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The President's Report 1961-62 1962

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Array The   President's   Report
THE    UNIVERSITY    OF    BRITISH    COLUMBIA      1   S   0 1 ' 0 ^J The   Presidents   Report   1961-62 THE   UNIVERSITY   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
VANCOUVER,    B. C,    CANADA,    OCTOBER,    1962 The President's Report 1961-62
The Report of Dr. Norman
A.M. MacKenzie to the
Senate and the Board of
Governors of the U n i v e r*
s i t y of British Columbia
for the period July 1,
19 6 1,    to   June    30,    1962 TO THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS
AND SENATE OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Ladies and Gentlemen
My report for this academic year is based upon the congregation addresses I delivered at the spring congregations here at the University
and at Victoria College in May, 1962. At that time the Senate of the
University conferred an honorary degree upon me.
In many respects this is a report of opinions and conclusions based
upon my experience at U.B.C. and upon my earlier experience in other
universities in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom.
These ideas are my own; they may or may not be shared by those of my
senior colleagues who have been responsible for helping to make academic policy during my presidency. They are suggestions and not recommendations; and they grow out of a lifetime of experience in higher
education, both as a professor and as a president, in British Columbia
and elsewhere. I have no doubt that they will require study and elaboration before any or all of them are put into effect. However, I hope
that my ideas will prove interesting and useful to this academic community, the welfare of which has been my sole concern since I came to
the University in 1944.
A//tvvu^k_ i^^tmL
Norman MacKenzie F.G.ff, Citation
Madam chancellor, on the twenty-fifth day of October, nineteen
hundred and forty-four, the newly installed president of the University
defined his concept of the ideal holder of his office. Today, almost eighteen years later, the University of British Columbia proclaims to this
Congregation that his ideal, unattainable by most, matched by a distinguished few, he has himself surpassed. At that time he concluded his
description by saying: "But above all else he should have . . . courage
and integrity, for the influence of these will live on after him in the lives
of his staff and students, the men and women who come in contact with
him, and in the quality and reputation of the University he serves."
Courage he possesses, as unyielding today in his battles with the educational problems of a postwar world as yesterday in his exploits against
the enemy in the first world war. It is a courage that commands followers, guarantees achievement, takes decisions, acknowledges their consequences. To this courage he brings integrity, as unblemished today
when he helps to create and mould the Canada Council as yesterday
when he helped to plan and forge the National Federation of Canadian
University Students. It is an integrity that makes the possessor claim
failure more readily than admit success, shun the expedient and the mediocre, seek out the common good, be the public conscience.
But the measure of this legendary Canadian admired and loved from
sea to sea is not a matter of courage and integrity alone. In him there is
a higher quality, a mystic refiner that transforms all else — the power
of greatness. Because of this he has won the approving trust and wholehearted support of all citizens, attracted to this campus a staff of outstanding worth, and made this University internationally famed. The
limited horizons of yesterday have given way to the unlimited promise
of tomorrow. This is the work of a man of courage, integrity and greatness: he can justly boast "exegi monumentum aere perennius."
Today the Senate of the University of British Columbia pays him its
greatest tribute, albeit one unequal to the honour he has brought to this
University, province, and nation; it enrolls him as a member of the community he has nobly served, and perpetuates an association at once rich
and warm.
Madam Chancellor, you are asked to confer the degree of doctor of
laws, honoris causa, on Norman Archibald MacRae MacKenzie, Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George,
Holder of the Military Medal and Bar, Queen's Counsel, Master of
Laws, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, President of the University of British Columbia. Congregation Addresses
by UBC's Retiring President,
Dr. Norman A. M. MacKenzie
Ihis past year has been an important one and in some respects a difficult one for the University. A year ago on July 28 we lost our Chancellor and one of our most distinguished graduates, Dr. A. E. "Dal"
Grauer. To Mrs. Grauer and her children I would like once again personally and on behalf of the University to extend deepest sympathy,
together with our thanks and our admiration for the many things Dr.
Grauer did for his University and for his country.
In November we elected as our new Chancellor another very distinguished graduate, Dr. Phyllis Ross. She is the first woman to be elected
or appointed as the ceremonial head of any of the Universities of Canada; and because her office combines with that of Chancellor the position of Chairman of the Board of Governors, she is, I believe, the only
woman in the history of any University to have held both these important positions.
Late in November, in keeping with my philosophy that new ideas,
new ways of doing things and younger men are good and important for
institutions, I announced my retirement as President of the University.
A short time afterwards the Board of Governors appointed Dr. John B.
Macdonald of Toronto and Harvard as my successor. Dr. Macdonald
has a distinguished record and reputation as a medical and dental scien- tist, and I am sure he will give stimulating, creative and efficient leadership to this institution. Because U.B.C, its teachers and students, have
been so much a part of my own life and career, and because it will
always have a special place in my affections, I wish for Dr. Macdonald
and for the University a great and distinguished future. I am glad to
welcome him to British Columbia and to U.B.C. and to assure him that
I will do everything in my power to ensure his success and his happiness. I know that my colleagues will give him the same loyalty and assistance they have always given me, for without this no man can accomplish
what he should and must.
Because this is my last report as President of the University, this will
be, in a very real sense, my farewell and my summing-up. At the same
time I feel at greater liberty to say some things and to make some suggestions which I would hesitate to do were I to continue as President.
However, everything that I say will be said with the interests of the University of British Columbia and of Canada at heart and not with the intention of embarrassing anyone or of creating controversy.
My general theme is the future of the University itself and the role
that it should play in the education, and particularly the higher education, of the people of this Province.
The world we live in is one in which science and technology have
advanced by leaps and bounds. This has resulted not only in a general
acceptance of their importance but in a realization that science and
technology are making profound changes in our environment, in our
world, and even in our universe. Increasing emphasis has been and will
be placed upon the sciences and upon technology within our University
and this, within limits, must not only be accepted but is right and proper. However, as one who was brought up in the humanities and social
sciences, I would like to point out that while those of us who belong to
these disciplines must become more familiar with science and the scientific spirit, the fact remains that human nature has not changed to any
marked degree during the long march of history. Moreover, there seems
to be no indication or evidence that we are likely to change in the
future, saving always the possibilities of annihilation or something approximating to it as a result of the misuse of the achievements of scien-
10 tists. And so, I feel it is even more important than it ever was that
greater importance be attached to the humanities and the social sciences.
The major problem of our generation, one which confronts all of us, is
that of discovering and making effective the ways and means by which
and through which men and women can live together in some measure
of peace and security and at the same time find solutions to the physical
and material problems of human beings and human society. These include such matters as the avoidance and prevention of war and violence
generally, solutions to the problems growing out of the population explosion, inadequate food supplies and the general maldistribution of
resources. They must also include success in providing suitable living
conditions for all human beings and suitable answers to the problems
of individual human beings in every society which, if unsolved, result in
crime, in poverty, in disease, in delinquency, in drug addiction, insanity
and human misery generally. This is why I am more interested in discovering ways and means of solving these problems of human beings
here on this planet than I am in peopling the moon or outer space.
May I now deal briefly with my general philosophy of education, and
more particularly higher education. I believe that education is good and
necessary for human beings and for society, and that the more of it the
better for all concerned, provided that the kind of education we offer is
suited to the needs, the abilities and the temperaments of the individuals involved; provided too that it is good education in the sense that
it is designed to enlarge and inform, stimulate and discipline the intellects and the personalities of individuals; and that the individuals and
the society they belong to can in an economic and financial way afford
the education we desire.
I believe that our boys and girls, our young men and women, are our
most important and valuable natural resource. I know that formal education, and particularly higher education, can only be acquired during
a short period of our life span. If our young people do not get it during
this brief period they will "miss the boat" and we will lose the contribution they might have made to society and to the nation in a permanent
way. In this they are not like most of our other natural resources, e.g.
oil, gas, minerals, water power and the like, for these when dormant
11 are not wasting assets and their utilization can be postponed. This is not
so in the case of the education of young people.
All of this raises the question of how many of our young people
should be encouraged and permitted to attend our universities and colleges; that is, what percentage of the population and of the relevant age
group. If a selection is to be made, the basis and methods of selection
must be decided and agreed upon. This whole question is particularly
important and acute at the present time for several reasons. One is the
great increase in the birth rate during the war and post-war years which
has confronted our schools and colleges with a much larger number
of young people than ever before in our history. This has been accompanied by major changes in our society and in our economy; and these
changes have made more education more essential than ever before, and
have also made higher education much more popular and sought after.
It has been said that approximately 33 percent of the relevant age
group, seventeen to twenty-three, can benefit from higher education.
