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The President's Report 1955-1956 1957

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Array TH E
PRESIDENTS REPORT
1955-1956
THK UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA THE
PRESIDENTS REPORT
1955-1956
THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
VANCOUVER,  CANADA
1957  TO THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS AND SENATE OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Ladies and Gentlemen,
In my report last year, I tried to sum up the major developments at
the University in the post-war years. Since last year, we — in common
with every other university in Canada — have been looking forward to
what we must do in the future, especially in the next decade. In the first
part of this report, therefore, I propose to outline the challenge of the
next ten years. I shall describe some of our problems and give what I
hope are some of their solutions.
Because part of my report is concerned with what we lack rather than
with what we enjoy, I hope that it will not be misconstrued as pessimistic.
Our difficulties arise from optimism about our future. They are the growing
pains of an expanding and healthy society, not the struggles and contortions
of a shrinking one. But by recognizing the problems ahead of us, we can
look for solutions.
If we take no notice of the writing on our academic walls, we shall
indeed have cause to be pessimistic. But I am confident that no one will
see the growth of our country stunted for want of the relatively minor cost
of expanding our universities.
President. President's Report
September 1955 to August 1956
The Challenge
There is no need to burden you with every detail of the challenges
confronting universities in Canada in the next ten years. The press,
radio and television have made it clear to everyone concerned with
our future that for every thousand students now at college there
will be at least two thousand by 1965. And we have not got
ten years to prepare for the additional numbers. Each year brings
us more students. This year, for example, UBC has nearly 500
students more than we had in 1954-5. Next year, with the new
College of Education, we may expect an additional 1000, bringing
our total enrolment to 7,700. We shall, in all probability, reach
a total of 12,000 students in the early 1960's. And since that
enrolment itself will not see the end of the increasing numbers, we
must plan for permanent expansion of all our facilities. The
temporary measures we took to teach the vast influx of veterans
after the war will not serve us again. The use of army huts as
classrooms, the overworking of valuable staff, the slowing down
of research, the overcrowding of laboratories — these expedients
served for the few years the veterans were with us, but expedients
cannot be permanent. The huts are older, more expensive to keep
in repair, and always liable to fire. The teaching staff is already
working to full capacity. Greater research and laboratory facilities
have become ever more necessary.
In the face of the problems of such an expansion, two
questions are pertinent. Why will there be such an increase in the
number of young people wanting to attend the university? Why
should the university accept all the applicants ? The first question
is only too easy to answer. The estimate of a doubled enrolment is
based solely on the fact that for every child who reached university
age in 1955, two will reach it in 1965. There is little risk that we
are worrying ourselves unnecessarily. Yesterday the children were born. Today'they are already in school. Tomorrow they will want
to come to university.
Our error, if we are in error, will be that we have underestimated the numbers who will want higher education. Quite
apart from the increase resulting from the birthrate of fifteen
years ago, there will be many more people wanting to attend
university. The proportion of the population undertaking higher
education has been increasing steadily in recent years, and there is
no reason to assume that it will not continue to increase. We may
also expect an increase brought about by the movement of people
to British Columbia from other parts of Canada and from outside
Canada. In the last five years, the population of our province has
grown by 20%, a rate of increase faster than that for any other
province.
The second question — why should we accept all those who
want to come ? — cannot be answered with quite the certainty of
the first. Some people, in fact, have suggested that we keep our
colleges and universities at their present size and accept only the
best of those wanting to come. At first sight such a proposal may
seem to have its attractions. What teacher does not sometimes
daydream of working only with a few of the very best of students ?
It is a human daydream, of a kind shared by most of us. But it is
a daydream. The time has passed when we could organize our
educational system for the few. Our society professes — and I
believe firmly that it is right — that we must provide every child
with the opportunity of developing to the limit of his capacities in
every sense and respect, mental and physical, spiritual and
aesthetic. This is not to say that everyone must attend university.
I do not propose that the university change its entrance regulations
or lessen the amount of work and ability it demands from students,
but I do insist that we have a duty to provide facilities for those
who meet the existing standards. And in the next ten years we may
expect twice as many to meet those requirements as do now.
In addition to what I consider the right of all suitably qualified
students to entrance to the university, there are two practical
considerations which make it essential that we expand our facilities
to meet the increased enrolment. First, Canada in general, and
British Columbia in particular, are embarked upon a program of expansion such as few countries have ever seen. The trained men
and women — the engineers, doctors, teachers, lawyers, businessmen, and so on — absolutely necessary for such an expansion are
already in short supply. Everywhere we hear of shortages of
personnel that cannot be overcome. Already we have large industrial organizations competing for our graduates and finding that
there are not enough to go round. Industry, government, and the
professions recognize the existing shortage and are worried about
the even greater shortage that faces us in the near future. If we
do not provide lecturers, buildings, laboratories and residences for
would-be students, we shall stop our own expansion. In fact, since
there will be many more people in Canada, we shall condemn
ourselves to a lower standard of living than we now enjoy. We
are fortunate enough to have abundant natural resources, we can
find capital, and we have an industrious and willing people. We
shall have no excuse if we do not educate those students who want
to enter our colleges and make that expansion possible. Second,
we must also provide educated men and women for parts of the
world other than Canada. At present, for example, many Canadian
administrators, agriculturalists, doctors, and engineers, are working
in underdeveloped parts of the world. We may expect increased
demands for such assistance, and we should fill our share of those
demands. If we do not, other countries will, and we may find that
we have lost valuable friends. Even now the Soviet Union is
providing higher education for nearly three times the percentage
of the appropriate age groups that we are. (In Russia 19.6 per
thousand of population receive higher education; in Canada 4.94).
