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Report of the University Librarian to the Senate 1974-01

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 REPORT
of the
UNIVERSITY
LIBRARIAN
to the SENATE
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA LIBRARY
Vancouver 1972-73
58th year The Report
of the University Librarian
to the Senate
58th Year
September 1972 to August 1973
Vancouver
January 1974 TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.  Review 1
II.  The Physical Library 3
III.  Public Services 7
1. Branches, Divisions, Subject Collections          7
2. Reading Rooms 13
3. Copying 14
IV.  Collections 15
Funds 15
2. Collections 17
3. Systems and Processing 20
4. Use 22
V,  Administration 24
1  Expenditures 24
2.  Personnel 25
Appendix A  Library Expenditures 26
B  Size of Collections - Physical Volumes 27
C  Growth of Collections 28
D  Recorded Use of Library Resources 29
E  Reference Statistics 32
F  Reference Publications 33
G  Library Organization 37
H  Library Supported Reading Rooms 40
I  Senate Library Committee 42 I.  Review.
In the history of any institution there are significant events which
act as points of departure, determining the course of future development
From the vantage point of the Library's fifty-eighth year there have been
three such events in recent history, all of which occurred in 1965.
In February of that year, Mr. H.R. MacMillan donated three million
dollars to be used exclusively for the development of library collections.
This gift enabled the Library to respond to a number of important changes
in its environment. It came at a time when the University was expanding
rapidly in programme, curriculum and enrollment, when higher education
was being decentralized in the province, and when the world's educational
presses were pouring out materials in unprecedented quantities. The
impetus given to collection development by Mr. MacMillan has been sustained
by the University, with the result that U.B.C. Library has trebled in size
to become Canada's second largest, and is a major resource not just for
its own complex university but for all of higher education in the province,
for the community, and for the nation.
In October 1965, after a year of preparation, a computer-based system
for the lending of library materials went into operation.  It marked the
introduction of the principles of automation into the working routines of
the library. Over the years other service-oriented and economical systems
were introduced, reducing the amount of tedious manual work in which both
users and staff were involved, and decentralizing records. Experiments in
the use of the computer for information retrieval led to the development
of services which rely not on the printed word but on machine-readable data. Because these changes have been brought about smoothly, and because the
Library opted for practical though unsensational computer applications,
the importance of the computer to the success of library services is
often overloooked. The machine is simply taken for granted.
Finally, in November of 1965, the Senate and the Board of Governors
approved a policy, dealing with branch libraries and reading rooms, which
was the fruit of nearly four years of work and consideration. It provided
a framework within which the present system of branch libraries and reading
rooms has been developed, and reversed a policy of centralization which
had prevailed during the first half-century of the library's history. The
intervening years have seen the completion of two major branch libraries,
the Woodward Library and the Sedgewick Library, the development of a number of smaller branch libraries and associated reading rooms, and the
beginning of construction of others. As collections were moved out of the
Main Library and closer to users, reference services were improved and
elaborated.
It is against this background that the events of the single year,
reported in the following pages, can best be interpreted and understood. II.     The Physical Library.
a. Sedgewick Library.
On January 3, 1973, the new Sedgewick Library opened its doors.  In
the space of a few days, thousands of students had made it their preferred
place of work. Thus ended more than a decade of seating shortages for
undergraduate students, which at its worst in the mid nineteen sixties had
seen them wandering hopelessly through overcrowded libraries and finally
settling to work on floors and in stairwells. That the building was
functionally a success should have come as no surprise, since the programme
for its design had been drawn up from surveys and questionnaires relating
to student attitudes and behavior. The architecture of the building was
also favourably received both within and outside the University.  The
annual meeting of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada selected it
as the best building of 1973, and an eminent critic of library architecture
who believes that it is one of the best three library buildings in North
America, stated that "recognition will come swiftly from abroad, and
Sedgewick will be a seminal influence in the design of new library buildings
during the coming years." However, it was an anonymous student who posted
a note which summed up the general campus attitude: "Great place
about time!"
b. Main Library .
The old Sedgewick quarters in the Koerner wing of the Main Library
having been vacated, readjustments took place throughout the ensuing spring
and summer to alleviate crowding and to provide better conditions for both
users and staff in the Main Library. The Map Division, which had been located in the Special Collections
reading area, moved to the upper level of the old Sedgewick space,
for expansion was thus provided in a location which was more readily
accessible to users. For its part, the Special Collections Division
regained seats for its increasing numbers of users.
The Asian Studies Division, formerly on the sixth level of the Main
Library stacks, moved into the old Sedgewick stacks and offices; this
provided some temporary relief to its problems, but not enough space to
enable it to bring back from storage a large block of its collections
The Catalogue Preparations Division was relocated in the lower level
of the old Sedgewick Library. Although this separated the Division
the rest of the Processing Divisions by six stack levels, thereby complicating the flow of materials and communications, insufferable working
conditions made the move essential.
The space vacated by the Asian Studies Division afforded an opportunity to expand the collections on the remaining floors of the stacks.
Unfortunately, some of the most crowded areas were on the first stack
level, whereas the available space was on the sixth. This necessitated
the moving of the whole collection, a time consuming and expensive
which had not been completed by the end of the summer
In order to provide accurate information for planning purposes, all
library spaces and collections were measured during the summer. At the end
of August, there were 18,498 linear»feet of shelving into which collections
in the Main Library stacks could expand.  It is known that the collection
in the Main Library stacks grows at the rate of approximately 5,500 linear
feet a year. Thus the stacks will be filled by the end of 1976.  By that time, however, it is hoped that the Asian Studies Centre will be completed,
and that the Processing Divisions on stack level seven will have moved, and
the released space will have been filled with stacks.  If this hope is
realized, an additional 31,000 linear feet of shelving will be made avail
able; since part of this must also be taken up with government publications, microforms, and other special collections of materials not included
in the stack collection proper, the shelf life of the Main Library stacks
will be increased by another three to four years. This extension of the
stack capacity will not be without cost for>during these years the entire
collection will have to be moved several times
c. Asian Studies Library.
In February the Board of Governors approved a site for the Asian
Studies Centre adjacent to the Nitobe Memorial Garden and in April approved
the functional program, enabling the architect to proceed with the planning
of the building  By the end of the summer, design of the interior arrangements had approached completion.  It seemed possible that construction could
begin in late 1973 or early 1974
d. Processing Building.
