Queen
Victoria. Alone or with others, he has edited three
collections of nineteenth-century critical essays,
including the 39-volume edition, The Victorian Muse,
Selected Criticism and Parody of the Period (1986).
He also co-edited four volumes in the Dictionary of
Literary Biography series, anthologies of current biographical and critical assessments of Victorian writers
that have become standard works of reference.
Through the study of such 19th century writers as
Walter Pater, Anthony Trollope and George Eliot,
Nadel developed an extensive publications record on
biography and autobiography. His book Biography:
Fiction, Fact & Form (1984) has been acknowledged
as one of the best modern examinations of
biography as a literary genre, and praised for its
contribution to the development of a poetics
of biography. The book's importance was underlined
soon after its publication by its nomination for
the prestigious James Russell Lowell prize awarded
by the Modern Language Association of America.
Over the last seven years, his interest in the
varieties of personal writing have led him
into fruitful examination of such major 20th
century writers as Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein,
James Joyce and George Orwell. Working with
unpublished letters and manuscripts, he has edited
and published with the University of Texas Press
the letters of Pound to magazine editor Alice Corbin
Henderson (1993), letters which offer a new
perspective upon the poet's views of emerging
literary movements in the first half of this century.
As for James Joyce, one of Ireland's pre-eminent
men of letters, Nadel has written and lectured on
many aspects of the author's life and work. Perhaps
his best work to date is Joyce and the Jews:
Culture and Texts (1989). In this study, Nadel draws
on his considerable knowledge of Jewish writing
and tradition to show significant parallels between
29
Faculty  of Arts Jewish history and experience and Joyce's life
and outlook in his self-imposed exile from Ireland.
Still other areas of Nadel's scholarly activity are his
critical studies of Canadian writers such as Irving
Layton and A. M. Klein, or his bibliographical
account of Jewish Writers of North America. His critical work, Leonard Cohen, A Life in Art (1994) is a
prelude to his comprehensive biography of Cohen
now being researched. In addition to chairing the
Graduate Program in the Dept. of English, Nadel is a
book critic for CBC Radio.
On the subject of Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre,
Paul Yachnin has published in most of the leading
journals of Renaissance scholarship. These include
Renaissance and Reformation (University of Toronto),
English Quarterly Renaissance (University of
Massachusetts) and Shakespeare Quarterly, the most
prestigious publication in contemporary studies
of the bard, housed in the Folger Shakespeare
Library in Washington, D.C. One of Yachnin's special
concerns is with the theatre as an institution: not
only how it functioned within the culture of the
day, but also how it contributed to the development
of a modern brand of subjectivity. He argues that
the Elizabethan theatre did not have the political
power or influence that has traditionally been
ascribed to it. Rather, the theatre turned interpretation over to the audience. Through close analyses of
Shakespeare's plays, Yachnin found them to be
deliberately ambiguous to contemporary political
issues, and increasingly preoccupied with interior
individual experience or the self. His article
Ideological Contradiction and the Creation of the Self
in Shakespearian Tragedy has been included in an
important new anthology of critical essays on
Shakespeare and modern theory.
In addition to his critical and theoretical writing,
Yachnin, winner of the 1993 Alumni Prize for
Research in the Humanities, has been involved in a
large-scale editing project on works of playwright
Thomas Middleton. He recently edited two texts by
Middleton, to be incorporated into the Oxford
University Press edition on The Complete Works of
Thomas Middleton.
Dante scholar Marguerite Chiarenza heads a
13-member Dept. of Hispanic and Italian
Studies. Spanish research encompasses critical editions of
medieval texts, the 17th century Spanish novel, 18th
century philosophic and scientific
literature, the modern Spanish novel and Spanish-
American narrative, poetry and the essay.
Italian scholarship includes examinations of centres
of culture in Renaissance Italy, the language
ofpre-unification Italy and philosophical dimensions
of Dante's thought.
m
1
1
30
Faculty of Arts Related research:
• Through the book Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde
to the Suffragettes, English Prof. Joel Kaplan
(co-author) juxtaposes British fashion and social life
with the country's West End theatre scene from the
early 1890s to the years immediately preceding the
First World War.
• Comparing the works of Spanish dramatist Lope de
Vega, Spain's foremost playwright in the 16th and
17th century, with England's William Shakespeare
(Isaac Rubio-Delgado, Hispanic and Italian Studies)
• Studies of contemporary Italian cinema, culture and
literature (Carlo Testa, Hispanic and Italian Studies)
In the field of French literature, Ralph Sarkonak has
established himself as a leading critic of Claude
Simon, one of France's greatest 20th century writers.
As Sarkonak observes in the 1990 book
Understanding Claude Simon, novels by the French
Nobel Prize winner "are part and parcel of the
modern tradition of our century with its penchant
for fragmentation, self-reflexivity, quotation, and
textual weaving."
Recently, Sarkonak has turned his attention to the
works of Herve Guibert and how he thematicized the
body in different ways. A writer/journalist who died
from AIDS in 1991, Guibert's writings include autobiography, fictional diaries, phototexts, short stories
and novels. One of the most significant thematic patterns underlying his work is that of the human body.
Sarkonak notes that from the body of the child to
that of a prematurely aged gay man dying of AIDS,
Guibert wrote almost continuously of the body and
its many guises.
UNDERSTANDING THROUGH RELIGION
Research in the Department of Religious Studies
touches on diverse topics such as the spread of
Chinese Buddism, the early history of Jewry in
Canada and the works of fourth-century writer Hilary
of Poitiers, whose works were an important bridge
between the Latin and Greek cultures of the time.
One of the most ambitious projects to date has
been Hanna Kassis' concordance of the Qur"an, the
Muslim sacred scriptures. The concordance, which
was a 10-year undertaking that began in the
mid-1970s, has been heralded as the most important
and useful tool yet published for English-
speaking students of the text.
For millions of English-speaking Muslims in Britain,
Pakistan, South Africa, Canada and the United
States, Kassis' work has brought new meaning to
the Qur'an. Each entry in the 1,600 page concordance is supplied with a grammatical explanation,
a dictionary commentary explaining its true
meaning as used in the Qur'an as well as a list
of all the places that a particular word appears.
Kassis explains that a great deal of the Qur'an's
message is lost in translation because readers
cannot pick up the nuances of the Arabic language
or the reason for the use of one word
rather than another.
Together with Karl Kobbervig of Hispanic and Italian
Studies, Kassis completed a second concordance
of the Qur'an in Spanish. This was not simply a
translation of the first concordance, but a new work
based on Spanish versions of the Qur'an.
Muslim Spain continues to be a major research focus
for Kassis, especially the interactions between Islam
and Christianity. With an expertise on Islamic numismatics and Arabic literary sources, he has been able
to examine the Christian-Muslim confrontation in
Spain from the Muslim perspective. Kassis drew on
original numismatic, epigraphical and literary
sources to write a history of the Islamic response to
and perceptions of Christianity in 11th century
Spain, the century that terminated in the Crusades.
Related research:
> Research into relations between the ideology and
institutions of Christian religion and the forms of literary activity in western culture, focusing on two
decisive epochs: Late Antiquity (C200-600 CE), the
age of Church Fathers such as Augustine and Jerome;
and the Renaissance in Northern Europe, especially
31
Faculty  of Arts England in the two centuries from Erasmus to
Milton (C1500-1700 CE). The aim is to document
ways in which readers and writers of the later period
received, adapted and developed the literary practices of their predecessors. (Mark Vessey, English)
• A book about the theological significance of the
English Reformation on certain literary figures
in the late 16th century and early 17th century. This
study describes the Elizabethan settlement as
reflected in the works of John Jewel, Richard Hooker
and John Donne by exploring the doctrine of the
church, the nature of authority and sacramental
theology as central issues of Anglicanism.
(Paul Stanwood, English)
A study of the Gospel of Mark in light of late-
first century Christian controversies, paying
particular attention to how literary form articulates
Mark's themes
The study Myth, Mirror, Identity: Reflections on
Genesis and Early Biblical Narrative deals with
archaeological evidence and mythic patterns in the
literatures of the Semitic and Indo-European
peoples with whom the Israelites are known to
have traded. (Alexander Globe, English)
Critical edition and study of the anonymous 15th-
century Castilian translation of Pierre Bersuire's
Ovidius moralizatus. The document belongs to a
long tradition of medieval commentaries on the
Classics which interprete pagan mythology in terms
of Christian allegory. The critical edition aims to
make the Castilian text accessible to contemporary
readers. (Derek Carr, Hispanic and Italian Studies)
»The history of Judaism in Canada (Richard Menkis,
Religious Studies)
The history of ideas and institutions during the
transformation of the late antique Roman period
(Paul Burns, Religious Studies)
• The literary and conceptual integrity of the Book of
Job and shorter studies on various aspects of biblical and related texts, including the Dead Sea Scrolls
(Paul Mosca, Religious Studies)
UNDERSTANDING THROUGH CLASSICS
By studying the ancient civilizations of ancient
Greece and Rome, Classical scholarship helps
put contemporary society into philosophical,
intellectual and literary context.
Work of UBC's 12 classicists has attracted attention
not only of their peers but the wider reading
public. Archaeological expeditions led by department
members over several years have uncovered the
Roman city of Anemurium on Turkey's south coast
and traced its development into the early Byzantine
period. Reaching its greatest prosperity during
the second and third centuries A.D., Anemurium's
major public buildings included two theatres, three
public baths supplied by two aqueducts, and a
civic basilica.
Several department members are involved in a
project which scrutinizes the influence of Greco-
Roman heritage on cultural development of
both North and South America. One of these studies
examines a classically educated Jesuit who, early
in the 18th century, lived among the Mohawks. This
same Jesuit recommended that the Mohawks
settle at the Kahanawake Reserve, site of the 1990
Oka uprising. On the publications side, the work of
Allan Evans, named to the Royal Society of Canada
in !993. is especially impressive. For 35 years, Evans
has made significant contributions across a wide
range of Classical Antiquity, most notably in
three areas: Papyrology and the history of Graeco-
Roman Egypt; Herodotus and fifth-century Athens;
and Procopius and the Later Roman Empire.
From a corroded sliver of bronze the size of a floppy
disc, Classics Prof. James Russell has pieced together
a sizeable chunk of Roman military history. For 23
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Faculty  of Arts years, this Roman archaeologist has excavated a site
in southern Turkey and displayed his findings at a
nearby museum. In 1990, the museum curator
casually pulled an unimpressive object from a desk
drawer and asked Russell his opinion. The bronze
fragment turned out to be one of a handful of
remaining military diplomas granted to veterans who
served in the eastern provinces of the Roman
empire. A mere seven square centimetres, the tiny
sheet was engraved with lettering on both sides.
The fragment represented only a quarter of the original tablet. It took a year of dogged detective
work before Russell could translate and reconstruct
the missing portion of this particular veteran's
story. Through a painstaking process of cross-referencing the Kalin Oren fragment with others found
in Europe and elsewhere, Russell was able to reconstruct the entire auxiliary army of Palestine in the
half century after the Bar Kokhba revolt. As the only
major conflict of Hadrian's reign from 117-138,
this military operation sowed the seed for today's
Middle East tensions.
Romans were such precise record keepers that
Russell says it isn't necessary to have a document
perfectly intact. Most follow the same formulaic
pattern. Discharge diplomas served much the same
purpose as modern-day passports. They provided
proof of citizenship for the soldier, his wife, his children and their descendants. They also contained
an elaborate list of the reigning emperor's titles and
offices as well as the name of the soldier's unit
and his commanding officer.
But it is the lives of ordinary citizens which most
interest Russell. By reconstructing the biographies of
many ordinary people rather than one emperor,
Russell says historians get a much clearer idea of life
at the grassroots level. Russell is the first Canadian
president of the Archaeological Institute of America.
ARTS AND  TECHNOLOGY
"Increasing emphasis has been and will be placed
upon the sciences and upon technology
within our university and this, within limits, must
not only be accepted but is right and
proper. However, as one who was brought up in the
humanities and social sciences, I would like
to point out that while those of us who belong to these
disciplines must become more familiar with
science and the scientific spirit, the fact remains that
human nature has not changed to any
marked degree during the long march of history.
Norman MacKenzie, 1961
When President MacKenzie made these remarks during his retiring congregation address, the UBC computing centre was four years old, as was its centrepiece, the ALWAC electronic computer. Walter Gage,
Dean of Administrative and Inter-Faculty Affairs,
believed the ALWAC would provide the modern
means of analyzing problems of both a scientific and
social nature. At the outset, applications in social
sciences weren't a high priority. As Basil Stuart-
Stubbs, professor emeritus with the School of
Library, Archival and Information Studies, recalls,
"the machine was primarily a number cruncher
used by mathematicians and scientists for their
calculations, and not much else."
Few areas on campus better illustrate the profound
impact that computer technology has had on
university life than the library. By the mid-sixties,
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Faculty  of Arts UBC was one of the first major libraries in North
America to have a large, computer-based
system for circulating books. Gone were the paper
slips and carbon copies. At last, librarians were
able to identify who had a book and when it was
due back. Records show circulation rates skyrocketing from 792,918 loaned items in 1964-65 (the
year a computer-based system was introduced)
to 1,069,894 the following year. But the ubiquitous
computer is a double-edged tool with both negative and positive potential.
A quarter of a century later, the library school's 13
faculty members are wrestling with issues regarding
access and control, dissent and free thought.
Examples include how national, political, economic
and cultural views affect indexers' identification
of titles in library catalogues or the stocking of
controversial books.
For the last 15 years, Peter Simmons has been tackling the problem of how to standardize scientific and
technical information exchanged among international
libraries. In the late 1960s the Library of Congress
produced MARC, a standard computer format for the
exchange of bibliographic records between U.S.
libraries. MARC formats for Canadian libraries were
published by the National Library of Canada in the
mid-1970s, and by the early 1980s more than 20
countries produced their own national MARC formats, each with variations to meet unique national
needs. By the late 1980s a number of national
libraries had agreed on the international UNIMARC
standard which allows the exchange of computer
records between national libraries.
Although the MARC standards have permitted the
widespread exchange of information among national
government agencies, scientific and technical information has remained under the control of a small
number of well-funded and well-equipped agencies,
most in Canada, the United States and Europe.
Simmons says that it is taken for granted that if
Canadians need information about Canadian education, medicine or aspects of Canadian technology,
they must conduct costly searches in American databases. For researchers in less developed countries,
inability to pay for these database services usually
means they do not have access to scientific and
technical information in the developed world. It also
means that they often have no access to information
produced in their own country.
Simmons explains that in fields such as public
health, agriculture, water treatment or
housing construction with local materials, international research results are efficiently acquired
from technical reports. Often these are funded by
international agencies and foreign aid from
wealthy countries and then offered for sale back to
countries that most need the information. "This
situation will continue until standards exist to permit
small research agencies in poor countries to
exchange information using inexpensive computers
and freely available software," says Simmons,
who is working to produce and refine a standard
for this kind of data exchange.
Simmons has developed The Common Communication Format (CCF), which has been published by
UNESCO in a number of languages. In 1990, he
produced a computer program for MS-DOS
computers which makes it possible to convert
bibliographic information to and from the CCF format, and between CCF and MARC. This allows
small agencies not only to exchange information
internationally, but also easily contribute information
to and retrieve it from their own national library.
Simmons has travelled to countries in Asia, Africa,
the Caribbean, Latin America and eastern and
western Europe teaching technical support personnel
how to adapt UNESCO materials for local use.
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Faculty of Art Related research:
> An ongoing survey describing the computer
systems installed in school libraries to automate
library functions
> A revised and expanded instructional manual and
resource book to help teacher-librarians deal
with the technical services aspects of their role as
library managers (Lynne Lighthall, Library,
Archival and Information Studies)
»A study defining the requirements for an electronic
records system which guarantees accountability,
provides authentic proof of actions and transactions
carried out by administrations and businesses and
ensures the preservation of records of continuing
value (Luciana Duranti, Terence Eastwood; Library,
Archival and Informational Studies)
TECHNOLOGY AND LANGUAGE
One of the key benefits derived from emerging
CD-ROM technology is the collaborative learning it
promotes between students and teachers. Perhaps
nowhere is this benefit more pronounced than in
the area of foreign language acquisition.
When Joerg Roche joined UBC's Dept. of Germanic
Studies six years ago he would interview close to
200 students for 10 minutes each to determine their
proficiency level. Today, thanks to a computerized
placement program he devised, students are able
to test themselves in the Faculty of Arts language
laboratory. Roche's practical invention, now in use at
other universities across the country, is just one
example of technological tools which are changing
the way languages are taught.
Installed in 1992, the Faculty of Arts language
laboratory is a leading multi-media operation
in the province. Twenty-four workstations (expanded
by a 30-station lab and a 10-station drop-in
lab in 1994) are equipped with light-weight headsets
and microphones, audio cassette decks, PC and
Macintosh computers, VCR machines and video
monitors, all connected to a master control panel in
the instructor's booth. Using a file server, instructors
can send separate programs to each station
involving one or more of the available computer,
video and audio options. The lab's modern,
open concept is in stark contrast to the regimented
rows of listening booths found in the previous
audio laboratories. The third phase of the language
laboratory expansion will eventually incorporate
satellite programming, CD-ROMs, video, sound
cards and personal computers for even greater
multi-media integration.
The Faculty of Arts lab also provided crucial input
into the design of a similar laboratory which
has operated for four years in UBC-Ritsumeikan
House, a residence with 200 UBC and Ritsumeikan
University students from Japan. The Ritsumeikan
setup integrates the functions of a traditional
language laboratory with the data processing,
text, graphic and video capabilities of 22 networked
Macintosh computers.
For the purposes of their own teaching and research,
Roche and colleague Peter Willmer say modern
computer technology plays a crucial role in bridging
subject matter and foreign language didactics.
Their goal is to increase specialized language instruction in areas such as forestry, ecology, science and
business. Computer programs allow students
to gain up-to-date access to research publications
in various disciplines and languages. According to
Roche, the practical application of language acquisition, versus more formal, literature-based language
learning, has been talked about for well over
400 years. He and Willmer are simply carrying out
a centuries-old idea which modern technology
allows them to act on.
Their project, called Computer-Assisted Learning of
Languages for Special Purposes (LSP), moves toward
more specialized, immediately useable skills in foreign languages. "For business-minded students we
can teach the business language of a country, what
35
Faculty of Arts Rentwsuntt scholar Nancy preliek ami coll
Bill Winder have created a database of 16th
century French poetry. The database will be used
to create a multimedia, critical edition of interest
to linguistic and literary scholars.
36
culty of Arts that country's customs are, and how you should
behave when negotiating contracts," says
Roche. "Given the increasing trend to higher
specialization and global co-operation in all disciplines, it is only logical to design courses or
programs which offer the necessary often
indispensable linguistic tools to meet today's
challenging requirements."
A first set of program modules has been developed
in the area of German for the Humanities. Other
modules being developed include Business German,
German for Economics and German for Social and
Natural Sciences. Roche and Willmer have just
completed the first set of a self-directed, fully-automated language program for special purposes.
While basic instruction can be done either in a classroom or lab setting, individual special-purpose
sections are self-taught mainly through computer.
Roche, with a background in linguistics and language
didactics, has also been interested in natural
sequences in second language acquisition. He often
meets students who are adept at reciting prepositions and other structural properties of foreign
languages but aren't able to use them productively.
"It's dead information and modern didactics
works on the premise that, above all, language
should be useable and not left to stagnate,"
says Roche. Through intensive study of the
sequences students follow in learning a language,
Roche has devised a program which he believes
is the optimal sequence covering the first two years
of basic German grammar. This research constitutes the basis for a new generation of textbooks
he and colleague Norma Wieland are designing.
Apart from second-language acquisition and linguistics, literary research among the eight-member Dept.
of Germanic Studies ranges from the medieval period
to the present and features histories of German literature, political theatre, literary anarchism and censorship in the Weimar Republic.
Related research:
> Development of software for automatically distinguishing the words of a natural language
text. The software evaluates each word of a
continuous text and decides in what grammatical
category it belongs, according to the information
contained in its associated database and the
immediate context of the word being evaluated
(William Winder, French)
■ Construct a textual database of several 16th century
texts looking at both their linguistic and literary
aspects (Nancy Frelick, William Winder, French)
■ To enrich, reorganize and computerize the French
department's present collection of recorded and
printed material of spoken French
■ An analysis of spoken French in terms of administrative and explanatory language. The aim is to show
how forms specific to written communication, such
as punctuation and typography, can be relayed by
specific syntactic structures in the spoken language.
(Christine Rouget, French)
ARTS AND THE NET
"Open computer networks support a remarkable new form
of evolution. Whole new institutions- -BBSs,
Internet Relay Chat, and e-mail—encapsulated in
software, spread at the speed of an ftp/install
cycle, and mutate when people modify them... Where
software relates to people in new ways, each
variation is a computer-mediated institution, an
uncontrolled experiment in social change.
Peter Danielson, 1994
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Faculty of Arts Peter Danielson came to UBC in 1990. Since then, a
good portion of his research has concentrated on
the ethical problems and potentials of information
technology. An associate professor in the Dept. of
Philosophy, Danielson introduced something he calls
virtual seminars as part of his project, Computer
Ethics Through Thick and Thin. As he explains it,
computer-assisted communication is a plastic
medium of interaction. It can be used to increase
or decrease the amount of information available
in a discussion.
An important open question in applied ethical theory
is the amount of personal information that
should be made available during ethical discussion
and decision-making. Are there times when people
ought to remain anonymous for the sake of whistle-
blowing? Others might not feel free to discuss
certain issues if their age, gender, weight or family
status were known. Danielson's virtual seminars use
a variety of computer-mediated communication
modes (electronic mail lists, etc.) to engage in,
evaluate and improve current professional practice.
The experiment has also enhanced computer-based
tools for conducting ethical discussions. Prior to
coming to UBC, Danielson taught philosophy as well
as artificial intelligence and logic programming for 12
years at York University. In his 1992 book Artificial
Morality, he uses robots paired in abstract games
that model social problems (such as environmental
pollution) by rewarding both co-operators and
also those who exploit others' co-operative efforts.
The most recent versions of these computer
simulations actually generate new players through
genetic programming techniques drawn from
artificial life research. The modeling and network
research come together in a third project, which
attempts to turn conventions in the Internet in
an ethical direction. Says Danielson, "When we use
the internet, we and our computer tools are
together something like the robot studies. What
makes them evolve in an ethical direction may
help us to evolve better conventions for computer-
mediated communication."
Danielson is among eleven UBC philosophers who
probe issues of moral freedom and responsibility as
well as biomedical, professional and environmental
ethics in a society preoccupied with material growth.
CONSIDERING GENDER  IN  THE ARTS
.no woman by reason of her sex shall be
deprived of any advantage or privilege accorded to
male students of the University."
University Act, 1908
Despite this lofty pronouncement, participation by
women in B.C.'s post-secondary education
system was confined mainly to the arts in the opening decades of this century. Early efforts sought
to ensure a more equal treatment of women on
UBC's campus. These efforts included the establishment in 1919 of the first degree-granting nursing
program in the British Commonwealth, the appointment of a Dean of Women (1921), the introduction
of a home economics course in 1943, and the
erection of women's residences in 1951. Alongside
these outward measures came changes to the status
of women and their work, as well as an overall
heightened feminist consciousness.
Over the last 20 years, UBC students and faculty
have demonstrated steady interest in Women's
Studies. The university established a Women's
Studies program in 1991, after recognizing that the
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Faculty of Arts field could not be covered adequately within traditional disciplines. With its own texts, journals
and methodologies, Women's Studies crosses many
departments and faculties.
WOMEN IN LITERATURE
The advent of Women's Studies has aroused a good
deal of interest in the history of women in the 19th
and early 20th century. Diaries by women are a
major source of information on their lives and self-
perception. Frequently, they are the only source giving the woman's perspective. Several studies have
been produced of diaries written by women in North
America and Britain.
Valerie Raoul, who heads 17 faculty in UBC's Dept.
of French, is undertaking the first extensive
study of diaries by women in French. The short-term
objective is to analyse several published diaries
written by women in France between 1850 and 1920.
Raoul's long-term goal is to expand the project
to incorporate French diaries by women in Quebec
and other francophone areas and extend the time
limit to the present. In each case, her analysis
will consider four theoretical elements: contextual
(situating the text in time and place); narrative
(examining the structure of the text and the relationship of what is related to how and to whom);
stylistic (use of rhetoric, imagery, pronouns, sentence
structure); and psychoanalytic (re-evaluating the
theory of narcissism, especially as it relates to self-
other confusion and the use of language to
regulate self esteem.)
Raoul also plans to study the relationship between
the diary and dramatic works of French writer
Marie Leneru. Her diary, written between 1893 and
1918 (when she died at the age of 43) is of interest
for two reasons. Leneru was deaf from the age of
14, and the diary helps explain why this led her to
imagine dialogues and write for theatre at a
time when no other women were doing so successfully in France. Secondly, her deafness meant
that she was unlikely to marry. Raoul notes that her
plays "address questions which are of great
interest from a later feminist perspective, regarding
self-definition and self-affirmation for women."
Raoul adds that there are now several studies by
North American scholars on women's autobiography
as a tradition different from men's. However, these
works focus on retrospective autobiographical
narration and do not address characteristics such as
fragmentation and open-endedness which are
particular to diary-writing.
Part of Raoul's research involves collaborating with
specialists on diaries in other languages and other
types of autobiography by women. English Asst.
Prof. Susanna Egan, for example, is looking at
women's problems of self-recognition, definition
and projection in 19th century autobiography, poetry
and prose fiction.
Asianist Tineke Hellwig's book, In the Shadow of
Change: Women in Indonesian Literature (1994),
is the culmination of four years of research. Through
an examination of 25 novels and three long
stories, the work analyses how women have been
represented in fiction between 1937 and 1986.
It is also a revision of Hellwig's Dutch PhD dissertation Kodrat Wanita, an Indonesian term which
refers to a woman's innate destiny to nurture and
sacrifice her own needs for the benefit of others.
The 50-year period that Hellwig studied was a time
of historic change for Indonesian society.
However, as the author points out, women took
no part in bringing about those changes and their
reactive role was consistently portrayed in the
literature of the time. "The norms and values consid
ering gender issues which emerge from these
works of literature give us a good understanding of
the society which produced them."
Born in Surabaya, Indonesia of a Dutch father
and an Indonesian mother, Hellwig started studying
Indonesian languages and cultures in 1976
and received her Master's degree in Indonesian and
Malay language and literature from Leiden University
39
Faculty  of Arts in The Netherlands. In 1990, a year after joining
UBC's Dept. of Asian Studies, she finished her PhD
on images of women in Indonesian novels. Her
current research focuses on the interrelationship
between colonial literature and women's status
during the drastic political and social changes in the
Dutch Indies around 1900.
Hellwig says Chinese Malay and Betawi Malay (Malay
being the language which was renamed Indonesian
in 1928) works of fiction from this era offer an
abundance of themes dealing with women as institutionalized concubines and wives of men who belong
to another class or race. The work deals with
unexamined texts drawn from libraries and private
collections in Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, The Netherlands
and France. By concentrating on the portrayal of
women and on the role women have played as
writers, Hellwig's study offers new insight into the
development of Indonesian and Malay literature.
Related research:
The writings in Russian of contemporary women
authors, poets, fiction writers and polemicists is
explored by Barbara Heldt. Heldt has published
chapters in Perestroika and Soviet Women (1992)
and Sexuality and the Body in Russian Culture
(1993). She is also contributing a chapter on gender
and the Russian novel in the Cambridge Companion
to the Russian Novel.
Asianist Joshua Mostow examines Japanese women's
diaries from the 10th through 14th centuries
GENDER, JOBS AND SOCIAL CHANGE
Research among UBC's 14 sociologists focuses not
only on issues in western industrialized countries
but also in the rapidly industrializing areas of the
Pacific Rim like south China, Korea and Sri Lanka.
There are strong interests in comparative and
historical research on work and unionism, gender
relations, crime and justice, environmental issues
and the role of social movements in modern
societies. Projects link sociologists to colleagues
in law, forestry, natural resources, political science,
Asian studies and genetics.
The division between men's and women's work is a
predominant feature of Canada's labour market. In
comparison to men, Canadian women work in a
limited range of occupations, principally clerical or
service, with fewer prospects for promotion, limited
benefits, lower pay and fewer recognized skills.
This situation has changed little during the last half
century in spite of the rapid increase of women
in the labour force. Gender segregation also continues despite the rapid transformation of work
through the consolidation of corporate capital, technological change and the growth of white-collar
occupations and accompanying managerial practices.
Sociologist Gillian Creese has been preoccupied with
job gendering since completing her doctoral thesis
on Vancouver's early labour movement from the late
19th century to the Second World War. Chair of the
faculty's Women's Studies Program, Creese's
research to date has centred on some of the structural dynamics of job gendering: historical trade
union exclusion of women and women's issues;
state policies such as gender-specific minimum wage
legislation; and the contemporary role of unions in
structuring gender divisions and hierarchies through
labour negotiations with employers.
For her present research, Creese links the structural
and individual experiences of women and men
who work in a single but segregated workplace.
Studies have shown that women and men employed
in the same industry, even those working for
the same employer, are unevenly effected by restructuring. Using a B.C.-based heavy equipment company as a case study, she will conduct biographical
interviews with 60 men and women (30 each) from
non-managerial positions documenting the effects
that economic restructuring has had on their
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Faculty of Arts expectations, opportunities and family obligations.
She will compare interviews over three time periods:
those hired in the 1950s and '6os, the 1970s,
and the 1980s.
Creese said the project should provide "a window on
men's and women's experiences of continuity and
change in gendered work patterns, variation over
one's life cycle and across generations, and the consequences of economic change on personal lives."
She also plans to explore further the internal dynamics of job gendering in union politics and labour
negotiations. With women now constituting close to
40 per cent of union membership in Canada,
Creese expects unions to play an increasing role in
structuring gender work in the future.
Related research:
> The so-called new social movements (NSMs) that
have emerged, especially in advanced industrialized
societies since the 1960s, are regarded by some
observers as the new emissaries of progressive
change. Over the last few years, sociologist R. S.
Ratner has examined the contradictions between the
singular objectives of individual NSMs and their
attempts to forge alliances.
Ratner's research is based on a study of 13 social
movement organizations (including labour) in
the Lower Mainland area of B.C. Approximately 300
in-depth interviews of organization leaders and members were conducted over a three-year period. These
interviews identified tensions among the diverse
social movement groups and their agendas concerning environmental, women's, peace,
sexual liberation, anti-poverty and aboriginal issues.
The ultimate aim of Ratner's research is to
evaluate the claim that new social movements are
the "contemporary carriers of the transformative
role once attributed to the working class."
» For 20 years, research by sociologist Martha Foschi
used elements of sociology and psychology to
examine systems of social inequality and the per
sonal and interpersonal processes that contribute to
them. Much of Foschi's recent work addresses the
problem of double standards, what role they play in
the evaluation of performance, and under what
conditions they are used.
MAKING  INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIONS
ARTS AND THE PACIFIC
Described as one of the most important cultural
resources in Canada, UBC's Dept. of Asian
Studies explores Korea, China, Japan, South and
Southeast Asia and those regions' links with
Europe and North America (See President's Report
Toward the Pacific Century). Asianists probe
language, literature, thought and culture from the
dawn of history to today in China and India.
Works by the 23 department members include:
a multi-volume study of the Indian linguist-philosopher Bhartrhari; a definitive edition, with translations
and commentaries, of the works of the medieval
Indian poet Surdas; a controversial study of the 19th
century origins of Sikhism; a prize-winning study
of popular rebellions in China; a new interpretation
of the origins of Neo-Confucianism; and a new study
of relations between Japanese painting and poetry.
Certainly no topic of Asian research pre-dates that
studied by Kenichi Takashima. He is helping unravel
ancient mysteries in the exclusive field dealing
with oracle bone inscriptions of China's Shang
Dynasty. Since 1990, Takashima has been writing
an annotated translation of inscriptions contained in
the Archaeologica Sinica, considered the most
comprehensive collection of surviving Shang texts.