Already there are places in Asia where the only engineers and the
only administrators are Russian, where the only grammars, dictionaries, readers, textbooks have been prepared in the Soviet
Union. And who is to blame the recipients of these things if they
go on to prefer the Soviet way to ours ? We may not blame them,
but we may suffer for it nevertheless.
But merely expanding our professional and technical training
schools will not be enough to deal with the increases in enrolment.
We must remember that the students who come to us are entitled
to expect that we give them the very best that is available to us.
It is right that we teach many of them the professions and skills by which they will serve the community and by which they will
make their livings; but we must also try to give all of them access
to those insights of the past and present which will make their
lives both fruitful and happy. We must try to identify, stimulate,
and help those who are to be our future artists, scientists, scholars,
statesmen; we must try to make the university a place where every
student can learn something of himself, his gifts and his needs,
and of the community in which he lives. The university has always
tried to do these things, but to do them on the scale which now
faces us will demand not only great increases in our revenues but
also constant vigilence. In our concern with the numbers at our
doors, we must not forget that search for the true, the good and
the beautiful which has always distinguished great universities.
We must remember, too, that the university is not an island
in an educational sea. It is a part of our total educational system.
Not only does it draw its students from the high schools, but it
also shares the responsibilities of staffing the schools and helping
them to play the vital part they have been given in our society.
Sometimes when I hear some of the more severe criticism of the
schools by a few of my colleagues, I wonder how it is that the
teachers and administrators whom we have trained and graduated
can have fallen so far from the standards and values we set before
them. I have no doubt that we at the University are partly
responsible for the school system, its strengths and its weaknesses.
We share with the provincial Department of Education, school
trustees, teachers, P.T.A.'s and the general public the task of seeing
that all our children are helped to realize all their potentialities,
and that those who will profit from higher education are prepared
for it.
It is because I believe that the University is partly responsible
for our total educational system that I have welcomed the new
College of Education, in which all the teacher training for the
province will now be directed by the University and carried out
at the University and at Victoria College. In carrying out its
responsibilities, the University will have the advice and counsel
of a "joint board" consisting of representatives of the University,
the Provincial Department of Education, Victoria College, the
B. C. Trustee's Association and the B. C. Teachers' Federation. This joint board has the right to advise both the President of the
University and the Minister of Education on all matters affecting
teacher training which fall within the province of each. I should
like to take this opportunity of thanking the Minister, the officials
of the department (in particular Dr. Harold Campbell) and all
others represented on the joint board for the encouragement and
hearty cooperation which the University has received in undertaking this major educational development. We were very fortunate
in obtaining the services of Professor Neville V. Scarfe as the first
Dean of the new College.
I hope that the new College, with its recognition of the
importance of the profession of teaching, and its attempt to
combine the academic standards of the University with the educational values of the Normal School, will help our future teachers
towards that understanding of children, that skill in teaching, and
that firm grasp of subject matter which mark the memorable and
successful teacher.
The problems arising from the tremendous increase in the
number of students are obvious. We shall need more staff and more
buildings and more equipment. The solution to the shortage of
buildings is simple. As we are given the money, we can build what
we need. There is no such simple solution to the shortage of staff.
We can expect an absolute shortage of faculty until the increased
student population produces an increased number of teaching
scholars. With every university in North America planning similar
expansion, with government demanding ever more administrators,
scientists, and professional men, and with industry and business
turning more and more to the universities for their own staff needs,
we cannot hope to obtain all the men and women we would like.
I am happy to report that we have this year achieved a
substantial increase in faculty salaries and that we have established
new salary floors for the various ranks. This increase, however,
does not yet put us in a competitive position with industry and the
professions. New graduates can still command more from industry
than their teachers are receiving at the university. We cannot
expect to continue to attract the men and women our students
deserve — men and women whose work will play a vital part in the expansion of our economy — if we do not share the benefits
of that expansion with them.
As I reported last year, we have in recent years been able to
make substantial additions to the buildings on the campus. Unfortunately, however, those additions merely helped us grow from
2400 students to 7000. We cannot consider that the buildings
already up will help us meet the coming influx of students. We
are overcrowded now. We still lecture in huts; we still keep
extremely valuable equipment and records in shacks that are
firetraps; our students are still living in temporary army huts. And
even with that overcrowding, we have to turn many students away
from the residences. This year, for example, we could provide
accommodation for only half of the women whose homes are out of
Vancouver who wanted to live on campus. The remainder were
forced to find accommodation in private homes off campus, often
at considerably greater expense and not always under conditions
conducive to obtaining the most from university life. Of the
men who come from outside Vancouver, we were able to accommodate far less than half.