This does not mean that all of them will do so, because of differences in
motivation, in temperament, and in attitude. In Canada at the present
time the percentage in our colleges and universities is about twelve; in
British Columbia, for reasons special and peculiar to British Columbia,
it is somewhat higher; in the United States it is over twenty; and in the
State of California it is above forty. Figures for the U.S.S.R. are more
difficult to obtain and may not be suitable for comparisons, but it has
been stated that about nineteen percent of the age group in that country is provided with our equivalents of higher education.
If all of this be true, then the number of those applying for higher
education in British Columbia will more than double over the next
eight years, and by 1970 it will almost certainly be over 30,000. This
prospect has forced us to examine again our facilities and prospective
facilities, our teaching and research staffs and our prospects for increasing them, and our present and prospective finances. This self-examination is not particularly encouraging, nor does it lead to optimism on the
part of any thoughtful educator; for our problems seem almost insuperable, in large part because the public and governments have not yet become aware of the importance, the nature and the magnitude of the
12 problems which we in education face, and they are singularly dilatory
and reluctant in doing anything about it.
Partly as a result of this and partly because a conservative policy
toward education is in the ascendant at the moment, the public, the
governments and many of those in higher education itself are seeking
solutions through the raising of standards and the limiting of the numbers of those admitted. Personally, I am not in favour of encouraging
or admitting young people to our universities and colleges if they are
not suited to that experience and not likely to benefit from it; but I do
want to educate as fully and completely as possible the maximum number of young Canadian men and women, and I would rather err on the
side of generosity than deprive young men and women of the opportunity for self-development and for making their maximum contribution to society and to their fellow-men.
Having said this, I realize that selections must be made and that we
must use examinations, interviews and the recommendations of earlier
teachers in making these selections. In our free-enterprise and affluent
society, however, it is most important to recognize that some of the
brightest may not be industrious or interested in long years of hard
work, while others with lesser abilities at passing examinations or in
meeting the formal and rather arbitrary requirements of university entrance may prove to be not only passable students but the citizens who
are likely to carry on the work of the community, society and nation to
which they belong. It would be a serious mistake to overlook or neglect
such persons.
It is frequently said by those who would limit enrolment in universities and colleges that the attendance of students who fail is an extravagant waste of substantial amounts of public monies. I would just like
to note in passing two things: (1) the individual concerned, either himself or his family, invests far more in his education than does the public;
(2) even in the case of those who fail, I am enough of an optimist to
believe that if universities are as good and as valuable as we claim them
to be and they ought to be, then for any student a year or more spent in
the environment of a university, even if the student is academically unsuccessful, should not be and is not likely to be entirely wasted.
13 This prospective increase in student enrolment leads naturally to a
consideration of the size of universities and colleges and the values and
virtues of centralization versus decentralization. Personally, I do not
think that size in itself is particularly important provided adequate
facilities and resources are available. I do admit, however, that "bigness" creates a certain attitude and atmosphere, and special problems of
administration. In particular, it is likely to affect the attitude of teaching and research members of staff to their students at the undergraduate
levels. It is difficult, too, for students to come to know each other or feel
affection for the university to which they belong. However, bigness does
have advantages, for it justifies and practically ensures great libraries,
expensive and well-equipped laboratories, distinguished members of staff,
as well as the gathering together of scholars in varieties of disciplines
and professional schools and faculties. This may not be possible and
usually is not achieved in the small institution. However, the intelligent
answer to this problem is partly one of time and of circumstances. Here
in British Columbia, with a population of slightly less than 1,700,000,
over half of it situated in the Greater Vancouver and Lower Mainland
areas (no other centre save Victoria has a population in excess of 20,000),
with limited revenues and the most expensive public and social services
in Canada, it does seem to me that the utmost intelligence and economy
must be used if we are to achieve the best results.
For me, this means that at the present time we should have, as we
now have, one major university adjacent to the greatest concentration
of population, and that this university should be assigned the responsibility for most of the professional schools and faculties and most of the
expensive and high-level graduate work, particularly in the sciences and
applied sciences. At the present time our Faculties of Medicine, Law,
Agriculture, Forestry, and Pharmacy; our Schools of Social Work, Physical Education, Home Economics and Architecture; our Institutes of
Fisheries, Oceanography and Regional and Community Planning; our
Departments of Music and Fine Arts and the new Faculty of Dentistry
are fully adequate to serve the needs of the people of this Province. It
would be an unnecessary and wasteful expenditure of public and private funds if we were to duplicate these, now or in the near future, at
14 any other institution or in any other part of the Province. This is not
true of undergraduate work or of appropriate levels of graduate work
in the liberal arts, sciences and social sciences, in education and possibly
in commerce.
As an example, we have limited our enrolment in the Medical
Faculty to an entry of sixty students per year. We find that this number,
together with those who come to us from other provinces and other
parts of the world, provide for the needs of the citizens of British Columbia. We also have difficulty in finding sixty young men and women
who have the qualifications and credentials to make up our quota,
granted that those standards are high. There are, again, reasons for this,
but the fact remains that this is so at the present time. It is also true that
without very much additional expense we could increase our enrolment
in Medicine, if that were necessary.
In a survey made of the costs of medical schools in America some
twelve or fourteen years ago, it was stated that the annual cost per student varied from $3,000.00 to $10,000.00. This, as you see, is a formidable amount of money and is basic to my claim that we should not
duplicate this kind of facility and consequent expense in the present
circumstances of British Columbia.
However, you may ask what is the alternative to this concentration
of 30,000 or more students on the campus at Point Grey? Ideally, I feel
that a total enrolment of about 5,000 or 6,000 would provide us with
the most manageable, attractive and effective of institutions. But again
for a variety of reasons, this ideal is not possible of realization for the
University of British Columbia, where we presently have over 13,000
students enrolled in the regular winter session and are faced with inevitable and substantial increases over the years ahead. Because of this, I
would encourage Victoria College, as I have encouraged it ever since I
came here, to develop and enlarge its facilities and its offerings so that
a goodly number of students of this Province seeking higher education
may find places there.
I sincerely hope Victoria College will continue to grow and develop
and among other things concentrate on striving to become what they
could become without too much effort or cost, the best liberal arts college in Canada. 15 I have been a member of the Council of Victoria College and in that
capacity have shared responsibility for the administration of the College
since 1944. As President of the University of British Columbia and a
voting member of the Board of Governors, I have consistently and continuously approved and supported its growth and development. Victoria College was founded in 1903 under the aegis of McGill University.
It achieved a further step in its development in 1906 when the Royal
Institute for the Development of Learning for British Columbia was incorporated by the Provincial Legislature. This Institute established McGill University College at Vancouver in 1906 and McGill College in
Victoria in 1907. The University of British Columbia was incorporated
in 1908 and was expressly charged with the responsibility for and the
development of higher education in British Columbia and for the conferring of all degrees, save those in Theology.
The University enrolled its first students in 1915 and because of this,
and because of the desperate character of World War I, Victoria College
closed its doors. But it was re-established in 1920 in affiliation with the
University. It was, however, during this period, a rather special type of
city college. The Senate of the University and the College Council were
responsible for its academic programme, but financially it was a charge
upon the City Council of Victoria and that Council had an ultimate
responsibility for the money spent and the financial obligations incurred. Like the University, Victoria College continued to carry on its
work during World War II, but in both cases growth and activities were
greatly affected. The Normal Schools in which most of the teacher training, save for the high school teachers, was given, during all these years
operated as separate institutions and they too, were affected by the War.
In fact, when I came to this Province in 1944 the Victoria Normal
School had been taken over by the Federal Government for military
purposes and the few classes that were operating were held, if my memory serves me correctly, in an annex of the cathedral. I also know that
serious consideration was given at that time to the closing of the Victoria Normal School and the concentration of all teacher training in
Vancouver.
Since 1945 the tide has been flowing strongly in the opposite direc-
16 tion. Unexpectedly large numbers of young men and women came back
from the Armed Forces anxious and determined to obtain higher education for themselves. They were followed by increasing numbers of
young people from the high schools who, in this day and age, rightly
and understandably feel that higher education is essential to their success in life. This, combined with a very rapid increase in our population, particularly in the age groups interested in higher education, has
changed in a permanent way the situation in higher education in this
Province as well as in other parts of Canada and the world.
I said a moment ago that I believe in efficiency and economy and the
wise use of public monies. I also believe just as strongly in excellence,
in freedom, in autonomy and in the acceptance of responsibility by human beings for their own affairs. I believe, too, that local interest, local
pride, and local support contribute to the well-being of a college or university. In Victoria responsible citizens have done a great deal to support
and sustain their College. I also believe in close liaison between institutions of higher education and the community they both lead and serve;
I believe, too, that citizens have a right to be informed about the quality
of education their children are receiving. It is because of this that I have
consistently supported the assignment of appropriate additional responsibility to Victoria College Council and to the College itself and have
encouraged its growth and development whenever that was requested
and seemed justified under the circumstances.