In the late spring the University set up committees to develop plans
for new space for the Library Processing Divisions. The greater part of
the processing and systems staff is located on stack level seven of the
Main Library and other units are scattered throughout the building,  It
was hoped that they could be brought together in a single space designed
to facilitate their work and to offer operational economies. Over the
summer the committees and a planning consultant were working on a functional
programme for the new  space. e. Law Library.
Construction of the Faculty of Law building began in May, and it was
proposed that the facility would be ready for occupancy by the fall term
of 1974.  In the intervening year, faculty and students are enduring the
inconvenience caused by the separation of offices and classrooms, temporarily located in old residences on the north side of Marine Drive
the Library, which will remain in its original place until the new library
building is completed. The old library must then be hurriedly vacated so
that it can be remodelled and incorporated into the new structure.
f, Future Development.
Yet, despite the recent growth of the library system, the level of
library service available to students and faculty throughout the campus
is not uniform.  For those groups served by a major branch library, like
the Woodward, Sedgewick or future Law libraries, conditions are good,
are equally good in some of the smaller specialized branch libraries, like
Music and Mathematics.  But, in terms of physical accommodation and easy
access to services and collections, conditions are substandard for some
large groups of users, particularly in the sciences and education. Moreover, before 1980 all of the smaller branch libraries will be out of space
for collections, and the Main Library will be filled to capacity by about
that date. To raise library services generally, to provide space for
expansion of collections in new space, and in the Main Library, to provide
space to which smaller branches can retire material to storage as they reach
capacity, branch libraries for science and for education are needed before
the end of the present decade. III. Public Services.
1.  Branches, Divisions and Subject Collections.
Level of Use.
In 1972/73 enrollment in the winter session dropped to 19,166, the
lowest figure since 1967/68. Use of library resources levelled off, with
circulation of materials from the Main Library declining by 3.7% and from
the Branch Libraries and Reading Rooms by a fraction of a percentage point.
However, reference librarians responded to nearly 15% more inquiries
Paradoxically, part of the decline in borrowing could be attributed
to the success of the Sedgewick Library.  For the first time, ample seating
provided in the same area as the collections enabled students to use Sedgewick books without charging them out. As a result, though total use of
Sedgewick books increased greatly, the number of loans from the Sedgewick
collection dropped by nearly 6%. At the same time, because of increased
use of Sedgewick collections in their new setting, loans from the Main
Library stacks dropped by 8%.  Reference statistics similarly reflected the
change in balance between the two libraries, increasing by 4% in the Main
Library and 58% in the Sedgewick.  Since the Sedgewick Library was open for
only half the term, statistics at the end of August 1974 will probably
reflect more accurately the extent of the change in levels of use between
the two facilities, a change which provides better conditions for users of
both libraries.
The greatest increase in lending occurred in the Woodward Biomedical
Library, where approximately 35,000 more items were lent than in the previous year. Much of the increase appeared to result from growing interest
in the life sciences on the part of students in other disciplines and from greater emphasis on the use of periodical literature in undergraduate courses.
The continued success of the Woodward Library in stimulating greater use of
the life sciences literature argues strongly for a similar improvement in
library service to other scientific disciplines at U.B.C
If the lending of library materials did not increase significantly,
the use of reference services did. More than a quarter of a million directional, reference and research questions were dealt with by the public
service units of the library system, an increase of 14.9% over the previou:
year.  (See Appendix E)  Analysis of monthly statistics showed, not
surprisingly, that queries were most numerous in November and March, when
term papers are being written, and least numerous in December and June.
The only branch deviating significantly from this pattern was the Curriculum Laboratory, with high points reflecting the activity of the annual
practicum period.
Compared with U.B.C. Library's 254,270 questions, Simon Fraser University Library received 51,628 and the University of Victoria Library
37,310 in the same period. On a per capita basis as well, U.B.C.'s figures
are higher (13.2, 11.2 and 8.5 respectively), and this can probably be
attributed to the size and degree of decentralization of U.B.C.'s- collections.  Evidence that the latter factor is particularly significant can be
seen in the very substantial increases in branch library reference statistics.
b.  Communications.
The figures above relate to inquiries made in person, and do not include
written questions.  During the year, the Main and Sedgewick Libraries introduced FEEDBACK, a simple system wherein students ask questions or make
complaints on slips of paper, place them in a box, and return to read a reply which is posted, with the question, on a bulletin board placed conspicuously
in a major traffic path. FEEDBACK has proved to be both popular and
efficient, and has provided an opportunity for the Library to respond to
concerns which students were unable or unwilling to express in a face-to-
face situation, while at the same time enabling the exchange to be shared
with a wide readership, the FEEDBACK boards having become a locus for
leisure browsing.  In general, questions are asked about difficult citations
and hard to find items, whereas the complaints are about hours of service,
loan periods and, especially in the Main Library, physical conditions.
Users' comments were particularly helpful to the Information and Orientation
Division in its attempt to make libraries, and again particularly the complex Main Library, easier for students to use.
c. Publications.
A looseleaf format was adopted for the presentation of general information about library services, enabling students to assemble the collection
of guides needed for their individual purposes.  Five new titles were added
to the Reference Guide series, and a new series was begun, single-sheet
basic guides to specific topics of current interest  All items in this
new series were given the title Start Here, and dealt with topics ranging
from Hinduism to Submersibles.  In Appendix F, a complete list of these
publications is provided, impressive in its scope and length.  Six issues
of U.B.C. Library News were published, one of which was a new guide to the
use of the Library for faculty members. And for newcomers and other who
continue to get lost in the stacks, colourful new signs and directories
were prepared and posted wherever confusion seemed likely to occur. 10
d. Computer-based Services.
These days reference service is not confined to the use of the printed
word. Machine readable data bases are being exploited to search for citations and to make users aware of library resources in their areas of
interest.  During the past year, all library divisions and branches have
offered to compile "interest profiles" for groups of faculty members and
graduate students, and for individuals. Each month, these profiles are
run against the records of books catalogued by the Library, and personalized listings of materials are produced.  By the end of August, seventy-
two such profiles had been constructed, and new profiles were being added
at the rate of a dozen a month.