In addition to residences, we need new buildings, or substantial additions to existing buildings, for Medicine, Commerce,
Engineering, the Fine Arts, including Music and Drama, Education,
Chemistry, the Biological Sciences, the Library, Agriculture, Architecture and Forestry, to mention only the more urgent.
The Provincial Government has undertaken to make available
to the University $1,000,000 a year for the next ten years for
building purposes. With that money, we shall be able to complete
an Arts Building — currently under construction — a Medical
Building, some residences, and a few of the other more vital needs.
To meet the rest of the needs, we intend to appeal to industry,
the general public and to the Federal and Provincial governments.
We are deeply appreciative of what the governments and industry
have done in the past, and we feel confident that our statement of
need will bring a generous response.
Since we are likely to be strained to the limit of our capacities,
it will be important that we accept as students those young men
and women who are most likely to benefit from higher education.
To make best use of our resources, we must make it possible for the best of our high school students to come to university. It
remains a fact that there are many students who would gain most
from higher education who cannot make — so to speak — the
initial down payment. A national system of scholarships, bursaries
and loans remains a vital need. It is still more difficult for a young
man or woman to obtain financial assistance for higher education
in Canada than it is for a young man or woman in any country of
comparable wealth, or, indeed, in many of far less wealth. In
spite of what is often said, it is sometimes extremely difficult for
a young man to earn enough during the summer to pay for his
academic year. For a young woman, it is almost impossible. This
year, our Personnel Office investigated student summer employment. It was found that approximately a third of first year students
are responsible for all their expenses at university — their fees,
books, and room and board. Nearly one-half of students in the
senior years were supporting themselves entirely. Some 50% are
responsible for their own support in major degree. But the average
summer earnings for a man in first year were $562.00; for a woman
they were $227.00. Senior students earned a little more: $750.00
for a man, $345.00 for a woman. And from that money, the
student must support himself through the summer as well as the
winter. Our tradition that students work in the summer is a good
one, but we must not allow the desirable principle of self help
blind us to the very real need for greater means of aiding students
than we now possess.
The Solutions
We can do a number of things to meet the coming challenge,
and to alleviate the foregoing difficulties. Above all, we need
greater revenues. Given the money, we can carry out the plans,
many of which have long been made. We can develop graduate
schools to attract and stimulate original minds and to provide us
with our future scholars and teachers. So much money is needed
that it cannot all come from the one source. Governments, municipal, provincial and federal; business and industry and the public
generally will all have to contribute generously if universities are
to meet the demands that the age of automation and nuclear energy
is making of them. To use our staff to best advantage we may have to reorganize
some of our work. We have been accused of doing too much for
our students; "spoon-feeding" is the usual charge. I doubt that
very much, but it may be that we have under-estimated what the
students can do on their own. With the thought of nearly one
hundred sections of freshman English, for example, in 1965, we
are engaged in an acute examination of what we do at present.
Whatever we decide, we shall have to try to reconcile the shortage
of staff with the needs of students and the community.
We cannot solve our problems merely by enlarging our
present facilities. Our Faculty of Graduate Studies, for example,
has operated without staff and funds of its own. Often a professor
has to supervise the work of graduate students in addition to his
normal undergraduate lecturing load. It is possible, though not
desirable, to do this when there are only a few graduate students,
but if we are to see graduate schools which will come anywhere
near supplying us with our own future staff, we must organize our
present resources properly. Moreover, good graduate students
holding part-time teaching fellowships could do something to
alleviate the shortage of staff at the junior levels.
Two other suggestions for solving our problems have been
made. The first is that we limit the number of students to something like the present figure. That "solves" the problem simply
by ignoring it, and, as I have already pointed out, it would be
unjust to the coming generation of students as well as economic
folly. The second is that we create junior colleges and technical
institutes to take the overflow of students resulting from the
limiting of present universities and colleges. I have no doubt that
we do need more technical institutes, but their job is essentially a
different one from that of the universities. They will be needed
to supply the skilled technicians who play an increasingly important role in our mechanized society. Such institutes will have quite
enough to do in the future without our demanding that they
undertake the task of training professional engineers. Moreover,
a series of such institutes would involve duplication of staff and
expensive equipment that cannot be justified in view'of the existing
shortage of funds. For example, our Department of Civil Engineering needs a $36,000 Universal testing machine, but that one machine will suffice for the training of all the civil engineering
students the Province is likely to get for some time.
Moreover, professional schools need to be situated where
they can tap the resources of a large community. A glance at the
four hundred names listed under Faculty of Medicine in our
current Calendar will indicate the kind of staff necessary for a
medical school of our present size. We are able to draw upon
the many specialists in the Vancouver area and upon the large
and well-staffed hospitals within the city. It is true that one
specialist may give only two or three lectures, but indirectly
those lectures may one day save a life. Vancouver is the only city
in the Province with a population large enough to support and
nourish professional schools, and if we are to enlarge facilities in
Vancouver, we should do.it at Point Grey and save the cost of
unnecessary duplication.