Personally I have insisted that our major concern must always be in
the welfare of our young people, and of our citizens generally, and that
this must take precedence over everything else, including local prestige
and local economic advantages, though these are both understandable,
and where justified, should be commended.
This means that I believe Victoria College should continue to expand and to develop and to provide the best and the maximum variety
of offerings to its students. I do not think it matters too much whether
Victoria College becomes a completely separate and distinct University,
though, apart from the emotional satisfaction which this development
has in it for a number of people in the Victoria area, I feel there are
some advantages in the idea and the ideal of one University of British
17 Columbia for the whole of the Province. This ideal to be worked out
in detail as special circumstances and situations may require or justify.
To be more specific, I believe that Victoria College, or whatever its
title may be in the future, should have all the freedom and autonomy
and independence it desires, and that its Council should have full responsibility for the administration of its business affairs, and its Faculty
Council, or Senate, for its academic affairs. I believe, too, that the citizens of Victoria and of greater Victoria should feel that this institution
is theirs and so accept the major responsibility for its operations and
substantial responsibility for its financing.
For the rest, I am and have been for a good many years in favour of a
measure of decentralization of higher education at the undergraduate
or junior levels in this Province, but this only after the people and
government of the Province have been willing and able properly to
equip and finance one good, major University. The time when this
modest decentralization can and should take place is approaching, and
if that be true the decisions ahead in the first instance concern the functions or responsibilities of new institutions and their location in the
Province. At the outset I feel these institutions should give only the first
two years of university work in the fields of the liberal arts, humanities
and social sciences. But as a preliminary step even to this I hope that the
University and the Department of Education may, in consultation with
the high schools, consider how more can be done in the high schools to
enable students to come with a better and fuller background to the University. Personally I am opposed to lengthening the time young people
spend in high school if that can be avoided, but it may be that in the
high schools more could be done by and for the students than is the case
today. Or, putting it another way, I think we might, as in Alberta and
Saskatchewan, make grade XII our senior matriculation, but only on
the understanding that students would enter the first year of university
and would be expected to take four years in the university before getting their first degree.
But to return to the decentralization of higher education. When this
is done I hope that the new institutions will be what I would describe
as "community institutions" in the sense that the community in which
18 one is located has a sense of and some actual responsibility for the institution. This responsibility should include an acceptance of a share of
the costs of establishing and maintaining the institution, for administering it and of deciding upon the work it should do and the courses it
should offer. If the institution is a public one, then it should share in
the public monies made available for higher education, but on the basis
of a carefully ascertained formula. If its students are to receive credit at
this University for the work they have done, then the University should
supervise this work and in the final analysis approve it. None of this
would be too difficult to achieve if we really wanted to do so.
Because of the concentration of population in the Greater Vancouver
and Lower Mainland areas, I suggest that a college giving the first two
years of university work located in Burnaby might be more easily organized and administered than in any other part of the Province and
serve a much larger and more populous constituency than would be
possible anywhere else. But for practical and political reasons if this
were done, I think it would be necessary to proceed with the development of institutions in other areas, and I would suggest another in the
Fraser Valley, perhaps at Abbotsford; one in the Okanagan, probably at
Kelowna because of its situation in the centre of that valley; another in
the Kootenays, probably at Nelson; and one to serve the central and
northern areas of the Province at Prince George.
My suggestion of Nelson and Prince George raises the question of denominational colleges and the recognition they should receive and what
public financial support, if any, they should get. Because I believe in
freedom, including religious freedom, I would be the last to stand in
the way of religious groups or denominations developing educational
facilities of their own, provided these denominations are prepared to
pay for them, and provided they do not thereby deprive young people
of the standards and content of education which we in Canada expect
and demand for our young people. But it seems obvious to me that a
community with the population of Nelson or Prince George cannot and
should not be encouraged to support two colleges or institutions giving
university work. Ontario seems to have solved this problem in part by
insisting that in order to qualify for provincial monies denominations
19 must join together in cooperation with secular groups, and under a lay
board work out the practical development of their educational facilities.
This I believe is being done at Sudbury, at Windsor, at Hamilton, and
is proposed for North Bay.
Coming back to the University itself, I would like to see a goodly
measure of decentralization on our own extensive campus. I think we
might well encourage our denominations which have affiliated theological colleges on campus to develop further and, as in the University of
Toronto, give some work in the liberal arts and social sciences in ways
and on a basis agreed upon with the University. This would make these
institutions, or some of them, more responsible for a larger number of
our students and would create a number of collegiate centres which I
believe would contribute a great deal to the University and to the lives
and experiences of young men and women who are members of these
colleges. In addition, I would like to see two or more non-denominational colleges developed, perhaps in connection with our residence
accommodation. I see no insuperable obstacles to the creation of such a
college say in the lower mall area, another in the wireless station site,
one at the Acadia Camp, and one in the Fort Camp area. This could be
done with a view to providing some of the courses and offerings of the
first two or three years of university work. These colleges, if developed,
would have their own principals, their own councils, their own college
libraries, their own budgets, their own classroom facilities, and all of the
staff, plant and equipment necessary for a small liberal arts college. But
they would leave to the University the responsibility for the advanced
and graduate work and all of the work in the professional schools and
faculties.
As for total enrolment, I prophesy that, unless arbitrary limits are
imposed, within ten or fifteen years we will have at least 25,000 students
on this campus at Point Grey. It is because of this that I urge that
serious consideration be given to the maximum decentralization on this
campus it is possible to achieve.
This brings me to the discussion of the role and the functions of
modern universities. For me they are three-fold. The first and the most
important is the teaching and education of students. Universities are
20 among the oldest of human institutions that have had a continuing and
permanent operation. This I believe has been due to the fact that they
are communities of scholars and their major concern has been and will,
I believe, always be the education of students.
Research and scholarships are, of course, of major importance, not
only in themselves, but because they are a part of and basic to all good
teaching. In our world of 1962 research in the sciences has become of
almost supreme and over-riding importance, and it is both understandable and desirable that the attention of all of us in the universities
should be directed toward its advancement and support. But again I
claim that this kind of research can probably be done equally well, and
perhaps better, in research institutes, whereas both the continued existence of universities and the future of research itself depend upon our
recruitment and education of the first-rate students. The universities
have been and continue to be the obvious and the necessary institutions
for this purpose.
I define scholarship somewhat differently from research, though this
is only a matter of convenience in the defining and use of terms. For me
scholarship is the study of and the understanding of the body of knowledge that has come to us from those who have preceded us; the consideration of and the digesting of this knowledge and this experience; and
making available to others the results of this study and investigation in
published works and articles, in lectures and in other appropriate forms.
So defined, scholarship exists within and is largely the preserve of the
humanities and the social sciences rather than of the natural and physical sciences.
The third function or role of the universities is the continuing education of all citizens who may be interested and who are capable of further
education. This obviously is a very general function and one that is
shared by many other agencies. But again, in contemporary society, and
particularly if our society is to remain democratic and free, the universities must increasingly share in responsibility for the further education
of all our citizens.
No doubt others would add to this list of functions or express them
in different terms, but these are adequate for my purposes.
21 For the rest of this report I would like to say something about the
organization and administration of universities, which are topics of continuing interest and debate, particularly within universities themselves.
For me the most important thing in the life of a university and in its
administrative and academic work and organization is the achievement
and maintenance of maximum freedom; without this freedom I do not
believe that universities can do their best work or make their proper
contributions to the societies they serve. This freedom is of several kinds
and operates at various levels, but it does include the right and the
opportunity to say and to write what one believes to be true or what one
may have discovered in the processes of research and of scholarship. If
this freedom is to be safeguarded for the individual members of university faculties, they should have security of tenure and a reasonable and
adequate salary for the maintenance of themselves and their families
and a pension to enable them to live in some degree of comfort on retirement. It is only if these are provided that we can expect the teacher,
the scholar and the research worker to devote all their energies and
their abilities to the work in hand without unnecessary distractions or
undue concern for the welfare of themselves and their dependents. But
with this freedom and with the benefits and guarantees that may accompany it must go a mature sense of responsibility on the part of the individual as to what he says, writes and does, and more particularly about
the contribution which he makes in return to his students, to his institution and to society.
In this matter of freedom, various institutions, organizations, groups
and pressures are likely to affect it. These include governments and legislatures, the public, the press, the business community, the alumni, the
local community, the faculty association, the students themselves, and
obviously the Board of Governors and the Senate. Any influence or
effect in the universities we may have upon the first groups in this list
is likely to be of a very general, indirect and long-term nature. When
we come to the university proper, however, we do have a special concern and should be in a position to influence the university groups or
to make changes in their composition and the nature of their operations.