At the Woodward Library, a terminal was connected to the U.S. National
Library of Medicine's MEDLINE system, which permits on-line searches of the
literature of the health and many of the life sciences. This service has
proved particularly effective in handling questions in clinical medicine,
and most inquiries to the system come from health science personnel in
the Lower Mainland who are not associated with the University. The installation is supported by a grant from the Woodward Foundation,
The Science Division continues to offer a similar off-line service for
other sciences, through the National Science Library of Canada's CAN/SDI
system.  Currently forty-seven profiles, representing about three hundred
individual users, are being used to search the system's data bases. The
National Science Library is planning to set up an on-line system in its
next stage of development
The files in the Data Library, now in its second year of operation
were accessed 987 times. The collection consists of 253 data study files, 11
recorded on about 75 tapes. This does not sound like a large collection,
until one understands that it would take 400,000 punched cards to contain
the information held on one tape. Put another way, a file of cards
containing the present collection would measure about three and a half
miles.  A catalogue of this collection is available,
e.  Recordings.
The use of sound recordings has become a more significant aspect of
the library's services. As a result of moving into larger and more conspicuous quarters in the new Sedgewick Library, the Wilson Recordings
Collection experienced a 42% increase in loans, and a quadrupling of
listeners.  Furthermore, its location within Sedgewick has permitted
closer relationships to develop between academic programmes and relevant
recorded materials. Demand by students for greater access to recordings
led to the extension of evening service and the opening of the Wilson
area on Sunday afternoons.
At the Crane Library, funding from the Department of Manpower's Local
Initiatives Project permitted the recording of hundreds of books and articles
required by blind and partially sighted students, and by another group of
students, those handicapped by dyslexia and related problems with reading.
These tapes and cassettes have been widely borrowed and copied by other
universities and schools in Canada, multiplying the effect of the LIP grant,
(Of 29,361 loans, 19,970, or 68% were to libraries and individuals off campus)
This federal programme, which is too often unfairly maligned, also assisted
in the creation and maintenance of an Oral History Project, which has done
much to record the recollections of British Columbia's pioneers.
So various and numerous are the facets of the services offered by the
Branches and Divisions that it would take a separate report to cover them. 12
Suffice it to say that the reason U.B.C. Library enjoys one of the highest
use rates among academic libraries on the continent may be found in the
excellence of its reference services. 13
2.  Reading Rooms.
For four years the Library through its Reading Rooms Division has been
cooperating with Faculties and Departments in the development and maintenance of reading rooms. There are now forty-two  reading rooms on
campus, the only addition to the total in 1972/73 being the Adult Education
Reading Room located in the President's House. During the year some
reading rooms moved to new locations: Audiology to the new James Mather
Building, Anthropology - Sociology from the Angus Building to a hut on
West Mall.  In preparation is an expanded reading room for the Faculty of
Commerce,
The reading rooms contain 79,830 volumes and carry 2,654 subscriptions
and continuations. To put that in perspective, the Woodward Library collection was about that size a few years ago.
Total university expenditures on behalf of reading room collections
amounted to $94,571, up approximately 13% over the previous year,  Much of
increase could be traced to the rise in the cost of subscriptions
alone; for virtually the same number of subscriptions it was necessary to
pay 33% more.  Since funds available for the maintenance of library and
reading room collections are not growing at a rate sufficient to offset
staggering inflationary increases, consideration may have to be given
to the cancellation of some titles in the future 14
3. Copying■
Possibly reflecting the decline in enrollment, the increase in the
use of copying machines was slight: only 0.8% compared to 36.6% in the
previous year. The total number of copies made was 2,612,414 of which
1,609,528 were made by or on behalf of library users. In 1971/72 this
figure stood at 1,653,110; clearly, there were fewer fingers around to
press PRINT buttons.
Most librarians take the position that the making of single copies
of a few pages of a journal or a book falls within the concept of "fair-
dealing", and is not an infringement of copyright. On the other hand,
publishers' and authors' organizations continued to inveigh against librarians, educators and copy machine manufacturers, and collected examples
of practices which they branded as illegal, immoral, piratical, and uneconomical. Unquestionably, infringement is taking place, and the individual
instructor is more often the culprit than the library. To find a way to
correct this situation is not easy: despite the amount of concentration
this subject has been given, no country has yet come up with a solution
which protects the interests of both the creators and the consumers.  The
Ontario Royal Commission on Book Publishing, having investigated the subject, made a sensible recommendation:
"We would favour a wide-ranging, federally sponsored program of
research studies into photocopying practices in which specialists
representing all the fields affected could be directly involved
and adequately represented - specialists, that is, in the art of
writing, publishing, manufacturing, bookselling, librarianship,
as well as law and economics." 1
Such research would put an end to hypothesizing, unwarranted claims
and name-calling, and develop a base of information upon which fair and just
arrangements could be constructed.
1.  Ontario.  Royal Commission on Book Publishing.  Canadian Publishers and
Canadian Publishing.  Toronto, Queen's Printer, 1973. p. 276 15
IV,  Collections.
1  Funds.
After years of rapidly rising book prices, it is surprising to discover that the prices of hardcover books published in the United States and
the United Kingdom dropped last year; the respective declines were from
$13.25 to $12.991 and from £3.27 to £2.992.  it appears that these averages
have been affected by the fact that publishers issued fewer works costing
over $40 and fewer costly hardcover reprints. Nevertheless, there seems
to be some stabilization in the price of books.
The same can not be said of journals. Journals published in the U.S.
and Canada increased in cost by 11.1%, United Kingdom journals by 13.8%
and journals published in the rest of the world by 23.2% . Since almost
a third of the Library's expenditures on materials is committed to periodicals and continuations, these increases were bound to make their effect
felt, and a new approach to journals, described below, was attempted.
Even more serious was an event which had nothing to do with publishing
itself: the revaluation of currencies which took place in the spring of
1973. Using the previous year's payments in sterling, Deutsch marks, Francs
and Guilders as a base for comparison, the loss to the Library's collection
budget was estimated at $52,155.  In the fall of 1971, revaluation accounted
for another loss of $27,089. To alleviate this situation at least partially,
1. "1972 U.S. book industry statistics: titles, prices, sales trend."
Publishers Weekly, v. 203 no. 6, February 5, 1973, p. 49.
2. "Average book prices".  Library Association Record, v. 75 no. 8
August 1973, p. 159.