We must remember, too, that professional men both need and
want more than purely technical training. Students preparing for
the professions on campus can participate in those wide cultural,
aesthetic, and recreational activities that make the university what
it is. They can share with students in the pure sciences and the
humanities the contributions of professors who would not be
attracted to purely professional schools in some kind of "supernumerary" role. The best men in all studies want to go where they
may devote themselves to their own subjects. However valuable
literature, say, may be as an adjunct to professional training, the
best literary scholars will not go to an institution which, by its
very nature, is devoted almost entirely to one of the professions.
Only a university can bring together the best men from all fields.
And if students of the professions need the university, students in
what we call non-professional subjects can benefit from meeting
and working with future engineers, doctors and lawyers. The lines
between "pure" and the "applied" knowledge are necessarily ill-
defined and meandering, and cross-fertilization is common. All
branches of knowledge contribute to and benefit from a fully
developed university.
The case for junior colleges appears stronger than that for
separate professional schools, but these, too, would need an
expensive duplication of library and laboratory facilities as well as a dispersion of the available staff. Total size is not important if
students are still taught in small numbers. A large university can
offer a wide choice of courses, each of which can be taught to as
few students as would be found in classes at small colleges. Moreover, a large university has the capacity to attract and keep
outstanding teachers and to provide them with up-to-date facilities
for research. It is no accident that so many of the important
discoveries of modern times have come from large universities. We
must not be tempted by size alone, but on the other hand we
must not be blind to its advantages. In view of the fact that B.C.
has only two centres large enough to support, or attract, such
cultural activities as symphony orchestras, art galleries, and well
developed libraries — all necessary and desirable supplements to
the work of both students and teachers — I believe that we must
commit ourselves to a policy of obtaining the great advantages of
a centralized higher educational system and a fully developed
university. Once we have all the benefits of such a university, and
once we see that other cities in the province can provide the cultural
background necessary, we can look to the problem of decentralizing
higher education in B. C. under one Board of Governors and in
terms of the cultural opportunities in other centres of the province.
The Faculties
The Faculty of Graduate Studies continues to develop slowly
in accordance with our desire to maintain rigorous standards — but
with more adequate funds it cpuld develop somewhat more quickly.
At present the University offers six different Master's degrees in a
total of fifty-seven departments or fields of study. The Ph.D. degree
is offered by twenty departments or groups of departments. Since
the Faculty was established in 1949, the university has awarded
fifty-three Ph.D.'s. So far, all the degrees granted have been in
the sciences, but we are now offering doctoral work in philosophy,
and we hope to offer it in other areas in the near future.
I have already mentioned the need to undertake more graduate
work if we are to provide the scholars to staff our universities and
research centres for the future. In addition to the provision of
professors and equipment, we must take steps to ensure that we
10 attract graduate students of the highest calibre. Since all universities encourage, and most insist, that students pursue their doctoral
work in a university other than that from which they received their
first degree, we cannot fill the graduate courses with local students.
The production of scholarly work and research by a university is
closely related to the number and quality of its graduate students,
and today there is very keen competition for the best men and
women. Universities are circulating attractive booklets and pamphlets outlining the facilities they offer for graduate work and listing
a large number of university fellowships, scholarships and other
forms of financial assistance. We can provide some fellowships,
but not nearly enough. Probably the greatest need of the Faculty
of Graduate Studies at the moment is a number of university
fellowships, particularly at the Ph.D. level. No graduate school
can provide a stimulating research atmosphere without a steady
influx of the ablest students from other universities.
Graduate work is expensive in every way. It demands time
and energy from the staff, and costly space, equipment and library
facilities. Hitherto we have tended to let other universities and
other countries provide graduate schools (it is impossible to
undertake a master's course in nursing, for example, in Canada),
but we cannot continue to do that. Too often the best students we
send elsewhere for graduate work do not return, and with the
existing shortage of staff in United States' universities, we may
expect the temptations placed before them to be greater than ever.
No university, perhaps no relatively small country, can hope
to offer graduate work in every subject. We must concentrate on
those studies we are best equipped to deal with and on those in
which we shall be most short of personnel. Some of the problems
involved in setting up graduate schools have been eased by technological advances — microfilm and microcards enable us to build
up collections of material that would have been impossible only a
few years ago — but most can only be overcome by attracting,
and keeping, first class faculty and students.