The careful excavation of the collection's six
thousand inscriptions guarantees their authenticity,
unlike many of the traditional written sources
purporting to deal with the state and society of
Ancient China. The material is delicately inscribed
41
Faculty  of Arts on tortoise shells, and describes in considerable
detail the activities of the king, members of
the royal family, the imperial diviners and officials,
feudal lords, regional clans, soldiers and foreign
powers. In the process, Takashima says the
inscriptions reveal the aspirations and assumptions
of Chinese during the third millenium B.C.
"These were the ancestors of what has become
the world's oldest continuous civilization," says
Takashima. "Many of the cultural attitudes shaping
Chinese civilization derive directly from attitudes and
practices already visible in these early societies."
Takashima is the only senior scholar outside China,
and one of the very few anywhere, undertaking
a careful examination of the morphology and
syntax of the oracle bone inscriptions as a language.
He says the Archaelogica Sinica inscriptions,
which are written in a very early form of Chinese
script, are virtually a closed book to those outside
the field. These ongoing linguistic investigations are
of keen interest to those studying the history
and nature of Chinese and its relationship to
other languages.
Takashima aims to find solutions to the linguistic
puzzles presented by the archaic texts and make the
data they contain more accessible to the needs of
other scholars.
In the 21 years he has been at UBC, Takashima
has written an impressive total of three books
in Chinese palaeography, three book-length
articles, 28 scholarly articles, five reviews and 11
scholarly translations.
While Takashima delves into China's ancient past,
Michael S. Duke has his sights set firmly on
the country's cultural future. His research on culture
and ideology in contemporary (1978-1992) Chinese
fiction consists of intellectual and literary analyses
of works by 10 writers, many of whom he met while
studying in Beijing in the late 1980s.
The Tiananmen Massacre prompted Duke to drop
research on modern Chinese thought temporarily and
write The Iron House, his eye witness report of
the events of spring and summer 1989 in Beijing. He
re-established contact with Chinese writers and
intellectuals in Bejing, Changsha, Los Angeles and
Chicago, and his current research goal is to answer
questions such as: How do these writers characterize traditional Chinese culture in their fiction?
What moral values are apparent in their works?
What kinds of behaviour do their works enforce or
undermine? What do they consider to be the role
of traditional Chinese culture in Chinese life today?
In view of the role these works of fiction play in
determining China's intellectual and popular climates
of thought and opinion, Duke believes his project is
even more relevant to understanding the future
of China than it was before the massacre of June 4,
1989. "These writers' ideas count among a very large
segment of the educated public in China today,"
says Duke. "After the demise of the current political
regime, their ideas will once again assert a powerful
influence on Chinese culture." Currently head of
UBC's Dept. of Asian Studies, Duke is author of
Blooming and Contending: Chinese Literature in the
Post-Mao Era. He is also editor of Contemporary
Chinese Literature: An Anthology of Post-Mao Fiction
and Poetry, and translator of writer Su Tong's Raise
the Red Lantern: Three Novellas.
In 1997 the People's Republic of China acquires
sovereignty over Hong Kong. During the last decade,
Canada has received a flood of Hong Kong
immigrants wary of the advent of an authoritarian
government after 150 years of free enterprise. The
territory has emerged as Canada's largest single
source of immigrants with more than 38,000 arriving
in 1992 alone.
For the last six years, historian Diana Lary has
co-directed a Canada-wide project examining
the impact of Hong Kong migration to Canada and
the process of acculturation of Hong Kong
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Faculty  of Arts immigrants. The collaborative study involves scholars
from York, McMaster and Simon Fraser universities
as well as the universities of Toronto and Hong
Kong. UBC scholars involved in one or more
of the project's 15 workshops held since 1991 have
included Brian Job, (Institute of International
Relations), Maurice Copithorne (Law) and Graham
Johnson (Sociology). Impetus for the project
began in the mid-1980s while Lary was serving
a two-year term as resident sinologist and cultural
attache at the Canadian Embassy in Peking. Lary
explains that there has been enormous
pressure for people to leave Hong Kong, and that
the pressure increased after 1989. Canada was the
prime destination.
"I think everyone realized then that we needed to
know a lot more about why this was happening
because it was clearly going to continue." Lary also
realized the important role academics could play in
the policy area. While there has been a great deal
of scholarly attention paid to Canada's relationship
with China, relatively little research has been done
looking at Hong Kong as a distinct territory.
Lary chartered her academic career during her early
years in the British school system. Not wanting to
study German or French, she chose Chinese Studies,
an interest she converted into a Bachelor's degree
and PhD from the University of London. Her doctoral
thesis was on Chinese warlords, a subject for which
she still has more than a passing interest.
Since coming to UBC in 1992 from York, where she
taught Chinese Studies for 15 years, Lary has
taken a broad look at the process of change in Hong
Kong and southern China. Her research looks at
this change from a historical perspective, and at the
way in which Hong Kong has acted as the link
between the West and the rest of Asia. "Hong Kong
is the pivot of two systems," says Lary. "One
internal to China, stretching from Hong Kong
to Guangdong to Lingnan and then to the whole of
China, and the other external to China, from Hong
Kong to Nanyang to the Pacific Rim to the world."
Related research:
> Historian Bill Wray is writing three books on the history of Japan's largest shipping company. These
include: Riding a Tsunami: Japan's NYK Line in the
World War I Era, 1914-1924; Staying Afloat: The NYK,
1921-1945; and The Postwar NYK: 1945-1975. This
research represents a continuation of Wray's previous work which looked at the NYK from 1870 to
1914. Wray examines NYK's corporate development
and business strategies, setting them in the context
of Japan's industrial expansion.
As a leading sector in Japan's spectacular industrialization during the period before the First World War,
the shipping industry generally, and the NYK line
specifically, were important stimulants to Japanese
economic growth. Wray used archives in Japan and
the West, and was the first to gain access to NYK's
business archives. Wray's work is central to an
understanding of Japanese economic growth as well
as Japan's politics and international commerce
before 1945.
» Richard Pearson is studying the booming ancient
trade of Chinese and Southeast Asian high fired
ceramics and other commodities from the China
Coast to Japan and Southeast Asia. For 1,000 years
before the coming of European gunboat traders,
China engaged in various types of peaceful trade
with her maritime neighbours. Pearson looks at the
way trade stimulated economic development in
offshore areas such as Okinawa, which became a
trans-shipping city state when China closed its doors
to Japan from 1372 to 1567. In 1994, research
took Pearson to Quanzhou City, which, when visited
by Marco Polo, was one of the world's greatest
trading ports. Pearson has been doing co-operative
projects in Okinawa since 1962, in addition to
research on Japanese, Chinese and Korean prehistoric archaeology.
43
Faculty  of Arts • A sociological study of Hong Kong immigrants and
their families aimed at finding the causes and
consequences of reverse migration (Brian Elliott,
Anthropology and Sociology)
ARTS AND EUROPE
Canada's experience derives significantly from its
European heritage, and the country's future will be
conditioned by its relations with the rapidly changing Europe. Scholars in several disciplines research
and teach this heritage and help interpret change.
Robert Allen joined the economics department 20
years ago and has established himself as one
of the best economic historians of his generation
and perhaps the best scholar working on European
economic history. English agriculture, especially
the role of 18th century enclosures, has been the
primary focus of Allen's research over the past
decade. His 1982 paper in the Economic Journal
used data from a sample of several hundred farms
to show that income redistribution in favour of
landowners, rather than a rise in efficiency, was
the primary reason for widespread rent increases at
the time of the enclosures. Typical of Allen's further
research was a 1988 paper which used data from
three different sources: estate surveys and land tax
assessments, surveys from 18th century farms and
data on the history of yields from the middle ages
to the 19th century. The results of Allen's painstaking analysis showed that enclosure and the movement to large farms reduced employment and also
that labour productivity doubled between the late
middle ages and the 19th century. Half of this
doubling was due to the rise in yields and the other
to the fall in employment per acre. The discoveries
won Allen the Redlich Prize in 1989 for the best
article published in any of the 15 major international
journals of economic history.
Allen's mastery of broad currents and critical details
of history are further shown in his seminal work,
Enclosure and the Yeoman: Agrarian Change and
English Economic Development 1450-1850, a work
that ranges across seven centuries of British agriculture. This monograph received the Ranki Prize by
the Economic History Association as the best economic history book published in 1992-93.
John Wilson Foster has taught British and Irish
Literature at UBC since 1974. Almost all of his scholarly research—five books, 55 articles or contributions to books, 27 conference papers—has been
dedicated to the investigation of Irish culture, from
the beginnings of Irish folklore and heroic
romance to the literary and political controversies of
modern Ulster and Eire. In terms of Irish literary
tradition and its relation to modern writing, Foster's
book, Fictions of the Irish Literary Revival (1987)
has become a standard reference text for all scholars
working in the field. His most recent work,
Colonial Consequences: Essays in Irish Literature and
Culture, received the 1992 American Conference for
Irish Studies Book Prize for Literary Criticism.
Foster is senior editor of the forthcoming volume,
Nature in Ireland: A Scientific and Cultural History
(1995). His recent scholarly interest in natural history
is reflected also in a book, Darkening the Sun,
on extinction in North American birds.
Along with a strong Canadian and Asian focus, UBC's
31-member Dept. of History stresses European
research. Shipping is among the important themes in
the economic history of Europe before the modern
age. The shipping industry's development was
central to the commercial, military and political
growth in Western Europe and, more generally, to
European overseas expansion from the late 15th
century onward.
A scholar of late-medieval and early-modern
European economic and social history, Richard Unger
is an authority on shipping, shipbuilding and
marine technology. His publications include Dutch
Shipbuilding before 1800: Ships and Guilds
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44
Faculty  of Arts (1978); The Ship in the Medieval Economy (1980)
and The Art of Medieval Technology: Images of
Noah the Shipbuilder (1991). Together these volumes
deal broadly with the economic, social, cultural,
and technological facets of ship construction over
more than a millennium.
His current research deals with medieval and early
modern brewing and the related grain trades in the
Netherlands. Apart from his writing, Unger has been
organizer and participant in UBC's annual medieval
workshop, now in its 25th year, which brings
renowned specialists together to discuss topics as
varied as kingship patterns and peasant protests.
Unger's research efforts have won him a Guggenheim
Fellowship and Killam Research Prize.
Related research:
> Publication of a comparative social history of medicine using birth-weight data from 19th century
Montreal to measure the changing standard of living
during times of industrialization. The project was
subsequently broadened to include data from
Boston, Scotland, Vienna and Australia. This research
proved fundamental for understanding the phenomenon of industrialization and its social impact.
(Peter Ward, History)
• Changes in Soviet thinking about East-West relations
from 1917 to the present. The study provides a
deeper understanding of the nature of Soviet foreign
policy and of present and future opportunities for
expanded co-operation between East and West (Paul
Marantz, Political Science)
- Soviet youth cultures in the decade following the
Russian revolution (Anne Gorsuch, History)
- Analysis of the second trial of Ernst Zundel
• Effects of Nazi policies on German and
Austrian Jews prior to the Second World War
(Leonidas Hill, History)
ARTS AND THE AMERICAS
For years, geographer and human ecologist Alfred
Siemens has flown over the wetlands of meso-
america (from Mexico through to Belize) looking
for patterned ground indicating areas of prehistoric
agriculture, ancient transportation systems or the
remains of possible fish farms.
Siemens and graduate students are in the process of
examining prehistoric agriculture in the lowest
areas of Central Veracruz, just inland from the sea.
These wetlands are clearly lined with remains of
ancient canals and planting platforms, relatively easy
to see from the air but difficult to find on the
ground. Once located, Siemens' excavations seek
to clarify the physical environmental context of
these unique agricultural incursions as well as the
structure, function and chronology of the
features themselves.
Findings point to a highly productive use of terrain
which is subject to seasonal flooding. "Reactivating such systems would seem to offer attractive
alternatives to marginalized rural people in the
lowlands," says Siemens. "But the reversion to
ancient ways is out of phase with present agricultural trends under NAFTA which encourages
modernization of techniques, increases of scale and
rationalization in all aspects of agriculture."
Another project has Siemens exploring canyons in
eastern Mexico that slope toward the port of
Veracruz. The canyons are interesting for their three-
dimensional ecological diversity, especially the agricultural lands along the lower slopes and bottomlands. Siemens explains that the bottomlands,
veined with an intricate network of paths, were
refuges for Indians fleeing Spanish conquerors, and
for escaped slaves and bandits.
Siemens chaired the Presidential Advisory Committee
on a Strategy for the Americas. The committee
was struck to clarify what UBC interests are and
might be in view of Canada's rapidly expanding
involvement in countries to the south.
Ten years ago, archaeologist Michael Blake started
excavating a two-metre-high mound of earth in the
45
Faculty  of Arts middle of a Mexican corn field. So far, his digging
has uncovered a 3,300-year-old home which is one
of at least six similar structures buried one on top of
the other. Situated on a swampy coastal plain about
30 kilometres up the Pacific coast from Guatemala,
the open-concept bungalow features 220 square
metres of living space, a solid clay floor, two fireplaces and an impressive view of the local volcano.
Blake believes the site belonged to a succession
of village chiefs who shared the houses with several
wives, children and younger siblings.
In 1993, the entire fifth floor was excavated in centimetre-thick layers and the scrappings passed
through a fine mesh screen. Among the micro-artifacts found trampled into the floor were carbonized
beans, corn and avocado seeds, pottery fragments,
volcanic glass used for making knives, and fish and
other animal bones discarded from meals. The pres-
cence of jade, volcanic glass and fancy pottery,
some of which match fragments found as far down
the coast as El Salvador, supports the theory that
residents of the house were the village's key players
in local trade and politics. Blake's findings indicate
villagers were developing complex social and
political systems two or three centuries earlier than
previously expected. Funded by SSHRC, Blake
and several graduate students plan to return to the
site in 1995 to excavate smaller mounds for more
clues about the social hierarchy of the times.
Related research:
> The origin of the Pueblo Indians and
Southwestern agriculture (R.G. Matson,
Anthropology and Sociology)
> Project analysing the social structure of Brazil's
ruling groups from 1808 to 1889. Work involves
gathering biographical information in defined
categories on some 15,000 individuals who were
born in Brazil and/or attended an institution of
post-secondary education and/or held certain posts
of importance in Imperial Brazil
> A study of the development of Brazil as a nation
state from the middle of the 19th century to the
early 20th century (Roderick Barman, History)
■ A case-study analysis of the complex relationship
between technology and the work force in the
Mexican mining industry (William French, History)
Archaeological excavation in Mexico indicates complex
social and political systems developed
three centuries earlier than previously expected.
46
Faculty  of Arts FUNDRAISING   INITIATIVES
David and Brenda McLean Chair
in Canadian Studies
Funded through the generosity of David and Brenda
McLean, appointments to this Chair are made
for two year terms in recognition of superior achievements in the many aspects of Canadian Studies.
David and Brenda McLean Endowment
for the University Singers
This endowment will provide funds for periodic
major tours of the highly acclaimed UBC choir,
University Singers.
Arnold and Nancy Cliff
Writer-in-Residence Program
This exciting program will bring writers to UBC
from the many genres within the Dept. of
Creative Writing. Writers will range from younger
scribes to established authors of national and
international prominence. The program is made
possible through the generosity of Nancy Cliff and
the Province of British Columbia.
Hugh Keenleyside Chair in Canadian Diplomacy
Honouring a distinguished alumnus, Dr. Hugh
Keenleyside, the Chair will strengthen the
international and Canadian Studies programs and
serve the growing interest in examining the
role of Canada on the world stage.
Maclean Hunter Chair in Non-Fiction
Business Writing
Funded through the generous support of McLean
Hunter and the Province of British Columbia,
the chair supports two sessional instructors in the
Dept. of Creative Writing. The chair provides
opportunities for students to gain exposure to all
forms and creative techniques in non-fiction
and business writing.
Travelling Research Fellow in Art History
This fellowship will assist graduate students in the
study of works of art in galleries and museums
around the world. Each award will provide the
opportunity to experience significant works of art
and architecture in their cultural context.
Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery
Funded by the Morris and Helen Belkin Foundation,
the gallery will promote understanding and
discussion of contemporary art and issues in art history, criticism and curation. The gallery design
was awarded the 42nd Annual Progressive
Architecture Award. Scheduled to open in 1995,
the gallery will house UBC's growing art collection
and provide a venue for visiting exhibitions.
The Jack Bell Building
The Jack Bell Building opened on Sept. 17, 1993,
providing a new home for the faculty's
School of Social Work. Major funding came from
Jack and John Bell.
ONGOING PROJECTS:
Art Gallery Endowment for Exhibitions
and Acquisitions
Goal: 750,000 (endowment)
The endowment will finance exhibitions and
acquisitions at the Morris and Helen
Belkin Art Gallery. Activities will include the
appointment of technicians and a curator, and
programs of lectures and symposia.
Chair in South-North Studies
Goal: $1.5 million (endowment)
The chair supports research and teaching on the
complex interactions and relationships between
the wealthy countries of the northern hemisphere
and the poorer countries of the south. Issues
range from trade and investment, to environment,
migration and the development of models to
sustain and improve these relationships. A network
of institutions in Latin America, Asia and Canada is
ready to launch research projects focusing on
countries around the Pacific Basin. The chairholder is
Ivan Head, former President of the International
Development Research Centre, which has made
a major contribution to the chair.
47
Faculty  of Arts Teaching and Research in Aboriginal Languages
Goal: $2 million (endowment)
British Columbia is home to more than half of
Canada's 60 Aboriginal languages, making it one of
the most linguistically diverse regions in the world.
Many of these languages are in danger of disappearing forever. The Chair in Aboriginal Languages will
promote the study of Aboriginal languages and contribute to their continuation and preservation. The
chair will provide a focal point for teaching,
research and public education on B.C.'s many
Aboriginal languages.
The Centre for Creative Arts and Journalism
Goal: $16 million (capital)
The 1,200-square-metre centre will provide a unique
environment for artistic interaction and collaboration among students and faculty from the School
of Music, the Dept. of Fine Arts, The Dept. of
Theatre and Film Studies and the Dept. of Creative
Writing. The journalism program, the only degree-
granting program in B.C., will combine graduate
study in academic disciplines with advanced training
in the profession.
Renovation of the Outdoor Sculpture Complex
Goal: $500,000 (capital)
The Museum of Anthropology's Outdoor Sculpture
Complex—sculptures and houses created in
the 1950s and '60s by leading Northwest Coast First
Nations artists—draws more than 100,000 visitors
from around the world each year. Considered of
great significance historically and artistically, the
complex of carvings and structures offer an opportunity to view world-class sculpture in a spectacular
and accessible outdoor setting.
Persian Studies at UBC
Goal: $3.75 million (endowment)
The creation of a program of Persian Studies will
provide students with an opportunity to gain important cross-cultural knowledge and will address the
educational needs of our region's growing Persian
community. Persian civilization, with its cultural,
artistic and political achievements, has had a profound impact on much of Europe, Asia and Africa.
The development of Persian studies is a natural step
in furthering an understanding of the Middle East.
Islamic Studies Endowment
Goal: $3 million (endowment)
Islam is the second-largest religion in the world and
continues to expand. The Islamic world comprises
vast populations in Asia, Africa, the Middle East,
Southern Europe and the Commonwealth of
Independent Russian States. This endowment will
create a program of study pertinent to contemporary
society and designed to contribute to improved
understanding and critical appreciation of Islamic
societies and cultures.
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Faculty  of Arts
■ ...
"une* Deans
Neville Scarfe (1956-73)
John H. M. Andrews (1973-80)
Daniel R. Birch (1981-86)
Nancy M. Sheehan (1987-)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FACULTY OF  EDUCATION
PERSPECTIVES
ON   LEARNING
AND   TEACHING
TIONS
EDUCATION:   THE
EDUCATION  AND  THE
PACIFIC   RIM
Crossing Cultural Boundaries      64
Expanding Modern
Languages and the
Multicultural Curriculum 64
THE  GROWING   NEEDS FACULTY  OF
Education
" The Faculty of Education is committed to preparing teachers, other
educational professionals and individuals interested in health and fitness;
conducting research that will help us understand and improve education
in British Columbia-and elsewhere; and disseminating what we and the
rest of the world-wide research community have discovered about
the educational enterprise. We believe that research and practice are
interdependent. We want to know what works, what doesn't, and wherever
possible, why. There can be no long-term improvement of practice that
is not rooted in systematic and sustained inquiry."
Nancy Sheehan, 1994
Preparations for university based teacher education
in B.C. took root in the UBC philosophy department 22 years before the Faculty of Education was
created in 1956.
At the time of Leonard Klinck's appointment
as UBC's second president in 1919, B.C. elementary
school teachers required few credentials.
Grade 11 graduates could attend a provincial normal
school in Victoria or Vancouver and receive
training for two, 15-week terms. Summer-school was
also available in Victoria to vacationing teachers
looking to upgrade their skills. High school teachers,
many of whom were recruited from Ontario or
Great Britain, were exempt from any such schooling
by virtue of their "superior scholarship."
It was while touring north-eastern B.C. in his former
role as dean of agriculture that Klinck realized secondary-level education needed a dramatic overhaul
if children from remote regions were to attend university. Moreover, he found compelling evidence
that large numbers of UBC graduates were choosing
teaching as a career. Records from the alumni
directory showed 11 of the 36-member class of 1916
had taken up teaching, school administration or
college lecturing posts. In 1917, the ratio was eight
of 33; in 1918, nine of 32; and in 1919, 19 of 46.
49
acuity  of  Educati Klinck's first move was to appoint H.T.J. Coleman
Dean of Arts and Science and head of philosophy.
A philosopher, poet and writer on major educational concepts, Coleman introduced the study
of education at UBC with two courses: Introduction
to Education, which dealt with educational
movements since the beginning of the 19th century,
and Educational Psychology, which focused on
learning theory and educational measurement.
Another guiding force behind the university's first,
full-time teacher education program was its first professor of education, George Moir Weir. A year after
his appointment in 1924, Weir co-authored an
appraisal of B.C's education system which included
this stinging litany:
Present at the opening of the Scarfe Building in 1962
were (from left to right) UBC President
John Macdonald, Education Minister Leslie Peterson,
Dean Neville Scarfe and Chancellor Phyllis Ross.
"Too many married teachers; the immaturity of
the teachers, especially in the rural schools; lack of
vision and professional pride; deficient academic
and professional qualifications, unwillingness to take
additional professional training beyond the legal
minimum; lack of experience; inability adequately to
profit from experience; tendency to change schools
too frequently."
UBC's Department of Education opened in 1926.
Coleman's introductory offerings had been
augmented by courses in school administration and
law, educational tests, measurements and
statistics, psychology of elementary school subjects,
observation, and practice teaching and methods in
elementary and high-school subjects. This was
also the year that a Master of Arts with a minor in
Education was listed in the university calendar, supplemented a decade later with a major in education.
As teacher education expanded in the late 1940s
to meet the post-war, baby-boom demand,
secondary school teachers were expected to have
a bachelor's degree followed by a one-year post-
baccalaureate course leading to certification.
Universities finally took full responsibility for teacher
education with the government's approval of the
four-year BEd (elementary) and a five-year BEd (secondary) programs in 1955. The decision promptly
led to the erection of temporary buildings for 812
students and the combined staffs from UBC's
then School of Education and instructors from the
Vancouver Normal School. With government
support, the faculty grew at a dizzying pace. Seven
years later, 2,415 students registered, the highest
enrolment among similar institutions across
Canada. By the late 1970s, registration topped 5,000
and the faculty had more than 250 full time
professors teaching as many as 175 different undergraduate courses.
As for graduate offerings, a Master of Education
(MEd) was first listed in the 1957 calendar, followed
five years later by a Doctor of Education (EdD) and
a PhD in 1982. 	
50
Ity  of Education Today the faculty complement is 170. A number
of sessionals and seconded teachers are also hired
each year to work in post-baccalaureate teacher
education programs, and in support lab and activity
courses in the School of Human Kinetics. The
faculty is organized into departments of Counselling
Psychology, Curriculum Studies, Educational
Psychology and Special Education, Educational
Studies and Language Education as well as six
teaching/research centres. Renovations and additions
to the Scarfe complex, expected to be completed
in late 1996, will consolidate research and teaching
currently spread across campus.
The faculty has a three-fold commitment to research:
fostering basic and applied research; acting as
a professional research and development resource;
and enhancing the professional research capabilities of B.C. and Canadian educators. Scholarship
interests stretch from daycare and early
childhood education to gerontology education and
exercise science. Research is carried out in
schools, district offices, professional organizations,
local communities and reserves. As well, faculty
provide research and policy advice to various levels
of government on an ongoing basis. The varied
interests of faculty members have led to valuable
cross-disciplinary approaches to emergent themes.
PERSPECTIVES  ON   LEARNING  AND TEACHING
Gaalen Erickson believes that students, far from
being empty vessels or blank slates to be
written on, come to class loaded with their own
base of knowledge drawn from past experience and events. The key to improved learning
and teaching in classrooms, he contends, is
recognizing this fact.
A professor in the Dept. of Curriculum Studies,
Erickson has been studying the extent to
which students use their intuitive knowledge to
make sense of science topics. Since 1978, his
work has focused on describing and cataloguing
students' intuitions about the scientific concepts of
motion, force, sound, heat and temperature.
This initial research on constructivist learning—the
idea that students construct their own meaning from
what happens in a classroom which is often quite
different from that intended by a teacher—has
spawned close to a dozen doctoral dissertations and
nine masters' theses. Furthermore, he has published articles in numerous academic and
professional journals describing this research program and has co-edited a book on the application
of this view of learning in teacher education.
In the last few years, Erickson has incorporated the
constructivist view into UBC's pre-service science
teachers' program. His project, called Investigating
Science Teacher Education Using a Collaborative
Approach, includes a group of experienced teachers
from three Vancouver schools, beginning (pre-
service) teachers and university educators. Each
participant plays a prominent role in the teacher
preparation program either as a methods
instructor or advisor in a classroom practicum.
Erickson is especially interested in how student
teachers' conceptions about teaching, learning and
the nature of science change during their
preparation program and their initial professional
years. According to Erickson, the initial year is critical because new teachers tend to get socialized
into using the more traditional transmission mode of
teaching whereby information is simply made
available to students. "It isn't that people can't learn
from a transmission model," says Erickson, "but
ideally teachers should check before beginning to
teach something to see what students already know
and continue making checks on student learning
along the way."
Case studies of methods and techniques used by
teachers in the project enable others to see
how they might implement a constructivist approach
in their own classrooms.
51
Faculty  of  Education Erickson, director of UBC's Centre for the Study of
Teacher Education, is quick to point out that
the project's research can be applied to subject
areas other than science. Faculty, graduate students
and field personnel use the centre as a forum to
discuss issues in teacher education. Erickson is a
recipient of both a University Teaching Award and an
Outstanding Service Award from the B.C. Science
Teachers Association.
Peter Seixas, also with Curriculum Studies, has
applied constructivist perspectives to the
relatively unexplored area of history education. In
a series of small-scale, qualitative studies Seixas
has assessed high school students' sense of history
and their place in it. Like Erickson's views on
mathematics and science, Seixas argues that
family experiences and other sources of information
outside school strongly influence the way
students understand history. He has explored some
of the problems generated when the complexities
of historical meaning remain unrecognized in school
social studies. Seixas has suggested advantages,
particularly in the multicultural classroom, of shaping
curriculum content and classroom activities to
enable students to build upon prior historical knowledge. For his efforts, Seixas won the Exemplary
Research Award from the U.S. National Council for
Social Studies.
Another line of research by Seixas involves an
investigation of collaborative efforts between teachers and university based scholars. This work
looks at relations between historians and teachers
in the massive, state-funded California Subject
Matter Project. It also examines school-university
collaboration in the British Columbia Consortium for
Humanities and Social Sciences which links the
Ministry of Education, the B.C. Teachers Federation,
UBC Faculty of Arts, UBC Faculty of Education
and four school districts.
UBC's Faculty of Education. In 1969, the Commission
on the Future of the Faculty of Education (COFFE)
issued a 125-page report urging faculty to "feed into
the centre of the university the live problems of
school and community..." The faculty has a long and
distinguished record in doing this by offering
coursework all over the province.
One of the major challenges facing educators today
is getting students to think critically about
events in their academic and personal lives. To this
end, the faculties of education at UBC, Simon
Fraser University and the University of Victoria
have established a tri-university group called
The Critical Thinking Cooperative.
UBC's LeRoi Daniels and Jerrold Coombs of the Dept.
of Educational Studies join government, college and
school district officials, and educational publishers in
the cooperative's five-year partnership. The goal,
says Daniels, "is to get students thinking through
problematic situations about what to believe or how
to act based on reasoned judgments." Elements of
the partnership include: develop field-based programs (credit and non-credit) on teaching and
assessing critical thinking for teachers of all levels
and subjects; develop, pilot and publish teacher and
student resources (print and other media) related to
specific subject areas; establish measures to assess
critical thinking from Kindergarten to grade 12; conduct conceptual and empirical research and large-
scale assessments of critical thinking; and establish
a network of international connections to support
critical thinking in the province.
Daniels says professional development efforts are
directed to regular classroom teachers and educators
who assume leadership roles in resource development, in-service and assessment. The first annual
summer institute was offered in August 1994, as
were two credit courses one each at UBC and SFU
during the summer session.
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Developing collaborative relationships among B.C.
schools and universities is nothing new for
52
Faculty of Education
■
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■ Patricia Arlin of the Dept. of Educational Psychology
and Special Education is investigating how
teachers formulate problems in instruction and gradually develop expertise from their first years
of teaching forward. Arlin says that wisdom, in the
context of her research, "entails good judgment
and advice about the difficult but uncertain matters
of the classroom."
Arlin applies the same set of criteria she uses to
judge wisdom in everyday life to the specific case of
wisdom in teaching. She judges the richness of factual knowledge about teaching; the awareness of the
relativism associated with values and priorities of
peers and students; and the uncertainty of the
effects of specific teaching decisions, their recognition and management.
Arlin's Wisdom and Expertise in Teaching project has
student teachers perform a series of tasks they may
encounter in an instructional setting. A student
teacher is asked to think about a task from a student's point of view, then formulate the problem as
the student would see it. They then suggest questions the teacher might ask and plan the next steps
to take on the students' behalf. Arlin says these
tasks represent actual classroom situations where
teachers had defined a specific instructional problem
as a well-defined problem. However, many classroom
problems are ill-defined or discovered problems arising from a student's unexpected response.
"It is the working hypothesis of the project that the
more adequately the student teacher formulates the
instructional problem and is able to take the student's point of view, the sooner the teacher will
move toward wisdom and expertise," Arlin writes.
The Wisdom and Expertise in Teaching project may
ultimately provide a new way to describe how wisdom and expertise in teaching are acquired and how
teachers are taught.
The project evolved from Arlin's earlier work in
problem finding and her initial proposal of a fifth
stage in cognitive development. Arlin used this
construct to describe late adolescent and young
adult cognition in terms of their ability to formulate
problems and questions rather than simply solve
problems presented to them. This early work has
contributed significantly to studies of positive adult
cognitive development.
Related research:
< An exploration of conceptions of teaching among
instructors who work with adults in different
cultural settings, particularly the teaching differences
between adult educators in China and Canada
(Daniel Pratt, Educational Studies)
FIRST  NATIONS   EDUCATION
THE  RAVEN   RETURNS
The Native Indian Teacher Education Program
(NITEP) is the oldest of UBC's First Nations program
offerings. When it began in 1974, there were
about two dozen First Nations teachers in the whole
of B.C. That number has since grown to roughly
250 with the majority of these teachers former NITEP
students or graduates of the 10-year-old Ts'^kel
graduate program. Still, co-ordinators at NITEP's four
field centres (Duncan, Kamloops, Chilliwack,
UBC) point out that with First Nations representing
five per cent of the population, there should be
closer to five times that many teachers.
The program logo, a raven holding the sun in its
beak, comes from a legend originating in the
Northwest coast of the province. Legend has it that
at a time of complete darkness, Raven flew
through a hole in the sky, snatched the sun and
brought it back to earth. NITEP Director Rod
McCormick says the Raven image symbolizes the
return of education and culture to First Nations.
McCormick and Jo-ann Archibald, director of the First
Nations House of Learning, explore this theme of
returning culture to the people in their own research.
