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Report of the University Librarian to the Senate Mar 31, 1985

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 eport of the university librarian
to the senate
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. LIBRARY
1983-84 The Report
of the University Librarian
to the Senate
of the
University of British Columbia
Sixty-ninth Year
1983/84
Vancouver
March 1985 INTRODUCTION
Dramatic changes are occurring these days in academic research libraries,
changes that have already transformed the ways in which libraries carry out the
functions required to deliver library services to their communities. During the next
decade, we should expect technological and economic forces to bring about further
change, making research libraries profoundly different in many respects from the
libraries we have used in the past. The buildings, collections and reading areas will
still be there, but the libraries will depend increasingly on new information and
communications technologies to meet their institutional objectives.
At present, nearly every aspect of the U.B.C. Library's operation has been
affected by new technology. The transfer and recording of information used in the
day-to day operation of the Library involves in almost every instance the handling of
information in machine-readable form. On this, the twentieth anniversary of the
introduction of the Library's first automated system, it seems appropriate to note the
effect of technology on the Library's present operation and to estimate, where
possible, the impact that new information and communications technologies may have
in the next few years.
With the introduction of an automated system for recording loan transactions in
the mid-1960's, the U.B.C. Library made an early and bold commitment to the use of
the computer in its operations. Only a few large research libraries were
experimenting with automation at that time. The fact that the automated circulation
system, with modifications, is still functioning quite effectively today is even more
remarkable. Another early development at U.B.C. was the automation of procedures
for ordering and paying for books, periodicals and other materials for the collection.
These first ventures in automation have been followed by computer systems to control
the receipt of serial publications and to create informal cataloguing records for
pamphlets and ephemeral materials. Both of these systems are now used online,
making decentralized access to their records available throughout the system.
For the library user the most evident example of the work performed by the
computer is the microcatalogue, augmented by microfiche records of materials on
order, in process, or received as periodical issues. Prior to 1978 only the card
catalogue in the concourse of the Main Library provided public information about the collections as a whole. Since that time the microcatalogue has served to make
information about both existing holdings and new acquisitions available at many
locations both on and off campus. Even superceded copies of the microcatalogue are
regularly requested by off-campus firms and organizations as a means of facilitating
their use of the U.B.C Library.
Since 1978, all of the Library's cataloguing has been in machine-readable form.
A substantial part of that process relies on the retrieval and use of records created
elsewhere and contributed to cooperative data bases. Together with records for
original cataloguing done at U.B.C, these derived records constitute the data base
from which our catalogues are produced.
Access to materials not held in the U.B.C. collection has also been improved
through automation. Those who must rely from time to time on interlibrary loan may
not realize how frequently the needed item has been identified and located through an
online search of external data bases. Electronic messaging has become the normal
means of communicating requests to other libraries, and the microcomputer promises
to be an effective means of facilitating the handling of interlibrary loan transactions.
During the past ten years, reference service in many disciplines has been greatly
enhanced through online searching of external bibliographic data bases. This Library
can provide access to several hundred data bases, some of which allow more
sophisticated searching of indexes and abstracts which the Library also has in printed
form while others provide us with information which could not be obtained by
conventional means. Demand for online bibliographic searching has increased very
rapidly, particularly in the health sciences.
To remain effective, automated systems must continue to develop and change as
technology and resources permit. This process will now be accelerated through the
recent purchase of a computer dedicated to library applications. The expanded
facility will support additional terminals, provide improved response time, and allow
more applications to be moved online. In the immediate future, important benefits
will include more efficient use of staff time and wider availability of current
information   for   library   users.      It   may   also   be   a  significant   step  towards   the development of a fully-automated public catalogue providing online access to
bibliographic information about the Library's collection. The Library's participation in
campus network developments at U.B.C. should eventually make current information
about library holdings available to faculty and students wherever there are terminals
to be used. To make full use of benefits of such future developments, however, the
present card catalogue for materials acquired prior to 1978 will have to be converted
to machine-readable form. This process, started with a special B.C. government grant
and suspended when the grant ran out, would take from five to eight years and would
cost several million dollars to complete. At present, the financial resources to resume
such a conversion are not available.
The importance of pursuing developments which will permit the resources of the
Library to be used more effectively cannot be stated too strongly. The Library is
already a unique and vital resource for British Columbia, providing extensive service
and resources to business, government, industry, the professions, and the public.
Through the use of technology, resources which cannot be duplicated elsewhere can be
made accessible to the community in ways that were not possible before. As the
Province's largest information resource, the U.B.C. Library should be in a position to
demonstrate the most modern applications of technology to the handling of
information. Investment in making this singularly important resource more widely
accessible is important to the University and to the Province.