3. Merriman, J.B.  "Comparative index to periodical prices." Library
Association Record, v. 75 no. 8, August 1973. p. 157. 16
virtually all of the increase to the Library's operating budget for 1973/74
was committed to collections, but the increase of $35,000 will obviously
not maintain the accession rate. Within the budget, allocations had to
be redistributed to provide, in addition to the increase, an amount sufficient to meet commitments for periodicals, government publications and
other current publications. Funds for retrospective purchasing, reading
rooms, branch libraries, and multiple copies were reduced in order to
ensure that essential new materials are added to the collections. 17
2. Collections.
On a Sunday in the fall of 1954 volunteers from the library staff
returned to carry out what they called The Great Book Count. At the end
of the day, they proclaimed that the collection contained 304,000 volumes,
and established a base to which annual accessions and withdrawals have
been added and subtracted since. No count has been taken in the intervening years, and the total inventories of those less complicated times
have been abandoned.  By 1973 it was thought, on the basis of volumes
added to the stacks every year, that the collection of physical volumes
exceeded a million and a half
During the summer of 1973, every linear foot of shelving in the
ibrary system was measured.  So were the volumes on every shelf; volumes
out on loan were taken into account.  For each part of the classification,
sampling methods were used to arrive at an average figure for volumes per
linear foot. These figures have been used, in Appendix B, to arrive at
an estimate of the size of the collection of physical volumes as of the
end of August  1,502,746.  This figure falls short of that which would
result by adding last year's accessions to the previous year's supposed
holdings. Although partial inventories have been made of heavily used
sections of the collection, in the absence of a complete inventory it is
not known how many books are missing from the collections, and of those
how many are in the category of being temporarily missing. The estimates
of volumes-per-foot are rough, and this could have an effect on the
accuracy of the results  Ultimately, there is no substitute for a physical
count of the collections, but since this is impossible, the figure above
is being adopted as a statement of collection size at the end of this
report year. A system has been set up to keep a precise and automatic 18
count of physical volumes added to each collection. By the time of the
next annual report it is expected that the size and growth figures will
be entirely accurate
Additions to the collections are reported in Appendix C.  In terms
of physical volumes, 136,626 new items were added, about ten thousand
fewer than in the previous year; this is a direct result of the diminished
purchasing power of the collections budget. Microforms and documents were
also acquired in smaller quantities.  In comparison to U.B.C, libraries
at the University of Toronto and the University of Alberta added 252,156
volumes and 152,209 volumes respectively,
The mounting costs of periodical subscriptions called for special
measures. A system for limiting the number of subscriptions was devised:
no new subscriptions were authorized unless a title or titles in the same
field and of equivalent costs were cancelled. This approach has forced
the examination of some multiple subscriptions and some of marginal interest
or low frequency of use. At the same time, librarians from U.B.C, Simon
Fraser University and the University of Victoria checked with each other
before placing subscriptions (as well as before placing orders for any
expensive materials) and began an exhaustive comparison of periodical
holdings, with a view to reducing duplication and triplication. U.B.C.
is also participating in a new programme at the Center for Research Libraries in Chicago; with a special grant of $450,000 provided by the
Carnegie Foundation, the Center is subscribing to a selected list of titles
and will act as a backstop resource for its member libraries. Canada's
own National Library and National Science Library are also acting in a
similar role. Thus although access might not be as quick for some titles
as it has been in the past, nevertheless access is guaranteed. So far, 19
users of the Library have not been inconvenienced greatly by the measures
that have been taken.
However, limiting the number of subscriptions is only a partial
solution. The escalation of costs may force a more severe pruning of
lists, and particularly of duplicate subscriptions, in the near future.
As for the collecting of monographs, microforms and other kinds of
library materials, tighter selection principles have been introduced. One
effect of this was immediately noticeable in the Interlibrary Loan Division
where borrowings from other libraries of recently printed books jumped
dramatically. Under the circumstances, the Library is more than usually
concerned about the effects of the introduction of new programmes which
have as one of their requirements large quantities of books and journals
in fields where the collection is presently weak 20
3.  Systems and Processing.
With a lower accession rate, it followed naturally that the outputs
of the Processing Divisions diminished. About ten thousand fewer items
were processed.  In connection with order procedures, some 124,179 titles
were verified, compared to the previous year's 144,749. Card set production dropped from 98,310 to 83,827. This situation had the beneficial
effect of reducing the card production and filing backlog which has
plagued the Library since the middle sixties, and which is now almost
eliminated. The Processing Divisions are now virtually free of unmanageable backlogs, except for Asian materials. The processing of these
materials was transferred from the Asian Studies Division to Processing
Divisions where staff members can work on them full time, uninterrupted by
the demands of public service.
The installation of a library mini-computer in July of 1972, combined
with a changeover in the Data Processing Centre from one computer to another
brought about a period of re-programming and the upgrading of systems. The
new equipment opened up the possibility of on-line systems, and the groundwork is being laid for the direct entering of acquisitions and serials
information from the processing sections of the Main, Woodward and Law
Libraries.  In the hope of improving the circulation system, a consultant
has been employed to look into the feasibility of custom-constructed terminals, the commercially available terminals not offering all the features
which would be desirable.
The systems staff contributed to a project of national significance;
under contractual arrangements with the National Library of Canada and the
University of Toronto Press, it created the data base and produced the
proof photo-typset copy of the first edition of the Canadian Serials Directory. This immense work, listing about eight thousand Canadian public- 21
ations in serial form, was the work of Stephen Johnson, Research Bibliographer; it brings together for the first time exhaustive information
about Canada's periodical literature.  It is a companion to Canadian
Books in Print, the first edition of which was also compiled by a U.B.C.
staff member, Rita Butterfield, Head, Circulation Division. These two
librarians have made an impressive contribution to the country's literature
by tracking it down, listing it, and thereby encouraging its distribution
and availability in bookstores and libraries,
On May 31st, the Library Bindery went out of operation, after an
existence of over two decades. A combination of circumstances brought
about this unwanted closure, all of them centering on the issue of unit
costs of binding.  First, the Bindery was equipped to provide a high
standard of sewn, hard bound volumes, and the Library had need of other
types of less expensive binding. Second, in order to diversify the product,
it would have been necessary to purchase more equipment, and no funds could
be found for this. Third, even if the new equipment could have been purchased, there was no physical space in which to set it down and use it
Fourth, existing equipment was wearing out, and newer, more automated equipment would have been needed to keep costs level and maintain productivity,
Fifth, a significant increase in unit costs was predictable, arising out
of expected increases in labour and supplies. Two months later, in competitive bidding, a unit cost was obtained from a commercial binder which
was lower than that of the previous year.  Nevertheless, a thorough investigation is being made of the Library's present and future binding requirements, to discover whether it would be practical to reopen an expanded
bindery if circumstances relating to space and funds for equipment made this
possible. 22
4. Use.
Overall use of library resources, recorded in full in Appendix D
rose by a single percentage point. It has already been pointed out,
however, that borrowings from the Library's subject collections and
branches declined slightly. Statistically, this was offset by increases
in interlibrary loans and in the use of recordings, now more accessible
in the Sedgewick Library building.