McCormick drew on his previous counselling experience in the Yukon and B.C. for his doctoral research
which looked at developing a theoretical framework
for counselling First Nations people. Western coun-
53
Faculty  of Ed ucation Jo-ann Archibald along with elders Minnie Croft,
(far right) Simon Baker (far left) and Vince Stogan help
preserve aboriginal languages
and literatures at the First Nations Longhouse
54
Faculty of Education selling therapy, he contends, often does not work
among First Nations groups because it is based on a
world view that stresses concepts such as strengthening a person's ego to master the environment.
"The goal of First Nations healing techniques is to
transcend ego, to get outside yourself, to connect
with family, community and culture. First Nations
healing involves the mental, physical, emotional and
spiritual. It differs from western healing because it
focuses on balance, belonging, expression and
cleansing." By interviewing 50 First Nations adults
from around B.C., McCormick analysed the healing
techniques people turned to for help. He intends to
use the 450 healing events documented to produce
a map of healing which could be used by counselling professionals and educators across Canada.
Archibald, a member of the Sto:lo Nation, worked
her way from being a teacher, curriculum
consultant, NITEP co-ordinator and supervisor to
her present position as director of the First Nations
House of Learning.
Her research explores how teachers can incorporate
First Nations storytelling into the curriculum.
Says Archibald, "When you deal with our culture you
can't escape stories because they are at the core
of who we are." Working with the Law Courts
Education Society, Archibald is part of a collaborative project to develop a justice-based curriculum
dealing with various aspects of the law for
Kindergarten to Grade 7 students. She says storytelling challenges a learner to dig beneath the
surface of an issue or subject and gain a deeper
understanding of it.
Archibald is also overseeing the development of two
qualitative case studies on First Nations schools
within a national examination of 21 exemplary secondary schools. Community members, administration, teachers and students have worked with
research teams to identify factors of success from an
insider's viewpoint. Archibald is president of
Mokakit, a national First Nations education research
association which addresses issues of authority, perspectives and research methodology.
The three decades following British Columbia's
entry into Confederation in 1871 have been largely
overlooked by historians, says Jean Barman
from Educational Studies. Apart from the drama of
the Canadian Pacific Railway and emergence
of Vancouver, little is known about events in the
west coast province. Yet, as Barman points out,
it was between 1871 and 1901 that B.C.'s non-First
Nations population mushroomed from just
10,000 to 150,000.
Barman, winner of the 1992 UBC Alumni Prize in the
Social Sciences and a former Killam Research
Fellow, is examining this critical time period from
two perspectives, both centring on everyday
life. A study of teachers and teaching provides a
window into the changing world of parents and
children. Her second project focuses on personal
relationships between First Nations and and
non-First Nations people.
Barman is looking specifically at pioneer British
Columbians of mixed Native and non-Native
descent who, as the numbers of newcomers grew,
became known pejoratively as halfbreeds.
Says Barman, "I cannot legitimately write about such
specifics as pioneer teachers' relationships with
local families or the easy dismissal of some British
Columbians as inferior without relating such
findings to the larger context in which these children
and adults made their lives."
While firmly based on British Columbia data,
Barman's work addresses broader themes in Canadian history, including the pace and character
of professionalization, the feminization of teaching,
the nature of ongoing contact between First
Nations and First Nations people and gender
55
Faculty of Education relations on the frontier. Barman is author of the
prize-winning book, The West Beyond the West:
A History of British Columbia.
Related research:
• Research suggests that the notion of art may
be a western concept and therefore has
little place within some traditional aboriginal
cultures. A collaborative project, linking aboriginal
peoples in South Australia, the Ojibway
People in Northern Ontario and the Sechelt People
of B.C., examines how the art and creativity
of specific indigenous peoples on two continents
have been affected by white intrusion. (Rita
Irwin, Curriculum Studies)
EDUCATION AND GENDER
WOMEN, WORK AND CHILDREN
Barman identifies five categories of teachers in B.C.
at the turn of the century: girls just out of school,
often marking time before anticipated marriage;
young people using teaching as means of getting
ahead in law, medicine or the clergy; women forced
to fend for themselves for one reason or another;
men who moved in and out of the profession for
ready cash; and experienced teachers who made a
lifelong commitment to teaching. Another interesting
observation was that women could join the teaching
ranks at age 16 while men had to wait two more
years. Marriage, according to Barman, remained the
ultimate goal for most girls.
As a member of UBC's Dept. of Educational Studies,
Allison Tom's research specialty has been the
relationship among women, employment and education. In North America, Tom notes that the
study of women's work has been dominated by a
cultural dichotomy between the male and female
realms. For example, women's employment has been
seen as a contradiction and a challenge to their
traditional family and household roles. Indeed, the
right of married women to continue teaching in
British Columbia schools was not confirmed until
1950. In those days, a woman's true vocation
was seen to be in the home, not the school.
According to Tom, the notion of opposing feminine
and masculine roles, paralleled by similarly opposing
domestic and public environments, is central to
North American culture and a major stress point in
women's lives. This divide merits closer, more critical
study. For her part, Tom is using three B.C. child
care centres and the early childhood education
program of a community college to explore the
interaction and conflicting ideologies of the domestic
and public spheres.
Child care has traditionally been carried out in the
domestic sphere, especially in industrialized North
America. Increasingly, this work is being moved
to the more public space of child care centres. Says
Tom, "When it is located in centres rather than
homes, and is carried out for pay rather than love,
the interactions of individuals acting in these realms
demonstrate and challenge the symbolic dichotomy of women's work and lives." By illustrating
ways in which this dichotomy affects the valuing
of women's work, Tom's study addresses the broader issue of the subordination and undervaluing
of women's labour. The research team is designing
child care workshops for educators, practitioners
and parents.
Tom's latest effort follows in the wake of an extensive national child care study co-investigated
by colleague Hillel Goelman of UBC's Centre for the
Study of Curriculum and Instruction. Based on
interviews conducted by Statistics Canada in 1988,
the study profiled the child-care needs of more
than two million families with at least one child
under 13. Drawing information from one in every 90
Canadian households, it is the most extensive
research project of its kind undertaken anywhere.
Goelman contributed reports dealing with infant
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Faculty  of Education child care, unlicensed child care, parental preferences for care, child care availability and afford-
ability and an overview of child care arrangements
in Canada.
Since 1989, Deirdre Kelly has examined why students
drop out of school. When she took a closer
look at gender aspects of the issue, her focus soon
turned to pregnancy and a study she calls
School Responses to Teenage Pregnancy and
Motherhood: The Politics of Interpreting Needs and
Lessening Stigma.
Kelly, of Educational Studies, says the study
looks at how education leaders integrate pregnant
girls and young mothers into regular secondary
school classes and activities. Changing public
attitudes, new educational theories and the passage
of special education legislation in B.C. place the
province at a juncture. Kelly argues that schools
now implementing new forms of integration, such
as main-streaming of school-age mothers, are sure
to be emulated and therefore need closer scrutiny.
Her research examines assumptions that underlie
the debate between mainstreaming and the
provision of separate facilities for pregnant and
mothering teens.
Are pregnant teens more likely to be stigmatized if
they remain in large school settings or if they
are removed? The dilemma, according to Kelly, is
that separate facilities "focus on the special
needs of pregnant teens and mothering girls and
risk stigmatizing them, while the mainstream
approach often fails to support students fully
and risks losing them."
By focusing on two schools committed to a strategy
of supported mainstreaming, Kelly's research
identifies and analyses practices that promote inclusion as well as obstacles that remain or arise
in reaction to inclusion policy. Her research also
contributes to literature on dropouts, which
until recently, has neglected the gender dimension,
and furthers feminist theories about gender and
education by suggesting guidelines for the construction of a gender-sensitive curriculum.
TOWARDS A GENDER-SENSITIVE
CURRICULUM
At the turn of this century, many school practitioners
held gender-bound views of the curriculum:
they perceived categorical differences between males
and females that seemed to justify providing each
sex a different course of study. Views have since
moved from this perspective to a relatively gender-
blind one. Scholars note that the problem with
ignoring gender is that, like ethnicity, it continues
to shape classroom interaction in ways that are
sometimes missed or unwittingly reinforced.
Low participation rates of B.C. girls in senior-level
mathematics and science courses prompted an
investigation by UBC science education professor
James Gaskell. Launched in 1990, The British
Columbia Mathematics Assessment: Gender Issues in
Student Choice in Mathematics and Science made 35
recommendations aimed at attracting more girls
to mathematics and physical sciences courses.
Gaskell, one of four co-investigators of the study,
said principals, teachers and counsellors he
spoke with wanted to downplay the gender issues
because they believed that to highlight them
would only reinforce stereotypes. Gaskell's research
suggested that such a gender-neutral approach
perpetuated biases contributing to fewer girls than
boys enroling in these courses. Many of the girls
interviewed for the study described sciences as
frightening or just for smart people. Some girls
also felt math and science teachers were only
interested in smart students, which often meant the
smart boys. Says Gaskell, "There is nothing
inherently more difficult about math or physics. It's
how they're treated in schools that makes them
appear that way."
57
Faculty  of  Education The study recommended that schools develop a
variety of gender-sensitive strategies to make
mathematics and science more attractive to girls.
These include: encouraging curricula revisions
that take into account the particular interests of
girls; hiring more women to teach senior
physical science and math courses; re-writing course
descriptions of mathematics and science in
school calendars to avoid over-emphasizing the
difficulty and sophistication of these topics; having
schools communicate with parents about the
significance of science, mathematics and gender;
and helping teachers through professional development programs develop ways of incorporating
gender issues into class without causing backlash
among boys.
As a follow-up to the 1990 assessment, Gaskell is
documenting student reactions to gender-sensitive
instructional materials and assessment tasks
introduced in a Grade 10 physics course dealing with
electricity. Gaskell says the study will produce
sample instructional materials emphasizing the social
context of physics and a description of how they
were developed through student interviews. Other
relevant items of use to teachers are a description of
the change process and student responses to the
changes, sample tasks that assess knowledge in
context and promote gender equity, and an account
of student achievement on various tasks and their
perception of the tasks' difficulty and fairness.
Gaskell's research has implications for the promotion
of all forms of equity in the classroom as well as for
the construction of provincial examinations, provincial assessments and curriculum documents.
Other gender-related research in the faculty include:
< Understanding how women cope with work
stress has been a research focus for UBC counselling
psychologists. Specific studies monitor and
document workplace stress as experienced by
women clerical workers and managers. This research
program seeks to lessen workplace stress either
through enhanced coping strategies or by modifications to organizational policies and structures.
(Bonnie Long, Sharon Kahn Counselling Psychology)
• Almost daily, newspaper and magazine reports
describe the difficulty of combining parenthood and
the dual-earner lifestyle. A collaborative study
examines 100 couples who are making the transition
to parenthood and intending to resume the
dual-earner lifestyle after the birth of their infants.
The program helps clarify some of the confusion
over factors that relate to the physical and
psychological distress associated with multiple roles.
(Bonnie Long, Counselling Psychology; Wendy
Hall, School of Nursing)
• Research on gender and technology considers the
social construction of knowledge as it shapes
the development of key educational tools such as
computers. The analysis of educational tools in
these studies is approached through feminist theory
and applied psychology. (Mary Bryson, Educational
Psych./Special Ed.)
• A study of the relationship among gender, science
and multimedia tools. The premise is that young
women drop out of the sciences because the field is
not presented to them as relevant, personal or
hands-on. (Ricki Goldman-Segall, Curriculum Studies)
• Studies indicate one in six couples are affected
by infertility either in terms of conceiving or carrying
a viable pregnancy to term. Research underway
looks at the long-term physical and emotional
impacts of infertility on couples. (Judith Daniluk,
Counselling Psychology)
• Examination of gendered and racial
representations in popular culture (Leslie Roman,
Educational Studies)
GENDER AND SPORT
In 1993, the School of Physical Education and
Recreation at UBC was renamed the School
of Human Kinetics. The new name, which refers to
the study of human movement, reflects significant
changes underway in the school. In addition to
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Faculty  of  Education traditional physical education, research and
professional activities have expanded to cover
emerging requirements in exercise science, health
and fitness, leisure and sports management.
Equity issues in physical education and youth sports
programs are the subject of ongoing research by faculty in the School of Human Kinetics. Researchers
look at challenges facing feminist sociology of sport,
issues of old age, gender and physical activity and
the relationship of gender, class and race to levels
and types of participation in sport and exercise.
leading to profound changes in sport and exercise
behaviour, Vertinsky says there are numerous
barriers to exercise which continue to stand between
the vast majority of older women and their ability
to achieve a better quality of life. Vertinsky is
the only Canadian woman elected to the American
Academy of Physical Education.
Related research:
• The influence of organizational culture on the delivery of community-based physical activity programs
for girls and women (Wendy Frisby, Human Kinetics)
Patricia Vertinsky refers to herself as a sport historian though her research successfully combines
knowledge and theoretical perspectives from social,
biological and medical sciences.
Her book, The Eternally Wounded Woman: Doctors,
Women and Exercise in the Late Nineteenth
Century (1990), has helped people understand the
experiences of girls and women in medical
practices, sports and exercise during the last century. Research reported in this work (revised and
released in paperback in 1994) has been extended
to a multi-faceted study of the aging female body in
exercise and sport. Vertinsky continues to document
the role played by shifting medical paradigms in
shaping cultural images of old women's physical
capabilities. Says Vertinsky, "The biomedicalization
of aging, forged well over a century ago by socially
constructing old age as a diseased, dependent
and inactive stage of life, encouraged women to
take on negative stereotyped characteristics of aging
more readily than men."
Vertinsky's research demonstrates that this view of
old age has had lasting implications on 20th century
perceptions of female competencies in aging, exercise and sport. In spite of claims that changing perceptions of age in industrialized societies are
LANGUAGE  AND   LITERACY
In 1981, education faculty studying librarianship,
modern language, reading and English education
were brought together in one department. UBC's
Department of Language Education is now one of
the largest of its kind in North America with 30 full-
time faculty and 50 sessionals and seconded
teachers. It is also one of the most diverse
with specialists in second language acquisition,
french immersion, adult and early literacy, early
childhood education, language assessment, reading
literacy, vocabulary development, Canadian
and international children's literature and curriculum
assessment and evaluation.
THE WHOLE LANGUAGE DEBATE
The principal of Sunnybank School was clearly flustered. "You say children were making noise in
class," the defence lawyer repeated. "What kind of
noise, exactly?" After an awkward pause, Basil
Ford sheepishly admitted that the disruptive clamor
coming from a Grade 1 classroom had, in fact,
been children talking about their studies. "Yes...
well...they were talking about their work," Ford stuttered. "But they should have been doing it."
Ford's admission was a turning point in Whole
Language on Trial, a video skit written and performed by a group of nine UBC language education
59
Faculty  of  Education professors. Presented in the late 1980s at a national
conference of English teachers, the production highlighted the pros and cons of whole language, a non-
traditional approach to language instruction.
Supporters of this approach, however, stress that it
is very much a research-based methodology. "The
process has evolved over many years," explains
Victor Froese, head of UBC's Dept. of Language
Education. "It is not something that just landed."
What was deemed a radical approach six years ago
has spread around the world. From 1982-87 there
were only 26 dissertations on whole language. In the
following five years, whole language was the topic
for 126 dissertations. Fifty dissertations were devoted to the teaching method in 1993 alone. Froese
explains that the term whole-language should not be
confused with whole-word method which is often
contrasted with phonics. Whole language advocates
teaching sound-symbol relationships, or phonics, in
context (i.e. holistically) when needed.
Roughly a third of the UBC's language education
department is involved with some aspect of whole
language research. Froese and his colleagues rewrote
ideas presented in their video production and published them in 1990. Whole-Language, Practice and
Theory is currently being used as a textbook at universities across Canada for prospective Kindergarten
through Grade 8 teachers. The first 4,000 copies
sold out and the book has had two successive printings. An updated Canadian version appeared in 1994
and a second American edition is in progress.
Whole-language has been defined as a child-centred,
literature-based approach to language teaching that
immerses students in real communication situations
whenever possible. Rather than have children sit in
rows taking notes from standardized texts (Ford's
notion of doing it), whole language promotes active
communication. Students might be asked to observe
an activity outside, perform a skit or watch a news
program, then be asked to talk or write about what
they witnessed.
Whereas the traditional method of teaching depends
on a series of books isolating different skills, whole
language brings these skills together in a real-life
context making language more familiar. Froese
emphasizes that as a literature-based (from informational books to fiction) approach, students are
encouraged to read as much as possible.
UBC was recently the site for Canada's largest study
of pre-school language development. Based at the
Child Study Centre, university researchers followed
the oral language development of 60 three- and
four-year-olds for three years. Forty-three of the children were then followed for another two years into
Grades 1, 2 or 3. The study's findings clearly linked
children's early language development to success in
learning to read and write.
In Canada, virtually every province has adopted an
integrated curriculum where reading, writing, speaking and listening are taught together. But Froese and
others are working hard to see that whole language
is adopted further by gradually shifting the responsibility for learning to the children themselves.
Says Froese: "If you believe that language is a social
process, then you have to arrange for the process
to happen in class. That may require a different view
of school."
Related research:
> Co-ordination of B.C.'s participation in the four-year
International Reading Literacy Study which tested the
reading and writing skills of 210,000 students in
grades 3-5 and 8-10. The study findings were published in the book, How In the World Do Students
Read?, produced by the International Association for
the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Local
findings will be presented in a work tentatively titled
The Puzzle of Literacy, produced by the Ministry of
Education. (Victor Froese, Language Education)
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60
Faculty  of Education
■
■ « UBC's Department of Language Education is the centre of a five-year research project on children's literature. Sponsored by the National Council of Teachers
of English, UBC receives all the new children's publications in North America each year, sends them out
for review and compiles abstracts of the best works
for research purposes. The department has also
started a collection of children's books translated
from other languages into English. (Wendy Sutton,
Language Education)
• An examination of classroom language used by
teachers in all areas of specialization whether
through talking, reading or writing. For the benefit of
preservice and inservice teachers, the research looks
at the structure of language, language acquisition in
first and second languages, the language of specific
disciplines and strategies for teaching second language students. Work resulted in the publication of
Language and Learning Across the Curriculum (1994),
a textbook showing student teachers how to use
language in all subject areas. (Marion Crowhurst,
Language Education)
■ A world-wide survey was recently completed of past
and present assessment procedures used in evaluating educational fine arts programs. The report, which
made recommendations to the Ministry of Education
with respect to fine arts assessment, covered the
fields of dance, drama, music and visual art in education. (Patrick Verriour, Curriculum Studies)
ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
For children learning English as a second language,
pictures may indeed be worth a thousand words. In
fact, some educators believe key visuals such as
charts, graphs and diagrams may provide an essential link between language and academic learning.
Today, more than half of Vancouver's 50,000 school-
age children speak a language other than English
at home and receive some form of ESL support. But
while they may be learning enough English to
converse with friends in the playground, these ESL
students may lag behind their English-speaking
counterparts in the academic English needed
in the classroom. "The English that's learned quickly
is the kind needed for chat," said Margaret Early.
"But you have to go beyond simple conversation to
be successful in school and that takes a particular
kind of help."
For the last decade, Early and Bernard Mohan have
been working with the Vancouver School Board
(VSB) to develop new methods of ESL instruction.
They argue that if ESL students are to keep up with
English-speaking peers, they must learn language
skills in conjunction with academic subjects, not in
isolation. And they believe key visuals will go a long
way towards achieving this goal. Early says visuals
are an effective way of showing how information is
organized. They allow students to explore the hows
and whys of a subject while eliminating the need for
isolated language exercises.
According to Mohan, information can be organized
into at least six areas: classification (classifying,
defining), principles (explaining, predicting), description (observing, naming, labelling), evaluation (judging, appreciating), sequence (predicting, planning,
arranging) and choice (decision-making, selecting,
identifying). Each area of this knowledge framework
comes with its own language which can be gradually
introduced to students. Areas also have their own
conventional illustrations which can be used by
teachers as springboards to other class activities
involving language comprehension (listening and
reading) or expression (speaking and writing). For
Mohan, there is no sense putting a child's development of knowledge on hold to teach English for
English's sake. "Classification of countries in social
studies, forms of energy in science, vertebrates in
biology or muffins in home economics they can all
be discussed at an early stage of language learning."
Mohan and Early add that it often takes immigrant
students up to seven years to acquire the language
skills needed in a mainstream classroom. However,
students have traditionally been given just two years
of basic ESL instruction before being placed in a reg-
61
Faculty  of  Education ular class. With some Vancouver schools having up
to 50 different first languages spoken by
students, bilingual education in the classroom raises
a number of practical issues. According to Early,
Mohan's approach does away with the need
for an entirely different curriculum for ESL students
and has been used effectively with both first
and second language students.
The VSB designated 10 schools (six elementary and
four secondary) to take part in a four-year project to
develop the social and academic integration of ESL
students. The project currently has 100 educators
using an integrated approach to teaching language
and academic subject material. Teams of ESL and
regular classroom teachers, particularly those with
expertise in social studies, science and computers,
are working together testing and evaluating new ESL
teaching methods and materials. This work is being
followed up in detail, thanks to a grant from SSHRC.
Vancouver's ESL student population represents
about 80 countries and 66 languages. These students are taught in 62 separate ESL classes in elementary schools and 87 classes in secondary
schools. The remainder are either offered some form
of in-class support or attend transitional classes
which focus on the teaching of language with regular
class content.
Related research:
• Analysis of factors associated with achievement of
ESL students from Kindergarten to Grade 12 (Lee
Gunderson, Language Education)
CHILDREN UP CLOSE
UBC'S Child Study Centre (CSC) was founded in 1961
by Dean Neville Scarfe as an interdisciplinary centre
for research in child development and early childhood education. More than 30 years later, the centre
is recognized internationally as Canada's leading
campus-based child development laboratory research
and demonstration facility.
Since moving into its new building in 1990, the centre continues to serve as a demonstration laboratory
school where undergraduate and graduate students,
as well as students and teachers from the community, can observe and learn more about young children, curriculum innovation and teaching strategies.
Although the CSC is probably best known among
members of the general public as an outstanding
preschool, research is its primary function within
the university context. Studies focus on language,
aesthetic and mathematical development, artistic
skills, psychological development, children's
understanding of emotion and special education at
the preschool level.
By recognizing the close relationship between home
and school, the centre also encourages a great deal
of parent involvement. Perhaps its best known program is the ANCHOR Project (Addressing the Needs
of Children Through Observation and Response), an
innovative approach to parent-teacher collaboration.
Developed 10 years ago by the centre's director Glen
Dixon, the ANCHOR Project lets parents observe and
discuss live video transmissions of their children's
activities in an adjacent preschool classroom. "It's a
highly motivating exercise because the parents are
like researchers themselves and their own kids are
the subjects," says Dixon. "It's also interesting to
see that as the children come together, so too do
the parents." By illustrating individual child behaviours and child/teacher interactions, the tapes are
useful for students in early childhood education
courses. The ANCHOR model has been adapted at
eight sites throughout Canada as well as at sites in
Slovakia and Denmark.
Other areas of inquiry at the centre either recently
completed or underway include:
> A linguistic investigation of how young children
develop an ability to infer meaning from what they
are told (Kenneth Reeder)
« How children develop a preference for realism in
artistic images (Anna Kindler, Curriculum Studies)
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Faculty  of  Ed ucation
■ ' The relationship between children's literacy experience at home and their emerging knowledge
and attitudes toward reading and writing Games
Anderson, Language Education)
■ Interpersonal sensitivity and adeptness at social
role-playing (Marion Porath, Educational Psych\
Special Ed.)
■ Development of language and literacy in early school
years, the largest-scale longitudinal study of its
kind undertaken in Canada (|on Shapiro, Kenneth
Reeder, Rita Watson)
Canadians who grew up before the invention of television often view their childhood as a golden age. It
was also an incredibly busy time, filled with a seemingly endless cycle of schooling and chores. While
these chores might have differed from east to west,
the lives of children across the country were full of
work from dawn to dusk.
So says Neil Sutherland, one of Canada's preeminent scholars of Canadian childhood history and
professor in the Dept. of Educational Studies.
Sutherland's 1994 book, Growing Up in Modern
Canada The Children's Perspective, is one of a series
written by UBC education faculty as part of the
Canadian Childhood History Project.
Started in the mid-1980s, the project has also
produced a Bibliography of Canadian Childhood, a
one-of-a-kind resource compiled by Sutherland,
department colleague Jean Barman and bibliographer
Linda Hale. Working with about two dozen
graduate students, the three scholars surveyed every
known academic and professional journal in which
articles dealing with Canadian children from the
earliest times to 1990 might have appeared. The
bibliography's two, 500-page volumes, containing
roughly 16,000 entries, have been distributed in
libraries and universities across North America. "If
The Bibliography of Canadian Childhood contains
roughly 16,000 entries on legal, medical
social and other topics pertaining to children an
'heir history in Canada
you're interested in any aspect of Canadian childhood, be it legal, medical, social or otherwise, it's
here. It's an area that's never been systematically
recorded," says Sutherland.
As for the project's research component, Sutherland's work was based largely on some 200
interviews with people born in Canada between 1910
and 1950. He is currently writing a follow-up
book dealing with Canadian childhood since the
Second World War. Barman looked at the relationship between families and schools, particularly
how parents have tried to exert control over education in the private and public school systems.
Nancy Sheehan's contribution to the project explored
the role of voluntary organizations in the
development of educational policy and curriculum.
She looked at community involvement in late
afternoon, evening and Saturday activities for
children, sponsored by such voluntary groups as
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Ity  of Education the Junior Red Cross, the Imperial Order of the
Daughters of the Empire and the Woman's Christian
Temperance Union.
EDUCATION  AND  THE  PACIFIC  RIM
CROSSING CULTURAL BOUNDARIES
The cultural literacy of teenagers from six
developed nations in the Pacific Basin (Australia,
Canada, Japan, Singapore, Solomon Islands,
USA) is a research focus for Language Education's
John Willinsky. Called Living in the Pacific,
Willinsky's project assesses high school students'
knowledge of geographical and cultural factors
in the region, establishes their awareness of how
other communities around the Pacific basin
contribute to their own community and explores with
students the concept of a Pacific community.
The project is an outgrowth of UBC's participation in
the Pacific Circle Consortium, an association of
educational researchers and officials from the OECD
(Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development) countries in the Pacific. The project's
first phase consists of a survey asking 623 secondary school students aged 15 to 17 to write about
different aspects of life in their respective regions.
"This pilot phase establishes the best means for
tapping into students' understanding of the people,
history and geography of the Pacific region and
their community's place within it," says Willinsky,
who is also director of UBC's Centre for the Study
of Curriculum and Instruction. Willinsky hopes to
expand the survey to include about 1,500 students
in 10 or more nations. The eventual goal is to
get student-created materials circulating among
participating nations' classrooms to foster co-operative learning. Together with colleagues James
Gaskell and Stephen Carey, Willinsky organized the
1995 conference "Imagining a Pacific Community:
Representation and Education."
Willinsky's previous research looked at a wide
range of issues in literacy and literature teaching
which resulted in three books and numerous
articles. His latest publication, Empire of Words
(1994), examines the history of the Oxford English
Dictionary and its contribution to English as a
world language and the building of an English canon
between the Victorian era and our own time.
EXPANDING MODERN LANGUAGES AND
THE MULTICULTURAL CURRICULUM
Early in the 1990s, UBC's Modern Languages
Education Program was focused primarily on French
education. Stephen Carey, director of UBC's
Modern Languages Education Program, says that
with an immediate need for about 300 teachers
in B.C's immersion and FSL courses, French continues to be a priority. But for more than 50 per cent
of school-age students in Vancouver, neither
French nor English is a first language.
Since 1991, enrolment for all Modern Languages
Education programs (BEd, MA, MEd, DEd or PhD)
has grown from 15 students to 90. This increase is
due in large part to a new initiative called Asia
Pacific Educational Studies in Language, Culture and
Curriculum. The program has established linkages
with the Bejiing Language Institute and similar
organizations in Japan and Thailand. Students
from around the world have come to UBC to
research and/or teach in their culture and language.
Related research:
> Ongoing research on controversies surrounding
Canadian multiculturalism and immigration, particularly the changing educational policies toward the
multicultural classroom in light of continuing immigration and demands for innovative policy on equity
• Responses of educational institutions to racial integration within the context of the new politics of
ethnicity in South Africa (Kogila Adam-Moodley,
Educational Studies; David Lam Chair in Multicultural
Education)
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Faculty  of  Education > The Adult Literacy National Demonstration project
is an ethnographic evaluation of two highly regarded
adult literacy programs in the Lower Mainland. It
describes ways in which programs achieve results,
and serves as a model for future qualitative program
evaluations. The project is funded by the Ministry
of Citizenship and Multiculturalism. (Allison Tom,
Educational Studies)
> Development of attitudes and beliefs regarding visual arts among French and Chinese Canadians.
These beliefs are compared with those shared by
people in France and Taiwan as well as those represented within the Anglo-Saxon tradition which
permeates current Canadian art education. (Anna
Kindler, Curriculum Studies)
« Ways in which discipline-based art education
can respond to cultural pluralism (Graeme Chalmers,
Curriculum Studies)
THE  GROWING  NEEDS  OF
SPECIAL  EDUCATION
There is a growing demand for educational services
for children with behaviour disorders, visual,
hearing or physical impairments and those who are
gifted. To help meet this demand, provincial
legislation was passed in 1989 to integrate special
education students more fully into regular
classes. Improved educational practice in the area
is a main research emphasis for a third of the
faculty in the 27-member Department of Educational
Psychology and Special Education. New faculty
initiatives include the Dorothy Lam Chair in Special
Education and the Chris Spencer Foundation
Professorship in Dyslexia.
The Faculty of Education admits about 10 students
annually into its Master's program in Education
of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. In the B.C. school
system, demand for teachers of hearing impaired
students far outstrips supply. Roughly 10,000
children across Canada between the age of three
and 21 receive special education services because
of hearing loss.
Likewise, a dozen certified teachers enrol annually
for UBC's Master's program for the visually
impaired, the only full-time academic offering of its
kind in Canada. These classroom and itinerant
specialist teachers help students from pre-school to
Grade 12 adapt to blindness by teaching braille,
computer skills and how to walk with a cane. They
also help teachers adjust in the classroom, meet
with parents at home and supply students
with technological aids and reading materials with
large print.
Janet Jamieson became involved with the education
of hearing impaired children by chance. Studying
speech and language pathology at the University of
Western Ontario, Jamieson enroled in a sign language course for fun. A year later, she was accepted
as one of a handful of hearing graduate students
at Gallaudet College in Washington, D.C, the world's
only liberal arts college for the deaf. From Oregon
and later to Gallaudet, Jamieson moved to Montreal
where she established an early intervention program
for families of deaf children. Working with small
groups of parents, Jamieson began noticing
dramatic differences in the way deaf and hearing
mothers interacted with their children: hearing
mothers appeared much more controlling, dominant
and intrusive whereas deaf mothers had a more
natural, patient manner of communicating.
For five years at UBC, Jamieson has led a three-
stage research program: to identify the effective
teaching strategies used by deaf mothers when
interacting with their deaf children; to teach these
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Faculty of Education strategies to hearing mothers of deaf children, and
then to measure the cognitive and emotional
benefits, if any, to their young deaf children.
Jamieson has found that by four years old, deaf
children of hearing mothers show less initiative and
are up to seven times more likely than deaf
children of deaf parents to stop and ask for assistance with a problem-solving task. "They've learned
because their mothers are so controlling that it
is more advantageous to sit back and wait for someone to intervene than it is for them to take risks
on their own."
Jamieson's research has involved videotaping parent-
child interactions in the homes of deaf parents with
deaf children, hearing parents with hearing children,
and hearing parents of deaf children. Each video
has been broken down frame-by-frame isolating such
things as how parents first elicit their child's attention or how they relay information. Hearing mothers
tend to give auditory and visual information simultaneously. Deaf mothers first provide language input
then direct their child's visual attention to an
object. Jamieson's research characterizes deaf children as visual processors of language rather than as
cognitively deficient learners.