I feel that one of the major concerns of all those interested in or com-
22 posing a university community must be with regard to the Government
and the Board of Governors. I say this because increasingly universities
are dependent upon governments for their necessary revenues and it is
a commonplace that "who pays the piper is likely to call the tune". To
date, Canadian universities, with certain exceptions, have been relatively free from government interference; but this has been due in large
measure to the fact that governments have been reluctant to involve
themselves in university affairs and university politics; in addition the
government appointees to Boards of Governors have not usually
thought of themselves as representing governments but rather as independent and responsible citizens charged by the government and the
public with the wise, efficient and successful management of the university. The fact that government appointees to Boards of Governors
are not there to represent the government is basic and essential to the
freedom from interference and the continued freedom of operation of
universities. Because of the large sums of money that governments are
now asked to give and must give to the universities there is, I believe,
an increasing tendency on the part of governments to interest themselves in the affairs of universities. In our own case the requirement
under Bill 23 for the university to publish a minute and detailed statement of all salaries and expenditures is an illustration. We are, I believe, the only university required to do this, and personally I believe
it will make the administrative work of the university more difficult
and the relations of the administration and Board of Governors with
the Faculty and with other universities complicated and unhappy. For
these reasons I believe the University should be excluded from the provisions of this act.
At the same time, in all fairness to governments, they are responsible
to the people who have elected them and to the taxpayers for the wise
and efficient expenditure of public funds and so have a natural and
proper interest in the work of the universities. With us in Canada and
with the Grants Commissions in Britain and elsewhere, the tradition
has been and I hope will continue to be that governments make lumpsum or unconditional grants to institutions on the basis of budgets or
estimates submitted and leave to the institutions the actual administration and expenditure of these funds. 23 Our own Board of Governors consists of a Chancellor and a President, both of whom are ex-officio but with votes, three representatives
elected by the Senate of the University from its members who are not
on the University staff or salaried employees of the government or
school boards or members of the government itself, and six members
appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. While I have had
the happiest of relations with my Boards of Governors and have had
most effective co-operation from them, because of the increase in size of
the University and in the importance and complexity of its work, I believe that a somewhat larger membership would enable the Board to
organize its work through a number of standing committees. If this
were done the individual members who, apart from the President, are
all private citizens and almost invariably very busy private citizens
would not find their Board duties too demanding and onerous. This, I
believe, would result in a more efficient administration of the University insofar as the Board of Governors is concerned.
At the present time, and traditionally, our Board has among its members a representative of labour, of agriculture, of Victoria, and of the
Roman Catholic community. While I know it is a controversial issue,
I do believe, on the basis of my own experience, that Faculty representation on the Board of Governors would be useful and constructive, provided certain conditions were accepted. In a Board of say twenty I
would limit the number of Faculty to three. I would have them elected
by the Senate from the Faculty members on Senate. I feel they should
have attained the rank of full professor and have served with this University for a period of at least ten years. I think they should be appointed
to the Board for a three-year period and be eligible for re-election for
a further three-year period. I feel that they should be prepared to give
up many of their own immediate interests so that they could spend the
necessary time and energy on the work of the Board and, through the
Board, of the University. They should not be responsible to or report
back to the Faculty any more than the government representatives
should in the case of the government. They should act, however, as
representatives of the academic community though their concern should
be for the general welfare of the University and not for any particular
section of it.
24 If the Faculty are to be represented, I suggest that the student body
should also be represented. I would arrange this through the creation
of a new office—that of Rector—one which is traditional in many universities in the United Kingdom and at Queen's in Canada. The Rector
would be elected by the current student population for a period of five
or six years. He would be a distinguished citizen resident in British
Columbia. His office and title would be largely honorary and his duties
would include the giving of a Rectorial address at least once each year
and voting membership on the Board of Governors. He would not be
responsible to or report back to the student body save in the most general way, but he would in a sense be the friend and advocate of the
students in the affairs of the University.
The office of Chancellor in this University is, to the best of my knowledge, a unique one in that the Chancellor is, under the University Act,
Chairman of the Board of Governors. At the present time we are singularly fortunate in that our Chancellor is not only a very distinguished
citizen and a distinguished graduate but, because of her special circumstances, she is able to give much of her time, thought and energy to the
work of the University. This, in my experience, has not been true of
other Chancellors. In the years ahead, with new chancellors and because
of the increasing responsibilities of the Board, I think it most unlikely
that the same person will be able to carry out the duties of both Chancellor and Chairman of the Board. For this reason I would recommend
the separation of the offices and would authorize the Board to elect its
own Chairman for three-year periods.
The functions and responsibilities of the Chancellor in this case
would be mainly formal and ceremonial. He or she would continue to
be the chief officer and representative of the University and would preside at Congregations and other appropriate ceremonies. The Chancellor would also continue to be a member of the Board and would be
eligible for election or appointment to the office of Chairman of the
Board if his or her special circumstances permitted.
In addition to the representatives of the Faculty and the representatives of the students, I feel that the Board could usefully be enlarged
to include a representative from those areas in which additional institu-
25 tions are likely to be established, that is the Lower Mainland and Fraser
Valley, the Okanagan, the Kootenays and the central interior. Victoria
and Vancouver Island, regardless of the future decisions made in respect
of Victoria College, should continue to be represented on the Board.
As to who should be members of the Board—that is the type of man
or woman—the most important qualification is a knowledge of and
sympathy with and an understanding of universities, and particularly
this University. In the majority of cases this would mean and should
mean that Board members would be University graduates, but there
are always a few exceptional men and women who, without university
experience, are among the wisest and best of our citizens and these certainly should not be excluded.
At the time of my installation I stated my views on the role and functions of the university President. No doubt my successor, Dr. Macdonald, will have something to say on this same subject when he is installed in October, so all that I wish to add at the present time is to
emphasize the importance of the President having a concern for the
students, for the Faculty, for the Alumni, for the public at large and for
the government and legislature as representatives of that public.
This is not an easy role and it is made even more difficult because of
the problems of communication between and among the various groups
and the President in a large and growing institution. The natural tendency is almost inevitably for the various groups or interests to "hive
off" and speak and act for themselves and in their own interests without too much regard for the general welfare. But I feel more strongly
than ever before that if a university is to do its best work, it must maintain the ideal and the objective of being "a community of scholars"
and, while each section of that community will and must be concerned
with its own affairs and its own interests, it must also have an equal
interest in the general welfare of the institution and of the community
and the world which that institution serves.
Were I giving a detailed report on the organization of the University,
I would go on to mention the Senate, the Joint Faculties, the Faculty
Association, the Alma Mater Society, the Alumni and the professional
bodies which have direct and important interests in certain sections or
26 segments ol the University's work. But this is beyond the scope of this
report, save to say that I hope that the Faculty Association, in addition
to its proper concern for the welfare of the members of the Faculty,
will also have a continuing concern for the activities and operations of
the University in all of its phases and that the Faculty will continue to
study the problems of the University, to draft reports and make suggestions and to present recommendations to the Administration, to the
Board of Governors and to the Senate about the affairs of the University, for they, the Faculty, are particularly and peculiarly well qualified
to do so. However, because as a rule and of necessity members of the
Faculty have had limited experience in respect of government, business
and public relations generally, and because universities are increasingly
dependent for their finances upon these three, it is most important
that the Faculty should realize this and should consult and co-operate
with the Administration, the Board of Governors, the students and the
Alumni in respect of these interlocking areas of university interests and
public interests.
The students at this University have traditionally enjoyed a great
deal of autonomy and freedom. In return they have accepted responsibility and have been uniquely generous in their own financial support
of the University itself. This tradition will, I hope, be maintained and
continued. As the University grows in size and in numbers I feel that
much more should be done for our students in terms of the special
facilities, e.g. residences, playing fields, recreational centres, food services and the like, and the additional staff essential to ensure that these
are "educational" in the proper and best senses of that term rather than
just shelters and eating places, which has been regretably and of necessity our practice and experience in the past.
In the concluding sections of this report I would like to say something about the campus and about our physical plant. As I stated
earlier, I expect that our enrolment will reach a maximum of about
25,000. I do not believe it should be allowed to go beyond this, and it
may be that this figure is too high, though, thanks to the foresight of
those who selected the campus area and of the governments who made
the land available, there is ample space in our thousand-acres for that
number of students. 27 Because of the importance and the practical nature of science, technology, and the professional schools, these are likely to get a substantial
portion of the money and the facilities that may be made available. Certainly the pressure for this will be very great. This will require a special
interest in and concern for the liberal arts, the social sciences and, in
particular, the fine arts, on the part of the administration and Board of
Governors. I have already stated that I hope it will be possible to
achieve some measure of decentralization on this campus itself in association with our programme for the building of residences and through
encouragement to the denominational colleges to expand and to assume
new and larger academic responsibilities. The decentralization of the
sciences will be more difficult, but I think that it will have to be faced
as the University grows. My own view is that this could be more easily
done by dividing the junior from the senior work, partly because of the
difference in the nature of the work, and more particularly because of
the difference in the expense involved. Obviously this is something for
the future.