Interlibrary lendings and borrowings, although they account for
less than two percent of total library use, are useful indicators of
developing relationships among libraries. U.B.C.'s dependence on other
libraries increased; this was attributable to such factors as a reduction
in acquisitions of new books, and the assignment to graduate students of
thesis topics for which the Library is not adequately stocked.  Simon
Fraser University borrowed fewer original items and took fewer photocopies.
This was probably due to the increasing strength of that Library's collections, and an inexplicable decrease in the use of the Library at S.F.U.
The University of Victoria placed a limit on the number of sheets of
photocopy which a student could obtain for nothing through interlibrary
loan, and this had the effect of reducing the number of photocopies
acquired, while original materials borrowed rose in numbers.
In the spring of 1973, the groundwork was laid for closer cooperation
among the three local university libraries through the adoption of a
regional interlibrary loan code. While the code did not result in a significant increase in interlibrary borrowing, it did permit greater latitude
in the kinds of material that could be borrowed.  In a number of instances,
the participating libraries have been able to avoid the duplication of
expensive resources, such as the ERIC microfiche, by arranging to share 23
existing resources through interlibrary loan. As users become accustomed
to the use of interlibrary loan as an alternative to individual purchase
of expensive resources, the volume of loans is likely to increase. 24
V,  Administration.
1  Expenditures.
The Library's total expenditures for 1971/72 amounted to $4,992,215,
a 6.7% increase over the previous year. The largest amount of increase
was in the salaries component of the budget, which rose by almost 10%, even
though the staff decreased in size. The percentage of the University's
budget committed to the Library dropped again, from 7.1% in 1971/72 to
6.9% in 1972/73.  The Canadian average last year was 7.16%.  In common
with other Canadian academic libraries, this percentage seems to be
declining gradually. At U.B.C. one percentage point has been lost in
five years; the Library would have been significantly better off under
a system of formula financing which held the percentage at the 1968/69
level of 8%.
The per capita expenditure, based on fall/spring enrollment figures
only, was $260.47, not far off the Canadian average of $267.65; in this
statistic, U.B.C. ranks behind Toronto, Alberta, Simon Fraser and Victoria. 25
2. Personnel.
In 1972/73 the Library establishment consisted of ninety-nine
librarians and three hundred and sixty-six supporting staff, down from
a hundred and one and three hundred and seventy-four in the previous
year. The turnover rate dropped from 42.8% to 41.4%. For the two hundred
and eight vacancies which occurred, there were eight hundred and seventy-
nine persons interviewed; put another way, for each vacant job there were
about four qualified applicants. Six hundred and eighty students were
employed by the library system during the year.
Three divisions of the Library began, with the permission of the
Board of Governors, an experiment in the modified work week. These divisions have set up different kinds of work schedules, and the results of
these on service, productivity, absenteeism, morale and other factors are
being monitored. A report on the experiment is due in early 1974
The Board also approved during the year a Study Leave policy for
appointees other than faculty; under the conditions and terms of this policy,
librarians now have the opportunity of leave to "pursue study or research
of benefit to the individual and the University." 26
APPENDIX A
LIBRARY EXPENDITURES
Fiscal Years, April-March
1970/71     1971/72    1972/73      1973/74*
Salaries § Wages 2,584,069   2,896,602  3,178,630    3,639,747
Books and Periodicals     1,214,875   1,286,401  1,308,537    1,258,933
Binding 126,932     151,501    154,593      177,776
Supplies, Equipment        482,787     346,378    350,455      327,460
4,408,663   4,680,882  4,992,215    5,403,916
* Estimated Expenditures 27
APPENDIX B
SIZE
OF
COLLECTIONS - PHYSICAL VOLUMES
Linear Feet
Vols.
Linear
./
Feet
Est. Vols.
Main Library
General Stacks
73,516
9
661,644
Asian Studies Division
7,850
10
78,500
Fine Arts Division
4,948
8
39,584
Humanities §
Social Science Ref.
4,110
7
28,770
Science Ref.
1,574
7
11,018
Special Collections
4,130
9
37,170
SUBTOTAL
856,686
Branch Libraries and Reading Rooms
Animal Resource Ecology
1,001
7
7,007
Crane Library
768
5
3,840
Curriculum Lab.