So far, technology has been used primarily to improve existing operations. It is
more difficult to predict the effects of new electronic technology for information
storage and delivery. There are some who have forecast a paperless future, in which
publishers will move rapidly away from print publishing, relying instead on the
computer to disseminate information to the end-user. Most, however, foresee a
transition period of indefinite duration, in which new technologies will grow in use
while conventional printed materials continue to be produced in large quantity.
Although the implications of new communications and information technology
are of critical importance, it would be dangerous to count on technology to resolve
current problems of space and staffing. Rather than signalling the obsolescence of
conventional printed materials, new technology constitutes a natural development in the information supply services currently provided to library users. Experience has
shown that no communication format developed in the twentieth century has yet
succeeded in displacing the older forms that preceded it. Each new format has
become an alternative method of communicating that influences and supplements the
older ones.
Planners must assume that academic libraries will continue to acquire the bulk
of their collections in print form, at least for the next ten years, and probably longer.
This assumption is supported by the fact that the volume of scholarly publishing, both
of monographs and of journals, continues to increase each year. The needs of a vast
majority of our present academic community will be met from the resources and
technologies which are currently available. While we must prepare for the future, we
cannot afford to do so at the expense of the present.
The large academic library in the 1980's and 1990's must continue to give priority
to providing for the growth and strengthening of its traditional collections, and the
related services and staff to make those collections and the information they contain
accessible to users.
It may be true, however, that various factors will combine to slow the growth of
the Library's print collections: the rationalization of academic programs may reduce
the need for intensive collecting in some areas; level or shrinking acquisitions budgets,
further affected by currency devaluation and inflation, may serve to purchase fewer
items than in the past; and more effective ways of tapping outside resources will allow
U.B.C to avoid purchasing certain materials. Growth will continue, however, as it
must in a major research library which supports a wide variety of graduate teaching
and research programs and which acts as a vital regional and national resource. The
amount of material which can be withdrawn and discarded without damaging the value
of the collection for research and teaching is very limited.
The collection will continue to exist in its present form and will grow, though
perhaps at a more moderate pace if technology begins to have a significant impact on
the means by which scholarly information is disseminated. Plans for the housing,
preservation and use of the collection will have to take this into account.   At U.B.C. much of the collection is already in highly compact form - we have for many years
been expanding the resources available locally through the acquisition of large
microform sets, acquiring the equivalent of entire libraries for specialized research
without adding significantly to the need for space. The requirement for additional
space for conventional materials may have to be addressed in part through greater use
of compact storage and even off-site storage facilities, but it must be recognized that
such measures pose additional problems to users, especially those in the humanities
and social sciences, who value ready access to older collections and the ability to
browse.
There will, in any event, be a continuing need for additional space to house the
print collection. Technology offers no imminent solution to that problem. In terms of
cost alone, the task of converting the present print collection to digital form, whether
for storage on optical disk or in some other impressive medium, would be more than
any institution could undertake. There are, of course, a multitude of other issues
which would make such an undertaking impractical: copyright problems could be
enormous, and the subsequent cost of providing adequate access for thousands of
library users would further tax our resources. The printed book remains an incredibly
versatile, convenient and cost-effective means of sharing information.
While continuing to maintain and improve its existing collections and services,
the Library must also develop the capacity to deal with growing quantities of
information available in electronic form. This will entail a gradual shift in emphasis in
libraries from the acquisition of collections to the provision of access to information.
The extent to which resources will be freed for new purposes is uncertain. The
University of Pennsylvania's five-year plan includes as objectives the provision of $3.8
million for the application of new computer and communications technologies and $4
million to strengthen the library's traditional collections, services and physical
facilities.!
lAnnual Report of the Director of Libraries, University of Pennsylvania, 1983-
84, Philadelphia, January 15, 1984. It is reasonable to assume that most libraries will need additional funding to maintain
traditional collections and services while preparing at the same time for the changes
that technology will bring. A strong commitment to maintain and improve library
services will be required if informational, teaching, and research needs are to be met
adequately in the future.
The nature of technological changes affecting future collections and services and
the rate at which these might be introduced remain uncertain, however, since they
depend on factors which we do not control.