This year Dean H. F. Angus, who has been dean of the faculty
since its beginning and who has been largely responsible for its
growth and success, retired. He was succeeded by Dr. G. M. Shrum,
and, as Associate Dean, Prof. F. H. Soward. The University owes
11 REGISTRATION   1955-56
GEOGRAPHICAL   DISTRIBUTION    OF   STUDENTS
CANADA
British Columbia       I      5532
Alberta     I       295
Saskatchewan      87
Manitoba       41
Ontario    __   128
Quebec     31
New Brunswick  I            1
Nova Scotia  10
Newfoundland    rf ._   1
Yukon  Territory    11
North West Territories   4
BRITISH COLUMBIA   (Based on Census Divisions)
East Kootenay and Upper Columbia River  (1)
West Kootenay. Columbia River and Slocan Lake    12)
Okanagan, Similkameen, Kettle, and Upper Shuswap Rivers (31
Lower Fraser Valley and Howe Sound  (4)
Vancouver  Island  (5)
North Thompson, Shuswap, Chilcotin South,
Lillooet East, Bridge -Lillooet  ... (6)
Bella Coola, Knight Inlet, Powell River     (7)
Nechako • Fraser, Chilcotin - North, Cariboo, Skeena,
Takla Lakes     (8)
Atlin Lake, Skeena Coast, Queen Charlotte Islands (9)
North East B.C.-Laird, Finlay - Parsnip, Beaton River       (101
19)
89
251
324
3813
669
153
67
68
72
26
110)
OVERSEAS STUDENTS
Africa	
Asia 	
British Isles 	
British West Indies ....
Central America ...   .
Europe 	
Oceania	
South America 	
United States 	
(8)
14
57
21
74
6
27
1
15
47
(7)
(6)
(1)
(2)
(3) Registration 1955 - 56
COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP
North America
Canada 5648
Mexico        4
United States      97
Central America & West Indies
Costa Rica  4
Salvador  1
Jamaica  12
Trinidad  54
Nicaragua     1
Other British West Indies 4
South America
Argentina   ...
Brazil	
British Guiana
Chile   	
Venezuela  ...
1
1
1
2
1
Asia
Burma     1
Ceylon    1
China   39
India   	
Indonesia . ..
Iran (Persia)
Japan  	
Korea	
Malaya	
Pakistan ....
Israel   	
Syria	
Turkey	
Africa
Nigeria
South Africa
Egypt 	
Gold Coast .
Kenya 	
Oceania
Australia   ...
New Zealand
Stateless ....
3
4
1
2
1
8
3
.. 16
1
1
9
3
1
2
2
1
2
TOTAL
Europe
Austria  8
Belgium  4
Czechoslovakia     17
Denmark   7
Eire (Ireland)  1
Finland     4
France     6
Germany—Western Zone 62
Germany—Eastern Zone. 5
Great Britain & N. Ireland 214
Greece    8
Hungary  5
Italy   5
Netherlands  37
Norway    14
Poland   14
Portugal  4
Romania     5
Soviet Union  31
Switzerland    6
Yugoslavia     11
— 6403
14 a great debt of gratitude, for many services in many fields, to one
of its most distinguished scholars, Dr. Angus, and it is a pleasure
to acknowledge it at this time.
The Faculty of Arts and Science and the teaching profession have always been closely associated. Although the proportion
of Arts' graduates going into teaching is smaller than it used to be,
it is still high enough for the Faculty to consider itself specially
interested in the general problems or education at all levels of our
education system. This year, indeed, Teacher Training is still part
of the Faculty, and it has played an ifliportant part in the planning
of the new "Faculty and College of Education." But since most
students entering the university take First Year Arts and Science,
interest in the school system and in teachers is by no means
confined to those departments of the Faculty of Arts and Science
immediately concerned with Teacher Training. The quality of the
students entering the university will be in large part determined
by the quality of the teachers graduating from it. With the increasing shortage of teachers and the alrnost certain overcrowding of
the universities in the near future, the importance of the training
of teachers will become greater than ever.
Consequently, we have been engaged this year, together with
the Normal School and the Provincial Department of Education,
in designing various training programs for prospective teachers. In
future all teacher training in the Province will be carried out by
the University, either in Vancouver or at Victoria College.
The most significant change to result from our consideration
of the total problem of education in the Province is the institution
of a five year course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Education.
The new course will enable futute teachers to integrate the
academic and the professional aspect^ of their training throughout
their five years at the university. Until now teachers have followed
the usual B.A. program and then taken their professional training
in an additional year. The overall planning and the professional
part of the individual student's prdgram will be carried out by
the "Faculty and College of Education." The non-professional
courses will continue to be offered for the most part by the Faculty
15 of Arts and Science. We expect close co-operation between this
Faculty and the "Faculty and College of Education."
I can think of no way of reporting adequately on the many
other activities of the Faculty of Arts and Science in the last year.
Most departments, especially those in the sciences, carried out
extensive research programs as well as their usual teaching
commitments.
One of the most difficult of all the problems facing this
Faculty is that of dealing with the large numbers of students
enrolled in First Year. It is essential that personal contact between
lecturer and student be developed at the outset of a student's
career, and every year this becomes more difficult with increasing
numbers. Every department involved in this dilemma has been
reconsidering its work in the light of the future increases in
enrolment. I hope to be able to report some conclusions from
these discussions within the next year or so, for the problem is
now urgent and will grow immeasurably in the next decade.
The Faculty of Applied Science continues to grow. In
1952-3, there were 667 students in Engineering, 101 in Nursing
and 78 in Architecture. This year the corresponding figures are
904, 177 and 91. Providing that standards are maintained, and I
believe that they have been, such increases are all to the good. As
we are all too well aware, we are going to be increasingly short of
all professional men and women in the next decade, and especially
so of engineers. We shall undoubtedly need all of the young men
and women who succeed in graduating from these difficult courses.