2,928
9
26,352
Law Library
10,500
8
84,000
MacMillan Library
2,977
7
20,839
Medical Branch Library
2,245
7
15,715
Mathematics Library
1,507
7
10,549
Music Library
2,111
15
31,665
2
Reading Rooms =
79,830
Sedgewick Library
13,646
9
122,814
Social Work Library
741
9
6,669
Woodward Library
19,369
8
154,952
SUBTOTAL
564,232
Storage
9,092
81,828
TOTAL
1,502,746
1. Includes Reserve Book Collection
2. Actual Count APPENDIX C
GROWTH OF COLLECTIONS
28
March 31 Net Additions  Withdrawals   March 31
1972     1972/73     1972/73      1973
Volumes - Catalogued
Documents
Films and Filmstrips
Microfilm (reels)
Mlcrocard (cards)
Microprint (sheets)
Microfiche (cards)
Maps
Manuscripts
Recordings
569
136,626
737,202      67,510
35,344
111,680
732,500
525,790
80,211
854
28,000
58,980
6,182
1900 Ft.**  105 Ft.**
25,575
2,139
3,646      1,502,746*
804,712
569
36,198
111,680
760,500
584,770
369        86,024
2,005 Ft.**
350        27,364
* Estimate as of August 1973; see Appendix B
** Thickness of Files APPENDIX D
29
Recorded Use of Library Resources
September 1972 - August 1973
GENERAL CIRCULATION
Main Library
General Stack Collection
Reserve Circulation
Asian Studies Division
Fine Arts Division
Government Publications
Map Collections
Special Collections
SUB-TOTAL
1969/70
1970/71
1971/72
1972/73
% Increase/
Decrease over
1971/72
551,450
524,142
542,687
498,656
_
8.1%
41,763
35,839
37,148
37,603
+
1.2%
8,354
7,452
9,076
10,704
+
17.9%
42,360
49,841
59,160
62,749
+
6.1%
61,397
88,756
94,083
103,491
+
10.0%
6,375
8,184
7,939
8,353
+
5.2%
10,809
15,357
12,580
12,681
+
.8%
722,508
729,571
762,673
734,237
- 3.7%
Branch Libraries and
Reading Rooms
Animal Resource Ecology
—
1,997
3,066
4,202
Crane Library
—
22,341
25,117
29,361
Curriculum Laboratory
164,935
215,327
229,448
222,392
Law Library
103,231
122,055
125,493
122,813
MacMillan Library
24,473
28,303
29,517
33,304
Marjorie Smith Library
20,824
18,420
16,270
13,807
Mathematics Library
21,982
18,459
20,763
21,965
Medical Branch Library, VGH
27,811
26,677
29,881
27,483
Music Library
16,379
19,687
20,606
20,679
Reading Rooms
	
52,749
72,063
66,700
Sedgewick Library
502,444
491,241
474,981
446,860
Woodward Biomedical
112,025
122,644
139,716
175,106
SUB-TOTAL
RECORDINGS
Record Collection
Music Library Record Coll
994,104  1,138,900  1,186,921  1,184,672
95,203    108,834    122,219    173,718
26,340     34,259     35,452     34,880
+ 37.1%
+ 16.9%
- 3.1%
- 2.1%
+ 12.8%
- 15.1%
+  5.8%
- 8.0%
+   .35%
- 7.4%
- 5.9%
+ 25.3%
-
0.
2%
+
42.
.1%
-
1.
6%
SUB-TOTAL
121,543
143,093    157,671    208,598
+ 32.3% Appendix D continued.
30
1969/70
1970/71
1971/72
1972/73
EXTENSION LIBRARY
Volumes for Extension
Courses
Drama Collection
SUB-TOTAL
4,940
550
5,490
5,150
560
5,710
5,381
680
6,061
4,757
598
5,355
%Increase/
Decrease over
1971/72
11.6%
12.1%
11.6*
INTERLIBRARY LOANS
1) U.B.C. Interlibrary Loan Units
Original Materials
To Other Libraries 3,474
To B.C. Med. Lib. Service 1,416
From Other Libraries 1,735
From B.C.M.L.S. 382
SUB-TOTAL
Photocopies
To Other Libraries
From Other Libraries
7,007
4,961
1,943
SUB-TOTAL 6,904
2) Special Interlibrary Loan Unit
3,652
1,245
2,037
290
7,224
6,139
2,699
8,838
Original Materials
To Simon Fraser Univ.
1,074
1,200
To Univ. of Victoria
291
191
To B.C. Inst, of Tech.
29
22
SUB-TOTAL
1,394
1,413
Photocopies
To Simon Fraser Univ.
8,402*
4,231
To Univ. of Victoria
868*
1,144
To B.C. Inst, of Tech.
246*
148
4,518
1,321
2,457
412
8,708
6,722
2,901
9,623
1,354
241
52
1,647
5,862
1,137
211
5,027
1,341
4,090
434
10,892
6,923
3,847
10,770
1,270
267
62
1,599
5,228
865
314
+ 11.3%
+ 1.5%
+ 66.5%
+    5.3%
+ 25.1%
+    3.0%
+ 32.6%
+  11.9%
- 6.2%
+ 10.8%
+ 19.2%
- 2.9%
- 10.8%
- 23.9%
+ 48.8%
SUB-TOTAL
9,516
5,523
7,210
6,407
-  11.1% 31
Appendix D continued...
Until 1970, figures represent total request received, rather than requests
filled.
GRAND TOTAL 1,868,466   2,040,272  2,140,514  2,162,530    +  1.0%
(+ 22,016) 32
APPENDIX E
Reference Statistics
(September, 1972 - August, 1973)
Directional Reference
Questions  Questions
Main Library
Asian Studies
855
1,016
1,195
3,066
Fine Arts
4,671
7,088
821
12,580
Government Publications
37
20,529
997
21,563
Humanities
2,637
7,537
541
10,715
Information Desk
15,025
52,640
	
67,665
Map Collection
182
3,372
36
3,590
Science
568
8,572
815
9,955
Social Sciences
950
14,037
1,166
16,153
Special Collections
555
6,559
367
7,481
Research Percentage
Questions  Total Increase/Decrease*
25,480
121,350
5,938
152,768
Branch Libraries
4.2%
Animal Resource Ecology
237
2,581
171
2,989
Crane Library
3,001
1,694
428
5,123
Curriculum Laboratory
3,162
7,276
150
10,588
Law Library
1,404
2,576
1,543
5,523
MacMillan Library
1,238
6,114
234
7,586
Marjorie Smith Library
326
953
135
1,414
Mathematics Library
896
970
184
2,050
Medical Branch Library(VGH)
402
6,960
302
7,664
Music Library
3,399
8,164
971
12,534
Sedgewick Library
6,652
14,067
216
20,935
Woodward Library
6,778
17,514
804
25,096
27,495
68,869
5,138
101,502
+ 35.1%
GRAND TOTALS
52,975
190,219
11,076
254,270
+ 14.9%
* Percentage Increase/Decrease is based on comparison with figures for 8 months
only in 1972. 33
APPENDIX F
REFERENCE PUBLICATIONS
Guide Series.*
1. French language and literature; a selected list. By Florence Weinberg
and Dr. Kurt Weinberg.  1956.  Rev. ed. by Susan Hand, 1964.
2. An annotated list of reference material of interest to students of
geography. By M. Doreen Taylor. 1956.
3. A selected bibliographic guide to German language and literature for
undergraduates.  By Herbert C. Klassen.  1956.
4. A brief list of reference material of interest to students in Agric
ulture 100.  By Anne M. Smith.  1957.  Rev. ed. by M.E. Berry,
Eleanor F. Hoeg, Anna R. Leith, 1963.  2nd Rev. ed. by B.J. Buttery, 1964.