Agreement has already been reached about the early development
and construction of a University Teaching Hospital and Health
Sciences Centre and the plans for this project are being prepared. I
estimate that this is likely to cost, together with Dentistry, at least 20
million dollars in capital and the operating costs will be substantial.
However, because of the services it can render to the British Columbia
Hospital Insurance Service and the federal government health services
plan, a good part of this money will come and should come from these
sources. Some forty acres have been reserved for these proposed buildings in the area to the south and east of the present Medical Buildings.
Because of what I have said about science and facilities for science, I
hope that the Administration and the Faculty will have a continuing
and a special concern for the development of buildings for music and
the arts. We have already made substantial progress here. Additional
earmarked money from the Canada Council is available to help us
with this and I hope that during the next few years a suitable building
for the Department of Music and another to house an art gallery and a
museum of man will be erected in the area designated as the fine arts
complex.
28 More residences have already been approved—accommodation for
some eight hundred undergraduates and for one hundred and fifty
graduate students. Years ago a site for a non-denominational University Chapel was assigned by the Board of Governors north of the
Buchanan building and east of the Faculty Club. Because it is unlikely
that government monies can or will be used for this purpose, the building of a Chapel will depend upon earmarked gifts by interested friends
and citizens.
During my term of office I have always insisted that administration
should take second place to academic and student facilities, but in the
not too distant future I feel it will be necessary and proper to construct
an administration building. This, together with a Convocation Hall or
Auditorium, has been assigned the area now occupied by the dairy
barns. Under this plan parking should not create insoluble problems
and when the new transit routes from the south and east come into the
campus from 29th, 25th and 16th Avenues, this will be a focal point for
the campus. Because it is also on the height of land, I hope that it will
be possible to build an impressive building, to house not only the bursar and registrar but all of the other appropriate services and departments which are now scattered about the campus.
Before long the present stadium area will be required for other purposes both student and academic. When this happens a new stadium
should be built in the south-east part of the campus where it will be
more accessible to city transportation and to other playing fields that
will be developed in that area.
Considerable pressure has already developed with a view to demolishing the Home Economics building to make way for new and necessary
additions to Physics and Chemistry. When this is done, decisions will
have to be made about the location of the new Home Economics Building—which incidentally was made possible by gifts from Mr. and Mrs.
Jonathon Rogers and other generous citizens—and about the relations
of this School with other Faculties. Personally I believe it should remain
within the Faculty of Arts and Science but should retain and develop
close relationships with Education and with Agriculture, Social Work,
Fine Arts, and the School of Rehabilitation in Medicine.
29 We have, I believe, the loveliest site of any University in the world
and I hope that those responsible will ensure that our future plans and
buildings recognize this fact and take advantage of it, and in doing this
I hope that substantial areas will be retained and developed as open
areas for botanical gardens, nurseries, field crops, forest nurseries and
the like. These are all presently in our plans and will, I am sure, be
maintained and developed over the years ahead.
However, the fact that we occupy the tip of a peninsula makes for
serious problems of transportation and of parking. Some day, in the
central campus area I think it will be wise and necessary to contruct
proper parking accommodation both underground and above ground.
This will be expensive and can only be paid for by charges made to
those wishing to use such accommodation. For the rest, ground level
parking can be made available but always at increasing distances from
other facilities. This will provide students and staff with the opportunity for exercise and fresh air, but it will not be welcomed, and new ways
of dealing with the problem, such as shuttle services, conveyor walks
and the like, will probably be necessary.
There is only one other matter in respect of our campus that I wish
to comment about and that is that over the years, continuous dangerous erosion is occurring along the banks or cliffs of gravel and clay
which form our boundaries to the north and west and mark the division
between the University and the ocean. The Vancouver Parks Board
have a ninety-nine year lease on all this bank or cliff area and a very limited area adjacent to it. They are I suppose, in the strictly legal sense,
responsible for maintaining our "support". Failing their acceptance of
this responsibility, then, again, legally, I suppose that the provincial
government, in whom the ultimate title to this land is vested, must look
after the situation and the problem. The matter is further complicated
by the fact that the federal government still owns over three acres of land
for military purposes in the heart of the Fort Camp area. The federal
government, in addition, has valuable and important research buildings
on land leased from the University along Marine Drive. The federal
government, too, has jurisdiction over and responsibility for navigation
and shipping, including the substantial traffic in the north arm and
30 estuary of the Fraser River. In consequence, the diversion of the current
and tides in that estuary, caused by the breakwaters and sea walls built
by the federal government, are a federal responsibility. The federal government must help to find a solution for this problem of erosion. I and
others responsible for the University have been aware of this condition
and this danger and over the past fifteen years we have been requesting
and urging action from the Parks Board, the City of Vancouver, the
Provincial Government, the Department of National Defence and other
Departments of the Federal Government.
I have felt and frequently stated that it would be interesting and perhaps constructive if another branch of Marine Drive were constructed
from Spanish Banks to follow along the base of the cliffs around through
the Musqueam Indian Reserve and back to the present Marine Drive
again well to the southwest. This would provide a very attractive scenic
driveway and this, plus the sea walls necessary for the construction of
such a driveway, would give protection from currents and tides and
from waves and would ensure the build-up of all of the soil which might
drop off the banks in the future. This drop-off at the present time is
being carried by the current and tides first to Spanish Banks, then on
into English Bay and the First Narrows, where it is dredged and in due
course transported out to sea. Something of this kind, that is, the construction of a sea wall, is inevitable, and should be undertaken in the
near future; otherwise before many years have passed, it is probable that
a number of our young women living in the "permanent" residences in
the Fort Camp area will find themselves slowly sliding into the ocean.
This would be an exciting experience, and students are notoriously
interested in excitement, but it would be expensive, inconvenient and
might well be disastrous.
In concluding this report, I would like to express my thanks to all
those persons who have assisted me in such a generous way during my
term of office as President. I wish it were possible to mention them each
by name but that would be an impossible task. But to some of them I
must pay tribute. As I think you know, I feel that the student body is
the most important group in our University community. Our students,
and particularly our veteran students, have made my work exciting, and
31 at times controversial, but always happy and rewarding. I shall always
remember them, for their faces are the faces of friends. For me they will
continue to be the finest group of young men and women I have ever
known.
The Faculty are able, distinguished and dedicated. Without their
support, and their willingness to do and give their utmost in very difficult and demanding circumstances, we could not have carried on in
those early post-war years — and indeed ever since. To them belongs
most of the credit for what we have accomplished and for the high reputation we have attained. The employed staff, too, and our secretaries,
are full members of the community, and this University is theirs also.
They have never failed to demonstrate their pride and affection for it.
Some members of Faculty were more closely associated with me than
others in the many duties involved in the post of President. The time
and convenience of these colleagues were of no account if the University required their services — evenings, Saturdays, Sundays, and on occasion far into the night. Dean Geoffrey C. Andrew was such a colleague,
and I would like to pay a special personal tribute to him for everything
he did as Deputy to the President and as Professor of English to advance
the work of this academic community. He is a man of rare talent and
ability; at the same time, a man of great integrity who worked unsparingly to enhance the reputation this University enjoys for excellence of
teaching, research and scholarship. His good counsel, his wisdom, his
qualities as a man and as a friend profited me enormously during the
years when the University was growing at such an extraordinary rate
and the attendant problems were many and complex. Geoffrey Andrew
has gone to a new post as Executive Director of the Canadian Universities Foundation. I know that he will make this most important position more significant and that he will have a vital role to play in the
education of young Canadians throughout the country and the promotion of national cultural activities.
As you will have gathered, it is not easy for me to set out all that I
would like to say about my friends and colleagues. That would require
a book. But I do want to thank you all for your help in a great adventure — the building of the University of British Columbia. May I also
32 ask for my successor the same loyalty and devotion, the same patience
and consideration, you have always given me.
My years have been busy ones; they have been exciting too. In those
years, I have found deep and lasting satisfaction. It may be that the
years ahead will be even more difficult because of the "climate" of the
sixties. If that be true, and I believe it will, the new President will need
and deserve even more from you. Do give it to him as generously and
effectively as you have given it to me.