The Faculty, however, cannot be concerned merely with
increasing the numbers of students. New courses must be added
if we are to be abreast of new developments. This year, for
example, courses in communication theory, analogue and digital
computers, limit design, nuclear engineering and nuclear metallurgy have been added to the offering of the Engineering Departments. The content of standard courses must be re-examined
frequently, and the over-all program of students must be considered to see that they are taking the courses most necessary to them.
We are concerned, too, that all students in applied fields
obtain more than a purely technical education.  There is full
16 agreement among the professional bodies that their membership
should receive as broadly based an education as possible, and not
be merely manipulators of techniques. This year, some of the
departments in Applied Science, with the cooperation of the
Department of English, organized for third year students a study
of some of the great Utopias. The engineering student, as a man,
should have the same opportunity to read such writers as Plato,
More, Morris and Huxley as the student in any other faculty.
The Engineering departments have continued to develop
increasingly active and varied research programs.
The School of Nursing has shown marked growth in recent
years and is now reaching the limit of development with its present
staff, space and facilities. Although the need for research and
graduate work is recognized and pressing, there is little that can
be done at present. There is an urgent need for a thorough study
of the whole subject of nursing education and the responsibilities
of hospitals and such university departments as nursing, medicine
and social work. With these problems in mind, the University has
appointed a committee under the cpairmanship of the Dean of
Applied Science to discuss nursing training with a committee of
the Vancouver General Hospital Board.
The School of Architecture has established.its basic program
on a very firm foundation in the last nine years, and it is now
turning its attention to the need for more work in related fields
of study, especially Fine Arts, Construction Management and
Landscaping. At present, faculty members are considering the cost
and other problems of adding such courses to the offerings of the
School.
The Faculty of Agriculture has developed important
connections with many groups in the Province, farmers, foresters,
the marketing and distributing industries, agricultural suppliers,
and the government, for example; and many of its numerous and
varied research projects are carried out .with specific local conditions
in mind.
Recently the Faculty has extended its work in Soil Science, and
it now offers nine regular courses to undergraduates and three to
graduates. Instruction is given in thq classification and distribution
17 of soils, in their physical and chemical properties, in soil bacteriology, and in the best use and conservation of soil. Students are
drawn primarily from agriculture and forestry, but also from
such disciplines as chemistry, physics, geology, biology and bacteriology. The importance of the understanding of soil for the
farmer and forester is obvious. With the future success of agriculture depending on high returns per cultivated acre, it will become
more than ever necessary to be sure that we are making the best
possible use of our land.
The Faculty of Medicine continues to be handicapped by
the lack of a pre-clinical Medical Building. This is one of our most
serious needs, and it will be one of the first to be met from
the $10,000,000 the Provincial Government has promised us over
the next ten years. At present irreplaceable records and valuable
equipment are kept in wooden huts, and both research and teaching
are hindered by lack of adequate facilities.
Nevertheless I am happy to report that the Faculty is developing an extensive research program, a program out of all proportion
to its facilities, and one that would be impossible were it not for
generous outside monetary support and the active cooperation of
local hospitals and institutions. Even with such help, however, the
physical difficulties in carrying out some kinds of research are
considerable. Investigation of the biochemistry of schizophrenia,
for example, is made possible only by daily trips of twenty-five
miles to the Crease Clinic.
Because it is unlikely that the new medical sciences building
will be ready before I960, the Faculty of Medicine cannot hope
for much improvement in its facilities until that time.
I regret to report that Dean Myron M. Weaver, who had been
in charge of the Faculty since its inception, was forced to retire
this year because of ill-health. We were fortunate in being able
to replace him with Dean J. W. Patterson, who comes to us from
Western Reserve in Cleveland. Dean Weaver earned the regard
and affection of both the University and the profession for the
sure foundation which he gave to the new faculty.
The Faculty of Pharmacy is now moving from the initial
phase of organization to the undertaking of more and more impor-
18 tant work not directly connected with teaching. This year members
of the Faculty collaborated with officials of the B. C. Pharmaceutical Association in the revision of the Association's by-laws
and of the poison and restricted drug schedules. They assisted the
Canadian Pharmaceutical Association in a study of the problems
connected with inter-provincial licens ing of pharmacists in Canada,
and they took part in negotiations with the American Association
of Colleges of Pharmacy and the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education for the purpose of discussing better mutual
understanding of standards and tpe possibility of a plan of
accreditation of Canadian colleges.
Refresher courses for practising pharmacists were offered at
Qualicum Beach and Victoria, and symposia on antibiotics and
hypertension were organized in Vancouver. Innovations for
students this year included a course in civil defence training and
a new regulation demanding a certificate in First Aid as a requirement for graduation.