5. A brief list of reference material of interest to commerce students.
By Anne M. Smith.  1957. Rev. ed.by Anne Smith, 1961.  2nd Rev.
ed. by Social Science Division, 1965.
6. A brief list of list of reference material of interest to chemical
engineering students. By Anne M. Smith. 1957. Rev. ed. by Anna
R. Leith, 1962.  2nd Rev. ed. by Jill Buttery, 1966.
7. A brief annotated list of reference material of interest to electrical
engineering students.  By Anne M. Smith.  1958.  Rev. ed. 1960.
8. A brief annotated list of reference material of interest to education
students.  By Anne M. Smith.  1957.  Rev. ed. by Joan O'Rourke,
1964.  2nd Rev. ed. by Lois Carrier, Dr. Joseph Katz, 1967.
9. A brief list of material of interest to home economics students.
By Anne M. Smith.  1957.  Rev. ed. by Anna Leith, 1963.  2nd Rev.
ed. by Ann Nelson, 1967.
10. Books of interest (useful and inexpensive) for teachers of English 91.
By Anne Smith, Melva Dwyer. 1955.
11. Plant science literature; a brief annotated guide for students.  By
Anne Smith.  1956. Rev. ed. by Anna R. Leith, 1962.
12. A short bibliographical key to reference material in the field of
sociology.  By Anne M. Smith.  1958. 34
Appendix F continued..
13. Industrial design; a selected list of books and periodicals.  By Melva
J. Dwyer.  1958.
14. A brief list of reference material of interest to mechanical engineering
students.  By Anne M. Smith.  1959.  Rev. ed. by Anna R. Leith, 1962.
15. Scientific and technical translations and translation bibliographies.
By Anne Brearley. 1961. Rev. ed. by Ena Gaensbauer, 1964.
16. Economics; selected list.
17. A selected list of material on aquatic sciences.  By Anne M. Smith. 1962.
18. A brief list of reference material of interest to forestry students.
By Anne M. Smith.  1962.
19. Reference guide to literature on industrial relations. By Joan O'Rourke.
1964.
20. A selected list of bibliographies in history (Europe and America).
By Susan Port. 1965.
21. Materials in Chinese philology; a list of catalogued books, supplement
no. 1.  By Asian Studies Division.  1966.
22. Doukhobors; Part I:  Books and periodical articles.  By Maria Horvath.
1968.  Supplement to Part I, 1970.
23. A checklist of Canadian newspapers. By the Special Collections Division.
1968.
24. Book reviews; a checklist of sources in the humanities, social sciences
and fine arts.  By Jennifer Gallup.  1968.
25. Guide to reference materials in anthropology.  By Patricia McCalib. 1968.
26. French language and literature.  By Sue Port.  1968.
27. Guide to reference materials in geography. By Iza LaPonce and Lois
Carrier.  1969.
28. German language and literature. By Barbara Walden. 1969.
29. Theses on British Columbia and related subjects.  By Frances Woodward. 1969.
30. Brief guide to reference materials in chemical engineering. By Rein
Brongers. 1969.
31. Book reviews; reference guide to reviews; a checklist of sources in
the humanities, social sciences and fine arts.  By Jennifer
Gallup.  1970. 35
Appendix F continued.
32. Guide to reference materials in economics. By Marilyn Dutton. 1970.
33. A Doukhobor bibliography; Part II: Government Publications.  By
Maria Horvath.  1970.
34. Brief guide to reference materials in electrical engineering.  By
Jack Mcintosh.  1970.
35. Theses on British Columbia history and related subjects.  By Frances
Woodward.  1971.
36. Guide to reference materials in medieval history.  By Janos M. Bak. 1971.
37. Brief guide to reference materials in mineral engineering. By Jack
Mcintosh.  1971.
38. Doukhobors; revised edition of #22 and 33. By Maria Horvath. 1972.
39. A bibliography of indexes and abstracts on Asian Studies. By Marian
Chen.  1972.
40. Sociology.  By Lillian Mclntyre.  1972.
41. Comparative literature.  By Joan Sandilands.  1972.
42. Malcolm Lowry, 1909-1957; an inventory of his papers.  By Judith B.
Combs. 1973.
43. A Doukhobor bibliography, Part III: The Doukhobor file. By Maria
Horvath.  1973.
44. Religions Studies without tears. Part I. Religions of mankind.  By
Lezek Karpinski. 1973.
45. Religions Studies without tears. Part II. Primitive religion.
Religions of the past. By Lezek Karpinski.  1973.
46. French revolutionary pamphlets.  By Maria Horvath.  1973.
47. We've got Avogadro's number; a brief guide to the literature of
chemistry and chemical engineering. By Ron Clancy.  1973.
* Not all publications are in print. The complete list is given in order
to show the development of the publications programme. 36
Appendix F continued...
Start Here Series.
1. Geology of Vancouver
2. Physical distribution and logistics
3. Organizational behaviour
4. Films
5. Analysis of stocks and stock market behaviour: Canadian and foreign
6. Air cushion vehicles/surface effect ships
7. Mortgage financing in Canada
8. Orientals in British Columbia
9. Military-industrial complex
10. Offshore structures
11. Soviet and eastern European domestic affairs
12. Soviet and eastern European foreign affairs
13. American corporate control of Canadian business
14. Native peoples of Canada
15. Islamic studies
16. Hinduism
17. "Underground" or alternative press
18. Architectural environment
19. Spectra
20. Labour relations in Canada
21. Submersibles
22. Linguistics
23. Arctic oil transportation
24. Anthropology introduction
25. Anthro./Soc. 100
26. Transport of solids by pipeline
27. Primitive art
28. Early architecture of British Columbia
29. Eastern European history
30. Russian history
31. Films
32. Energy alternatives
33. Canadian history APPENDIX G
LIBRARY ORGANIZATION
37
ADMINISTRATION
Stuaxt-Stubbs, Basil
Bell, Inglis F.
Hamilton, Robert M.
Mclnnes, Douglas N.