The next phase of research will monitor 20 hearing
mothers with their preschool deaf children, half
of whom will be counselled on various intervention
strategies. Jamieson's research will lead to a better
understanding of children's cognitive development in
general and enhanced problem-solving abilities in
young deaf children.
Department members also approach problems in
regular and special classrooms from a psychological
standpoint to look at:
> The prevalence and incidence of suicidal behaviour
and the relationship of these behaviours to
psychological problems in a school-based sample
of close to 3,000 adolescents (William Reynolds,
Educational Psych/Special Ed.)
• The academic and social development of gifted
children through adolescence (Marion Porath,
Educational Psych/Special Ed.)
■ Peer relationships, social behaviour, and the development of moral reasoning during pre- and
early adolescence (Kim Schonert-Reichl, Educational
Psych/Special Ed.)
EDUCATION   EVALUATION  AND  ASSESSMENT
Canada's ability to compete in the international
marketplace is inextricably linked to the quality of
education. It is not surprising, therefore, that
large-scale assessments and other tools designed
to monitor educational systems have become
increasingly popular in recent years, particularly
with policy-makers.
In 1989, UBC was chosen to co-ordinate the biggest
international study in education ever launched.
The Third International Mathematics and Science
Study (TIMSS) will compare curricula and
teaching methods of school systems as well as
achievement scores and attitudes of roughly
one million school-age students in 50 countries. The
global survey tests the knowledge and skill of
nine- and 13-year-olds and students in their last year
of secondary school. Organizers estimate that up
to 25,000 teachers will also be questioned during
the decade-long research study. David Robitaille,
international co-ordinator of the study and head of
UBC's Dept. of Curriculum Studies, says the study
should prove an effective means of gauging a country's educational strengths and weaknesses.
From the basement of the Scarfe Building,
Robitaille's 15-member team spent two years developing timelines, translation systems and instruments
for collecting the TIMSS data. Most of the
information is drawn from questionnaires filled out
by students, teachers and government officials.
By viewing the world as an educational laboratory,
Robitaille says the study enables countries to see
where they stand internationally in terms of
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U mathematics and science education. The study also
includes the first-ever national sample of Canadian
students from every province and territory. "The
way education works in Canada, we often end up
knowing more about schools in California than
Alberta," says Robitaille. "Hopefully, TIMSS opens
lines of communication within our own borders."
Other areas examined in the $4-million project
include methods for measuring student achievement, effects of technology on teaching, how
children are selected for math and science
courses and the participation of women in senior
secondary science. The project is sponsored by
the International Association for the Evaluation of
Educational Achievement (IEA), and funding
for the first five years has come mainly through
grants from the U.S. and Canadian governments.
Graduate students are also being funded for related
research which provides B.C. teachers with new
techniques for evaluating student achievement.
The lEA's last study of math and science examined
20 countries in the early 1980s. The IEA is a
non-governmental organization created in i960 when
it began the First International Mathematics Study.
Robitaille says repeating this type of project
establishes trends which give policy-makers an idea
of the direction their educational systems
are heading.
UBC faculty have also conducted numerous learning
assessments at the provincial level including the
1990 Mathematics Assessment and the 1991 British
Columbia Science Assessment Report. The latter,
co-ordinated by UBC's David Bateson, won the 1993
best overall program evaluation publication award
from the American Educational Research Association
(AERA). Data was collected from 3,390 teachers
and 45,508 students from Grade 3 to 10. The study
consisted of hands-on student performances,
student reasoning and thinking about socio-scientific
issues, an account of teachers' classroom
practices and extensive student and teacher
background information.
Related research:
< Extensive surveys of evaluation practices in the fine
arts, pointing out why assessment is difficult and
looking for commonalities among fine arts educators.
(Ron MacGregor, Curriculum Studies)
The TIMSS project, although the biggest by far, is
not the only comparative study of Canadian
schools being carried out by UBC scholars. Jane
Gaskell, with the Dept. of Educational Studies, is
co-ordinator of a study looking at 21 exemplary
secondary schools across Canada.
Schools were nominated by a variety of local groups
drawn from business, school boards, parents
or art councils. The final list includes a diversity of
Canadian school communities ranging from a tiny
outport school in Newfoundland, to an Inuit community school in the Northwest Territories, to a minority
francophone school in Ontario. It includes schools in
every province except Prince Edward Island and
emphasizes those where students are at risk of leaving before completing a high school diploma. The
idea, says Gaskell, is to examine schools in very
different Canadian communities to find out how they
work, what others might learn from them and what
the lessons are for policy-makers.
Gaskell was picked to head the project because of
her previous research on vocational programs
and students' transition from school to work. As a
graduate student at Harvard, Gaskell studied
the sociology of education. Since then, she has done
research on the organization of school programs,
on young peoples' aspirations for the future and on
how secondary schools stream students, especially by gender, into the labour force. Her book,
Gender Matters from School to Work (1992)
won a Critics Award from the American Educational
Studies Association.
Gaskell says the exemplary school study uses a
case-study approach to examine how people understand school success in various communities.
67
Faculty  of  Education "We're looking to see how good schools define
success, how they recognize it, and how they try to
bring it about." To do this, teams of researchers
spent four weeks in and around each school
interviewing students, parents, teachers, principals
and community members.
Questions the study hopes to answer include: What
expectations are there within the community for
students graduating from a local school? What skills
and competencies are articulated as important
by people outside the school? What are students'
and teachers' views about what it means to be
successful in school? How do they decide if they are
succeeding?
The study was organized through the Canadian
Education Association and funded by the Federal
Dept. of Human Resources and Labour.
Related research:
> The Centre for Policy Studies in Education is conducting a study of all B.C. elementary schools. A 19-
page questionnaire sent to school principals asks
about the academic and disciplinary climate of the
school, the implementation of ministry initiatives and
methods used to assess student achievement. The
three-year study also includes a detailed investigation of school life at 40 selected schools. Particular
attention will be paid to such things as: how students are organized for instruction; formal and informal rules governing the school's operation, the
nature of interactions among teachers, students and
principals and the values, attitudes and expectations of each. (Douglas Willms, Centre for Policy
Studies in Education)
• How have changes in education-related legislation in
B.C. since 1987 affected the work of school superintendents? What implications does the answer to this
question carry for superintendents' pre- and in-service education? These are the central questions
Graham Kelsey addresses in a survey of all provincial
superintendents he is conducting in collaboration
with the provincial Superintendents' Association.
Kelsey argues that little attention has been paid to
understanding how legislative change might affect
the work of the senior official whose job is both to
manage change and ensure stability. "The job of
superintendent has changed in the last five years,"
says Kelsey. "Superintendents, in many cases, feel
ill-prepared for much of the work they now find
themselves doing." UBC's administrator-in-residence
program brings the knowledge of practising
senior administrators into the faculty to collaborate
on research and teaching.
■ Government cutbacks have prompted many elementary and secondary schools in B.C. to seek
private funds through various enterprise activities.
For the last decade, Daniel Brown, from Educational
Studies, has studied how people donate time
and money, what the effects are and what influences
such enterprise.
TECHNOLOGY:   LINKING  SCHOOLS
WITH  THE  FUTURE
Educational technology has advanced to the degree
that all aspects of computer capability must be
totally integrated into the curricula of instruction.
Prof. Janice Woodrow has developed this premise
into what many educational scholars are considering
the most innovative and comprehensive technology-
enhanced science instruction program ever applied in
a Canadian classroom.
Woodrow, whose UBC doctorate is in astrophysics,
conceptualized and helped carry out the transformation of two physics classrooms at D. W. Poppy
and H. D. Stafford secondary schools in Langley,
B.C. into advanced models of technology enhanced
instruction. While researchers continue to discuss the
promise of technology in education, Woodrow
says that "the sophistication and ease is at a stage
where application of technology as an integral classroom function is not only possible but essential."
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■ Working from eight Macintosh workstations, Langley
students and teachers use simulations, interactive laserdiscs, probes and sensors for laboratory
data collection and projection panels to present
information and examples. By making physics more
visually concrete and animated, Woodrow says
simulations motivate students, broaden their understanding of scientific principles and encourage
them to enter and remain in science courses. While
the focus of the project is the implementation
of computer-based simulations, it is the incorporation of other technologies that makes the Langley
classrooms unique. Other experiments with
computer-based instruction have been piecemeal
efforts, not comprehensive packages.
Woodrow explains that physics students normally
collect data in class, go home and translate
the data into a form which really doesn't mean much
when finished. Computer technology allows
for instantaneous feedback. From a pedagogical
stand-point, transmissive teaching has given way to
individualized instruction and group attention.
Students are provided with an extensive study guide
for each section of coursework as well as guides
for specific activities. Guides include information
about the topic and computer-based tests, assigned
readings from the text, sample and assigned
problems, computer simulation activities, experiments, demonstrations and multimedia activities.
Most students work in pairs or triads at the
computer, constantly interacting with each other and
the technology. Woodrow remarked that one
particular simulation sparked a 10-minute debate
among a group of Physics 12 students over whether
or not mass would affect the motion of an object
sliding down an inclined plane. "These students
were thinking and talking physics. Such discussions
are virtually non-existent in traditional lab exercises."
The courses are so popular that the computers
are in constant demand before, during and after
class for as long as the teacher is willing to stay.
Technological simulations make physics more
visually concrete and animated
Having led the development of this instructional
approach, Woodrow is now monitoring the
results. She plans to compare the attitudes and test
results of the Langley students with peers from
traditional physics classes. Eventually she will
produce a video of technology based instructional
strategies to be used in workshops for teachers
across the province.
Not only is Woodrow's application of technology
to science teaching a public school phenomenon,
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Faculty  of  Education she has also developed (and has in operation) multi
media technology in three courses in the Dept.
of Geophysics and Astronomy at UBC. This cross-
disciplinary applied research demonstrates the
necessity to incorporate sophisticated teaching
programs at all levels.
Virtual Clayoquot is the name given a computer-
based science and social studies project
developed by Ricki Goldman-Segall. The project has
students and teachers of Bayside Middle School
on Vancouver Island investigating issues surrounding
the Clayoquot Sound dispute. Students have
visited sites to videotape their impressions of the
forests and interview loggers, protesters, community
members and government officials. They also
collect relevant articles from newspapers, magazines
and scientific journals, consult with expert resource
persons and interpret the data from perspectives
such as employment needs, First Nations claims
and wildlife issues.
The Virtual Clayoquot project will be delivered to
schools across Canada in a series of CD-ROM discs.
Using a software package developed by Goldman-
Segall called Constellations, the Bayside junior high
school students are able to classify, categorize,
link and analyse multimedia data. The package also
allows them to search through large databases, build
constellations or groups of data, and construct
interpretations based on their own findings.
Goldman-Segall has been director of the Multimedia
Ethnographic Research Laboratory (MERlin) since
1991. The lab designs and builds tools, such as
Constellations, which analyse video data for research
purposes. The Virtual Clayquot data is one of
several video databases analysed in MERlin. Another
project, conducted by doctoral student Akosua Addo,
analyses children's singing from Ghana.
MUSIC AND THE MEDIA
Mass media—in the form of radio, television, motion
pictures, telephones and computer-controlled
information systems—have defined modern culture
on a global scale since the 1940s. According to UBC
music educator Peter Gouzouasis, the new wave of
communications media lies with videophones
and videoconferencing systems and interactive multimedia. He looks at the recent mergers of large
communications giants as forever changing the way
people communicate, both in everyday life and in
educational settings. Gouzouasis' own research on
these technologies provides a glimpse of how
video conferencing could revolutionize education,
particularly music instruction.
Video conferencing involves the use of both video
and telephone technologies. In the typical video
conference, people use audio to lecture and discuss
issues, and visuals to see participants and project
a variety of diagrams and illustrations. Gouzouasis'
study in 1994 concluded that video conferencing
proved a cost-effective communications tool and
effective distance education device in the delivery
of music instruction from Vancouver to preschool
children in Sydney, Australia. He argued that,
even in its most sophisticated forms, children's television programming is essentially non-interactive.
"That children in Sydney were able to demonstrate
singing exercises and communicate them to
children in Vancouver is evidence of the tremendous
power of interactive exchanges among children in
hot media," says Gouzouasis.
In the realm of multimedia, Gouzouasis has studied
how children construct multimedia with computers.
Since acoustic and visual media constitute multimedia, they are rooted in the performing and visual
arts. When given a choice, children who participated
in the studies unanimously believed that they would
learn more, have more fun drawing, making animations and creating sounds than they would learning
other computer functions. Along with his research
interests, Gouzouasis contributed to a 1994 project
of the Canadian Association for Media Education
called Conceptual Framework for Media Education
and Cross-Curricular Learning Outcomes and
Opportunities for Teaching and Assessment.
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Faculty of Education Related research completed or underway:
> To explore new ways of fostering literacy, the UBC-
based Learning Connections Project linked Grade n
students from a local high school via computer with
28 employees at a Vancouver computer-software
company. The unique twinning project had the two
groups correspond through E-mail for six weeks, at
the end of which students wrote profiles of the
employees. The exercise infused a sense of responsibility into the student writers while incorporating elements of fiction, non-fiction, journalism and rhetoric.
Another segment of the project succeeded in hooking up 100 Vancouver students with 100 high school
counterparts in Halifax through the international
computer network, Internet. (John Willinsky,
Language Education)
■ Working with several hundred elementary school
students and teachers in 12 schools throughout
B.C., a 10-member research team studied the obstacles and opportunities created when multimedia
technology is introduced at the primary level. (Mary
Bryson, David Robitaille, Curriculum Studies)
TECHNOLOGY AND SPORT
lan Franks joined the School of Human Kinetics
in 1980 as a researcher in the general area
of motor learning and movement control. In addition
to his interests in the life sciences, Franks coached
Canada's Olympic soccer team between 1980
and 1983.
During a game, Franks would often have up to 10
volunteers roaming the sidelines with clipboards
collecting data on game elements such as shot
opportunities, corner kicks, throw-ins, tackles, and
time of ball control. He soon realized that there had
to be an easier method of information gathering.
By 1985, he had come up with one of the first
interactive computer-assisted analysis systems
designed specifically for sport. The clipboard was
replaced by a microcomputer loaded with
special programs for data collection. Linked to a
video camcorder and digitized touchpad to
record specific elements, the microcomputer time-
coded each element on video allowing for
faster searches of good and bad play. Today,
coaches can get digital images directly from
video straight onto CD-ROM discs.
Franks says the system allows for objective collection of relevant details about an individual's
performance and acts as an external memory aid
for both the athlete and coach.
Franks has also extended the systems to provide
feedback to coaches about their behaviour.
The coach is videotaped during practice with each
comment coded, tabulated and stored. Franks
says 42 pieces of information can be drawn from
a single utterance. The system notes if the coach
talks to groups or individuals, when advice is given
and whether it is descriptive or prescriptive,
delivered with authority or nonchalance. This concept is now used with many different sports, such
as ice hockey, field hockey, squash, volleyball, fencing, Australian Rules Football and cricket.
Related research:
• The Leisure and Sport Management Laboratory supports a variety of socio-managerial research
focused on sport, leisure and the mass media, and
studies in sport history. Facilities include three
cable television units, three computer workstations,
a computer-controlled video playback unit and
microform readers. Funded research projects examine
such topics as: gender messages in lifestyle beer
commercials; strategic planning of senior citizen
centres; leisure service provision for low income
women and their families; tobacco sponsorship of
broadcast sport events; employment equity and
career patterns in newspaper sport journalism;
and strategic planning in national sport organizations. (Robert Sparks, Wendy Frisby, Barbara Schrodt,
Human Kinetics)
CAREERS AND THE WORLD  OF WORK
Counselling psychologists Bill Borgen and Norm
Amundson have been studying careers and
employment issues since the late 1970s. Their initial
71
Faculty of Education qualitative studies of people's psychological
experience of unemployment have led to new
approaches to counselling unemployed people in
Canada, Sweden and Hungary. Their present
research interest lies with youth and the post high-
school transition.
Borgen and Amundson believe high school students
need better advice before setting off in search of
a career. The two professors recently co-ordinated a
two-year survey tracking the experiences of 1,600
high school graduates across Canada.
Nearly 80 per cent of Grade 12 students interviewed
were confident they'd be able to follow the career
path of their choice. However, when many of these
students discovered that their first choice was
blocked, most had no alternate plan to fall back on
and became confused about how to proceed.
Amundson says students leave high school with a
positive mindset and then seem to hit a wall of confusion and depression after a few months when
things don't work out.
Students need better preparation while they are still
in school to face the reality of a changing job market, and support services should be established to
help re-energize students who remain unemployed in
the four- to eight-month period following graduation.
Borgen said counselling methods have to be more
aware of the evolving job market. While counsellors
may be successful in identifying a student's abilities,
likes and dislikes, they often assume that matching
jobs are available. Tougher college admission
requirements, fewer jobs and a host of other factors
combine to make career choices moving targets
for students.
Richard Young came to UBC in 1977 and has studied
adolescent career development from both conceptual
and practical perspectives. Dissatisfied with what
he thought were narrow psychological views of
career development and their focus on individual
aptitudes, Young chose to look at ecological
models which offer broader perspectives. Since 1985,
Young has researched the family "as one ecological
domain that influences where career ideas are
hatched." A particular fascination is the active role
parents play in the career development of their
adolescent children.
Several aspects of this area—the intentions
and plans of parents and adolescents in their interactions, their meaning, how influence is
constructed as a story, and sources of conflict—have
been investigated using a variety of methods. Most
recently, Young used a video camera to capture
actual parent-adolescent conversations, and to help
parents and adolescents recall their thoughts and
feelings during their exchanges. This method has
enhanced the understanding of conversations as
intentional, goal-directed actions which are steered
and directed by the parents and children. The success of this research has led Health and Welfare
Canada to fund Young and Prof. Judith Lynam in the
School of Nursing to investigate parent-adolescent
conversations about health.
Related research:
• Larry Cochrane has touched on three major aspects
of career development. Through the study of autobiographies, he has investigated the way lives achieve
a narrative unity sometimes referred to as a sense of
vocation. His analyses of major life decisions have
identified patterns of decision-making and their significance in shaping courses of life. He has studied a
sense of agency in career, how it is cultivated and
how it matters. Cochrane's present research focuses
on the factors that hinder or facilitate becoming
an entrepreneur.
> Studies of play therapy and counselling interventions
with children in elementary schools (John Allan,
Counselling Psychology)
Canada's ability to compete in the world market
does not hinge solely on elementary and high school
education. Western economies are undergoing rapid
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Faculty  of  Education structural changes highlighted by technological
breakthroughs in micro-electronics and telecommunications. As a result, the quality of adult higher
education is becoming a vital concern.
UBC's Kjell Rubenson has devoted the last 23 years
to researching aspects of adult higher education.
Born and educated in Goteborg, Sweden,
Rubenson's interest in this area was sparked by a
1969 speech given by former Swedish Prime Minister
Olav Palme. When he delivered the speech in
Versailles, France, Palme was among the first to
introduce the concept of life-long learning. By
expounding on the notion that learning never stops
and that countries need to design education systems
with this in mind, says Rubenson, Palme's talk had
an enormous impact on educational thinking around
the industrialized world. Today, issues of access
extend across the life-span beyond the traditional
purview of 18 to 24 year olds.
Rubenson arrived at UBC in 1982 after a decade of
educational research at the Stockholm Institute of
Education. As director at the Centre for Policy
Studies in Education, he continues to research and
inform policy-makers about connections between
education and the Canadian economy and the role
universities play in preparing the labour market.
His recent research compares technological change
and training in Canada and Sweden. Looking specifically at the forest industry in both countries,
Rubenson examines the impact of new technology in
the workplace and the relation between work and
adult education. He also explores the dynamics of
labour's participation in education and training
related to technological change.
One of his findings is that the flatter, less hierarchical organizational structure in Swedish saw
mills gives them a distinct advantage over Canadian
competitors. This advantage is enhanced by
Sweden's industry-specific system for education
and training. Together with colleagues at the centre,
Rubenson is also reviewing how B.C. universities
respond to the skill requirements of an information
driven labour market.
What are the technical demands that must be met
by education? What is its relation to the organizational contexts in which it occurs? What are the
broader social and economic implications? These are
some questions Rubenson hopes to answer.
Closely related to these questions is the observation
that we know too little about the role of science and
technology programs in regional economic development. According to Hans Schuetze, one of the reasons for this "is the lack of appropriate data or indicators to assess and monitor the economic impact of
science and technology programs and investments at
the regional level."
In a comparative study of British Columbia and four
European regions—Brittany (France), Lower Saxony
(Germany), Valencia (Spain) and Scotland (UK) —
Schuetze analyses the science and technology
policies of each region and assesses their impact on
economic development. His study describes the
policies, programs and mechanisms that have been
implemented in the respective regions by provincial,
state or national governments, or under joint
national-regional ventures.
Related research:
• The origins, complexities and future development
of Canada's community colleges (John Dennison,
Educational Studies)
• Educational perspectives on fishboat safety: an
analysis of a Transportation Safety Board database
to identify vulnerabilities and how they might
be addressed (Roger Boshier, Educational Studies)
• Analysis of academic-industry relations in
Canada, Mexico and the U.S. aimed at understanding
how linkages are made and how knowledge and
innovation are managed (Don Fisher,
Educational Studies)
73
Faculty  of  Education FUNDRAISING   INITIATIVES
Chair in the Application of Media and
Technology in Mathematics, Science and
Technology Education
Goal: $2 million (endowment)
The chair will provide a focus for research, testing
and development of instructional techniques
and curriculum design that incorporate media and
technology into the learning process. The impact
of these developments on a person's ability to
acquire and retain knowledge will also be studied.
Beyond the classroom, opportunities will be
pursued to apply techniques and findings to skill
development and re-training programs within
business and industry.
Dean's Endowment Fund
Goal: $10,000 (endowment)
Within the education community at large there is
an expectation that UBC's Faculty of Education will
provide educational opportunities, research,
assistance and advice on a wide variety of professional issues associated with teaching and
learning. Established in 1991, the Dean's Endowment Fund provides funding for the innovation,
research, development and diffusion of new ideas
necessary to meet these expectations.
John M. Buchanan Exercise Science Lab
Equipment Enhancements
Goal: $170,000 (operating)
Operating since 1980, the John M. Buchanan Exercise
Science Lab emphasizes research in metabolics,
sport physiology, fitness and bioenergetics. The
lab provides a service to athletes and coaches
across Canada. Olympic, provincial and professional
athletes are tested and monitored. Faculty, staff,
students and the general public are assessed for
their fitness levels.
3
m
m
74
Faculty of Education  SCHOOL  OF  COMMUNTIY
AND   REGIONAL  PLANNING     77
The Centre for
Human Settlements:
The Asian Connection 78
CHS and Vietnam
Canada and the West
GRADUATE  STUDIES,
GENDER  AND   ETHNICITY 83
Networking Women
IN   SEARCH   OF A
SUSTAINABLE   FUTURE 84
Sustainable Development
Research Institute 86
Planning Healthy Communities 88
Creating Ethical Environments 89
Making International
Connections
Deans
H.F.Angus (1947-56)
Gordon M. Shrum (1956-62)
EH. Soward (1962-64)
Ian McTaggart-Cowan (1964-75)
TABLE  OF CONTENTS
FACULTY  OF
GRADUATE  STUDIES
RESEARCH
Peter Larkin (19 75-84)
Peter Suedfeld (1984-90)
John Grace (1990-)
FUNDRAISING FACULTY  OF
Graduate Studies
" The more knowledge we acquire in our field, the less we are apt to
have in our neighbour's. Inevitably we shall become incapacitated from
overspecialization unless we develop our social nervous system to the
corresponding degree. The dreamer needs the doer, the artist needs
the artisan, the poet needs the planner, the scholar needs the statesman,
Frank Wesbrook, 1913
" Among the most important of the contributions the Faculty of Graduate
Studies can bring to the university is the elimination of traditional
undergraduate and professional boundaries. Within its compass new
alignments are fostered, disciplinary barriers should be crossed with ease
and the development of new inter-disciplinary areas of study facilitated."
Review of UBC Faculty of Graduate Studies, 1966
It was with these sentiments that the Faculty of
Graduate Studies was created in 1947 under founding Dean Henry Angus. At the outset, the faculty's
main function was to co-ordinate and supervise
graduate degrees sought by students from any faculty. At the start of Angus' nine-year tenure, UBC
offered courses leading to a Master's degree in Arts
and Science (MA), Social Work (MSW), Applied
Science (MASc), and Agriculture (MSA). The first
doctoral degrees were awarded in the spring
congregation of 1950 to T.L. Collins in Physics and
M.M.R. Khan in Zoology. When Gordon Shrum
took over the deanship in 1956, registration had
reached 457 (of whom 80 were pursuing PhDs), and
research interests were heavily oriented toward
the sciences. A major research focus during Shrum's
time revolved around the Van de Graaf generator
(precursor to today's TRIUMF facility) which was
purchased through a National Research Council Fund
for the development of nuclear physics.
75^
Ity  of Graduate  Studie: Faculty administration shifted significantly in the
mid-1960s, lan McTaggart-Cowan became the
first dean of Graduate Studies who did not hold
a simultaneous second administrative post.
His predecessors Angus, Shrum and Frederick
Soward had been heads of sociology and anthropology, physics and history respectively. When Soward
stepped down in 1964, McTaggart-Cowan
recalls inheriting three apple crates of student documentation. In his faculty review two years later,
McTaggart-Cowan predicted that by 1972, graduate
studies would encompass about 25 per cent
(roughly 4,000 students) of the total university
enrolment. He based this prediction on the understanding that social sciences and humanities
would receive a corresponding boost in research
activity. "There is no doubt that, on this campus,
graduate work in the Humanities has lagged
behind that in the Sciences," he wrote. "There must
be a drastic change in the methods of supporting graduate students...if the Humanities are to
prosper in the Faculty of Graduate Studies."
While his overall enrolment predictions for Graduate
Studies fell short by about 1,000 students,
McTaggart-Cowan did see registration in Arts-
related subjects triple from 341 in the mid-1960s
to 865 in 1975.
Dean John Grace currently oversees a registration
approaching 6,500 students spread through all
faculties of the university and its various institutes
and centres. Grace, former head of chemical
engineering and a world authority on fluid-
particle interactions, says the faculty is the fastest-
growing on campus. During the past decade,
the number of doctoral candidates has grown almost
100 per cent and the number of Master's students
by 33 per cent. Over the same period, interdisciplinary units (programs, centres, institutes, schools,
journals) have increased from 14 to 25.
The opening of Green College in 1993 added an
exciting new dimension to graduate studies at
UBC. Green College is the university's first residential college for graduate students, and has
become a focal point for interdisciplinary scholarship. The college stimulates academic inquiry
on topics ranging from science and society, to
comparative literature and 19th-century studies.
Through initiatives such as the Cecil and Ida
Green Visiting Professors Program, speakers series
and special lectures, college residents interact
among themselves and with UBC faculty and
community representatives.
The college's founding principal is Richard Ericson,
a criminologist who has spent two decades
studying relations among police, the courts, mass
media and society. Formerly director at the
University of Toronto's Centre for Criminology,
Ericson has two degrees each in criminology and
sociology. Landmark is the term most
often used to describe his research contributions
in these fields.
In 1982, Ericson completed the final instalment
of his first trilogy—Making Crime (1981), Reproducing
Order (1982) and The Ordering of Justice (1982).
In the five-year project he explored the criminal
justice process on a scale and scope unheard
of then or since. Ericson and his colleagues,
supported by SSHRC, accompanied patrol officers
on 348 shifts, shadowed detectives for 11 months
and compiled 2,500 pages of transcriptions
from plea bargaining sessions tape-recorded in
crown attorney offices.
After 15 years peering inside the criminal justice
system, Ericson turned his attention in the
mid-1980s to the mass media and its influence
in defining crime and creating perceptions of
justice. "There are major cases where due process
does get displayed and accused are acquitted,
but for the most part the mass media have joined
with the criminal justice system in making little
76
:ulty  of Graduate ■
pretence about presumption of innocence," he said.
"Mass media show the world as being rife with
people who are not innocent."
Ericson's research team used first-hand observation
to complete a massive study of TV, newspaper
and radio crime news, how it was gathered and
reported. The probe took them through newsrooms, public relations firms, media relations departments, political parties and interest groups
and resulted in the publication of a second trilogy -
Visualizing Deviance (1987), Negotiating Control
(1989) and Representing Order (1991). Ericson
successfully submitted this and his earlier series to
Cambridge's Faculty of Law for a Doctor of
Letters (Litt.D.) in 1991.
Today, in between lectures to graduates in
the Faculties of Arts and Law (where he is the
only faculty member who is not a professionally
trained lawyer), Ericson continues to add to
and mine his rich data collection. Since 1992, he
has turned attention again to matters of policing,
security and the notion of risk profiling.
Policing the Risk Society is the tentative title for
Ericson's forthcoming book, scheduled for
completion in 1996. Its main premise is that understanding crime is first and foremost a matter of
understanding how institutions classify crime
and, through their classifications, react to it. The
author contends that the role of police has
turned from law enforcement to that of highly formatted knowledge brokers for these institutions.
SCHOOL  OF COMMUNITY AND
REGIONAL  PLANNING
In the autumn of 1950, the Central Mortgage
and Housing Corporation of Ottawa chose UBC as
the site for a two-year post graduate diploma
course in community and regional planning. As Harry
Logan noted in Tuum Est: A History of The
University of British Columbia: "Because of the
spectacular population growth in British Columbia
and the expansion of her cities, towns and rural
communities, the university was thought to
be the logical centre for study of the problems
arising from such conditions and for instruction in
methods of dealing with them."
The magnitude of B.C's growth is not lost on the
14 full-time faculty and 120 students who make
up UBC's School of Community and Regional
Planning (SCARP). In 1990, former director Alan
Artibise and colleague Michael Seelig interpreted this
phenomenal growth and change in a series of
seven newspaper articles which were later published
in the book, From Desolation to Hope: The Pacific
Fraser Region in 2010. Their work received an award
for excellence from the Planning Institute of B.C.
and the Media Club of Canada. Concurrent to Seelig
and Artibise's study, present Director William
Rees served as a key member on the City of
Vancouver's task force on atmospheric change. The
task force's landmark report, Clouds of Change,
made 35 sweeping recommendations aimed
at reducing the use of automobiles and energy
and improving transportation and land use
efficiency throughout the Lower Mainland.
As one of the largest graduate planning programs in
Canada and one of only two Canadian doctoral
programs recognized by the Canadian Institute of
Planners, SCARP research is not limited to the
local scene. While Rees strives to get B.C. motorists
driving less, colleague Setty Pendakur has been
engaged in a worldwide promotion of walking and
cycling. As past chair of the Global Task Force
on Non-Motorized Transport, Pendakur follows the
credo "feet first, pedal next, motor maybe."
Pendakur has lectured on transportation issues at
the SCARP for 28 years and says the world's
cities are running out of room to move and clean air
to breath largely because of an overabundance
of inner-city traffic. Locally, Pendakur is chair of BC
Transit Authority's Environmental Committee and
a member of the Advisory Council to the Provincial
Transportation Plan.
77
Faculty  of Graduate  Studies Related research:
' Examination of regional diversification and metropolitan restructuring issues for the B.C. Round Table
on the Environment and the Economy (Craig Davis,
Tom Hutton)
■ Completion of experimental workshops to test methods for eliciting people's values for wilderness
preservation in British Columbia (Tim McDaniels)
■ Development of a summer program for First Nations
leaders and staff linking First Nations insights
and issues with perspectives of professional planners
(Peter Boothroyd)
THE CENTRE FOR HUMAN
SETTLEMENTS: THE ASIAN CONNECTION
The Centre for Human Settlements (CHS) is SCARP'S
multidisciplinary research arm for settlements
planning. Established following the UN Habitat
Conference on Human Settlements held in Vancouver
in 1976, CHS was designated a CIDA Centre of
Excellence in International Development in 1990.
Most of the SCARP'S faculty, together with more than
a dozen faculty members from other departments
and schools, are involved in CHS research.