33 Biographical Notes
Norman Archibald MacRae MacKenzie
Place of Birth
Pugwash, Nova Scotia
Date of Birth
January 5, 1894
Undergraduate Work
Pictou Academy, Pictou, Nova Scotia, 1906-09
Dalhousie University, b.a. 1921
Graduate Work
Dalhousie University, ll.b. 1923
Harvard, ll.m. 1924
St. John's College, Cambridge, Postgraduate Diploma, 1925
Gray's Inn, London, 1924-27
Degrees held
b.a. (Dalhousie); ll.b. (Dalhousie); ll.m. (Harvard)
Honorary Degrees
ll.d. — Mount Allison University, 1941
ll.d. — University of New Brunswick, 1941
ll.d. — University of Toronto, 1945
ll.d. — University of Ottawa, 1947
ll.d. — University of Bristol, 1948
ll.d. — University of Alberta, 1950
ll.d. — University of Glasgow, 1951
ll.d. — Dalhousie University, 1953
ll.d. — St. Francis Xavier University, 1953
ll.d. — McGill University, 1954
ll.d. — University of Sydney, Australia, 1955
ll.d. — University of Rochester, 1956
ll.d. — University of Alaska, 1957
ll.d. — University of California, 1958
ll.d. — University of British Columbia, 1962
34 d.c.l. — Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washington, 1946
d.c.l. — University of Saskatchewan, 1960
D.sc.soc. — Laval University, 1952
f.r.s.c. — 1943
D.Litt. — Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1962
Queen's and Military honours
K.C —1942
C.M.G. —1946
M.M. and Bar—1918
Appointed Honorary Colonel, Canadian Officers'
Training Corps, U.B.C. Contingent, 1957
Academic and Professional Experience
Read Law with Maclnnis, Jenks and Lovitt; called to the Bar
of Nova Scotia, 1926
Legal Adviser, International Labour Office, Geneva, 1925-27
Associate Professor of Law, University of Toronto, 1927-33
Professor of International and Canadian Constitutional Law,
University of Toronto, 1933-40
President, University of New Brunswick, 1940-44
President, University of British Columbia, 1944-62
President Emeritus, Honorary Professor of International Law, and
Adviser to the Board of Governors, University of B.C., 1962-
Service in Armed Forces (including decorations)
Canadian Infantry 1914-19, 6th CM.R.'s, 85th Btn.,
Nova Scotia Highlanders, Military Medal and Bar
Membership in Professional and Learned Societies
Member, University Advisory Board, Department of Labour
Member, Advisory Committee on University Training for Veterans,
Department of Veterans' Affairs
Trustee, Carnegie Foundation for Advancement of Teaching, 1951-
(Chairman of the Board of Trustees, 1959)
Trustee, Teachers' Insurance and Annuity Association
of America, 1948-
President, National Conference of Canadian Universities, 1946-48
35 President, Canadian Club of Toronto, 1939-40
Chairman, Research Committee, Canadian Institute of
International Affairs, 1929-40
Founding member and Hon. Chairman, National Council,
Canadian Institute of International Affairs
Delegate to Institute of Pacific Relations Conferences:
Shanghai, 1931; Banff, 1933; Yosemite, 1936;
Virginia Beach, 1939; Mont Tremblant, 1942
Delegate to British Commonwealth Conferences:
Toronto, 1933; Sydney, Australia, 1938
Delegate to the 7th Congress on Laws of Aviation,
Lyons, France, 1925
Delegates to Congresses and Meetings of Universities of the British
Commonwealth: Oxford, 1947; Bristol and Oxford, 1948; Durham
and Cambridge, 1953; Melbourne (observer), 1955
Hon. President, National Federation of Canadian University
Students, 1946-47; 1956-57
Member, Canadian Institute of International Affairs
Member, American Society of International Law
Member, Canadian Bar Association
Member, Canadian Political Science Association
Member, Historical Association
Member, Vancouver Board of Trade
Member, Vancouver Canadian Club
Member, Legal Survey Committee (Survey of the Legal Profession
of Canada), 1949-57
Fellow, Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures
and Commerce
Fellow, Royal Canadian Geographical Society
Visiting Lecturer, The Universities of Australia, 1955
President, Canadian Association for Adult Education, 1957-59
Public Service
Chairman, Wartime Information Board, Canada, 1943-45
Chairman, Reconstruction Commission, Province of
New Brunswick, 1941-44
36 Member, Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts,
Letters and Sciences, 1949-51
Chairman, Conciliation Boards in Labour Disputes, 1937-42
Chairman, Victory Loan Committee, Fredericton and York, N.B.,
1941-44
Chairman, Consultative Committee on Doukhobor Problems, 1950-
President, Toronto Branch, League of Nations Society, 1932-36
Vice-President, National Council of Canadian Y.M.C.A.'s
Director, Canadian Council of Christians and Jews,
Western Division
Honorary President, Save the Children Fund, Canada
Honorary President, British Columbia Division, Canadian Mental
Health Association
Honorary Member, National Board of Directors, Canadian Mental
Health Association
Honorary President, United Nations Association in Canada,
Vancouver Branch
Vice-President, United Nations Association in Canada
Honorary President, Student Christian Movement, University of
British Columbia Branch
Vice-President, Canadian Authors' Association, National
Branch, 1957
Member, Canada Council, 1957-
President, Canadian National Commission for UNESCO, 1957-60
Member, Canadian-American Committee, National Planning
Association, 1957-
President, Vancouver Branch, English-Speaking Union of the
Commonwealth
Chairman, Canadian Delegation to the 10th Annual Conference on
UNESCO, Paris, 1958
President, Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation
Director of the Bank of Nova Scotia, 1960
Member, Vancouver Advisory Board of Canada Permanent Toronto
General Trust Company, 1962
Member, East African Commission on University Education, 1962
37 Publications
Legal Status of Aliens in Pacific Countries, 1937
Canada and the Law of Nations (with L. H. Laing), 1938
Canada in World Affairs (with F. H. Soward, J. F. Parkinson,
T. W. L. MacDermot), 1941
Contributor to: American Journal of International Law
Canadian Bar Review
University of Toronto Law Journal
University of Toronto Quarterly
Queen's Quarterly, and other publications
38 Academic Developments
lwo new schools were opened during the past academic year to provide additional educational opportunities for young British Columbians. The first of these, the School of Librarianship, had been under
consideration for more than 15 years, but owing to lack of funds we
were not able to provide training in this field until this year. The
school, which is under the direction of Dr. Samuel Rothstein, the for
mer associate librarian, offers a one-year, post-graduate program leading
to the degree of bachelor of library science. A second program leading
to the degree of master of library science will be offered later.
The second development was the opening of a School of Rehabilitation Medicine for the training of physical and occupational therapists.
The graduates of this school will fill an urgent community health need
since care for chronically-ill persons in this province is almost at a standstill because we lack trained therapists. Dr. Brock Fahrni is the director
of the school, which offers a three-year course leading to a certificate in
physical medicine therapy.
In the past year we have also organized an Institute of Earth Sciences
under the direction of Professor J. A. Jacobs, an outstanding researcher
in the field of geophysics. The Institute, which is attached to the Faculty
of Graduate Studies, is presently carrying out work in the field of geomagnetism, nuclear geology, seismology and glaciology.
New regulations affecting admission to the University were approved
by the Senate during the past year on the recommendation of a committee investigating our academic policies and programmes. The purpose
of the new regulations is to ensure that students who come to us are academically qualified to handle their University work successfully. The
effect of the regulations will not necessarily be to exclude candidates if
they are able to meet the challenge of the higher standard.
In the future students entering U.B.C. will be required to have full
standing by recommendation or provincial department of education
examinations in June. Candidates who have to write supplementary
examinations in August will not be allowed to register in September.
The second regulation states that students taking full senior matricu-
39 lation in the schools will be given no credit by the University unless
they pass at least three of the five subjects required in the department of
education exams in June. Those who do not pass in at least three of the
five subjects will not be admitted to the University until they complete
their senior matriculation program. This regulation equalizes for senior
matriculation students a policy which has been in force at the University for a number of years.
The third regulation passed by Senate states that students from outside B.C. will be admitted only if they have obtained senior matriculation and if they meet the entrance requirements of the University of
their own country or province. If senior matriculation is not offered
where the student is resident consideration will be given to admitting
him with junior matriculation or other appropriate qualifications.
I would like to emphasize that these regulations do not prevent any
student from continuing his academic education; nor do they stop any
student from entering the University at a later date if he is successful in
senior matriculation.
Finally I wish to draw attention to the fact that we now require all
first-year students to write counselling tests prior to registration. In previous years about 80 percent of our first-year students have written these
tests voluntarily, and our main reason for requiring all persons to write
them is to maintain a complete statistical record. In addition, there is
evidence that the twenty percent who do not write the tests are frequently those who have academic problems. It is important for us to
know who these students are in order that we may provide appropriate
assistance and counselling as required. Once again it should be emphasized that the results of these tests will not be a barrier to any student
attending the University.
40 During the past year the University opened nine new buildings. As
a result we are able to provide additional residence facilities and expanded opportunities for teaching and research.