The Faculty of Forestry continues to play an important
part in the preservation of our timber resources and in the study
of the best use of the current yield. Although new industries are
being established in the Province, it cannot be overemphasized that
half our wealth still comes directly from the forest. Helped by the
forest industry, and in cooperation with the provincial and federal
forest services, the Faculty carries out an active program of research
and instruction. This year a full-time Research Forester was
appointed for the first time, and we hope to employ full-time
research assistants at the University Research Forest at Haney, and
on the campus. By the appointments of such assistants — sub-
professional technicians — the Research Forester will be able to
expand the scope and continuity of the research program.
In addition to research and teaching, the Faculty works in
close collaboration with the forest industry so that we may train
the kind of men needed. With this in mind, we are considering the
introduction of a "logging" option in the B.S.F. course. Too few
students are entering Forest Engineering to satisfy the demands of
the Province. By providing more of |:he basic engineering subjects
as options in the B.S.F. curriculum, we may be able to do more
19 to meet the steady demand for men who can do the engineering
work in logging operations.
In the last two years the enrolment in First Year Forestry has
increased from 26 to 53. We expect this increase to continue
steadily until we have about 100 students in first year, plus the
students in Forest Engineering. With that increase in mind, we
have been discussing the possibility of a common building for the
use of the Faculties of Forestry and Agriculture. These two
faculties already work together, and much might be gained by a
common location.
The Faculty of Law continues to attract a considerable
number of those students who make a major contribution to
Student government. This is of course not unexpected because of
the relation of law to government and of the tendency of lawyers
to be politically active. Further, the enrolment is growing again.
This year, with 100 students in first year we have a total of 230
in law. But a school cannot be judged by numbers alone, any
more than it can be judged solely by the routine professional work
of its graduates. I am happy to report that legal research is proceeding at a satisfactory rate for a young institution. This year, for
example, investigations were continued in narcotics and labor
legislation. Research in law requires extensive library facilities,
and it is good to be able to report that our Law Library is growing
satisfactorily. This year we were extremely fortunate in being given
a set of the Statutes of Newfoundland from 1890 to date. These
volumes are very rare, and we now have at U.B.C. one of the very
few relatively complete collections of these statutes.
The School of Commerce this year became the Faculty
of Commerce and Business Administration, with Professor E. D.
MacPhee as its first dean. The new Faculty offers programmes of
study leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Commerce and Master
of Business Administration, as well as a number of Certificates and
Diploma Courses. The demand for these latter courses, which are
held in the evenings and after the regular Winter Session has
ended, may be judged from the present registration of over 1400
students.
The programme for the B. Comm. degree has been developed
20 over a number of years, and its general pattern is now firmly established. The first three years of the five year course are devoted to
laying a foundation in related sciences and humanities and to introducing the student to the basic problems, principles and practices of
business. The professional aspects of the curriculum are largely
concentrated in the last two years. Because of the number and
variety of techniques and practices involved, it has ben found
necessary to specify a "core" of courses which all students must
take, and then to arrange a series of selected and integrated programmes, known as options, in one of which each student must
register. At present the Faculty offers fourteen options, including
such specializations as Accounting, Production, Science, Teaching,
Forestry, Hospital Administration and Law. This year the Faculty
developed a programme for Teacher Training (Commercial) on
behalf of the Faculty and College of Education.
The Library
There are many standards by which a university library can be
measured, none of them complete in itself. The number of books
bought and the number of books taken out must be considered in
relation to the total number of students. The holdings in any particular field of study must be measured against those of other
reputable universities, and the number of inter-library loans to
other institutions balanced against those borrowed from other
institutions. And in addition to these quantitative criteria, one must
consider the men and women who staff the library.
By most of these standards, I am happy to report that the
Library is gaining ground as fast as a distinguished and dedicated
staff can manage it. While there is no doubt that we shall need
massive expenditures if we are to maintain the library's position
in the next decade, there is much satisfaction in the progress it is
making.
This year 20,946 volumes, including 9,951 bound volumes of
journals, 31,071 recorded but uncatalogued items received from
governmental and international agencies, 2,413 maps, and sizable
unprocessed additions in Oriental languages and for the "Faculty
and College of Education" were added to the Library. The number
21 of volumes borrowed at the Main Desk increased about 6,000 over
last year. For the first time loans to other institutions were more
than double the number of items borrowed.
There is less comfort in a study of periodical literature, essential in a university. Although 203 new journal subscriptions were
taken this year and attempts were made to fill existing gaps in our
present holdings, it is still true that the legitimate requirements of
departments are far from being adequately met.
The professional staff of the Library continues to demonstrate
that there is much more to being a good librarian than handing
books over a counter. Lectures were given in such diverse studies
as English, music, medicine and agriculture; studies of library holdings and needs were carried out; bibliographies, those indispensable
tools of scholars, were compiled; and plans for the training of
librarians were considered.
The Library has always been much indebted to private donors,
men and women, industries and foundations, for many of it finest
collections. Its library of Canadiana is founded upon the eminent
collections given by Judge F. W. Howey and Dr. Robie L. Reid.
Slavonic Studies collections have been made possible by the generous assistance of the Rockefeller Foundation, supported by continuing grants from Mr. Walter C. Koerner. Forestry and many
other materials have been provided for a number of years by Dr.