To launch a program in international human settlements planning, CIDA provided a grant of $5.8
million over five years to link CHS with five partner
institutions in Asia—Tsinghua University in
Bejing, Tongji University in Shanghai, Zhongshan
University in Guangzhou, Chulalongkorn University
in Bangkok, and the Institute of Technology in
Bandung. Research teams in each city have since
focused on three types of settlement: a rapidly
urbanizing small town; an inner city neighborhood
characterized by poor housing and urban congestion,
and a city-centered or metropolitan region. Using
these settlements as physical frameworks, the study
examined community organization and participation,
the accessibility of housing and services to
urban poor, how gender considerations enter
the planning and management process, and the role
non-governmental organizations play in
urban management.
CHS AND VIETNAM
Since 1991, Peter Boothroyd has directed one of
Canada's first government-sponsored development
projects in Vietnam. Together with colleagues
at UBC's Institute of Asian Research, Boothroyd has
used a one-million dollar CIDA grant to help
Vietnam enhance its teaching and research on development planning. "UBC is in the unique and
exciting position of helping build and support a new
relationship," says Boothroyd. "It gives us the
chance to help Vietnamese scholars and at the same
time make suggestions to the Canadian government on its assistance policy."
Ten faculty from seven departments have participated in the project with the collective goal of
enhancing research programming and graduate
training at the National Centre for Social Sciences
and Humanities (NCSSH) in Hanoi. The UBC
team has assisted the Vietnamese in acquiring and
interpreting literature in the areas of rural
development, urbanization, household economy and
social policy. UBC librarians have also helped
make the Vietnamese library system more accessible
while UBC teachers have strengthened the English-
language skills of NCSS faculty. "For political, economic and linguistic reasons, Vietnam hasn't
been operating in the English-speaking world," says
Boothroyd. "They now want to learn to communicate effectively and be made aware of the kind of
thinking that is going on in Canada and elsewhere on sustainable development issues."
As the centre for graduate education, the NCSSH
consists of 19 institutes which provide teaching,
research and policy analysis for the Vietnamese
government. The UBC-Vietnam linkage project was
one of 19 university proposals chosen from
120 applications. Boothroyd is also co-ordinator of
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Faculty of Graduate  Studies a parallel project between the NCSSH and UBC
looking into the socio-economic impacts of renovation (doi moi) funded by the IDRC.
In 1993, UBC researchers conducted a workshop in
Hanoi introducing issues related to housing in
Third World market economies and Eastern Europe's
transitional economies. These areas are of popular
relevance to Vietnamese planners who must deal
with the rapid shift to market socialism under the
government's economic policy of doi moi.
Related research:
• SCARP member Henry Hightower leads research
on earthquakes, hurricanes, oil spills, forest fires,
flash-floods and mudslides at the CHS-based
Disaster Preparedness Resource Centre. This centre
is electronically linked to similar organizations
in the U.S., Australia, Britain, Indonesia and the
Pacific Rim.
• Planning for growth management in the context of
structural change and sustainable development
in the Vancouver Region (Tom Hutton, SCARP)
• Trans-national networks of Chinese capitalism in the
age of globalization
• Regional restructuring and strategies of overseas
investment in Southern China (You-tien Hsing, CHS)
• Housing in Third-world cities
• Inner city redevelopment in large Chinese cities
(Michael Leaf, CHS)
• Trade, industrial and agricultural policies in the
economic development of Indonesia and Vietnam
(Richard Barichello, Agricultural Economics)
• Economic/environmental/social implications of
accelerated industrialization in Indonesia and
the country's agricultural prospects (Geoffrey
Hainsworth, Economics)
CHS director Aprodicio Laquian, hired in 1991 to
co-ordinate the multi-million-dollar CIDA project,
came from a United Nations posting in New York
and an international career that had taken him to
86 countries. An expert on urban housing issues,
Laquian was chief evaluator for the UN's $240-
million-a-year population fund and also managed the
organization's population program in China,
Mongolia and North Korea. In the early 1970s, the
International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
and the World Bank commissioned Laquian to
turn his critical eye on the slums of six cities in Latin
America, Africa and Asia. His findings showed that
many projects sponsored by the international
agencies didn't reach the bottom 20 per cent of the
populations they were trying to help. The five-
year study resulted in his 11th book, Basic Housing:
Policies for Sites, Services and Shelters in Developing Countries, since translated into four languages.
Laquian said the proliferation of urban slums in and
around cities of developing countries started
around the Second World War and has accelerated
dramatically. By the year 2000, urban planners
predict 23 world cities will have populations of more
than 10 million people, with 17 of these mega-
cities in developing countries. Says Laquian: "It's a
global phenomenon. People are born, they
move and they eventually end up in the city. Our job
is to understand their way of life, what kind of
jobs they have, and what they are capable of doing
for themselves."
Laquian recently edited Planning and Development
of Metropolitan Regions, the first in a series of
CHS reports analyzing the planning and governance
of the Asian megacities Bangkok, Bandung,
Bejing, Guangzhou and Shanghai. These cities range
in size from eight to 12 million, and are expanding
so rapidly that they have sprawled beyond their
political boundaries.
79
Faculty  of Graduate  Studies INSTITUTE OF ASIAN   RESEARCH
UBC's academic interest in Asia began more than
a half century ago when renowned peace advocate
and internationalist Inazo Nitobe lectured on
campus about Japan's role in the Pacific. The following year, in 1934, UBC offered its first full time
course on Asia Pacific Affairs. Much later, in 1961,
the Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR) moved with its
director, Bill Holland, from New York City to UBC.
This transfer, together with the leading academic
journal, Pacific Affairs (see Towards the Pacific
Century), succeeded in catapulting UBC into the front
rank of universities with serious intellectual
commitment to research on Asia.
Activities with an Asian focus were paired with
Eastern European and Russian studies for
a short time until the emergence of the Institute of
Asian Research (IAR) in 1978. In 1992, founding
director Terence McGee relinquished his directorship
to Mark Fruin after 14 years as director. By then,
more than 100 faculty members were teaching 150
courses on the region in the faculties of Arts,
Education, Law, Forestry and Commerce and
Business Administration.
When he isn't attending to administrative duties as
IAR director, Fruin pursues his own research
interests relating to Japan. With an undergraduate
degree in history, an MA in East Asian regional
studies and a doctorate in Japanese social and economic history, Fruin has a solid grounding in
Asia's traditional past. Added to this is a 20-year
teaching career in five countries focused on contemporary issues of international and comparative
management, business and economic history.
Fruin's most recent book in the business field,
The Japanese Enterprise System—Competitive
Strategies and Co-operative Structures, deals with
the evolution of large industrial enterprises in
Japan since the beginning of the 19th century. His
1994 publication, Knowledge Works, delves into the
differences in the forms and meanings of work,
especially value-added, design and development
work among advanced industrial nations.
Fruin notes that people are becoming more
open-minded about learning from Asia. They recognize that it takes a certain kind of knowledge
to understand what is going on in the region and to
benefit from developments there. He sees the
institute as the mechanism through which persons
interested in Asia, traditional and modern, can
get together and explore the more contemporary
policy and research concerns. Through interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research projects,
Fruin adds that the institute "is preparing us now
for what we'll need to know 10 years from now."
The institute has evolved into a multi-faceted
research organization with an impressive array of
functions. These include: carrying out and
sponsoring research relating to Asia and the Asia
Pacific region; studying and recommending
policy measures with reference to Asia for academic,
government, industry and public service organizations; organizing seminars and public speaking
forums on Asia for faculty, students and interested
community members; worldwide networking and
information-sharing through publications, conferences and database development; and encouraging
lively interaction among visiting scholars and
dignitaries. Recent conferences and workshops sponsored by the institute and its centres have dealt
with Women and Politics in Korea, Gender and
Development in India, network forms of organization
in Asia and North America, theories of the firm in
Japan, and Southeast Asian Studies.
These various initiatives were strengthened in 1991
through a $2o-million restructuring plan featuring the
establishment of five regionally based centres
for Chinese Research, Korean Research, South Asian
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Faculty  of Graduate  Studies Research, Southeast Asian Research and Japanese
Research. The IAR, together with the five centres,
moves into the new CK. Choi Building in early 1996.
Each centre brings together faculty members,
graduate students and other researchers from across
campus who have research and teaching
interests related to the given region of Asia. To
channel program development and foster collaboration, research activities have been grouped into
six themes: human values and expression; culture
learning and behaviour; political economy and
organizational innovation; globalism, regionalism and
localism; science, technology and environment;
and policy futures and the Asia Pacific.
First appointees to endowed chairs within the IAR
are: Political Scientist Kyung Ae Park (Centre
Masao Nakamura (far left), Nina Halpern,
Kyung Ae Park and Mark Fruin: "preparing us now
for what we'll need to know 10 years from now.'
for Korean Research) whose interests include inter-
Korean relations and women and politics in North
and South Korea; Economist Masao Nakamura
(Centre For Japanese Research) co-author (with I lan
Vertinsky) of Japanese Economic Policies and
Growth: Implications for Businesses in Canada and
North America (1994); and Nina Halpern (Centre
for Chinese Research) who examines economic
reform and socio-political change in Post-Mao China.
While the scope of IAR research is regional in a geographic sense, it seeks to explore issues of global
as well as local importance. With this in mind, the
institute established a public policy program called
CAPRI (Canada Asia Pacific Research Initiatives)
to explore policy research of universal and comparative interest. This is fostered through visits to
campus by corporate leaders, government officials
and academics from the Asia Pacific region. Visitations began in 1993 with Japan's Junichi Wada,
from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry
and Takahiko Iwaya from the Ministry of Welfare
and Health.
Urbanization is one issue of global concern
scrutinized by IAR faculty members.
As a leading authority on Asian urbanization and
development, Terence McGee has spent much of
the past quarter century in some of the most crowded places on the planet. Since 1967, he has
written or co-written six books on Third World
urbanization and related issues of urban poverty,
rural-urban migration and food distribution.
Predictions are that by the end of the 1990s, for
the first time in history, more people will live in and
around cities than in rural areas. Asia holds more
than half of the world's population, a considerable
portion of which is concentrated in densely-settled
plains and urban cores. Yet, while the region
contains some of the world's largest cities, McGee
says the level of urbanization actually remains
81
Faculty  of Graduate  Studies low. This means that as development occurs and
the rural population moves to the cities, there is
great potential for the emergence of megacities on
a scale never seen before.
However, McGee does not believe this urban transition, with the attendant problems of housing,
energy and infrastructure, will necessarily persist in
the face of advancing industrialization. In his
opinion, "increased urban concentration need not
occur in the wake of intense industrial growth,
and the validity of rural and urban distinctions may
become blurred as the various regions of Asia
become incorporated in the global economy."
Along with UBC sociologist Graham Johnson and
Claude Comtois, McGee suggests an alternative
to megacities might be the growth of huge
urban areas he calls Extended Metropolitan Regions
(EMRs). Such regions, as exemplified by Japan's
Tokyo-Osaka corridor, are linked by fast transportation and characterized by a mixture of industry,
services and agriculture.
McGee's research team has been analysing the
roles and functions of three Asian EMRs: Hong Kong-
Guangzhou-Macau (pop. 25 million); Shanghai-
Nanjing (90 million); and Singapore-Johore which
numbers a little more than 3.5 million. McGee
explains that these areas have been the focus of
growth and development since the late 19th century,
growth which has accelerated dramatically over
the last four decades. All were characterized by
small-holding peasant cultivators engaged in a
combination of wet-rice and cash-crop agriculture. A
flexible labour force allowed for the emergence of
petty commodity production and close economic and
cultural links with urban settlements, links which
remain intact. When new forms of economic activity
were introduced in the modern period they were
readily absorbed into existing cultural structures
without the massive disruption experienced during
the European transition.
McGee points out that the two Chinese regions of
his project have only five per cent of the total
population yet account for over 30 per cent of the
total value of the agricultural and industrial
sectors. Likewise, the central region of Thailand, with
10 per cent of the population, produces 50 per
cent of its Gross Domestic Product. McGee's insights
into the emergence of EMRs have profound implications for theory and applications to planning,
labour force formation, patterns of food consumption, industrialization and the changing economy
of the entire Pacific Basin.
CANADA AND THE WEST
Many UBC scholars involved in the study of Canada
and British Columbia present their scholarship in
either the quarterly journals Canadian Literature or
BC Studies.
BC Studies recently published volume 100, a special
issue celebrating its 25th anniversary. Since its
founding in 1969, this interdisciplinary enterprise has
published articles by more than 300 authors commenting on issues of historical, geographic, cultural,
economic, environmental and political importance.
The idea for BC Studies was hatched by founding co-
editors, Walter Young from political science and
historian Margaret Prang. As Prang noted in an
anniversary retrospective: "We believed that an
increasing volume of scholarly work relating to this
province done by our colleagues and their graduate
students in history and social studies was worthy
of publication. Regrettably, national and international
journals tended to take the view that local subjects
were necessarily parochial subjects, and therefore
did not warrant publication."
The journal was inspired in great part by the
work of Margaret Ormsby, Prang's predecessor as
head of the history department and the undisputed doyenne of B.C. history. Ormsby completed
her UBC honours thesis in 1935 on the Okanagan
fruit industry, went to the U.S. for doctoral
work and returned to B.C. to continue her pursuit of
the local past. Ormsby wrote the first history of
B.C. in 1958, a work which set the standard in the
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82
Faculty of Graduate Studies field. The initial release of Ormsby's book
British Columbia: A History coincided with the final
appearance of the 21-year-old publication, British
Columbia Historical Quarterly. BC Studies has
more than filled the void.
Under the guidance of Allan Smith, editor since
1983, BC Studies has broadened its scope to include
literature and fine arts. Smith, a historian of culture
and ideas in Canada, has expanded the tradition
of theme issues which delve further into western
viewpoints on archaeology, historical geography
and the national economy.
First Nations have been a dominant theme over
the years, beginning with the 1973 issue, Indians in
British Columbia. Other issues included: British
Columbia: A Place for Aboriginal Peoples? edited by
political scientist Paul Tennant (also author of the
award-winning book Aboriginal Peoples and Politics);
In Celebration of Our Survival: The First Nations of
British Columbia edited by Doreen Jensen and Cheryl
Brooks in Spring 1991, and Anthropology and the
Courts, edited by UBC anthropologist Bruce Miller in
Autumn 1992.
In the preface to the 25th anniversary issue, Smith
wrote: "Profound change is occurring in the way
scholarship in the humanities and social sciences is
being seen and understood, and the very variety and
the range of the material with which BC Studies
has presented its readers implicates it with scholarly
publications generally in that fundamentally
important process."
GRADUATE  STUDIES,  GENDER AND  ETHNICITY
As part of its commitment to furthering equity in
scholarship, research and teaching, UBC established
the Centre for Research in Women's Studies and
Gender Relations in 1991. In so doing, the university
joined other institutions in supporting a multi-
disciplinary field of scholarship that promises to
have profound impact on traditional ways of thinking
in humanities and social sciences research.
Founding director Veronica Strong-Boag says the
centre fosters graduate education, community liaison
and interdisciplinary research. One indicator of
success is the second edition of the centre's directory of researchers in women's studies and gender
relations which has entries from more than 60
scholars campus-wide.
A historian, Strong-Boag's own research interests
include women in post-confederation Canada
and women, family and suburban development from
1945 to i960. One on-going initiative is a col-
labourative effort with English Prof. Sherrill Grace,
nurse-sociologist Joan Anderson and political
scientist Avigail Eisenberg.
The project, called The Construction of Canada: The
Changing Meaning of Race and Gender 1860s to
1990s, aims to help Canadians better understand the
"malestream" authorities who have shaped this
country's culture, politics and social policy. Strong-
Boag, past president of the Canadian Historical
Association (CHA), says viewpoints that routinely
ignore or distort the experience of non-European
racial and ethnic groups and women have been a
powerful influence in moulding present-day Canada.
Despite claims of impartiality, she adds that
Canadians' impressions have been guided by historians, writers and policy-makers who have shared a
narrow view of the country's best interests.
"The development of laws and programs guaranteeing the right of women to equality cannot proceed
without a full recognition of the problematic nature
of this dominating view," says Strong-Boag. "So
long as the bias of much history, literature, politics
and public policy remains unexplored, its failings
cannot be addressed."
Strong-Boag's previous work has provided a much
more complex characterization of Canadian experience. Her 1988 publication, The New Day Recalled:
Lives of Girls and Women in English Canada 1919-
1939, won the Sir John A. Macdonald Prize for the
best book in Canadian history. A year earlier, she
was co-winner of the Laura Jamieson Prize for best
feminist book {Rethinking Canada) by a Canadian
83
Ity of Graduate  Studies author, presented by the Canadian Research Institute
for the Advancement of Women. As for the
Construction of Canada project, Strong-Boag says the
research team is evaluating an "anti-racist, feminist
vision of Canada" which has emerged recently in
writing and debate on history, politics, culture and
health care.
NETWORKING WOMEN
UN statistics indicate that while women represent
half the global population, one-third of the
labour force and are responsible for two-thirds of
all working hours, they receive only one-tenth of the
world income and own less than one per cent of
world property. Though they make up half of the
electorate, very few women reach the highest levels
of political participation in their countries and
even fewer become public decision-makers.
To address these issues, SCARP faculty member
Penny Gurstein and sociologist Dawn Currie have set
up a global network of researchers to develop
new policies to increase women's participation in all
facets of socio-political life and improve the
quality of women's lives in general. Gurstein says
that while there is a considerable body of research
on the inclusion of women in development, the
research network brings together researchers who
are committed to articulating the often unaddressed
transition from research to policy.
"Research has found that women and their concerns
generally have been left out of the decision-making
process on development issues", said Gurstein, the
network project's principal investigator. "Clearly
there is a need to redefine the framework of current
approaches to development and recognize the
unique contributions women make economically,
socially and culturally."
The network is made up of researchers from Canada,
Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America and Africa, and
examines topics such as the changing nature of
home-based economic activities for women; alleviation of poverty among female disadvantaged groups
in urban and rural areas; women and the improvement of health conditions in low-income commun-
ties; and the role of women in community development and decision-making. The network started with
the research work of four founding network members
as a base, and has expanded and translated this
research into a form suited to policy. Papers from
the first workshop held in May, 1994, have been
edited for a book on research directions in gender
and development.
Gurstein's recent research involves issues of sustainable urban design and gender-sensitive planning.
The network is funded by the SSHRC and administered through the Centre for Human Settlements with
additional support through the Centre for Research
in Women's Studies and Gender Relations.
IN SEARCH OF A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
"It is more important that we appreciate our
responsibilities for the heritage which has been given
us. We must not be intoxicated by the realization
of nature's prodigality. In the exuberance of our youth,
we must not sow national wild oats for our children
and our children's children to reap'
Frank Wesbrook, 1913
Following in Wesbrook's footsteps, urban geographer Walter Hardwick is credited with forcefully
bringing home the concept of SustainabiUty in
the Lower Mainland when he coined the phrase
'liveable region' in 1974. SCARP director Rees,
an urban planner and resource ecologist,
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Faculty  of Graduate  Studies joins Hardwick as one of UBC's and Canada's
pioneers in the ongoing international debate over
sustainable development.
For 25 years, Rees has investigated the ecological
basis for economic development in a research career
that has taken him from the Peruvian Andes to the
Arctic. Rees joined SCARP in 1969 with a PhD in bio-
ecology from the University of Toronto. That was
also the year he helped found Pollution Probe, one
of Canada's first environmental groups.
Until the mid-1980s, Rees' major focus was the
ecological and socioeconomic impact of industrialization in the Canadian North. Since then, his attention has turned to global environmental trends.
Rees and a group of graduate students organized
the first national symposium on sustainable development in 1989. The background documentation and
proceedings of the symposium won the American
Institute of Certified Planners' prestigious Student
Project Award for helping translate planning knowledge into policy action.
The issue of sustainability came to world attention
two years prior to the UBC symposium after the
World Commission on Environment and Development
published its findings in the Brundtland Report. The
report noted that in order to have any kind of
healthy environment for future generations, people
had to start making development decisions based
on sustainability; to paraphrase Wesbrook, they
could not keep using today what they were going
to need tomorrow.
At the request of government, President Strangway
chaired a provincial task force on environment and
economy in 1989 to see how the concept of sustainable development could be applied in the provincial
context. Four years later the Tri-Council secretariat
(SSHRC, MRC, NSERC) awarded UBC $2.4 million to
carry out a study called Prospects for Sustainability:
Integrative Approaches to Sustaining the Ecosystem
Function of the Lower Fraser Basin. Otherwise known
as the Basin Ecosystem Study, the project has 27
UBC faculty and 35 students from nine faculties,
Fourteen faculty associated with the UBC Fisheries
Centre draw on research from both the
applied and social sciences to assess and forecast the
impacts of human and natural processes on
fish habitat. Among its initiatives, the centre sponsors
the Common Ground Fisheries Forum. By
bringing fisheries participants together from federal
and provincial governments, First Nations,
sport fishing and the commercial sector, centre
director Tony Pitcher and SCARP research associate
Evelyn Pinkerton (above) hope to redirect
energy from sectoral conflict to the common cause
of achieving sustainable fisheries.
centres and schools exploring four components.
Led by Michael Healey of UBC's Westwater Research
Centre, the study tackles a myriad of sustainability challenges in the 500,000-hectare region
stretching from Richmond inland to Hope; challenges
brought on by population growth, urbanization,
pollution and increasing land use conflicts among
industry, recreational groups, agriculture,
forestry and wildlife.
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Faculty  of Graduate  Studies Related Fraser Basin eco-research:
• The levels of contamination from domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes in the river and
their effects on salmon and other living resources
(River and Its Margins Component)
• Global demands on ecological and other resources
that are inherent in modern urban lifestyles
and how to reduce those demands (Urban
Systems Component)
• Environmental and economic history of the Fraser
Valley and the interrelations between
economy and environment in rural communities
(Terrestrial Systems Component)
• Forces driving the changing demography of the
basin and developing tools for designing
and exploring future options for the basin (Whole
Basin Component)
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
RESEARCH INSTITUTE
According to John Robinson, one of the biggest
challenges researchers face is redefining the
term consumption to make it relevant to the needs
of the earth's five billion inhabitants. The
founding director of UBC's Sustainable Development
Research Institute (SDRI) refers to a colleague's calculation that if everyone consumed at the level of
the average Canadian, two additional earths would
be needed to support the current population on a
sustainable basis. This scenario, Robinson adds,
assumes that Canada and other developed nations
stop growing.
The SDRI was established in 1991 to foster
multidisciplinary research linkages between environmental, economic and social equity issues. A
major SDRI initiative since Robinson's arrival in May
1992 has been to model a Canadian society in
the year 2030 that is sustainable in environmental,
social, economic and political terms. Highlights
of the Sustainable Society Project (SSP) include a
27.5 hour work week, a 40 per cent decrease
in total energy use and a 62 per cent reduction in
CO2 emission with all electricity produced from
renewable sources (primarily methanol from organic
waste products). The scenario also calls for an
older (half over 45) Canadian population of 30
million consuming 82 per cent less meat, living
in dense urban communities of efficient apartments
and row houses, and moving around primarily
on bicycle, public transit or small electric automobiles. SDRI researchers are currently analysing
the socio-political requirements for implementing the
plan as well as building a network of committed
groups and individuals to further the process.
This project is one of more than 30 SDRI research
initiatives involving some 60 academics from
11 faculties. Robinson says SDRI collaborative projects show how universities are redefining their
own structures to meet society's changing needs.
"Our problems don't fit into nice neat boxes.
It's a painful process, but in order to tackle new
problems with new approaches, academics in all
disciplines must somehow learn to speak the
same language."
Robinson is cross-appointed in the Geography
department where he co-teaches undergraduate courses on environmental thought and
the geography of resource industries. After
11 years of experience in the Waterloo's Dept. of
Environment and Resource Studies, Robinson
came to UBC loaded with practical knowledge of
public policy gained through consulting work
with public utilities in Canada and abroad.
Among his appointments was chair of the Canadian
Options for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction
(COGGER) Panel. The panel's report garnered
national attention by outlining the economic benefits
of increasing energy efficiency and the use of
alternate fuels. Robinson is co-leading the Whole
Basin Component of the Lower Fraser Basin
Eco-Research Project. The component involves developing a scenario generation tool that will be
used to integrate other components of the project.
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Faculty  of Graduate  Studies Anthony Dorcey, of the Westwater Research Centre,
edited "Perspectives on Sustainable Development
in Water Management (1991)." The book is the first
of a two-volume set on the environment of the
Fraser River Basin. Dorcey was first chair of
the Fraser Basin Management Board from 1992-94.
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Faculty  of Graduate  Studii I
Related SDRI projects:
• Completion of a 10-part study of hazardous,
toxic and special wastes
• Production of an annual series of easy-to-read
reports on sustainable development
• Formation of a Canada-wide sustainable
communities network
• Energy policy analysis and modelling in B.C.
• Evaluating the potential of large-scale greenhouse
gas emission reductions
• Development of a sustainable futures
computer game tied to state-of-the-environment
database development
PLANNING HEALTHY COMMUNITIES
Rees and Dr. Robert Woollard of the Dept. of Family
Practice have led a group of five research
associates in the Urban Systems component of the
Fraser Basin Study. Also known as the Task
Force on Planning Sustainable and Healthy Communities, research has focused on the City of
Richmond where the group has devised a method
for helping residents understand the social and
ecological consequences of downtown development.
The current city plan calls for for 40,000 residents to
move to Richmond during the next 15 years.
Task force members have used two tools, developed
by Rees and his students, to help citizens make
sense of the overwhelming amount of data on
which the city's future depends. One, called the ecological footprint (and its companion concept of
Appropriated Carrying Capacity), allows people to
gauge the amount of land needed to support a
particular plan or development, including the waste
it generates. The second tool, referred to as the
social caring capacity, relates a development to quality of life issues such as equity, safety, education,
household stress and ethnic diversity. Woollard says
the two tools, when taken together, provide a
matrix into which people can plug their particular
concerns or issues. "These tools provide a simple
means by which citizens can confront the
ecological, social and economic trade-offs inherent in
any urban plan," says Woollard.
Lawrence Green, task force member and director
of UBC's Institute for Health Promotion and
Research (see President's Report on the Health
Sciences for further IHPR and health-policy
research) adds that just as gross national product
and interest rates affect economic decisionmaking, health considerations must also be included.
The UBC team examined indicators such as infant
mortality rates, longevity figures, incidence of
disease and strains on environmental habitats. They
also looked at the time people spend commuting
and fossil fuels consumed in the process.
With its implications for global sustainability, the
ecological footprint concept has attracted significant
attention in Canada, the U.S., the U.K., Sweden,
Germany and Austria. The idea was also explored
in detail during the Commonwealth Human Ecology
Council's 1994 meeting and the concurrent
Global Forum '94, the urban-oriented followup to
the Rio Summit two years earlier.
Related research:
> Soil degradation and water quality have been directly linked to current unsustainable agricultural
practices in Vancouver's Lower Mainland region.
Research is underway exploring the economic instruments—tradable permits, taxes, cross compliance,
property rights—which could be used to curb soil
degradation and resulting water contamination
and to advance the notion of sustainable agricultural
practices in the Lower Mainland. (Casey van
Kooten, Agricultural Economics)
In December of 1989, Health and Welfare Canada
held national consultation meetings to address
the specific needs of ethnocultural communities in
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Faculty  of Graduate  Studies ■
the fight against HIV, the virus that leads to
AIDS. Since then, Sharon Manson-Singer, a faculty
member with the School of Social Work and
research associate at the Centre for Human
Settlements, has taken part in a $i-million national
study examining how attitudes, behaviours and
sexual practices of various ethnocultural groups in
Canada are linked to HIV transmission.
As a member of a multi-disciplinary team of six
researchers in three sites (Vancouver, Toronto and
Montreal) Manson-Singer looked at specific risk
behaviours in Vancouver's Chinese and South Asian
populations. "When we started this project we
really didn't have a good handle on what beliefs
contributed to what behaviours," said Manson-
Singer, who oversaw focus groups and indepth interviews involving 135 people. The study is unique
in that members of the community are actively
engaged in advising the researchers on how to gain
access to the communities, and how results are
reported. "In areas of sexuality, and with a disease
like HIV, advice from visible minorities must be
respected so that their communities are protected
from violence or immigration quotas related to HIV
status," Manson-Singer added. The study has
three phases—epidemiological, socio-cultural and
behavioural—showing each phase building on
the previous work.
Chinese and South Asian Canadians are reluctant to
acknowledge AIDS: denial is based on cultural
taboos prohibiting homosexuality and sexual activity
outside marriage; women feel powerless to
instigate condom use particularly in marriage; youth
do not have adequate sexual education in the
home as sex and homosexuality are not discussed.
Manson-Singer concluded that the South Asian and
Chinese communities need culturally appropriate
AIDS education materials targeted at specific risk
groups. She added that denial must be countered
through community awareness programs and
information sharing via the electronic media and
telephone help lines. These results received
wide attention at the 10th Annual International AIDS
Conference in Yokohama, Japan.
Related health research:
• Evaluation of the Federal-Provincial Heart Health
Initiative aimed at mobilizing people to improve
their own heart health and that of their communities
(Lawrence Green, James Frankish, IHPR)
• Evaluation of B.C.'s school-based prevention
project which provides alcohol and drug misuse
prevention services in approximately 40 secondary
schools throughout the province (Marjorie
MacDonald, Margaret Cargo, Lawrence Green, IHPR)
CREATING ETHICAL ENVIRONMENTS
Like the SDRI, the Centre for Applied Ethics at UBC
is interdisciplinary by nature, and provides
opportunities for academics, practitioners and others
to engage in systematic and rational reflection on
significant moral issues with practical implications.
Director Michael McDonald holds the Maurice Young
Chair in Applied Ethics and is a key figure in
Canadian applied ethics research. He was principal
author of a 1989 report presented to SSHRC which
outlined the council's current strategic theme for
applied ethics. According to McDonald, "Morality is
the glue that holds or fails to hold communities
together. My work centres on the shared moral
understandings that make social interactions beneficial and desirable." Through research and teaching,
he aims to increase peoples' ability to recognize
and meet moral challenges.
Many of the centre's research projects address major
world issues. Since sound moral judgements
must take into account social, political, economic,
legal and other relevant features of choice situations, applied ethics research requires the expertise
of numerous disciplines. Soon after his arrival in
1990, McDonald established a team of research fellows and associates at the centre drawn from
economics, commerce, medicine, education, nursing,
89
Faculty  of Graduate  Studies dentistry, philosophy, political science and
forestry. Each year, this group is augmented by visiting international scholars on leave from their
home institutions. Together, centre researchers
have examined topical issues such as the value of
life in policy-making, moral expertise among
accountants, computer-mediated ethical discourse,
liberalism and the family, the ethics of global
climate change, population growth and resource
consumption and the ethical assessment of the
risks of nuclear power.
The centre draws on the rich academic resources
from virtually all faculties on Point Grey, and
engages in frequent collaborations with other institutions. In 1992, McDonald and colleagues co-sponsored a Conference on Sustainability and Forestry
with the Goethe Institute of Vancouver. UBC ethicists
are currently investigating a cross-cultural approach
to health care ethics in Canada with the University
of Victoria's Centre for Studies in Religion and
Society, and with partners in Bangkok, Singapore,
the Philippines and other centres in Canada.
The centre has established major SSHRC-funded
computer networks in applied ethics used by
researchers from many disciplines at Canadian and
foreign universities. Without these networks, many
researchers would have difficulty connecting
with each other as they are scattered across disciplines, professions and lands. McDonald notes also
that graduate students are involved in all major
research projects at the centre.
MAKING INTERNATIONAL
CONNECTIONS
President MacKenzie, an international lawyer, was
certain that Canada's rising status in international
affairs necessitated a more concentrated approach
to international relations. To this end, he chose
historian Frederick Soward, in 1946, to direct campus-wide efforts in the field of international studies.
A quarter century later, the multidisciplinary Institute
of International Relations (MR) was established with
a mandate to concentrate on international politics
and organization, diplomatic history, strategic
studies, international legal problems, trade and
development and social science theory as it pertains
to international relationships.
UBC will further broaden the scope of its international projects and programs. Plans are underway
for the construction of St. John's College, a
residential graduate college promoting international
exchanges and understanding. Adjacent to the
college, the Liu Centre for International Studies will
house research activities and continuing education
efforts with an international focus.