MacDonald, Robin
Watson, William J.
de Bruijn, Erik
ACQUISITIONS
Omelusik, Nicholas
ASIAN STUDIES
Ng, Tung King
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Mcintosh, Jack
Elliston, Graham
Mercer, Eleanor
Shields, Dorothy
Jeffreys, Anthony
Johnson, Stephen
BINDERY
Fryer, Percy
CATALOGUE DIVISION
Elrod, J. McRee
Little, Margaret
Original Cataloguing
Bailey, Freda
Catalogue Preparations
Turner, Ann
Searching/LC Cataloguing
Balshaw, Mavis
University Librarian
Associate Librarian
Assistant Librarian - Collections
Assistant Librarian - Public Services
Coordinator of Technical Processes and
Systems
Assistant Librarian - Physical Planning
and Development
Administrative Services Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Bibliographer
Bibliographer
Bibliographer
Bibliographer
Bibliographer
Research Bibliographer
Foreman
Head Librarian
Assistant Head
Head
Head
Head
Science
Serials
English language
European languages
Life Sciences Appendix G continued...
38
CIRCULATION
Butterfield, Rita
CRANE LIBRARY
Thiele, Paul
DATA LIBRARY
Harrington, Walter
FINE ARTS DIVISION
Dwyer, Melva
ANIMAL RESOURCE ECOLOGY LIBRARY
Nelson, Ann
MACMILLAN LIBRARY
Macaree, Mary
GIFTS § EXCHANGE
Selby, Joan
GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS
Dodson, Suzanne
HUMANITIES
Forbes, Charles
INFORMATION 5 ORIENTATION
Chew, Luther
LAW LIBRARY
Shorthouse, Thomas
MAP DIVISION
Wilson, Maureen
Head Librarian
Head
Acting Head
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian Appendix G continued...
39
MARJORIE SMITH LIBRARY
Cummings, John
MUSIC LIBRARY
Burndorfer, Hans
READING ROOMS
Harrington, Walter
RECORD COLLECTION
Kaye, Douglas
SCIENCE DIVISION & MATHEMATICS LIBRARY
Brongers, Rein
SEDGEWICK LIBRARY
Erickson, Ture
SERIALS DIVISION
Joe, Linda
SOCIAL SCIENCES DIVISION
Carrier, Lois
SPECIAL COLLECTIONS DIVISION
Yandle, Anne
SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
Dennis, Donald
Dobbin, Geraldine
WOODWARD LIBRARY
Leith, Anna
BIOMEDICAL BRANCH LIBRARY
Freeman, George
COLBECK ROOM
Mysak, Diana
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Systems Analyst
Systems § Information Science
Librarian
Head Librarian
Head Librarian
Curator 40
APPENDIX H
LIBRARY SUPPORTED
READING ROOMS
AS OF AUGUST, 1973
Academic Planning
Adult Education
Agricultural Economics
Anthropology-Sociology
Applied Science
Architecture
Asian Studies
Audiology
Chem. Engineering
Chemistry
Classics
Commerce
Comparative Literature
Computing Centre
Creative Writing
Main Mall North
Administration Bldg.
President's House
6401 N.W. Marine Dr.
Ponderosa Annex D
Room 105
Hut M22, Rm. 23
Civil Engr. Bldg.
Room 305
F, Lasserre Bldg.
Room 9B(Basement)
Buchanan Bldg.
Room 2208
James Mather Bldg.
Fairview Place
Chem Engr. Bldg.
Room 310
Chemistry Bldg.
Room 261
Buchanan Bldg.
Room 2218
Henry Angus Bldg.
Room 6(Basement)
Buchanan Bldg.
Room 227
Civil Engr. Bldg.
Room 238
Brock Hall
South Wing
Room 204
Economics-History
Elect. Engineering
English
French
Geography
Geology
Geophysics
Hispanic-Italian
Home Economics
Inst, of Industrial
Relations
Library School
Linguistics
Mechanical Engr.
Metallurgy
Buchanan Tower
Room 1097
Elect. Engr. Bldg.
Room 428
(Enter Rm. 434)
Buchanan Tower
Room 697
Buchanan Tower
Room 897
Geography Bldg.
Room 140
Geological Sciences
Bldg. - Room 208
Geophysics Bldg.
2nd Floor, South
Buchanan Bldg.
Room 2220
Home Ec. Bldg.
Room 112
Henry Angus Bldg.
Room 310
Library North Wing
8th Floor
Buchanan Bldg.
Room 227
Mech. Engr. Bldg.
Room 200A
Metallurgy Bldg.
Room 319 Appendix H continued.
41
Microbiology
Mineral Engr.
Pharmacology
Pharmacy
Philosophy
Physics
Physiology
Wesbrook Bldg.
Room 300
Min. Engr. Bldg.
Room 201
Medical Sciences Bldg.
Block C, Room 221
Cunningham Bldg.
Room 160
Buchanan Bldg.
Room 3270
Hennings Bldg.
Room 311
Med. Science Bldg.
Block A
Room 201
Political Science
Psychiatry
Psychology
Rehabilitation
Medicine
Slavonic Studies-
Theatre
Buchanan Bldg.
Room 1220
Health Sc.Centre
2255 Wesbrook Road
Henry Angus Bldg.
Room 203
Hut M S 1
Room 20
Buchanan Bldg.
Room 2251
Frederick Wood
Theatre
Room 211 42
APPENDIX I
Senate Library Committee
1972/73
Mr. W.M. Armstrong
Dr. D.G. Brown
DrL W.C. Gibson
Dr. F.A. Kaempffer
Dr. J.M. Kennedy
Dr. R.V. Kubicek
Dr. S. Lipson
Mr. R.F. Osborne
Dr. M.F. McGregor (Chairman)
Mr. J.M. Munsie
Mrs. A. Piternick
Dr. S. Rothstein
Mr. J.M. Schoening
Dr. K.S. Stockholder
Dr. C. Swoveland
Dr. M. Uprichard
Chancellor N. Nemetz
President W Gage EX-OFFICIO
Mr. J.E.A. Parnall
Mr. B. Stuart-Stubbs
Terms of Reference:
(a) To advise and assist the Librarian in:
(i)  formulating a policy for the development of resources for
instruction and research;
(ii) advising on the allocation of book funds to the fields of
instruction and research;
(iii)  developing a general program of library service for all the
interests of the University; and
(iv)  keeping himself informed about the library needs of instructional
and research staffs, and keeping the academic community informed
about the library;
(b) To report to Senate on matters of policy under discussion by the
Committee.
BEST-PRINTER   CO.   LTD.

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