At the beginning of September, 1961, a new building for the department of chemical engineering in the Faculty of Applied Science came
into use. This is the first of six buildings to be constructed on a 15-acre
site at the south end of the campus for the Faculty which has felt the
heavy pressure of increased enrolment in recent years. Shortly, we expect to award a contract for the second unit of the development, a building for the department of electrical engineering.
On October 21, 1961, four new residences for women were opened in
the new development which lies between the west mall and Marine
Drive. Nearly four hundred young women can be accommodated in
these modern structures built with funds borrowed by the University
from Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, which is now empowered to lend money to Canadian universities for student residences.
It is fitting that these residences should bear the names of four women
who have had long association with the University. The residences have
been named for Dr. Phyllis G. Ross, C.B.E., our new chancellor; Dorothy Mawdsley, former dean of women; Mrs. Aldyn Hamber, wife of the
late chancellor Eric Hamber, and Mrs. Margaret MacKenzie.
The opening ceremony was held on our annual University Day, when
the parents of all first and second year students registered for the first
time at U.B.C. are invited to the campus to see something of the work
we are doing. Well over 1000 persons attended this event which was
held for the third consecutive year in 1961.
On October 27, 1961, the first three units of a new Health Sciences
Centre were officially opened by the Prime Minister of British Columbia, the Honourable W. A. C. Bennett. The ceremony marked the beginning of a new phase in medical education in B.C. and Canada, for it
means that we have made a start on centralizing education in all the
health sciences — medicine, dentistry, rehabilitation, pharmacy and
allied fields — on the Point Grey campus.
41 The three buildings opened this year provide research and teaching
facilities in the pre-clinical years for nearly all departments of the
Faculty of Medicine. In addition, U.B.C. has now become a major
centre for research in cancer with the opening of a centre for that purpose in part of one of the buildings. The centre is operated as a unit of
the National Cancer Institute of Canada and is one of three full-time
cancer research centres in Canada.
In the future we will be adding a University Hospital to provide clinical and research facilities for advanced medical students and faculty
members, and a building for the Faculty of Dentistry.
On May 29, 1962 we officially opened the first unit of the new fine
arts centre which has been named the Frederic Lasserre Building for
Architecture, the Fine Arts and Planning. The building has been
named for the late director of our school of architecture, whose tragic
death in a climbing accident in England in 1961 was a grievous loss to
the architectural profession in Canada.
Dr. A. W. Trueman, director of the Canada Council, which contributed one half of the cost of constructing the building, was assisted in
opening the building by Mrs. Frederic Lasserre, widow of the late director. Shortly, we will begin construction on the second unit of the fine
arts centre — a classroom and theatre building. Later we will add buildings for the school of music and a museum of man. When the centre is
complete it will mean that all education in architecture and the arts will
be in one general area.
On November 2, 1961 the University's architects, Thompson, Berwick and Pratt, were honoured by the Massey Foundation for the design
of two recently-opened buildings at the University. The Massey gold
medal, awarded for the outstanding example of architecture in Canada
completed in the previous three years, went to the firm for the Thea
Koerner House, our new social and recreational centre for graduate students. The firm also received one of 19 silver medals awarded for the
Gordon Shrum Commons Block, the central dining and recreation facility located in the new residence development on Marine Drive.
In May of this year Dr. Iyemsa Tokugawa, president of the Canada-
Japan Society in Tokyo, was a guest of the University for a ceremony at
42 the Nitobe Memorial Garden. Dr. Tokugawa kindly agreed to be with
us and unveil a plaque expressing the appreciation of the University for
gifts received from the Japanese people and used in the creation of the
garden.
The provision of additional residence accommodation for U.B.C. students has been a matter of great concern to the Board of Governors, and
I am happy to record that in the past year the Board has given approval
to two new developments in this area. Planning has now begun on a
new residence development housing 800 students to be located at the
south end of the campus and a building to house 150 graduate students
adjacent to Thea Koerner House.
43 Visiting Lecturers
In attempting to list the distinguished speakers who have appeared on
the campus in the past year I am confronted with what I can only describe as an embarrassment of riches, and I can mention only a few of
them.
For our summer session a large number of persons representing a
variety of disciplines and fields of scholarship came to the campus to lecture to credit courses or take part in seminars and conferences arranged
by our extension department. In 1961 faculty members and students
had the opportunity of hearing the noted child psychologist Dr. W. E.
Blatz of Toronto; Dr. Mohammed T. Mehdi, professor of middle eastern studies at the American Academy of Asian Studies; the Canadian
experimental filmmaker Norman McLaren; His Excellency Yaacov
Herzog, Israeli ambassador to Canada; Bengt Edlen, professor of physics
at the University of Lund, and the British astronomer, Professor Martin
Ryle.
I should emphasize here that these individuals represent only a fraction of those who gave public lectures during the summer session. But
if our summer session presents a variety of opportunities, the winter
session, because of its length and the wider interests of a student body
of 13,000 or more, offers an even wider range of public addresses. Limitations of space prevent my giving an extended list of these lectures; but
I think it would be useful to call attention to a number of lecture series
which were offered, and at the same time to recognize the valuable service several bodies have performed for us all in the past year.
Within the University various departments such as biology and botany, chemistry, physics, and mathematics have sponsored weekly lecture
series for the members of their own and other departments. In some
cases, members of our own faculty prepare papers for delivery at these
meetings, but often a visiting lecturer from another institution will be
invited to address colleagues. While these lectures receive scant public
attention and are of little interest to the general public, they are nevertheless most valuable in keeping our teaching staff abreast of new developments in research and scholarship. The physicist who attends a math-
44 ematics colloquium may find a new approach to a problem which is part
of his own research, and the biologist may well discover in a discussion
about chemistry a new approach to some difficult problem.
In addition to these University groups there are a number of organizations which use University facilities but have no direct connection
with the University except that many members of our faculty and staff
are members. I am thinking particularly of such groups as the Vancouver Natural History Society, the Vancouver branches of the Humanities
Association of Canada and the Royal Astronomical Society, and the
Vancouver Institute. The latter organization has a long connection with
U.B.C. and has been holding Saturday night lectures every winter since
1918. There is enough variety and scope in the lectures sponsored by
these organizations to satisfy the tastes of nearly everyone.
For those members of the faculty and student body who tire of the
sound of the human voice there is always recourse to recitals and concerts given by individuals or the school of music.
The school of music has had an enthusiastic Collegium Musicuum
operating almost since its inception and the Friday noon and evening
performances by this group of music not ordinarily heard in the concert
hall has helped to enrich Vancouver's cultural life. In addition to these
concerts Professor Harry Adaskin, known to generations of students for
his lectures and recitals, arranged a series of weekly noon hour concerts
with the general title "Music of the Americas."
Taken together it is activities such as these which have led me to
maintain that our campus is one of the most exciting and stimulating
places in all of Canada.
45 October 26,1961
Dr. Edward A. Corbett ll.d.
Dr. J. Roby Kidd ll.d.
Dr. Gregoire F. Amyot d.sc.
Dr. Albert F. Frey-Wyssling d.sc.
Mr. Patrick D. McTaggart-Cowan d.sc.
Dr. Myron M. Weaver d.sc.
May 24,1962
Installation of Dr. Phyllis G. Ross as Chancellor
May 25,1962
Dr. N. A. M. MacKenzie ll.d.
46 Chancellor A. E. Grauer July 28, 1961
Frank J. Burd, ll.d. January 6, 1962
(Former member of Board of Governors and Senate)
Dr. R. H. Clark, Professor Emeritus
Dr. A. R. Lord
(Former member of Senate)
Professor Emeritus James Henderson
Mr. W. Morgan
(Former member of Senate)
Dr. George Frederick Day
(Clinical Instructor, Surgery)
Miss Ma(r)y L. Barclay
(Assistant Professor, Mathematics)
Dr. F. S. Nowlan, Professor Emeritus
Mr. F. W. Vernon, Professor Emeritus
Miss Ethel Fugler
Miss Rakel (Rae) Bergman
(Departmental Secretary, Medicine)
Mr. Thomas P. Stobart
(Truck Dispatcher, Buildings and Grounds)
Mr. James Witcherley March 30, 1962
(Janitor, 1935-1953, re-appointed after retiral to 1954)
Mr. William Ernest Dale May 26, 1962
(Engineer, Boiler House, 1925-1952, re-appointed after retiral
to end of 1952)
July 25, 1961
September 14, 1961
January 23,1962
March 23, 1962
November 10, 1961
February 5, 1962
September 8, 1961
September 12, 1961
August 1, 1961
March 10, 1962
March 14, 1962
47 Retirements
In reporting the retirement of the following members of the staff, I
would like to express the gratitude of all those associated with the University to these our friends, teachers and colleagues:
Dr. J. G. Andison, Professor and Head, Romance Studies
Mrs. Anna Cheney, Medical Illustrator
Mr. Dave Dsubak, General Worker, Food Services
Mr. R. Farmer, Technician, Plant Science
Mrs. Primrose Harry, Clerk, Registrar's Office
Dr. A. Hrennikoff, Professor, Civil Engineering
Mr. Leonard Humphrey, Technician, Anatomy
Miss Mabel Lanning, Head, Circulation Division, Library
Mr. H. C Lewis, Professor, English
Mr. Alex Lindsay, General Worker, Buildings and Grounds
Dr. N. A. M. MacKenzie, President
Mrs. Clara Procknow, General Worker, Food Services
Mr. Frank Sawford, Technician, Chemistry
48 On October 25, 1944,
Dr. Norman A. M. MacKenzie was officially installed as
president of the University of British Columbia.