Brian Job, director of UBC's Institute of International
Relations (IIR), is principal investigator for a
project called, Uncertain Transition: Canada in the
Post Cold War Asia Pacific. Working with
colleagues at York University, University of Toronto
and External Affairs, Job explores the nature of
the evolving post Cold War Asia Pacific security
order and reflects upon the potential for Canada to
play an effective role in its development. Job
says the project assesses the extent to which principles and practices of cooperative security (as
defined by Canada) are relevant to the security
problems of the Asia Pacific. Job adds that the
project emphasizes the ways in which national definitions of security and security policies are shaped by
the perceptions of policy-makers. Said Job: "This
approach provides an opportunity to relate Canadian
views, interests and capabilities concerning international and regional security with the emerging
security nexus within the Asia Pacific." Along with
colleagues at York, Job has also established a
consortium of Canadian experts in Canada
and abroad on matters related to Asia Pacific
security relations.
Kalevi Holsti is considered Canada's most distinguished scholar of international relations. His textbook (and first major publication) International
Relations: A Framework for Analysis, has survived 25
years in six editions and continues to dominate the
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Faculty  of Graduate  Studies market. He followed this best-selling textbook with a
major monograph entitled Why Nations Re-Align:
Foreign Policy Re-Structuring in the Postwar
World. With this work, Holsti explores the dynamics
of change in foreign policy and draws upon
comparative cases to advance a novel theoretical
explanation for this change.
Perhaps his most influential contribution to the
development of international relations is the
book, Peace and War: Armed Contests and
International Order. The book was one of five
nominees for the 1991 Lionel Gelber Prize for best
English-language book in International Relations.
In it, Holsti uses historical perspective, scholarly
description and theory to explain the causes of
war and peace over the last 300 years. Holsti's
present research probes sources of war in the Third
World and a project entitled Creating Threats, a
comparison of British visions of Germany in the early
20th century with American perspectives of Japan
in the 1990s.
Elected to the Royal Society of Canada in 1983,
Holsti is the only Canadian to have been president
of both the Canadian Political Science Association and the International Studies Association. He
is also a past National Killam Fellow.
Related research:
• Since co-authoring the prize-winning book Pollution,
Politics and International Law (1979), much of
Mark Zacher's research has focused on problems of
economic and environmental regulation. Zacher,
IIR director from 1971-1991, says that over the last
decade many scholars and officials have spoken
of the problems of international environmental security. His current work surveys the evolving
damages and threats of damages perpetrated by
certain countries on others as a result of various
economic activities. Zacher examines the types of
international strategic responses needed to manage
problems such as the dumping of wastes at
sea, destruction of plant biodiversity, movement of
hazardous wastes or agricultural practices that
affect weather. Zacher is author of Governing Global
Networks: International Regimes for Transportation
and Communications. (1995)
• Drawing on 13 years of experience as president of
the International Development Research Centre, Ivan
Head's interest in international relations lies in the
interdependency of westernized nations in the North
and developing countries in the South. His 1991
book, On a Hinge of History, outlines how population growth, spiralling debt and pollution inextricably
links the futures of South and North. Head is also
co-ordinating Canadian efforts in an innovative
program which links researchers at the University of
Peking, Tsinghua University and Nankai University
with counterparts at UBC, McGill University and the
Universities of Toronto and Montreal. Head has a
joint appointment in the Faculty of Law and the
Dept. of Political Science at UBC.
> Robert Jackson continues to write on the condition
of Third World states in the international system
and has recently published on the question of
humanitarian intervention. His next book is titled
The Global Covenant: International Ethics After
the Cold War.
91
Faculty  of Graduate  Studies FUNDRAISING  INITIATIVES
Sustainable Development Research
Institute Endowment
Goal: $2 million (endowment)
An endowment for the Sustainable Development
Research Institute will enable the institute to
develop current initiatives to their full potential,
act on new opportunities as they arise and
plan for future research activities.
Chair in Ethics and Information Technologies
Goal: $2 million (endowment)
Rapidly expanding information technologies have
raised serious issues of privacy, intellectual
property rights and competing interests. A Chair in
Ethics and Information Technologies will focus
attention toward innovative uses of communication
technologies to enhance ethical understanding.
Methods would be developed to allow technology to
protect privacy through good policies and encryption and enhance social understanding through
better communication. The chair will be based within
UBC's Centre for Applied Ethics, with linkages to
other units such as Computer Science, Applied
Science, Forestry, Medicine, Pharmacy, Education,
Law and Philosophy. The Centre for Applied
Ethics was created through generous donations by
Clark Bentall, Western Pulp Partnership and
W. Maurice Young.
Institute for Hearing Accessibility Research
Goal: $1.5 million (endowment)
The institute was established in July, 1994, to
foster research into hearing accessibility and to help
people with hearing problems in everyday life.
Institute research will focus on areas such as hearing
accessibility issues within the educational setting,
at the workplace and for the elderly; hearing aids
and other devices and technologies; psychosocial issues associated with hearing accessibility
and hard-of-hearing people; and physiological
and medical issues.
Chair in Environmental Exposure
and Human Health
Goal: $2 million (endowment)
Despite massive public attention on environment
and health, the evaluation of environmental
stressors or toxins for the assessment of human
health risks has not received significant
attention. Establishing a Chair in Environmental
Exposure and Human Health will enable UBC
and its industrial partners to conduct research on
aspects of human exposures and the evaluation
of their health risks. An important outcome will be
the training of exposure assessment scientists
who will fill industrial and governmental positions in
British Columbia, elsewhere in Canada and
internationally. The Chair will be part of the
Occupational Hygiene program which was funded
by the Workers' Compensation Board of B.C.
92
Faculty  of Graduate  Studies Professorship in Health Promotion
Goal: $750,000 (endowment)
The professorship will examine how environmental,
lifestyle, social and economic factors affect health.
Research will be directed at developing methods for
promoting health through education and behaviour
modification. Standard Life Assurance Company, The
Manufacturers Life Insurance Company and North
West Life Assurance Company have made generous
contributions to the professorship.
Endowment for the Centre for Research in
Women's Studies and Gender Relations
Goal: Visiting Professorship ($1 million)
$500,000 (endowment)
An endowment for the Centre for Research in
Women's Studies and Gender Relations will enrich
and diversify opportunities for distinguished
scholars, prominent community members, students
and the general public to study, research,
meet and interact around a variety of pressing
contemporary issues that affect women and the
relationships between women and men. The
endowment will support a visiting professorship,
a distinguished community visitor program
and lecture series, a reading and resource centre,
and one post-doctoral scholarship.
Chair in Biomedical Ethics
The Chair in Biomedical Ethics, an integral part of
the Centre for Applied Ethics, will enable UBC to
respond to the needs of health care practitioners by
building a resource of expertise in ethical issues,
as they relate to the health sciences. B.C's
Children's Hospital, Vancouver Hospital and Health
Sciences Centre, St. Paul's Hospital Foundation,
the College of Pharmacists of B.C., the College of
Physicians and Surgeons of B.C., and individuals
from the College of Dental Surgeons of B.C.,
have made major contributions to the chair.
Vocational Rehabilitation Counselling Program
Goal: $5 million (endowment)
Vocational rehabilitation counselling incorporates
knowledge from a number of disciplines,
including counselling psychology, special education,
rehabilitation sciences and psychology. A
master's program in vocational rehabilitation counselling, the first of its kind in Canada, has
been developed in response to a growing need in
the community for counsellors who can provide
service, research and leadership to help disabled
workers return to work and have maximum effectiveness in the workplace.
BUILDINGS, CENTRES, INSTITUTES,
AND SCHOOLS
Green College
Green College, Western Canada's first residential
graduate college, opened on Nov. 22, 1993. Funded
by UBC benefactor Cecil H. Green, the college
operates as a centre for advanced interdisciplinary
scholarship by bringing together the best minds
to confront issues from over-population and pollution to political philosophy and medical ethics.
The college includes accommodation for 85 graduate
students, 15 post-doctoral researchers and
visiting scholars, five short-term visitors and a principal. In addition, there are 40 UBC faculty members
and 20 members of the wider Vancouver community.
Principal Richard Ericson credits the enthusiasm
of residents, university colleagues and off-campus
members for making the college a current
hotbed of activity. Through its various lectureships,
workshops, and eight interdisciplinary programs,
the college serves well-beyond the boundaries of
its residents.
93
Faculty  of Graduate  Studies CK. Choi Building for the Institute
of Asian Research
The $6.25-million CK. Choi Building for the
Institute for Asian Research will house the centres
of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Southeast Asian
and South Asian Research with two endowed chairs
in each. The building is supported by contributions
from a number of major donors, including a
generous donation from CK. Choi and family. The
Chair for the director of the institute, held currently
by Mark Fruin, has been funded fully through
government matching funds and a $i-million gift
from the Hongkong Bank of Canada.
The Centre for Chinese Research
The centre serves as a catalyst for intensifying
the study of China, Taiwan and Hong Kong,
and Canada's relationship with these areas. Already
the governments and communities of these
regions have made significant contributions to the
centre. The project received major donations from
an anonymous donor in Hong Kong and the
Government of Taiwan. The latter is the first gift
of its kind to any university in North America.
The Centre for Japanese Research
The centre promotes dialogue on major issues of
common concern to Japan and Canada. It has been
funded thanks to the efforts of the Vancouver
Japanese Businessmen's Association (Konwakai) and
friends, and the Government of British Columbia.
UBC appreciates the many donations to the project
by members of Konwakai and Keidanren (Japanese
Federation of Economic Organizations) and other
donors from Japan.
Centre for Korean Research
Korean studies is a relatively recent addition to
UBC's Asian studies program. Specialized courses on
Korea were first offered at UBC in 1982 with the
sponsorship of the Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs
and later the Korean Research Foundation. Subsequent funding has come from Canada and
the Republic of Korea, in co-operation with the
Korean Consulate General in Vancouver, and the
Korea Foundation. The new Centre for Korean
Research strengthens UBC's 10-year commitment
to research on Korea and Canada-Korea issues.
Centre for South Asian Research
Goal: $1 million (capital) $3 million (endowment)
South Asia has played an important part in the history and development of Asian studies at UBC.
The first UBC course in South Asian studies was
introduced in 1943, and by the 1960s, interest
in South Asian research at the university had grown
remarkably. The combination of interdisciplinary
courses with South Asian literature, pre-modem
history and language courses led to the introduction
of an undergraduate major and graduate specializations. The centre will increase UBC's research
on South Asia (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri
Lanka and Bangladesh) and on Canada-South
Asia issues.
Centre for Southeast Asian Research
Goal: $1 million (capital) $3 million (endowment)
UBC began offering courses on Southeast Asia in
the early 1960s. Various UBC faculties, schools and
departments offer courses: Anthropology and
Sociology, Asian Studies, Commerce, Community and
Regional Planning, Economics, Geography, History,
Political Science and Religious Studies. In 1988, UBC
established an undergraduate specialization in
Southeast Asian studies. The centre will heighten
UBC's focus on Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia,
Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Brunei, Myanmar,
Kampuchea, Laos and Vietnam) and on Canada-
Southeast Asia issues.
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Faculty  of Graduate  Studies The Centre for Applied Ethics
The Centre for Applied Ethics stimulates exploration
of ethical questions in medicine, business, law,
science, engineering and other disciplines. Chairs
in the Centre endowed through major gifts from
W. Maurice Young and Robert C. Rodgers include
the Maurice Young Chair in Applied Ethics, to which
Michael McDonald has been appointed; an
endowment to fund the centre's visiting scholars and
seconded faculty members, also donated by
W. Maurice Young; and the Patricia F. Rodgers Chair
in Applied Ethics.
ONGOING PROJECTS
St. John's College at UBC
Phase I Goal: $10 million
Phase II Goal: $5 million
St. John's College at UBC will focus on international studies, fostering global understanding
among students in all disciplines as they live
and work together. The interaction of post-graduate
students from many countries will enhance
international understanding and result in a new
generation of Johanneans world-wide. With the
support of the St. John's Alumni Association in Hong
Kong, the first eight St. John's Scholarships were
awarded at UBC in September, 1993.
The initial phase for St. John's College at UBC
includes construction of the college and establishment of an endowment to support the operating
expenses associated with the college, including
the principal's position, scholarships, visiting
lecturers and their travel, program co-ordination
and enrichment activities.
Completion of the Liu Centre
for International Studies
Remaining Goal: $1 million (capital)
The Liu Centre for International Studies will build
on UBC's distinguished history of teaching and
research in the field. It will house new and existing
research institutes which draw on UBC's strength
in international studies, plus some existing units
which are currently in various campus locations.
The centre's mandate will be to prepare professionals from many countries to act as knowledgeable
and responsible citizens in a world community
characterized by growing economic, social and
political independence among diverse societies
and cultures.
Mr. Liou Jieh Jow has made a major contribution
to the centre.
Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies
UBC will use a $15 million gift from Peter Wall to
establish Canada's first Institute for Advanced
Studies. The institute will attract renowned scholars
to UBC allowing them to study and conduct research
in a wide range of fields spanning
the humanities, social sciences, life sciences and
physical sciences.
University Graduate Fellowships
Goal: $20 million (endowment)
Since 1990, the number of students enroled in graduate programs at UBC has increased by 43 per
cent. Currently there are more than 6,000 graduate
students working toward advanced degrees in nearly
100 academic disciplines. Graduate fellowships are
an effective means of attracting graduate students
with superior academic qualifications to UBC.
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Faculty  of Graduate  Studies Graduate scholarships and fellowships
established through UBC's World of Opportunity
Campaign include:
• Bank of Montreal Graduate Fellowships
Canadian National Graduate
Transportation Scholarships
• Du Pont Graduate Fellowship
in Pulp and Paper
• Hong Kong-Canada Business Association
Graduate Scholarship in Commerce
• Hong Kong-Canada Business Association
Graduate Scholarship
• Asa Johal Fellowship in Asian Studies
• Asa Johal Graduate Fellowship in Forestry
• Endowed Graduate Scholarships in Chemistry,
funded through the Estate of Gladys E. Laird
• Fletcher Challenge Fellowships
• Peter and Penny Lusztig Commerce
Graduate Fellowship
• Northern Telecom Graduate Fellowships
• AD Scott Fellowship in Economics
• Scott Paper Graduate Fellowships
• The Simons Foundation Doctoral
Scholarships for Women
• Webster Graduate Fellows Fund.
Interdisciplinary Graduate Fellowships
Goal: $1 million (endowment)
Interdisciplinary Graduate Fellowships will provide
scholarships for students, enabling them to
study in areas that bridge a variety of traditional
academic disciplines.
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Faculty  of Graduate  Studies *dr Deans
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FACULTY  OF  COMMERCE Q7 THE  BUSINESS  OF
COMMUNITY  TIES
COMMERCE AND  THE
MAKING   DECISIONS
AN   EYE   ON   MARKETING 108
URBAN   ENVIRONMENT 100 COMMERCE AND THE
COMMERCE,  CANADA
AND   B.C.
AN   EYE  ON  TRANSPORT        102
TRACKING  TRADE
ASIA  PACIFIC   REGION 109
COMMERCE  AND
TECHNOLOGY 112
• Business Application Software 112
• Dealing With Expert Systems 113
Earle D. McPhee (1956-60)
Neil Perry (1960-65)
Philip White (1966-73)
Noel Hall (1974-76)
Peter Lusztig (1977-91)
Michael Goldberg (1991-)
FUNDRAISING
INITIATIVES FACULTY   OF
c
ommerce
Faculty records list James W. Home as the first UBC student to graduate
with a Bachelor of Commerce. His degree was bestowed in May, 1930,
14 years after newly appointed professor Theodore Boggs proposed the
establishment of a BCom to Senate.
Boggs became known as the father of the BCom for spearheading the
campaign to get a commerce offering at UBC. Topics listed in his original
Senate proposal, which form the basis of present-day research, included:
principles in economics, economic history, labour problems, money and
banking, government finance, international trade and tariffs, corporate
economics, provincial and local finance, history of economic thought.
Financial support for commerce courses was finally
approved in 1929. Boggs, a graduate of Yale with a
Masters and PhD in philosophy, became head of a
combined Department of Economics, Political
Science, Commerce and Sociology. Joseph Friend Day
was among the first appointments in the modest
four-member department. Day directed lectures in
both economics and commerce throughout the next
decade of slow but steady growth. The commerce
division finally became a department in 1939 (under
the headship of E.H. Morrow) and a school 11 years
later with Earle McPhee as director. In the 1950s,
when most other Canadian commerce departments were in their infancy, UBC was diversifying the
scope of its commerce activity. Courses in life
insurance and investment were among the first for a
Canadian university. The department introduced
public utility problems and business research, as
well as off-campus seminars delivered to the
business community on location or by correspondence. The university authorized degrees of Master
of Commerce and Master of Business Administration in 1952 and 1955 respectively. Everything
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acuity  of Com seemed in place when the school changed to
a Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration
in 1957.
Despite its new-found status, the most profound
changes to UBC efforts in the field came 10
years later. During Dean Philip White's seven-year
tenure (1966-1973), the number of faculty quadrupled from 23 to 92. More importantly, these
new recruits from Berkeley, UCLA, Michigan, MIT,
Chicago and Stanford came armed with PhDs, until
then a rarity at Point Grey. Along with their
doctorates, the new members infused the faculty
with an orientation to research and a research
methodology upon which current success is based.
Present Dean Michael Goldberg said picking research
over the case method was a sensible choice.
"Knowledge is a wasting asset which like anything
else depreciates over time," he says. "If you
don't do research you aren't renewing yourself, and
if you aren't renewing yourself, your courses get
stale. Research is the means by which we keep
current and serve our students and the community."
UBC's Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration has approximately 100 faculty teaching close
to 1,200 undergraduates and 500 graduates
enroled in MBA, MSc and PhD programs. Since 1972,
the faculty has graduated 125 PhD students, the
most of any Canadian university offering doctoral
business programs.
COMMUNITY TIES
A 1940 report to President Leonard Klinck listed the
salient features of a proposed commerce program.
The first of these was to introduce methods used in
the Harvard Business School. Though the faculty
ultimately deviated from this path, it followed
through with the report's second feature of encouraging close ties with the local business community.
Today's faculty remains focused on disseminating
the results of ongoing research into fundamental and
evolving business issues. In 1990, for instance,
the faculty formed the Bureau of Asset Management
(BAM) to aid communications between practitioners
and academics on the management of financial
assets and real estate asset management. Led by
Robert Heinkel, an internationally recognized
scholar from the Finance Division, the bureau supports efforts aimed at raising the profile of B.C.
as an international business centre. Heinkel also
leads the flagship of the faculty's summer internship
programs, the Portfolio Management Society.
The unique two-year, extracurricular program, offers
theoretical and practical investment experience
in the U.S., Canada and Europe to a select group
of undergraduates.
Through its Executive Programs, the faculty shares
the most up-to-date management research with business and government. Peter Frost, associate
dean of Professional Programs, says the combination
of volatile financial markets, the dramatic shifts
in North American business culture and burgeoning
global competition create a constant need for
executive development programs. Managing Drug
and Alcohol Abuse in the Workplace; Developing
Negotiating and Bargaining Skills; The Cutting Edge
of Leadership; Structuring for and Implementing
Self-Managing Work Teams are among some of the
new programs offered. Frost says there is a
growing need for in-house, customized programs for
organizations ranging from one-day offerings to
three-week residential programs.
As global competitiveness increased throughout
the 1980s, so too did concern about the confrontational nature of union-management relations,
stagnant productivity and uncompetitive labour cost
structures. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms,
together with human rights, labour standards,
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Faculty  of Commerce Maurice Levi, right, Bank of Montreal Chair in
International Finance, and Robert Heinkel are part of a
16-member Finance Division looking into issues of
financial regulation, security pricing, the effects of free
trade and mergers, acquisitions and corporate finance.
health and safety, employment and pay equity legislation, have created a whole new set of concerns
for policy-makers, litigants and academics.
The establishment of UBC's Centre for Labour and
Management Studies (CLAMS) in September 1993
has helped focus local efforts on labour management
relations. Centre director Tom Knight, from the
faculty's Industrial Relations Management Division,
says the enterprise is the only one of its kind in
Western Canada and is unique in its dealings with
the community. "Our employment practices and
labour force are in constant need of innovation and
adaptation," he says. "This centre takes the basic
functions of the university education and research
and focuses them on real problems having to do
with work and the workplace."
99
Faculty of Commerce Among the centre's research projects to date
are: creation of expanded databases to provide
better access to B.C.'s labour relations code;
examinations of how front-line managers handle
unionized employees; and a study of the
internal grievance appeal process at the B.C.
Government and Service Employees Union.
Related CLAMS research:
' A conceptual and research literature-based study
of the variety of values present in the workplace
and in workplace relations. The study considers
conflicts between employee and organizational value
sets. (Craig Pinder, Richard Stackman, IRM)
■ Addressing the role of women in organizations and
women's professional career paths. The study examines differences between male and female career
preferences and systematic differentials between
male and female compensation and career opportunities. (Nancy Langton, IRM))
■ Analysis of the role and functioning of the organizational ombudsperson as an alternative method
for resolving conflicts within organizations. (Richard
Stackman, IRM)
• Production of an annotated bibliography on managing cultural diversity and follow-up examination
of the practices B.C. managers and organizations use
in this area. (Larry Moore, Merle Ace, IRM)
COMMERCE AND THE  URBAN   ENVIRONMENT
The genesis of the Urban Land Economics Division
dates back to 1958 and the passing of the
provincial government's revised Real Estate Act.
The new act provided for the formation of a Real
Estate Council designed to professionalize the
education of agents and salespeople. UBC President
MacKenzie, Dean McPhee and Attorney-General
Robert Bonner (a UBC alumnus) agreed that the
council would pay the university $50,000 to establish a Chair in Urban Land Economics. Prof. White,
from the College of Estate Management in London,
was asked to head a Estate Management Division to
oversee real estate pre-licensing education as
well as a full undergraduate and graduate program.
In 1966, Estate Management became the Urban
Land Economics Division responsible only for undergraduate and graduate work.
UBC's Urban Land Economics Division has grown
into the largest centre of research in urban
economics and real estate in Canada. Internationally,
it ranks alongside similar research centres at the
University of Pennsylvania, the University of California at Berkeley and the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology. Prof. Goldberg joined the division
in 1968 and has written several influential books on
housing policy, comparisons of Canadian and
U.S. cities and an introductory textbook on urban
land economics. He is also a fellow of the Urban
Land Institute and past president of the American
Real Estate and Urban Economics Association.
UBC researchers link academic and professional work
through the Canadian Real Estate Research
Bureau (CRERB), created in 1988. What separates
UBC's Urban Land Economics Division from
similar organizations elsewhere is the size and
breadth of its studies. Research in urban economics
includes models of land value determination,
the role of external forces in housing markets, the
effects of wealth and taxation on housing
demand and the role of scale economies in the
development of cities. Real estate research covers
the demand for mortgage debt, credit rationing in
mortgage markets, alternative mortgage instruments and real estate price formation.
Division Chair Robert Helsley came to UBC in 1984
after completing doctoral work in economics at
Princeton. His research focuses on theoretical issues
in urban economics and local public finance.
Within the general area of urban economics, he has
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Faculty  of Commerce published studies on the location of international
financial activity across cities, the location of firms
within cities and the formation of urban subcentres.
He has also studied the effects of urban growth
and uncertainty on land prices and urban development patterns as well as the effects of public
policies designed to control this growth. In the area
of local public finance, Helsley has published
several studies of the privatization of government
services. This work examines the advantages and
disadvantages of having the private sector
provide some previously public-funded services.
Helsley and colleague Stuart Rosenthal recently
completed a study of urban development in
Vancouver. The study uses a new methodology for
estimating vacant urban land prices in areas
where most urban land has already been developed.
Using data on single family detached homes sold
in Vancouver, the researchers estimated the price of
vacant land based on properties that were sold
and redeveloped. They also estimated the price of
developed land based on properties that were
sold and not redeveloped. The difference between
the developed and vacant land prices was then
used to evaluate the probability of redevelopment.
Tests overwhelmingly support the hypothesis
that housing is demolished when the price of vacant
land exceeds the price of land in its current use.
Helsley and Rosenthal's work represents an
important methodological advance over previous
studies in urban economics that estimate land prices
from models of house value, or those that rely on
property assessments.
Related research:
> Development of a theoretical model isolating the
effects of urban growth on land prices. This model
shows that the rate at which an urban area grows
can have an important effect on the overall level of
land and housing prices. Results indicate that urban
growth may account for up to one half of the price
of land in a rapidly growing city. This helps explain
why prices differ radically between cities of different
sizes. (Helsley)
• Effects of airport noise on housing prices in unstable
markets (Stanley Hamilton, Dean Uyeno)
• The ability of large city developers to provide the
correct amount of infrastructure
• A look at the effects on urban growth of the
time lag between the beginning of a construction
project and the period when it begins generating
revenue (William Strange, Real Estate Foundation Jr.
Professor of Urban Land Economics)
• Wealth and housing demand
• To model the demand for debt and empirically
estimate the model (Lawrence Jones)
COMMERCE,   CANADA  AND   B.C
Since 1988, UBC has outranked all other Canadian
business schools in research grants awarded by
the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
(SSHRC). Apart from the major SSHRC awards,
half of the 95-member commerce faculty also hold
smaller HSS grants.
In 1993. SSHRC awarded one of the largest grants
ever (more than $2 million over five years) to a
team headed by Raphael Amit, director of the W.
Maurice Young Entrepreneurship and Venture
Capital Research Centre. Consisting of 20 leading
scholars from UBC and five other Canadian
universities, the Entrepreneurship Research Alliance
(ERA) program seeks to understand why some
business ventures succeed while others fail.
"This collaborative network provides the most comprehensive examination yet of entrepreneurial
success and failure," says Amit. "The partnership
among practitioners, academics and policy
makers enhances the relevance and usefulness of
research and can only lead to more successful
ventures in Canada."
Faculty  of Commerce Statistics indicate that more than 2.1 million jobs
(81 per cent of all net new jobs in Canada) were
established by emerging enterprises from 1979
to 1989. While new business initiatives substantially
increased during this decade, failure rates of
start-ups were alarmingly high. Amit says the ERA
program provides analysis in five main areas:
■ The extent to which success or failure of ventures is
due to the characteristics and behaviours of entrepreneurs themselves. Visions of the future, creativity,
willingness to take risk, control and adaptability are
among the characteristics under review (Ken
MacCrimmon, Raphael Amit)
■ How best the entrepreneurial sector of the economy
can be financed in order to compete successfully
in product markets. Issues addressed include supply
and demand for venture capital, contracting
issues between entrepreneurs and venture capitalists, pricing methods for valuing knowledge-based
ventures and the competitive strategies of emerging
enterprises Games Brander, Margaret Slade,
Raphael Amit)
• The role of innovation and new technologies in
the success and failure of entrepreneurial
firms with specific attention on the creation, adoption and diffusion of commercially attractive
innovations and on innovation as an organizational
process (lain Cockburn, Peter Frost, Michael
Gerlach, Mihkel Tombak, Kenneth Hendricks,
Guofu Tan, Peter Lawrence)
How government policy and direct intervention
affects new firms and how trade liberalization, barriers to entry and buyer/seller coalitions create
opportunities for new ventures (Barbara Spencer,
Thomas Ross, Mihkel Tombak)
Questions regarding gender differences, leadership
and succession in family businesses and their
influence on the success of entrepreneurial ventures
(Nancy Langton)
AN   EYE  ON  TRANSPORT
Since its inception, UBC has maintained and developed expertise in transportation studies. Economics of Transportation was one of the few required
courses outlined in Boggs' 1916 commerce
proposal. He also suggested Transportation Statistics
as an elective for those wishing to specialize in
the field. Faculty in the present Division of Transportation and Logistics study the key economic
issues surrounding transportation and public
utility industries. Analyses of public policy encompass all modes of passenger and freight transportation including air, rail, bus, trucking, private
automobile and ocean shipping. Since the late
1980s, faculty research has shifted gradually from
national transportation policy issues to those
dealing with international transportation and logistics systems management.
Tae Oum (Van Dusen Professor of Management),
along with colleague Michael Tretheway, is one of
North America's most noted scholars on the
economics of transportation deregulation, and
perhaps the most cited scholar on airline industry
issues. Oum received a BCom from Sung Kyun
University in Seoul, Korea, then came to UBC for
his master's and doctoral work. He joined the
faculty in 1983.
Oum worked with Tretheway to produce a study
that showed how rigid airline regulation in
Canada was responsible for a significant loss of
the airline industry's productivity. This report
helped convince senior policy makers of the unwork-
ability of airline regulations and influenced
work on deregulation.
Apart from his work on costs and productivity he
recently completed a study comparing productive efficiency of passenger railway systems in 21
OECD countries. Oum's research can be broken
down into three inter-related areas: transportation
industries (especially airlines and railways);
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Faculty  of Commerce c
GeraldFeltham and Joy Begley are examining the
interrelation among the terms under which firms borrow
money, the characteristics of firms (e.g. size, leverage)
and factors that influence managers' incentives in
operating the firm (e.g. stock ownership, compensation,
age). They are among eight researchers in the
Accounting Division who probe aspects of auditing
and the economics of information and contracting.
">3
Faculty  of Commerce demand modeling and pricing issues. In the
latter category, he was one of the first academics
to devise a methodology for incorporating quality
attributes of transportation services (such as travel
time and reliability) into a customer demand
model. This work helped analyse and forecast the
demand for service, and improved the accuracy
of pricing such demands. As a result of his work on
demand analysis, Oum was invited to conduct
related research by the Economic Council of Canada,
various federal government branches and the
Loblaws supermarket chain. He has also advised the
Dutch government on how best to prepare for
an integrated European transportation system. This
involved forecasting traffic flow patterns to and from
the Netherlands within the European Community
and evaluating alternative roles of Amsterdam as a
hub airport.
Oum's latest book, Airline Economics (co-authored
with Tretheway) is the first publication to deal with
the post deregulation reality of the airline industry.
For his current research, Tretheway is investigating
whether economies of scale exist in airport
operations, and if so, to what degree. Tretheway
says while there is ample literature on airline
economics, there has been almost nothing written
on the fundamental issue of airport economics.
Tretheway provided testimony to the Competition
Tribunal and the National Transportation Agency
on hearings associated with American Airlines plan
to acquire 25 per cent of Canadian Airlines.
Related research:
• Documenting important changes in the international liner shipping industry including the growing
role of Asian carriers, new consortia arrangements
and space sharing among lines and the provision
of logistics services (Trevor Heaver Director, Centre
for Transportation Studies in the   Faculty of
Graduate Studies; UPS Foundation Professor
of Transportation)
■ Labour payouts and the measurement of productivity (William Waters)
TRACKING TRADE
Before stepping down in 1950 after 11 years as
department head, Professor E.H. Morrow
reported that all the aspects of a commerce program
he identified at the beginning of his term had
been substantially carried out. Among these was the
introduction of advanced courses, particularly in
transportation and international trade. UBC's current
high profile in the latter category is due in large
part to research by Barbara Spencer.
Barbara Spencer has emerged as
one of the leading scholars of international
trade theory and policy.
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Faculty  of Commerce Initially, Spencer wanted to become a chemist but
a flair for statistics prompted a change in plan.
Some 25 years after entering Australian National
University, where she was the only woman in a class
of 70 economics students, Spencer has emerged
as one of the leading scholars of international trade
theory and policy.
Spencer came to UBC in 1985 following a decade at
the University of Manitoba and five years at Boston
College. Four years prior to her arrival on Point
Grey, Spencer teamed up with UBC colleague James
Brander to win the prestigious Harry Johnson
Prize awarded annually for the best paper published
in the Canadian Journal of Economics.
Spencer, with Bander, analysed trade policy
under conditions of imperfect, or limited, competition. Following investigations on the impact of
tariffs when foreign suppliers have monopoly power,
the two scholars came up with the idea of
strategic trade policy—government interventions that
alter the terms of such oligopolistic competition.
Spencer pursued this concept in a number of
influential papers and also applied simple game theory to related issues in international trade and
industrial organization. The results of her research
have often contradicted conventional wisdom.