H. R. MacMillan, and library resources in medicine owe much
to the cooperation of the Vancouver General Hospital and its
affiliated health and research agencies.
This year saw the founding of The Friends of the Library
under the Chairmanship of Dr. Wallace Wilson "to develop the
library resources of the University of British Columbia and to
provide opportunity for persons interested in the Library, and for
its benefactors to express their interests more effectively." Dr. J.
N. L. Myres, the Librarian of the famed Bodleian, who was present
at the establishment of the group, called attention to the very high
value which Sir Thomas Bodley, founder of Oxford's great library,
put upon its friends. It is to the "imagination, generosity, and
foresight of the 'great store of honourable friends' that the future
greatness of this library and indeed all our great libraries may
well rest."
22 Public Occasions
The Autumn Congregation was held on October 28, 1955, in
the Women's Gymnasium. The ceremony marked the Twenty-fifth
Anniversary of the first courses in Social Work at this university.
Honorary degrees were conferred upon Zella May Collins, George
Forrester Davidson, Richard Edward Gillmor Davis, Amy Gordon
Hamilton, and Eileen Louise Younghusband. Dr. Younghusband
delivered the Congregation address.
The Board of Governors' Reception was held on March 24,
1956. Special Guests were Dean H. F. Angus, Dr. Frank Dickson,
Mr. J. D. Lee, Dr. A. P. Maslow, and Mr. S. C. Morgan, all of
whom retired this year after many years of dedicated service to the
university.
The Spring Congregation was held on May 14 and 15, 1956.
On the first day Honorary degrees were conferred on Henry Forbes
Angus, Frank Cyril James, and Jessie Louise McLenaghen; on the
second on Thomas Ingledow, Hector John MacLeod, and William
George Swan.
In addition to the public occasions which recur each year as
part of the life-cycle of the university, there are many brought
about by the visit of some distinguished person. It is common, on
such occasions, to see students and staff of all faculties gathered
together to listen to the visitor. This year many distinguished men
and women came to the campus, among them Her Royal Highness
The Princess Royal, His Excellency M. A. Rauf, High Commissioner for India, the Hon. George Drew, Mr. Aaron Copland, Sir
Richard Watson-Watt, Dr. E. G. Malherbe, His Excellency R.
Douglas Stuart, U. S. Ambassador to Canada, Mr. J. B. Priestley
and Sir Herbert Read.
Obituaries
I record with sorrow the deaths of the following members of
staff during the year and on behalf of all their colleagues I
acknowledge the University's debt for devoted services.
Dr. G. N. Tucker, Professor, History—May 21, 1955.
Dr. Donald Buckland, Associate Professor,
Biology and Botany — February 15, 1956.
Mr. P. D. Isaak, Lecturer, Slavonic Studies — June 9, 1956.
Mr. D. E. McTaggart, Q.C., Lecturer in Law—May 12, 1956.
23 Epilogue
As I look back through this report and through the reports of
the individual departments to me, I am only too conscious of how
few of their many achievements I have been able to record. But I
am also conscious that I have omitted an equal number of their
needs. Department after department reports that it is short of
space, secretarial help, staff, graduate assistants, and equipment.
My conclusion is very brief. We cannot continue in our present
state if we are to be a university worthy of this Province. To serve
the present students as they deserve, we need more money. To
expand so that we may serve their younger brothers and sisters, we
need very much more money. The only alternative is a curtailment
of our activities.
24 Summary of Revenue and Expenditure
April 1, 1955 to March 31, 1956
Revenue
%
Government of Canada Grant
$   604,476.00
8.89
Provincial Government Grant
2,920,000.00
42.96
Student Fees
1,592,198.19
23.43
University Extension
98,042.39
1.44
Services and Rentals
54,618.96
.80
Other Income
22,092.15
.32
Gifts, Grants and Endowment Income
1,230,667.56
18.11
$6,522,095.25
95.95
Miscellaneous
217,988.71
3.21
Ancillary Enterprises (Net)
57,142.53
.84
$6,797,226.49
100.00
Expenditure
Educational:
%
Academic Faculties, Departments and
Associated Academic Services
$4,066,782.13
59.83
Administration and Non-Academic
Services
1,446,938.76
21.29
Fellowships, Scholarships, Prizes and
Bursaries
215,511.71
3.17
Research
741,641.45
10.91
$6,470,874.05
95.20
Building Construction from Current
Funds
326,352.44
4.80
$6,797,226.49
100.00
25 SOURCES OF REVENUE
Government of Canda Grant
Provincial Government Grant
Student Fees
University Extension
Services and Rentals
Other Income
Gifts, Grants and Endowment Income
Miscellaneous
Ancillary Enterprises (Net)
500,000
1.000,000.
1 500,000
2.000.000
3.00U.OO0
4,000,000 EXPENDITURE
Educational: Academic Faculties,
Departments and Associated
Academic Services
Administration and Non-Academic
Services
Fellowships. Scholarships,
Prizes and Bursaries
Research
Building Construction from
Current Funds
500,000
1,000,000
1,500.000
2,000,000
3,000,000
4,000,000 PHOTa    l*V   S.   C.   RTAD

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