As his first official act as chancellor of U.B.C, a post
he held from 1944 to 1951, the late Eric Hamber (left),
is shown enrobing Dr. MacKenzie at the fall congregation.  In the years immediately following his installation
President MacKenzie guided the University
through one of the most difficult periods in its history.
Following World War II, when student enrolment increased
almost overnight from 2500 to more than 9000,
three hundred army huts were brought to the campus to
serve as lecture rooms, laboratories, offices and
apartments. The president and his family (above)
occupied one of these converted buildings until a
presidential house was built on Marine Drive.
The portrait at left shows the vigour and enthusiasm
with which President MacKenzie attacked
the problems of a burgeoning university. In 1948 President MacKenzie
visited the University of Bristol in
England to receive the honorary
degree of doctor of laws. The
president is shown at top right
clasping hands with the Right
Honourable Sir Winston Churchill,
who conferred the degree in his
capacity as chancellor of Bristol.
Early in the 1950's the president
was a member of the Royal
Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and
Sciences, which was chaired by the
Right Honourable Vincent Massey,
who is shown with the president
at left when Mr. Massey visited
U.B.C. in 1954 to receive an
honorary degree. One of the bodies
formed as a result of the "Massey
Commission" was the Canada
Council, on which President
MacKenzie has served since its
creation. He is shown at bottom
right addressing a meeting of the
Council in Ottawa with the prime
minister, The Right Honourable
John Diefenbaker, seated on his
right. On the president's left is the
late Sydney Smith, then minister
of external affairs. Prior to his
appointment to the Cabinet Mr.
Smith was president of the
University of Toronto.  Dr. MacKenzie's wide range of interests at U.B.C.
included the Canadian Officers' Training Corps.
He was appointed honorary colonel of the
U.B.C. contingent in 1957. He is shown with
one of his closest U.B.C. associates, Dr. Gordon
Shrum, at left. Dr. Shrum, who has
now retired as dean of graduate studies and head of
the department of physics, was commanding officer
of the U.B.C. C.O.T.C. contingent from 1937 to 1946.
Another close associate of Dr. MacKenzie's during his
term of office was the chief justice of the province
of B.C., Mr. Sherwood Lett, who was chancellor of U.B.C. from
1951 to 1957. Mr. Lett is shown reading the citation for the
honorary degree which was conferred on Field Marshal The
Viscount Montgomery of Alamein in May, 1960, in the
picture opposite. In the photograph at the top of this page
President MacKenzie is shown chatting with Mrs. Eleanor
Roosevelt and the then president of the
Alma Mater Society, Charles Connaghan, on the occasion of
Mrs. Roosevelt's visit to the campus in 1961 to open
International House.   The extraordinary growth of U.B.C. (luring
Dr. MacKenzie's term of office from 1944 to
1962 is reflected in the photographs appearing
on these two pages. Above is an aerial photo
of the campus taken about 1944. The large
picture at right, taken this year, reflects
the enormous changes which took place during
his tenure. Dr. A. E. "Dal" Grauer, a U.B.C. graduate, was elected to the post of chancellor
in 1957. He was re-elected in 1960 and gave distinguished service to the University
until his death in July, 1961. President MacKenzie is shown enrobing Dr.
Grauer in the photograph opposite at the 1957 installation ceremony. A highlight
of the 1958 celebrations marking the 50th anniversary of the founding of
U.B.C. was the conferring of honorary degrees on a number of noted Canadians.
In the picture below the honorary degree recipients are, front row, left to
right, The Hon. M. J. Coldwell, then leader of the CCF party in the federal house;
the Hon. W. A. C Bennett, Prime Minister of B.C.; the Hon. Frank M. Ross, then
Lieutenant-Governor of B.C.; the Right Hon. John Diefenbaker, Prime Minister of
Canada, and the Hon. Lester Pearson, leader of the Liberal party.
In the back row are the late Brooke Claxton, then director of the Canada
Council; Dr. MacKenzie, Dr. Grauer, and the late Eric W. Hamber, former
chancellor of U.B.C. ite In June, 1958, Her Majesty Queen
Elizabeth II and Prince Philip
visited U.B.C. and dined in the
recently-opened Faculty Club, a gift
to the University from Dr. Leon
Koerner. The president and Her
Majesty are shown at top left
chatting at the start of the dinner.
In May, 1962, at U.B.C.'s spring
Congregation, the honorary degree
of doctor of laws (LL.D.) was
conferred on the president by the
newly-elected chancellor, Dr.
Phyllis G. Ross, C.B.E., who is
shown shaking hands with Dr.
MacKenzie in the picture on this
page. On Dr. MacKenzie's left,
Dean S. N. F. Chant, dean of the
faculty of arts and science, stands
waiting to place the hood of the
honorary degree on the president's
shoulders. In the photograph at
bottom left Dr. MacKenzie is shown
announcing his retirement as
president at a press conference in
November, 1961. Summary of Revenue   and Expenditure
(Excluding Capital Additions to Endowment,      Student Loan and Capital Development Funds)
April 1, 1961 to      March 31, 1962
REVENUE
GENERAL FUNDS
TRUST FUNDS
For Specific Purposes
Endowment
TOTAL
%
Teaching
and General
Purposes
%
Fellowships,
Scholarships,
Prizes and
Bursaries
%
Research
%
%
%
Province of British Columbia
Grants 	
$ 6,550,000.00
2,097,301.33
4,865,153.99
739,972.35
45.9
14.8
34.1
5.2
$     49,352.04
149,781.03
834,233.58
16,309.90
4.7
14.3
79.5
1.5
$     1,100.00
2,959.66
367,994.56
865.85
.3
.8
98.7
.2
$     28,953.53
1,971,824.42
235,128.49
623,052.86
1,104.32
1.0
68.8
8.2
21.7
.3
$
62,779.79
100.0
$ 6,629,405.57
4,221,866.44
235,128.49
4,865,153.99
1,825,281.00
821,032.21
35.6
22.7
1.3
26.2
9.8
4.4
Government of Canada Grants	
United States Government 	
Student Fees	
Gifts and Grants (Commerce,
Industry, Associations,
Foundations and Individuals)	
Miscellaneous	
$14,252,427.67
100.0
$1,049,676.55
100.0
$372,920.07
100.0
$2,860,063.62
100.0
$62,779.79
100.0
$18,597,867.70
100.0
EXPENDITURE
Academic Faculties and Departments and Associated Academic
Services 	
$10,770,252.27
785,695.06
2,102,315.17
286,004.85
32,177.97
115,867.00
67,007.33
87,490.34
75.5
5.5
14.7
2.0
.2
.8
.4
.6
$   756,993.67
2,054.15
9,979.58
79,096.33
72.1
.2
.9
7.6
$
364,345.16
97.7
$
2,772,948.63
97.0
$ 8,329.34
36,294.62
13.3
57.8
$11,535,575.28
785,695.06
2,104,369.32
295,984.43
111,274.30
516,506.78
2,839,955.96
87,490.34
62.0
4.2
11.3
1.6
.6
2.8
15.3
.5
Administration  	
Service Departments and
Maintenance	
General Expenses	
Athletics	
Fellowships, Scholarships,
Prizes and Bursaries	
Research 	
Miscellaneous	
Buildings including Furnishings,
Equipment and Campus
Development 	
$14,246,809.99
5,617.68
99.7
.3
$   848,123.73
5,007.89
196,544.93
80.8
.5
18.7
$364,345.16
8,574.91
97.7
2.3
$2,772,948.63
87,114.99
97.0
3.0
$44,623.96
18,155.83
71.1
28.9
$18,276,851.47
10,625.57
292,234.83
18,155.83
98.3
.0
1.6
.1
Trust Funds for Specific Purposes
carried forward to meet Expenditures in 1962-63 	
Endowment Fund Income carried
forward to 1962-63	
$14,252,427.67
100.0
$1,049,676.55
100.0
$372,920.07
100.0
$2,860,063.62
100.0
$62,779.79
100.0
$18,597,867.70
100.0

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