An example is the 1985 paper dealing with the critical policy issue of export subsidies. Traditional
international trade theory clearly implied that such
policies were ill-advised. Using a model with a
home and a foreign-based firm, Spencer showed
that these traditional conclusions were exactly
reversed: a home export subsidy could commit the
home firm to a higher level of output and so
raise its market share and profits at the expense of
the foreign competitor.
More recently, Spencer has explored trade policy
issues that arise when a country exports
vertically related products, such as raw lumber and
processed wood. One issue is to explain why
a country that is rich in a product at the raw stage
might restrict export of the raw material but
encourage export of processed versions of the same
product. Another strand of Spencer's research
looks into the relationship between international
competition and the formation of domestic
research and production joint ventures. Spencer says
such ventures have become important phenomena in North American high technology industries
such as computers, electronic components and
communication systems. Her particular interest has
been with joint ventures within industries facing
substantial competition from imports.
Related research:
• Relationship between international trade policy and
environmental policy Games Brander, Asia
Pacific Professor of International Business and
Public Policy)
• Development of a model of the Mexican forest
products sector which will help predict the
changing patterns of demand, production and trade.
The study also looks at possible Canadian policy
responses to increase the ability of Canadian forest
product firms to benefit from the North American
Free Trade Agreement. (Han Vertinsky)
• Financial distress in banking looking particularly at
the determinants of bank failures
• Investigation of stock-market volatility
(Glen Donaldson, Finance)
• Logistics in the international competitiveness of
Canadian industry (Trevor Heaver, Garland
Chow, Dean Uyeno)
• Impact of ownership structure on dividend policies
of Canadian corporations (Espen Eckbo, Finance)
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Faculty  of Commerce
L_ THE  BUSINESS  OF  MAKING   DECISIONS
"Every business has a production or purchase
problem, a marketing problem, a
financeproblem,a transportation problem
and an accounting problem; in every
instance a person or many persons make decisions,
with or without adequate knowledge of
the factors involved, with or without assistance
from other executives, and with
or without measures of the success of these
individual decisions.
Earle McPhee
As the E.D. McPhee Professor of Management,
Kenneth R. MacCrimmon has been intrigued by the
way people make decisions and solve problems.
His doctoral thesis at the University of California,
Los Angeles, was based on an experimental study
of how decisions of business executives conformed
to basic theory. This work led to a stream of research projects designed to discover anomalies
and biases in people's decision-making behaviour
and to develop new theories better explaining
observed decisions.
A key element of decision-making is how people
deal with multiple objectives. MacCrimmon
conducted some of the early work in this area
including the development of techniques to assess
tradeoffs. He and his colleagues also carried
out an extensive study of risk-taking among top-
level managers, both in business and personal
decisions. This latter research culminated in
the book (co-authored with colleague Donald
Wehrung) Taking Risks: The Management of
Uncertainty (1986).
In group decision making, MacCrimmon has focused
on questions about how groups can act more
rationally than any one of the group members.
Conversely, he has examined the conditions under
which a group of seemingly rational people can
act irrationally.
Over time, MacCrimmon's research interest has
turned to the less well formulated aspects of problem solving and creativity. "Everyone agrees
that creative problem solving is important but there
are no widely accepted theories and as a result
the empirical work is fragmented," he says. Together
with colleague Chris Wagner, MacCrimmon has developed a series of software programs designed to
enhance people's ability to find creative
solutions to problems. Tests have shown that when
participants were given a problem and then
prompted through MacCrimmon's programs, they
came up with more original and workable solutions.
MacCrimmon recently compared the creative
processes of novelists, composers and other artists
at the Rockefeller Institute's Bellagio Centre for
a forthcoming book on creativity.
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Faculty  of Commerce "Threats and counter threats can push two people
or two groups toward mutual destruction.
The legendary feuds of the Hatfield's and the McCoy's
is a pertinent example. Once they began
threatening and retaliating, they had real difficulties
backing down. Generations later, family members
didn't even know why the feud had begun.
Keith Murnighan in Bargaining Games.
Since the summer of 1993, Keith Murnighan has
studied under the faculty wide banner of Van
Dusen Professor of Management. Coming from the
University of Illinois, where he directed the
Program on Conflict and Negotiation Research,
Mumighan's work at UBC bridges research in several
divisions including industrial relations management, policy, finance and marketing. Educated in
social psychology at Purdue University, his
research involves work on bargaining, conflict resolution and the dynamics of groups. He recently
published back-to-back books on conflict resolution:
The Dynamics of Bargaining Games (1991) and
Bargaining Games: A New Approach to Strategic
Thinking in Negotiations (1992). He also edited the
volume, Social Psychology in Organizations:
Advances in Theory and Research (1993).
His recent research addresses a variety of topics
including altruism, fairness, complex cooperation schemes, uncertainty, third party interventions, deadlines, the dilemma of releasing
information in negotiations, ultimatums and the
competitive urge.
With his research on volunteering, Murnighan notes
that the choice to volunteer presents an individual with a dilemma: everyone within a group is better off if someone volunteers, but the volunteer,
due to his or her efforts, most often ends up less
well off than the others. "The question, then,
becomes how systems can promote voluntary action
which we suggest are essential contributions
that help companies run smoothly," says Murnighan.
In four experiments, Murnighan and two colleagues investigated a number of volunteer dilemma
scenarios set in strictly financial contexts and
found that people only tended to volunteer when it
paid. However, a new experiment suggests that
interpersonal factors may lead to a significant
increase in voluntary action. These findings have
led Murnighan to current research on the
concept of group allegiances and their influence in
increasing volunteerism.
Related research:
• A review of employment standards in British Columbia prepared for the Minister of Skills, Training and
Labour (Mark Thompson, W.M. Hamilton Professor
of Industrial Relations)
• Analysis of collective bargaining settlements over a
35-year period to determine whether there is
evidence of a structural shift in the outcomes of bargaining during the 1980s
• Information gathering on management industrial
relations policies and practices in major Canadian
corporations (Mark Thompson, IRM)
• Continuation of decade-long research into
employee mobility and transfers with emphasis on
role of social support, the special features of
job changes that make adjustment difficult, and
the nature of learning and development that takes
place when people undergo career transitions.
(Craig Pinder, IRM)
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Faculty of Commerce ■
«Studies of the politics and sustainability of
innovations in organizations. (Peter Frost,
Edgar F. Kaiser chair of Organizational Behaviour)
> Grievance initiation, decision-making in grievance
procedures, and the satisfaction of grievants,
union and management officials with grievance
procedures. (Brian Bemmels, IRM)
AN   EYE  ON   MARKETING
At the request of the National Sales Executives Club
in the spring of 1950, UBC began offering a
three-year sales executive training program which
was later renamed Marketing and Sales
Management. The course provided an introduction
to sales management in the first year, emphasized financial analysis and management in the
second and focused on specific functions of
management, such as motivating and goal-setting,
in the final year.
Executives today turn to UBC marketing division
research for a better understanding of how
products and services are developed, how distribution systems are managed and how advertising,
promotion and pricing issues are handled. Faculty
use mathematical models to understand marketing problems, formulate public policies that affect
market behaviour and to study the effects of
cultural differences on consumer behaviour in
international markets.
Since joining UBC's marketing division in 1980,
social psychologist Gerald Gorn has helped
spark research interest in consumer behaviour. Gorn
first established himself as a major contributor
through his work on children's responses to advertising, a highly charged public policy issue in
the 1970s. Several of his journal articles on the subject have been reprinted in books. His work with
children is also impressive because of the innovative ways he measures advertising effectiveness. For
example, by embedding TV commercials in regular
programming and incorporating the programs into
regularly scheduled activities, children are seldom
aware that they are participating in an experiment.
Gorn has made major contributions to other aspects
of consumer research. His 1982 article, The
Effects of Music in Advertising on Choice Behaviour,
caused scholars to reapply classical conditioning
principles to understand advertising effects. The
paper's appearance in the Journal of Marketing came
at a time when the field was dominated by a heavy
cognitive psychological approach. It is frequently
cited by other researchers.
The Journal of Consumer Research GCR), begun in
1974, has become the premier outlet for high quality
research on consumer behaviour. Gorn has been on
the journal's editorial board since 1984, and "is one
of its most prolific authors. His contributions include
The Contextual Effect of Programs on Responses to
Commercials (1987), The Impact of Comparative
Advertising on Perception and Attitude (1984) and
Behavioural Evidence of the Effects of TV Food
Messages on Children (1982).
Gorn's research in recent years has focused on social
marketing. Using questionnaire responses from
university students, he has investigated the role of
wine coolers (a relatively new and sweeter alcoholic
beverage) in teenage drinking.
Consumer behaviour is just one aspect of Charles
Weinberg's marketing research. A UBC faculty member since 1979, Weinberg works on mathematical
modeling, econometric analysis and public and nonprofit marketing. He is recognized in the latter area
as one of the top scholars in North America and
has co-authored several key texts and casebooks. He
has also helped build conceptual foundations in
the field, and contributed to studies of marketing
effects. Among his more prominent contributions was
a model-based system for planning a performing
arts series.
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Faculty  of Commerce Weinberg's influence extends to other important
areas including sales force productivity and territory
sales response, strategic intelligence systems,
procedures for estimating the duration of the effects
of advertising, and studies of expenditure patterns
for labour-saving devices in dual versus single-
income families.
Weinberg is currently researching competitive
dynamics, looking at issues such as a firm's
competitive positioning, whether a firm should
emphasize product features or service and the
impact of retail innovations.
Related research:
■ A leading scholar on the effects of advertising on
tobacco sales, Richard Pollay has been an
expert witness in most of the critical cases in North
America brought against tobacco companies by
the estates of individuals who have died from tobacco-related illnesses.
• James Forbes has compared the effects of
structures, rules and procedures on the regulatory
performance of the Canadian Radio-Television
and Telecommunications Commission, the National
Transportation Agency and the National Farm
Products Marketing Council.
> Robert Kelly specializes in helping arts organizations
and museums in Canada and around the world find
the means to organize and market their services.
COMMERCE ANC| THE ASIA PACIFIC  REGION
Faculty ties to the Pacific date back more than a
quarter century when UBC helped establish the
first business programs at the University of Malaya
and the University of Singapore. As outlined in
the 1988 President's Report, Toward the Pacific
Century, UBC has continued to build the Asia-Pacific
tradition through extensive commerce networks in
Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia and China.
Not surprisingly, Chinese research has become a critical area of study within the faculty. The country's
transformation from an agricultural to an industrial-
based economy has resulted in an average economic growth rate of 10 per cent a year for the last
decade. China's skilled low cost labour and
foreign investment has made it the major force in
world trade.
UBC linkages with the Peoples' Republic of China
(PRC) began in 1979 with the visit of Rong
Yiren, former Chairman of China International Trust
and Investment Corporation. A year later, Prof.
Liu Chaojin, negotiator of the first wheat sales
agreement and the first pulp and paper agreements
between Canada and China, visited the university.
Beginning in 1983, UBC continues to participate
in the Canadian International Development Agency's
(CIDA) management education linkage program,
connecting UBC faculty with Shanghai Jiao Tong
University (SJTU).
Under the first phase of the program, the faculty
trained eight doctoral students, 12 masters
students and nine visiting scholars. In addition,
14 UBC faculty taught or conducted research at SJTU.
The program's second phase started in 1989
with UBC faculty helping create SJTU's Centre for
Management Research and Executive Training.
UBC's Keith Head has been engaged in research
with SJTU colleagues looking at the competition for foreign investment among China's coastal
open cities. China, with a population of 1.2
billion and annual double-digit income growth
rates, has become a favoured site for foreign investment. Foreign-funded joint ventures provide
China with an infusion of capital and a source of
technological and managerial expertise.
As part of the opening process, the central government has granted increased autonomy to a number
of provinces and cities. One result is increased
competition between these liberalized areas to
109
Faculty of Commerce attract foreign manufacturers. By offering superior
combinations of infrastructure and tax incentives,
each of these special economic zones hopes
to secure a large share of the new investment. For
Head, this raises a number of interesting
questions. What types of infrastructure matter most
to foreign investors? Did the first liberalized
areas benefit from sustained first-mover advantages
in attracting investment? Did the fastest growing
cities encounter barriers to further growth in
the form of rising wages and land prices? Head tackles these issues by estimating an econometric
model of the location decision of joint venture enterprises. "Study results are of interest to both
policy-makers in search of the most effective ways
to attract investments and potential investors hoping
to learn about China's policies," says Head.
"From an academic perspective, looking at firms'
location decisions sheds light on the variation of
growth between regions."
Since the early 1980s, Michael Goldberg's research
has converged on the Asia Pacific region.
Prior to becoming dean, Goldberg made extensive
eastern connections as Executive Director of
International Financial Centre Vancouver, a nonprofit, provincially chartered society dedicated
to promoting the city worldwide as a centre for
international finance. Author of The Chinese
Connection: Getting Plugged in to the Pacific Rim
Real Estate, Trade and Capital Markets (1985),
Goldberg and colleague Maurice Levi use immigration data to help explain the flow of foreign
direct investment into Canada.
Traditionally, international direct investments are
explained using economic factors, inflation rates,
estimates of risk, expected rates of return and
exchange rates in the destination country. Goldberg
and Levi say there are good reasons to expect
personal ties can be just as important, because they
provide hard-to-find information on local economic
and business conditions. Given the growing importance of immigration and investment for the B.C.
economy, and given the significant media and public
policy attention paid to this area, Goldberg and
Levi hope to shed new light on these issues.
During the 1980s, many governments adopted
policies designed to spur rapid increases in foreign
direct investment (FDI). Efforts included easing
restrictions on investments, providing labour and
capital subsidies and creating investment promotion
offices. Many of these efforts were directed
towards Japan which, by the end of the decade, had
become the most important source of foreign
direct investment. The proliferation of policies aimed
at attracting foreign investors has heightened
competition between individual investment destinations. Some locations, such as Georgia in the U.S.,
have had their efforts rewarded while other would-
be hosts are still investment backwaters.
John Ries (together with Head) is using Japanese
data to identify factors influencing multinational foreign investment. The goal is to test theories of
FDI and assess the importance of government promotional policies in influencing a firm's choice
of location. Two papers (written with Deborah
Swenson) examine the location of Japanese investment in the United States. The first (forthcoming
in the Journal of International Economics) establishes
the importance of Japanese firms locating in close
geographic proximity to one another, and the
second examines the influence of state promotional
policies on location choices. The latter paper
reveals that individual policies on their own do
influence location decisions, but competing state
programs largely offset one another.
Ries previously studied the effect of voluntary export
restraints (VERs) on profits and product choice
of Japanese auto firms. This research developed a
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Faculty  of C( model that was tested in a study using Japanese
stock price data. While previous theoretical research
explored the consequences of VERs, their effect
on profits had not yet been tested empirically.
The theoretical portion of Ries' research was
accepted in the Canadian Journal of Economics
and the empirical study appeared in the Journal
of Industrial Economics.
Related research:
■ As the Hongkong Bank of Canada Chair in Asian
Commerce, Michael Gerlach's research interests lie
primarily in the areas of Japanese organization
and management.
Gerlach is author of Alliance Capitalism:The Social
Organization of Japanese Business (1992) and
The Organization of Business Networks in Japan and
the U.S. These works are an outgrowth of a large-
scale database Gerlach developed on inter-organizational networks in Japan and the U.S. which form
the basis for ongoing research.
■ In-depth analysis of human resource management
practices in selected Pacific Rim countries with
a specific focus on the existence of bureaucratic type
regimes underlying the employment relationship
(Devereaux Jennings, IRM)
> The impact of rapid economic change on the
health and environment of Shanghai and scheduling
of a flexible manufacturing system (Derek Atkins,
Management Science)
■ A study of the role of primary commodities in
strategies for economic integration in the Pacific Rim
(Peter Nemetz, Policy)
■ Investigation of how immigrant consumers from
Hong Kong change their purchase behaviour, retail
shopping behaviour, mass media consumption
and social values after they immigrate to Canada
(David Tse, Marketing)
Ilan Vertinsky directs research at the Centre for
International Business Studies, one of eight,
federally funded centres in Canada. Vertinsky recently
used an External Affairs grant to study the
long-term bilateral economic relationship between
Canada and Korea. Together with colleagues
Masao Nakamura and Bill Ziemba, he has also looked
at the implications of Japanese business practices
on global competitiveness.
111
Ity of Commerce COMMERCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Just as mechanization and steam power revolutionized the global economy during the early days of
industrialization, today's economies rely heavily on
computer technology. The steady integration of
international markets is driven by sophisticated equipment that allows for huge capital sums
to be moved instantaneously. Computerized
financial markets have led businesses to streamline
operations and adopt ever more efficient, low-
cost approaches. Corporate downsizing has left
white-collar workers and middle managers, as well
as low-skilled workers, scrambling to adapt to
the new technological reality.
Led by research director Izak Benbasat, seven
members of the Management Information Systems
(MIS) Division explore the various impacts of
information technology on individuals, groups and
organizations. Researchers also examine the
efficient and effective design, delivery and control
of information technology.
When UBC installed its ALWAC computer in 1957,
it was only the second university in Canada
to do so. Ten years later, when a separate Dept.
of Computer Science was established, many
departments and faculties (including commerce)
already had their own computing equipment. Today,
commerce and computer science carry out a
great deal of integrated research. Work by MIS
division member Carson Woo illustrates the bridge
between these two areas.
According to Woo, an associate member of the
Centre for Integrated Computer Systems Research
(CICSR), MIS research takes some of the basic
research of computer science—computer communica
tions, integrated system design, databases,
numerical computation and artificial intelligence—
and applies it to fundamental business concerns.
BUSINESS APPLICATION SOFTWARE
Computing activities within organizations change
continually. This evolution started with centralized computing centres running a fixed set of applications provided by in-house MIS departments.
Now, with inexpensive personal computers and networks, client/server computing solutions are
becoming increasingly popular. While the latter
approach offers performance, flexibility and cost
benefits, it is not without problems. The complex
administration of networks means information
may be difficult to find, and services may be
duplicated. To construct enterprise-wide applications
that draw on information spread throughout an
organization means first accessing that information
in different places and in different formats.
Woo began configuring an inter-organizational
computing system in 1979 while working as a summer student in Gulf Canada's strategic planning
department. He went on to study the problem
throughout university, earning an MSc in computer
science and then his PhD at the University of
Toronto. He began work at UBC in 1988 to develop a
workflow software system. Funding from the Federal
Network of Centres of Excellence resulted in a prototype called OASIS (Organization Activity Support and
Information System). Woo says that as a computer-
based information system, OASIS communicates
across different hardware and software and across
centralized computing environments
and branch locations. Typical applications, he adds,
might be tracking inquiries within a multi-branch
organization, complicated travel requests from
organization employees or client-server computing.
"OASIS was designed to allow autonomy in the
workplace, even on networks," says Woo.
"It allows one person, one department or one
group to work independently within any
computing environment."
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Faculty  of Co DEALING WITH EXPERT SYSTEMS
Expert systems are computer programs which
apply the techniques of artificial intelligence to the
solution of real-world problems.
Systems have been built that possess a high degree
of expertise about particular subjects. These
systems know little about anything outside their
specific area of expertise. This characteristic, known
as brittleness, means they do not perform as
well as a human, even though they may have
greater expert knowledge.
For several years, Robert Goldstein has been working to add a common sense reasoning component to
expert systems in an effort to make them less
brittle. Together with colleague Veda Storey, from
the University of Rochester, and a group of graduate
students, Goldstein uses a small model of the
business world which includes only a dozen or so
well-known business concepts. This model is manipulated by a common sense business reasoner—a
software system capable of finding parallels
between facts it comes across in a specific task
and concepts in the general model. The system also
includes a framework for classifying terms that
serves as a surrogate dictionary.
Goldstein has been at UBC since 1974. In the late
1960s, while working at MIT, he designed and
implemented what is generally considered the first
complete relational database management system. Later, he applied expert system techniques to
automate much of the database design process.
In the 1970s, Goldstein developed a series of models
for estimating the impact, financial and otherwise,
of altering information systems to protect
personal privacy. This work resulted in two books:
The Cost of Privacy and Modeling Privacy Costs.
Related research:
• Investigation of the linkages between business
objectives and information system objectives
• Evaluation of the costs and benefits of alternative
ways of communicating with computer systems
comparing direct manipulation interfaces with menu
and command-based interfaces
• A study of the use, contributions and impacts of
information systems in public sector organizations
(Izak Benbasat)
• Applications of expert system technology to forestry
to predict the possible effects of site preparation
treatments on future tree growth (Yair Wand)
• Exploration of MIS issues in a representative transitional socialist economy
• Explanation of the role public accountants play in
the introduction and adoption of information technology in small businesses (Albert Dexter)
• Completion of a study examining the government's
role in fostering knowledge-based companies in B.C.
(Mihkel Tombak, Raphael Amit)
"3
Faculty  of Commerce FUNDRAISING  INITIATIVES
Commerce Career Centre
Goal: $2 million (endowments)
Having grown from a small placement office in the
early 1980s, the Commerce Career Centre now strives
to provide the best career educational services of
any business school in Canada. By endowing the
centre's activities, the faculty can enhance essential
student services like the Practice Interview, Career
Advisory and Professional Development Programs. A
Student Internship Program will provide support
for divisionally based internship programs that give
students significant work experience and the opportunity to put theoretical education into practice
before graduating. The Commerce Career Centre will
continue to help the faculty respond to emerging
needs and changing trends in on- and off-campus
recruiting and the job market.
Asia Pacific Innovations Campaign ($1 million)
This initiative will lead to the creation of Canada's
pre-eminent centre for teaching and research on
the dynamic business links that exist between North
America and East and Southeast Asia today.
The centre will encourage educational innovations
in three main areas: curriculum revisions and
teaching techniques that integrate an Asia Pacific
focus; research projects focusing on the
region's dynamic economies; and outreach and
exchange activities with Asia Pacific businesses,
institutions and their leaders.
Affiliates Partnership Program
Goal: $225,000 (annual operating)
Since 1984, the Faculty of Commerce and Business
Administration's Affiliates Partnership Program has
provided an opportunity for the business community
to support excellence and innovation in business
education. The program is now being expanded to
provide a wider range of opportunities for support
and recognition. Partner firms, alumni and other
business friends are invited to support three crucial
areas: the Dean's Innovation Fund, the Commerce
Career Centre Operating Fund and the Teaching and
Learning Enhancement Fund.
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Faculty  of Commerce PROFESSORSHIPS
• Affiliates Professor of Management
(Daniel Granot)
• Canfor Corporation Professor of Management
Information Systems (Izak Benbasat)
• Finning Ltd. Jr. Professorship in Marketing
(S. Siddarth)
• Alumni Professor of Marketing
(Charles Weinberg)
• Advisory Council Professor of Marketing
(Gerald Gorn)
• Ghert Family Foundation Jr. Professor of Finance
(Raman Uppal)
• Ronald L. Cliff Jr. Professor of Accounting
Goy Begley)
• Arthur Andersen Professor of Accounting
(Gerald Feltham)
• CGA Professor of Accounting (Dan Simunic)
• Edgar Kaiser Professor of Industrial Relations
(Peter Frost)
• Advisory Council Professor of Finance
(Alan Kraus)
• Bank of Montreal Professor of Finance
(Maurice Levi)
• A. E. Hall Professor of Finance
(Robert Heinkel)
• Finning Ltd. Junior Professor of Finance
(Vasant Naik)
• Ghert Family Foundation Jr. Professor of Finance
(Raman Uppal)
• W. J. Van Dusen Professor of Management
(Keith Murnighan)
• E. D. McPhee Professor of Management
(Kenneth MacCrimmon)
• Alumni Professor of Management Science
(William Ziemba)
• Advisory Council Professor of Management Science
(Frieda Granot)
• Advisory Council Professor of Management
(Martin Puterman)
• Asia Pacific Professor of International Business and
Public Policy Games Brander)
"5
Faculty  of Commerce ■ Vinod Sood Professor of International
Business Studies
(Han Vertinsky)
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«Van Dusen Professor of Business Administration
(Tae Oum)
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* Asia Pacific Professor of Trade Policy ™
(Barbara Spencer)
UPS Foundation Professor of
Regulation and Competition Policy
(William Stanbury)
^_
• UPS Professor of Transportation
(Trevor Heaver)
• Hongkong Bank Professor of Asian Commerce
(Michael Gerlach)
• Peter Wall Distinguished Professor of
Entrepreneurship and Venture Capital
(Raphael Amit)
• Herbert R. Fullerton Professor of Urban Land Policy
(Michael Goldberg)
• Real Estate Foundation Jr. Professor of Urban Land
Economics (William Strange)
• William M. Hamilton Professor of Industrial Relations
(Mark Thompson)
mi
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Faculty of Commerce  Deans
George F. Curtis (1945-71)
Albert McClean (1971-76)
Kenneth Lysyk (1976-82)
Peter Burns (1982-92)
Lynn Smith (1992- )
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FACULTY OF  LAW
WOMEN  AND  THE   LAW
INTERDISCIPLINARY
'ROACHES  TO   LAW
INVESTIGATING   CRIME
Feminist Legal Studies
A  LEGAL  PERSPECTIVE
OF THE  PACIFIC  RIM
FIRST  NATIONS AND
THE  LAW
LAW AND  TECHNOLOGY 124
FUNDRAISING
INITIATIVES FACULTY  OF
Law
When UBCts first Dean of Law, George Curtis, came to campus from
Nova Scotia in August, 1945, it was with the understanding that he
would have a year to set things up. As it turned out, he had a little less than
one month. Jiis acceptance of President Norman Mackenzie's offer to
build a law school in western Canada coincided with the end of the war
and a subsequent flood of veterans to Point Grey. Said Curtis: "No sooner
had I sat do\Vn than they were banging on my door. I tried to tell them
to head east because we had nothing but they said they'd prefer to stick it
out and take a chance here."
Justice Lloyd MacKenzie, former Attorney-General
Robert Bonner and B.C. Lt.-Gov. Garde Gardom
were among the first class of 86 students Curtis lectured in the university drama society's practice
theatre located in Brock Hall North. Seven years
later, Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent stood at the
north end of camrjus and presided over the
official opening of Canada's first building designed
specifically for a faculty of law.
The George F. Curtis Building is now home to the
second largest common law school in Canada.
The school draws 180 students a year from across
the country into its LLB program and about 50
students into its master's and PhD programs.
Consistent with UBC's goal of contributing original
intellectual thought to each of its academic
offerings, the university introduced a rigorous, interdisciplinary PhD program in 1994.
At the time of Curtis's appointment, time and
resources permitted little more than a bare-bones
selection of course work and little in the way
of faculty research. The faculty was ahead of its time
introducing taxation and labour law in 1946. By
the late 1960s, when first-year enrolment in law
doubled to 236, economic and social pressures
called for a revamping of the 23-subject curriculum
117
ulty  of Law a
approved by the Law Society of Upper Canada a
decade earlier. At UBC, these changes have resulted
in one of the broadest legal curricula in the country.
In 1995, the faculty celebrates its 50th anniversary.
"Ifyou're not able to stand back from a
body of knowledge and question basic
assumptions in an area then you're not going
to be innovative.       Lynn Smith
Law Dean Lynn Smith says the present national and
international character of the student population
is a direct result of the breadth and depth of faculty
research. Interests among the 44 full-time faculty
run the spectrum of juridical categories and pertain
to matters of provincial, national and international
concern. Research includes all traditional areas
of public and private law, as well as new and
more interdisciplinary fields. Legal systems as a
whole, as well as particular aspects of legal systems,
are investigated and analysed from various
theoretical perspectives.
INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO  LAW
While Smith acknowledges that the primary function
of law schools remains that of preparing
students for legal practice, she believes the public's
understanding of what law is, and what makes
a good practitioner, has changed. Faculties of Law,
she asserts, have an obligation to provide a
healthy mix of interdisciplinary, comparative and theoretical legal study along with conventional legal
scholarship. This requires a knowledge of legal doctrine, and an understanding of the social context
in which legal concepts and principles are created,
interpreted and applied. Says Smith: "If you're
not able to stand back from a body of knowledge
and question basic assumptions in an area then
you're not going to be innovative. You may be
a faithful craftsperson, but you won't be at the
cutting edge."
Joel Bakan is a faculty innovator whose work
challenges critical legal theorists to incorporate elements of general social theory, as well as legal
theory, in their analyses of liberalism in the law.
At the age of 35, he is already one of the most
accomplished constitutional scholars in the country.
Since coming to UBC from Osgoode Hall in 1989,
Bakan has received a Teaching Excellence Award and
a Killam Research Prize. A Rhodes scholar,
Bakan's only time away from a university setting was
during a 12-month stint as clerk for Chief Justice
Brian Dickson in 1985, followed by a year with a law
firm. It was during his period at the Supreme
Court of Canada that the young scholar became
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Faculty  of  Law embroiled in constitutional legal theory, particularly
as it relates to the Charter of Rights. Bakan's
arrival in Ottawa was timed perfectly as decisions
were pending on the major initial charter cases.
Issues surrounding the right to strike, cruise missile
tests and Sunday shopping were important not
only for their sociil implications, but because it was
through them that) the court defined how the
Charter should be approached.
In his Master's thesis from Harvard Law School,
Constitutional Arguments: Interpretation and
Legitimacy in Canadian Constitutional Thought, he
examined the inherent problems of a non-
elected judiciary making decisions about what elected branches of government can and cannot do.
By using a critical legal studies approach, Bakan
focused on the relationship between judicial
decisions under the charter and the social dimensions of power within society.
Bakan's constitutional legal scholarship continues
to deconstruct both traditional and modern
theories of constitutional law and interpretation.
Bakan's current research melds critical legal studies
with Canada's tradition of political economy.
"I'm asking what it is about the social order that
constrains the judicial interpretation process to come
out with results that go one way rather than
another given that the text of law could bear either
interpretation," he says. These ideas are to be
published in a book tentatively titled Interrogating
Rights: The Limits of Charter Litigation.
INVESTIGATING  CRIME
The faculty's research and publication strength
in Criminal Law was confirmed in 1990 by the
establishment of the International Centre for Criminal
Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy, a joint
project of UBC, Simon Fraser University and the
Society for the Reform of Criminal Law. Peter Burns,
law dean from 1982-1991, says the initiative
gives UBC a chance to help other nations develop
the criminal law sections of their legal systems.
"It has been an enormous opportunity for our faculty
members to be engaged in all aspects of the
field," says Burns, a member of the United Nations
Committee Against Torture. The centre is intended
to be a world centre for criminal law, justice policy
reform and learning, and has already attracted
a steady stream of judges, scholars, community
activists and legislators to campus for conferences
and research. In 1993, for example, the centre
hosted a gathering of top international policy-makers
who discussed options for prosecuting alleged
war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. The centre is
the eighth co-operating institute in the United
Nations' network of crime prevention and criminal
justice, and draws heavily on UBC's law library.
The library, a prime resource for faculty research,
boasts a comprehensive criminal law collection
among some 265,000 volumes of primary and secondary materials, including statutes, law reports and
subordinate legislation from all Canadian jurisdictions, Great Britain, Australia and New Zealand.
The arrival of Richard Ericson, former director of the
Centre of Criminology at the University of Toronto,
has further strengthened criminal legal research
on campus.
After a summer-long study of life at a B.C. federal
prison in 1972, Prof. Michael Jackson deemed
the Canadian penitentiary "an outlaw of the criminal
justice system." Operating under their own set
of legal rules, Jackson said prison officials meted out
justice as they saw fit. Cancellation of visitor privileges, strip searches, transfers and lockups in "the
hole" were often ordered on suspicion without
reasonable cause.
On paper, prisons have undergone positive change
since Jackson first began investigating the human
rights cases of inmates 20 years ago. In 1993,
Jackson took a 12 month sabbatical to see if purported changes have been adopted in practice.
"9
Faculty of Law "Prisons have their own folklore and customs which
are very hard to change," said Jackson, whose
study was funded through a Bora Laskin National
Fellowship in Human Rights Research. "Time
and time again I've observed that although a court
may say things have been done differently, prison
officials figure out a way to get around the law or
interpret it at its minimal level."
Two developments—the enactment of the Canadian
Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982 and the
passage of an integrated act (Bill C-36) governing
both corrections and parole—have had positive
effects on the liberties and privileges of prisoners.
Still, Jackson says most reforms addressing issues of
fairness have been at the federal level. For the
most part, provincial institutions still have their own
officers deciding disciplinary measures rather
than outside panels.
The big change in B.C. has been the introduction of
four new prisons. By sitting in on disciplinary hearings, interviewing prisoners, guards, wardens
and observing prison life, Jackson sought to find
out if this new living environment translated
into a new attitude towards human rights. Jackson's
study focused on three federal and two provincial
institutions in B.C., including the new correctional
centre for women in Burnaby. He also visited
the federal high maximum security institutions in
Quebec and Saskatchewan which he calls "the
deep end" of Canada's prison system.
Related criminal law research:
• The creation of a computer database on
the Supreme Court of Canada Charter cases
Oerome Atrens)
«A sentencing database and electronic text on
the law of sentencing Gohn Hogarth)
• Text on the Law of Homicide (Isabel Grant
and Christine Boyle, SFU's Dorothy Chunn)
• Theoretical analysis of the processes of proof
and decision-making (Marilyn MacCrimmon)
• Text on the law of evidence (Tony Sheppard)
• Text on criminal injuries compensation
(Peter Burns)
WOMEN  AND  THE  LAW
Lynn Smith, one of 11 women in the faculty, is UBC's
first female dean of law. She has also helped
open the field of feminist legal theory in Canada. Her
own scholarly work during the last decade has centred on constitutional equality and human rights,
civil litigation and evidence.
FEMINIST LEGAL STUDIES
Susan Boyd's route to becoming UBC's first Chair
in Feminist Legal Studies was circuitous to say the
least. Initially, it was history and sociology, not
law, that captured Boyd's imagination as an undergraduate at Bishop's University. After finishing a
paper on Canadian author, legislator, suffragist, and
reformer Nellie McClung, Boyd was primed to
pursue an academic career exploring the social history of women. However, a declining market for
academic historians pushed her into law school at
McGill. She was called to the Bar in Ontario, then
opted for graduate study at the LLM level in International and Comparative Law at the University
of London.
Boyd came into contact with the emerging literature
on women and the law after she received an
offer to teach law at Carleton University. Since then,
she has co-edited an annotated bibliography of
Canadian feminist perspectives on law, a publication
she is currently updating. She has other published
works in feminist legal theory, family law and especially child custody law.
Boyd came to UBC as the Visiting Chair in Women
and the Law in 1992-93. She found a faculty in
the process of change. There were no course offerings on women's issues or social theory during
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Chair in Feminist Legal Studies
her student years, but at UBC she found growing
research and curriculum in these areas. A
compulsory first-year course, Perspectives on Law,
features sections on historical, feminist, sociological,
First Nations, comparative, economic and other
theoretical approaches. Further study of feminist
approaches is available in second and third year
through a Feminist Legal Studies survey course as
well as advanced seminars in feminist legal theory.
Boyd views her role as Chair of Feminist Legal
Studies as reinforcing and strengthening
what is already in place. "There is a perception that
this area has been studied in detail and we've
solved all the problems," she says. "It's true that
women's issues have been examined for more
than a decade but there is still a lot of work
to be done." Boyd is principal investigator for a
three-year, SSHRC-funded project entitled,
Challenging the Public/Private Divide: Women, Law
and Social Change.
Related research:
• Ways that pregnancy and parental leave benefits
reinforce traditional female roles within the
family, while tending to exclude women who depart
from traditional expectations of good mothering
(Nitya Iyer)
• Examination of the relationship between
childcare responsibilities, workplace supports, and
career mobility for women and men in legal
practice (Fiona Kay)
• Analysis of privatizing and gendered effect of funding social programs through the tax system, with
particular attention to child support, child care and
pension plans (Claire Young)
• The way in which the psychiatric paradigm
operates when women with mental health histories
come into contact with the child welfare system
Gudith Mosoff)
• How mothers who are employed in the paid labor
force are assessed in terms of their commitment
to mothering when child custody disputes arise
(Susan Boyd)
• Gender issues and the judiciary (Lynn Smith)
A  LEGAL  PERSPECTIVE  OF THE  PACIFIC  RIM
UBC's Centre for Asian Legal Studies is a focal point
for research in international and comparative law.
As Canada expands its social, cultural and economic
ties with East and Southeast Asia, it must also
learn to deal with radically different systems of law
and legal traditions. The centre provides courses in
Japanese, Chinese and Southeast Asian legal studies.
The faculty inaugurated the program in Japanese
legal studies in 1980. A first in Canada, the program
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Faculty of Law has developed rapidly and was recognized in
1986 by the provincial government under the Funds
for Excellence in Education Program. The program
has been under the directorship of Stephan
Salzberg since 1987. Current research includes exami
nations of Japanese mental health law, the country's
legal response to AIDS and a critical description
of the Japanese juvenile legal system.
In 1994-95, Judge Asami Tejma of the Sapporo
District Court became the fifth Japanese judge to
take up a one-year residency at the faculty.
UBC is among the small number of law faculties
worldwide chosen by the Supreme Court of
Japan to receive Japanese judges. They take part in
course work, field observation and research
in the courts. UBC's law library has the distinction
of housing Canada's only Japanese language
law collection.
The Chinese Legal Studies Program promotes
scholarly exchanges with outside institutions. Under
an agreement with the Faculty of Law at Beijing
University, graduate students and professors from
China visit UBC to conduct research on topics
such as China and the GATT, Chinese and Canadian
contract law and international legal issues related
to Hong Kong. UBC recently finalized an exchange
program with National Taiwan University. The program also has close ties with the law
Institutes of both the Chinese Academy of Social
Sciences and the Shanghai Academy of Social
Sciences. Program director Pitman Potter, a Killam
Research Prize winner, has an international
reputation in the field and has written many articles
and books on the Chinese legal system. His research
focuses on administrative law in the PRC, Taiwan
civil law, the development of securities markets in
the PRC and Taiwan and conceptions of justice
in urban Chinese communities of Shanghai, Hong
Kong, Taiwan and Vancouver.
lan Townsend-Gault, the centre's director, supervises
the most recent focus of research, Southeast Asia.
The program brings legal experts to campus for
one semester from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Townsend-
Gault says most of the region's 10 countries are
easily accessible to tourists but not necessarily to
those wishing to do business. The program, funded
by the Max Bell Foundation, helps the Canadian
government and others to get answers to legal
questions on environmental protection, exporting
profits or joint ventures.
Since 1989, lan Townsend-Gault has quietly helped
ease tensions in the South China Sea where
China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Brunei, Malaysia and the
Philippines have staked claims to a curious outcropping of reefs, shoals and sand banks called the
Spratly Islands. Friction over these islands is
based on an unsubstantiated notion that they hide
rich gas and oil reserves. Of international
concern, especially to the neighbouring countries of
Laos, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore, is that
the islands lie dangerously close to a major shipping
lane linking the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
For Townsend-Gault, the situation poses an
intriguing mix of environmental, international, marine
and resource-based law, all areas in which he
teaches and does research. He has led a six-member
UBC team for four years on a project called Managing Potential Conflicts in the South China Sea.
The project has spawned five informal workshops
and four technical meetings on marine scientific
research, resource assessment, ways of development
and environmental protection. Talks on technical
subjects will continue while meetings on legal matters and safety of navigation in the South China
Sea have been approved. Despite keen interest from
Australia, the U.S. and Japan, Canada remains the
only non-regional participant allowed at the meetings. Townsend-Gault and his associates looked
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Faculty  of Law after funding and research support across a range of
international ocean law and policy issues. As the
current phase of the project winds down, two further
CIDA-sponsored opportunities have cropped up
for Townsend-Gault. First, he has helped the
Vietnamese government draft laws governing marine
legislation in fisheries, petroleum, marine traffic,
Law of the Sea and other issues. Through a second
grant, Townsend-Gault will help Vietnamese officials
use the legal system to protect human rights as
the country moves toward a market economy.
Toasting the 1994 passage of the Law of the Sea
Treaty are (from left to right): Dean emeritus
George Curtis, a pioneer in Law of the Sea issues and
1995 recipient of The Ramon fohn Hnatyshyn Award
for Law; Richard Paisley and Karin Mickelson, each of
whom teach and conduct research in the field; and
Ivan Head who, as foreign policy advisor to former
Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, was heavily involved in
negotiating the United Nations treaty.
Related research in international law:
< Laws and policy regarding the repatriation of
cultural property, including the art of indigenous
peoples (Robert Paterson)
■ Examination of current trends in international
environmental law (Karin Mickelson)
FIRST  NATIONS AND  THE   LAW
As with the faculty's Asian law initiatives, UBC's First
Nations Law Program is unrivaled in Canada. Since
1975, UBC has graduated more than 100 Aboriginal
LLB students. This represents approximately one-
third of all First Nations law graduates in Canada.
Forty-eight of the more than 700 students currently
enroled are of First Nations descent.
Retired provincial court judge Alfred Scow, winner
of the 1995 National Aboriginal Achievement Award,
was UBC's first aboriginal law graduate. Subsequent graduates include a negotiator for the Yukon
Indians, a member of the B.C. Treaty Commission
task force, a former vice-chief of the Assembly
of First Nations in B.C., a legal advisor for the NCC
during the Charlottetown Accord, tribal council
lawyers and numerous private practitioners.
Lynn Smith sees the First Nations Law Program, as
focused not only on Native students, their ideas and
concerns, but also on the study of law related to
First Nations issues. Her own concern is that the
name of the program is often misleading. "Some
think that aboriginal students somehow get a Native
law degree however there is no such thing," says
Smith. "They have to take the same courses, the
same requirements to earn the same degree as any
other student." Smith adds that course offerings
relevant to First Nations communities, touching on
international, criminal, self-government, treaty rights
and economic development, are open to all
students and not tailored specifically to First
Nations students.
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Faculty  of Law The recent additions of a First Nations clinical option
and a national aboriginal law moot have further
enriched the curriculum.
Related Research
Sentencing and the impact of the criminal justice
system on First Nations people (Michael Jackson)
• How the Canadian child welfare system reinforces
the privatized nuclear, heterosexual family in a
manner that has a negative effect on the ability of
First Nations mothers and poor mothers to retain
custody of their children (Marlee Kline)
- Application of human rights law to tribal problems
of indigenous peoples of the Chittagong Hill Tracts
of Bangladesh as well as to tribal refugee camps
in India and the State of Tripura (Douglas Sanders)
LAW AND TECHNOLOGY
The faculty began applying computer technology to
law in 1986 with a co-operative venture between
UBC and IBM. Today, research at the Faculty of Law
Artificial Intelligence Research Project (FLAIR) is
developing legal expert systems and new techniques
of automatic legal text analysis, retrieval and generation. One program, in particular, may soon give
lawyers instant access to every legal case in Canada.
The FLEXICON (Fast Legal Expert Information
Consultant) receives cases on hard disc from the
courts and instantly produces a summary of
each case highlighting relevant areas of law. Given
that all this information can then be copied
onto a compact disc and that a single disc holds up
to 400,000 pages of case material, lawyers could
use a laptop computer to call up any Canadian case
anywhere, anytime. "We look at the lawyer and
this program as an integrated system," said Prof.
Joseph "J.C." Smith. "The database can be seen as
an extension of a lawyer's own memory of cases."
Smith, who has an LLB and a Secondary Teaching
Certificate from UBC as well as a LLM from Yale,
leads the FLAIR team of computer programmers and
legal experts. He says that with so much legal
information already on hand, and so much more
generated daily, it just isn't practical for lawyers to
hunt through texts themselves. The legal profession, however, is still stuck in a paper world.
Rather than receive monthly published reports of
cases, Smith suggests firms update their own
CD library every two weeks through a single service
at minimal cost. He added that all Canadian
cases cited since 1900 would probably fit onto about
10 compact discs.
Smith's research has centred for 30 years on connecting law and cognitive science. His work
brings together aspects of philosophy, psychology,
anthropology, linguistics and computer science
and links them with the mind's conceptual processes. Apart from his work in legal reasoning and
artificial intelligence, Smith is pre-eminent in the
field of psychoanalytical jurisprudence. His fifth
and most recent book in this area, The Neurotic
Foundations of Social Order, brings to bear a feminist and psychoanalytical perspective on fundamental questions about our present social arrangements.
It was Smith's in-depth analysis of legal structures
that formed the basis for the FLAIR project
research in 1986. He devised a database capable of
dissecting nebulous rules of law making them
relate directly to the facts of a case. "By breaking
it down into a hundred little rules, you can
turn a fuzzy legal rule into a factual one," he
explains. "That's what makes this form of analysis
so effective."
While FLEXICON is a generic program adaptable
to any kind of law, the UBC team has also
developed expert computer systems that focus on
whiplash, nervous shock, malicious prosecution,
impaired driving, loss of future earnings and other
areas of litigation. These expert systems determine possible causes of action based on factual
information supplied by the user, and assess
the likelihood of success and display relevant cases
that support its predictions.
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Faculty  of     aw FUNDRAISING   INITIATIVE
Support Endowment for the
Chair in Feminist Legal Studies
Goal: $300,000 (endowment)
The Chair in Feminist Legal Studies is one of
only two such chairs in Canada. The chair strengthens the base of expertise in the Faculty of Law
related to women and the law by expanding
research and teaching in the area. The objective is
to examine ways in which the legal system may
fail to recognize or deal with the experiences of
diverse groups of women, and to analyse possible
social and legal change. A Support Endowment
for the Chair in Feminist Legal Studies will fund
activities of the chairholder, Prof. Susan Boyd.
Donors who contributed to establish the Chair in
Feminist Legal Studies are Arthur Fouks, Q.C.,
Vancouver-area law firms, the judiciary and members
of the legal community. Major donations to the
chair were made through the John Grot Memorial
Fund and the Estate of Mona Leith.
Support Endowment for the Nemetz
Chair in Legal History
Goal: $300,000 (endowment)
The Nemetz Chair in Legal History was established to
conduct research, teach and publish on issues
relating to legal history and the perspectives it offers
contemporary law and society. The chair is named
in honour of The Honourable Nathan T. Nemetz,
retired chief justice of British Columbia and former
chancellor of UBC. A Support Endowment for the
Nemetz Chair in Legal History will fund activities of
the chairholder, Prof. Wesley Pue. Scholarly work
of the chair has direct relevance to public policy
formation in areas such as labour law, federalism
and the Charter of Rights. Teaching activities
help produce better-informed law graduates, able to
understand the importance of legal history and its
impact on today's laws.
Donors to the Nemetz Chair in Legal History include
Vancouver area law firms, the judiciary, members
of the legal community and interested individuals
and businesses.
Centre for Communications Law
and Cultural Studies
Goal: $5.5 million (endowment)
$250,000 (operating)
The prime purpose of the Centre for Communications Law and Cultural Studies will be to find
solutions to the new challenges facing the legal
system in the face of technological innovation
and social change. The centre will foster exploration,
in research and teaching, of the intersection
between law and communications and between law
and cultural transmission.
First Nations Law Program
Goal: $150,000 (endowment) $ 50,000 (operating)
The First Nations Law Program allows the faculty to
be more accessible and relevant to First Nations
students and others who want to understand the
broader implications of First Nations issues in
Canada. A $150,000 endowment, combined with an
operating goal of $50,000, will help provide
funding for an administrator, an academic support
officer and a resource centre, in support of the
program maintaining and enhancing its strengths.
The administrator position will enable the director of
the program to devote less time to administration
and more to the program's academic core. Given the
different cultural approach First Nations students
bring to the study of law, an academic support
officer will make a tremendous difference via tutorial
and other assistance.
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Faculty of Law Clinical Program
Goal: $225,000 (endowment)
A new Clinical Program will provide students with an
opportunity to explore, in a clinical setting, the
functioning of law and the legal system in relation to
those members of society who are socially, economically or politically disadvantaged. Under the
supervision of the clinical faculty, students will work
with individuals and groups on test cases, planning
issues and individual service cases. The two
initial themes for this program are First Nations and
immigration and refugee law.
Endowment for Graduate Fellowships
Goal: $750,000 (endowment)
The faculty's graduate complement has risen to
35 LLM students and seven doctoral students, and
will expand further. With the growing number of
graduate students, the faculty must increase funding
available for fellowships or risk losing good
students to other, better-funded programs. In order
to meet these objectives, the faculty will seek funding for an Endowment for Graduate Fellowships.
Faculty Scholars Awards
Goal: $168,000 (endowment)
The Law Class of 1968 has made a commitment
to provide an award of $5,000 to allow a
faculty member to defray research expenses. This
award is made by the dean on the advice of the
Research Committee. The faculty encourages Faculty
Scholars Awards as a means of recognizing the
faculty's commitment to research and as a vehicle
for supporting modest research projects.
Endowment to Support Visiting Scholars
Goal: $165,000 (endowment)
An Endowment to Support Visiting Scholars will
provide funding for visits by academics who
enrich programs of teaching and research. The
Faculty Seminar Program will be greatly enhanced
by a regular source of funds to pay the travel
expenses of visitors who present seminar papers
to faculty members and graduate students. The
endowment will also support guest lectures on
topics of general interest or special presentations
in particular courses.
The visiting scholar program currently
includes the Mc.K. Brown and Walter S. Owen
visiting professorships.
Faculty Endowment Fund
Goal: $1 million (endowment)
The Faculty Endowment Fund will provide support
for projects of general benefit to the faculty.
These include student activities, such as conferences and the competitive mooting program; faculty
research projects; equipment purchases; and
other needs.
126
Faculty of   EXTENDING  THE  KNOWLEDGE
Frontier
" For some reason, it seems to be easier to make the case for the advancement
of knowledge in the natural sciences as the mission of the university
than it is to assert that research and scholarly discovery in the humanistic
disciplines are necessary parts of the same mission, and easier still to
make the case for applied research in medicine or in engineering than for
the basic research underlying these professional activities."
The Idea of the University. A Re-examination (1992), Jaroslav Pelikan
Universities give students the opportunity to
study with scholars who are extending the frontiers
of knowledge. UBC's recognized success in
research is directly related to the spirit of collegiality
that has existed among students and faculty for
the last 80 years. If social sciences and humanities
represent the core of university research, then it
is essential that we nurture this collegial spirit in the
midst of new realities created by science and technology. This report gives a snapshot of how social
sciences and humanities research provides society
with guidelines for adapting to change.
During the last decade, UBC has maintained a top
ranking in Social Sciences and Humanities
Research Council grants awarded to full time faculty.
We will continue to increase the scope and
intensity of research in these areas by completing
endowments for various centres and appointments to endowed chairs, and by continuing to raise
funds in support of academic priorities. Priorities
have taken physical shape in projects such as
the Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery and the Jack
Bell Building for the School of Social Work.
Ground-breaking ceremonies were held at the end
of 1994 for the Chan Centre for the Performing
Arts and the Walter C. Koerner Library, enterprises
that promise to invigorate the academic, cultural
and social life on campus.
On April 29, 1992, the David Lam Management
Research Centre became the first building
opened under the World of Opportunity Campaign
banner. It is just one of the many campaign
projects that benefited from the Universities Matching Program initiated by the government of
British Columbia. Support from the provincial
government, the single largest donor to the
campaign, was crucial to ensuring that the private
sector became full partners in our efforts.
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Extending  the  Knowledge   Frontier The campaign's success has initiated a period of
growth on campus not seen since the post-war boom
under President Norman MacKenzie.
The World of Opportunity Campaign was instrumental
in increasing endowments, chiefly in scholarships
and in the faculties. Funding is now complete for 53
chairs at $1 million each and 20 professorships
at a minimum of $250,000 each. Endowments provide faculties with more than $10 million in
annual revenue. These endowments ensure a legacy
of first-rate scholarship, teaching and learning.
The Hampton Place residential development, through
the UBC Real Estate Corporation, has donated
$36 million to the university. Of this, $15 million has
been allotted to an endowment fund for research
in the social sciences and humanities. Of the remainder, $10 million has been assigned as endowment
principle to support activities in the Institute of
Advanced Studies.
One of nearly 100 academic initiatives produced
by the campaign is a $i5-million gift from Vancouver
financier Peter Wall to establish an Institute for
Advanced Studies. The first of its kind in Canada,
the institute will have renowned scholars undertaking thematic enquiries into topical cross-disciplinary issues. A call for proposals has been circulated
on campus for thematic research programs to be
associated with the institute. Major chairs ($3 million
each) will be funded as the first element of the
Peter Wall gift. The first chair will be held by Nobel
Laureate Michael Smith and the second by Raphael
Amit. They will be known as Peter Wall Distinguished professors.
Yet another exciting development is the establishment of a School of Journalism. Journalists need
specialized knowledge and sophisticated research
skills to complement their technical writing
abilities. The school's graduate program will combine
graduate study in established academic disciplines
with advanced training in the profession. Emphasis
will be placed on scholarly understanding, critical
thinking and ethical responsibility to achieve the
highest professional standards.
UBC, in its changing relationship with government,
industry, educators and community groups,
must continue to demonstrate that social sciences
and humanities research is essential to solving
today's most pressing problems. One challenge is
the promotion of critical human sciences within
traditional disciplines to produce a thoughtful and
informed society. So too, interdisciplinary research
must be recognized as an insightful and sensitive
way to address society's problems.
UBC's Visiting Scholars Programs—the J. V. Clyne
Lecture, Dal Grauer Memorial Lectureships, Leon and
Thea Koerner Lectureship, Hugh Bostock Memorial
Lectureship, Cecil and Ida Green Visiting Professorships and others—serve as a key resource for
intellectual stimulation and community outreach.
Visiting scholars provide new insights and new
ideas from cultures around the world.
UBC Press has been keeping the campus and wider
community in touch with topics pertinent to
British Columbia, the Pacific Rim, Canada and the
Canadian North for nearly 25 years. It is Canada's
third largest university press, having published close
to 400 books and adding between 20 to 25
new titles each year. The press's publishing program
reflects the diversity and vigour of UBC's faculty.
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Extending the   Knowledge  Frontier
n On the interdisciplinary front, the university is
undergoing processes of internationalization, knowledge and technology transfer, policy oriented
research and greening the campus. A proposed Risk
Studies Institute illustrates the university's
commitment to innovative research. This initiative
will link practitioners who deal with issues surrounding drug therapy or environmental hazards with
researchers who are actively studying how people
perceive, evaluate and manage risks. The creation of
a Life Skills Motivation Centre, headed by Rick
Hansen in the Institute for Health Promotion
Research, is yet another example of UBC innovation.
Centre programs will include workshops, seminars,
a public school program and speaking tours to
help people in the community improve the quality
of their lives.
Universities exist for the pursuit of excellence as
defined by international standards of scholarship. The President's Report on Social Sciences and
Humanities, representing only a portion of
research in associated fields, exhibits UBC's success
in this pursuit. It also demonstrates that
societal challenges and academic opportunities bear
little relationship to our present academic structure. The report shows how activities in one faculty
are enriched through knowledge and information
sharing with those in others. Some of the most
important research in modern times is conducted in
areas that bridge traditional academic disciplines.
Ethics, health economics, agri-business, hi-tech
management, women's studies, race relations, First
Nations—successful research in these and other
developing areas of inquiry depend on resources
and knowledge drawn from scholars campus-wide.
A current project called Electronic Games for
Education in Math and Science (E-GEMS) is a prime
example. Linking education faculty with colleagues
in the Department, of Computer Science, it brings
together scientists, mathematicians, educators,
professional game developers, children and classroom teachers to learn more about electronic games
and their potential in Grades 4 to 8.
The same holds true for those professional schools
that share intellectual and scholarly affinities
with other faculties. Law and First Nations issues or
the linking of computer science technology with
fundamental business concerns in commerce are two
such cases.
The introduction to this report states that the purpose of humanities and social sciences is to provide
people with a deeper understanding of themselves
and others. The 1965 Discipline and Discovery
document alluded to a critical need for diversity and
richness of understanding in post-secondary
education. If biodiversity is a valid objective for
environmental conservation, then human diversity is
equally valid for maintaining earth as a home for
all people.
UBC's Mission Statement promises that the university will carry out research at the forefront of
human knowledge in a wide range of fields. UBC is
dedicated to continuing its role as a prime resource
in social sciences and humanities research for the
province and the nation.
"To be a world renowned
institution of higher education
and research"
129
ding  the  Knowledge   Frontier INSTITUTIONAL  INITIATIVES
Completion of Phase One of
The Walter C. Koerner Library
The UBC Library is one of the top research libraries
in Canada and has the highest circulation rate
of any research library in North America. As well as
providing a key resource to students and faculty,
the Library is an important link between UBC
and the community. Non-UBC users account for a
significant portion of the Library's use. The
collection is valued at $400 million, but much of
it is irreplaceable.
To keep pace with advancing knowledge, the
Library adds 90,000 volumes annually, equivalent to
one additional mile of storage each year. The
new $24-million Walter C. Koerner Library, designed
by world-renowned architects Aitken Wreglesworth/
Arthur Erickson, will help address the urgent need
for more space to house the expanding collection,
for new storage systems and for technology to
help users access the Library's world-wide networks.
Major donors to the Walter C. Koerner Library
include: Walter C. Koerner, Imperial Oil Ltd., Placer
Dome Inc., BC Hydro, CIBC, Bank of Nova
Scotia, Shell Canada Limited, Toronto Dominion
Bank, RBC Dominion Securities Pemberton, Canada
Trust, BC Gas Inc., Sun Life Assurance Company
of Canada, Mr. and Mrs. Vicwood K.T. Chong, Pratt
& Whitney Canada and BC Sugar.
Chan Centre for the Performing Arts
The Chan Centre for the Performing Arts will draw
local and international audiences to the UBC
campus. Adjacent to the heritage rose garden at the
north end of campus, it will feature: the Chan
Shun Auditorium, a concert hall with a seating
capacity of 1400; a studio theatre, with 200 seats;
and a 150-seat film cinema. The Chan Family
Foundation has funded the new facility. In addition,
BC Tel, the Royal Bank and Falconbridge Ltd.
have made major gifts in support of the centre.
First Nations Longhouse
The First Nations Longhouse, the focus of First
Nations student activities at UBC, opened May 25,
1993. Since the 1970s, UBC has been working
to increase the representation of First Nations students on campus through programs such as
the Native Indian Teacher Education Program, the
Native Law Program, the First Nations Health
Care Professions Program and the Ts"kel Graduate
Program at the First Nations House of Learning.
Currently, there are approximately 250 First Nations
students at UBC, primarily in the faculties of
Education and Law. That figure is expected to reach
1,000 by the next decade. The First Nations Long-
house is the first west coast longhouse constructed
as an integral part of a university campus. It is
the focus of First Nations student activities at UBC.
Jack Bell and June and Bill Bellman are major
contributors to the project.
First Nations House of Learning Library
Goal: $900,000 million (equipment endowment
and collections)
UBC's goal is to increase the current First Nations
student population of 300 to 1,000 by the
next decade, while promoting the sharing of knowledge between First Nation cultures and other
cultures. One means of accomplishing this goal
is through expanding and improving the educational
and research resources of the library.
The First Nations House of Learning Library is one of
a very few of its kind in Canada which collects
and houses materials produced by First Nations. The
library, which is responsible for providing curriculum
and research support for UBC First Nations programs,
as well as information and assistance to UBC students, faculty and staff, will expand services to First
Nations communities and the community at large.
^_
130
Extending  the  Knowledge   Fronti Elders in Residence Endowment
First Nations House of Learning
Goal: $1.5 million (endowment)
First Nations Elders are considered the keepers of
traditional cultural knowledge, and are greatly
respected for their role as teachers and mentors.
Through an Elders in Residence Endowment,
First Nations Elders will be invited to campus to
teach and counsel using the oral traditions.
The program will provide for the oral transfer and
documentation of history, culture, language and
spirituality; counselling and advising services as
traditionally provided by the elders; an informational
resource for non-First Nations students, faculty
and staff; and living archives to complement
the paper archives presently being developed by
the First Nations House of Learning.
Computer Laboratory
First Nations House of Learning
Goal: $100,000 (equipment)
Quality post-secondary education requires access to
computers and international computer networks.
The First Nations Longhouse, home to the House of
Learning, has allocated space for the necessary
hardware, software and connection required to equip
First Nations students to access the UBCNET.
Establishing a computer laboratory will ensure that
First Nations students advance with their non-First
Nations peers in the area of computer and information literacy. It will also ensure that faculty and staff
of the House of Learning develop the essential skills
to provide maximum assistance to students.
PREVIOUS   PRESIDENT'S  REPORTS
• 1986
Engine of Recovery
•1987
Report on the Library
•1989
Toward the Pacific Century
• 1990
Creative and Performing Arts
•1992
UBC: B.C's Centre of Teaching and
Research in the Health Sciences
AREAS  COVERED  IN  THIS  REPORT
FACULTY OF ARTS
Departments and schools
Anthropology and Sociology
Asian Studies
Classics*
Economics
English
French
Geography
Germanic Studies
Hispanic and Italian Studies
History
Linguistics
Philosophy
Political Science
Psychology
Religious Studies*
School of Library, Archival and Information Studies
School of Social Work
* Combined into Department of Classical, Near Eastern
and Religious Studies as of July l, 1995
131
Extending  the   Knowledge   Frontier Interdisciplinary Initiatives
Arts One Program
Centre for Research in Economic and Social Policy
Women's Studies Program
Museum of Anthropology
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
Schools and departments
Educational Studies
Curriculum Studies
Counselling Psychology
Educational Psychology and Special Education
Language Education
School of Human Kinetics
Interdisciplinary Initiatives
Centre for Applied Studies in Evaluation
Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction
Centre for the Study of Teacher Education
Centre for Policy Studies in Education
Child Study Centre
FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES
Schools, Institutes and Centres
Institute of Asian Research
Centre for Japanese Research
Centre for Chinese Research
Centre for Korean Research
Centre for South Asian Research
Centre for Southeast Asian Research
Centre for Applied Ethics
Centre for Human Settlements
Westwater Research Centre
School of Community and Regional Planning
Institute of Health Promotion Research
Life Skills Motivation Centre
Institute of International Relations
Sustainable Development Research Institute
Center for Transportation Studies
Fisheries Centre
Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies
International Relations Program
Centre for Research in Women's Studies
and Gender Relations
Green College
Journals
B.C. Studies
Canadian Literature
Pacific Affairs
FACULTY OF COMMERCE AND
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
Divisions
Accounting
Finance
Industrial Relations Management
Management Information Systems
Management Science
Marketing
Policy Analysis
Transportation
Urban Land Economics
Centres and Bureaus
Centre for International Business Studies
W. Maurice Young Entrepreneurship and
Venture Capital Research Centre
Centre for Labour and Management Studies
Bureau of Asset Management
Canadian Real Estate Research Bureau
FACULTY OF LAW
Centre for Asian Legal Studies
The International Centre for Criminal Law Reform
and Criminal Justice Policy
First Nations Law Program
Feminist Legal Studies
Faculty of Law Artificial Intelligence
Research Project
■
■
^^_
132
Extending the  Knowledge  Frontier ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The University of British Columbia's
1995 President's Report on Social Sciences
and Humanities was produced by the
UBC Public Affairs Office.
WRITER
Charles Ker, UBC Public Affairs Office
EDITOR
Charles Ker, UBC Public Affairs Office
Chris Petty, Iris Communications Inc.
PHOTOGRAPHY
Kent Kallberg
UBC stock photography supplied by:
Martin Dee
Stephen Forgacs
David Gray
Pat Higginbotham
UBC Archives
UBC Faculty of Education Archives
UBC Media Services
Gavin Wilson
DESIGN
Tandem Design Associates Ltd,
SPECIAL THANKS TO:
Olav Slaymaker, Associate Vice President, Research
Arlene Chan, UBC External Affairs
Claire Firth, UBC Research Services
Chris Hives, UBC Archives
133
Extending  the  Knowledge   Fronti ■
THE Additional copies of this report and
UNIVERSITY OF information about the University of
BRITISH British Columbia are available through:
COLUMBIA The UBC PubUc Affairs Office
The University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, B.C.  Canada V6T 1Z2
Telephone: (604) 822-3131
Facsimile: (604) 822-2684 

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