For a number of reasons, any significant shift in emphasis from purchasing
collections for local use to paying for access to information in electronic formats will
occur gradually over an extended period during which most users will continue to
satisfy most of their information needs in conventional ways. The provision of
information in electronic form will not be equally satisfactory to all users or all
disciplines. For many, access to materials in print form will continue to be essential,
even when most of the current problems associated with the electronic storage and
delivery of information have been eliminated. Availability of information in
electronic form will be uneven; market forces will tend to determine how information
is distributed and which information can be provided most profitably through new
technology. Those decisions will not be made by libraries or by universities. To date,
we have seen more rapid development of alternative electronic information services in
such areas as chemistry and business, where costs of printed materials are high and
where there is a premium on currency of information. Even in these areas, the change
has not been particularly rapid and is far from comprehensive. It is difficult at this
point, in an academic research library environment, to point to any development in the
provision of information electronically which could allow cancellation of the
equivalent printed source material without serious consequences for many library
users.
A major question that must be addressed as we increase our dependency on
information provided through new technology is the matter of access for the wide
variety of users now served by the university library.   Access to the print collection has traditionally been provided free of charge, and the items in it are re-usable by all
who require them. Collections funds for print materials have been used to build a
capital stock of information (in the widest sense) available to every user who comes to
the library. But if the library uses its resources to purchase information which, once
given to one user, cannot be shared with other users, then the basic function of the
library as a collective resource sharing facility will be damaged. It is possible, and
desirable, that information in electronic form may be distributed in a way that will
allow unlimited local use and re-use, but this is by no means assured. Commercial
publishers may find their interests served best by a system which would require
payment for each use of the electronic equivalent of a book, an article, or a
bibliographic citation.
It will be increasingly anomalous for libraries to provide free access to
information in print but to charge the user for access to information in electronic
form. This inconsistency will become apparent first in the provision of online
bibliographic searches. At the present time, online searching is still treated as
supplementary to the use of printed bibliographic services, and most of the direct
costs for searches are passed on to the user. With rapidly increasing dependency on
such sources, however, online retrieval of information from remote data bases must
soon be considered an essential part of normal reference services, for which special
charges should not be made. To let ability to pay control access to information would
be clearly inappropriate in a university. Parenthetically, we should note that present
charges for complex online bibliographic searches could not be eliminated without
considering the impact of increased searching on reference staff time. Manual
literature searches are normally done by the user with some initial guidance from a
reference librarian. The formulation of online searches to external data bases shifts
most of that work to the reference librarian. Increasingly, reference librarians in
most parts of the U.B.C system are experiencing difficulty in coping with their
workloads. The extra demand on their time for dealing with more online searches is
likely to be a greater problem than the additional direct costs of computer searching.
The obvious conclusion is that libraries and universities will have to be more
successful in future in finding funds and staff support for new information services and
in negotiating arrangements with database owners which will ensure shared access to 8
information. Publishers have been more than ready in the past to charge libraries
much higher fees for print subscriptions than they charge to individuals. Extension of
this practice to electronic publishing could be serious for libraries and for prospects of
ensuring that all members of the university community have the access they require to
current information sources.
It should be noted as well that payment for the use of individual articles on
demand could also have serious implications for the ability of researchers in
specialized or less marketable fields to get their work published. The academic world
has contributed to the concentration of the sources of information in the hands of the
"for profit" publishing industry by shifting responsibility for the publication of many
scholarly journals from the universities and learned societies to commerical publishers.
It is possible that much of the more specialized publishing will again have to be carried
out on a non-profit or subsidized basis if it is to survive the transfer to electronic
form.
New technology will provide no quick solution for the problems of funding or
housing academic libaries. For the foreseeable future, libraries will have to continue
to provide and expand traditional collections and services while at the same time
developing and integrating new electronically-based services. And the latter will
continue to change, improve and develop in ways that are less predictable and subject
to institutional control than we would like. Where the resources to accomplish this
dual responsibility may be obtained in a time of financial constraint is difficult to
imagine. It is clear, however, that those resources must be found if the library is to
meet the growing demands of the academic community.
REVEW OF 1983/84
Collections:
The Association for Research Libraries annually publishes statistics on the
relative size of its members' collections. In the number of catalogued print volumes
held, U.B.C. continues to be 34th among the 105 member libraries and third in Canada. However, our microform holdings rank 12th overall and first in Canada. The combined
collection of print and microform holdings is still the second largest in Canada. It
should be noted as well that the ARL figures do not include an increasing number of
less substantial acquisitions that are informally catalogued using our online document
retrieval system. This approach is used at U.B.C for selected materials as a cost-
saving measure and as a means of organizing collections that would otherwise have to
wait indefinitely for full cataloguing. Finally, the ARL statistics for 1983/84 rank
U.B.C.'s collection of current serials 21st overall and second in Canada.
During the course of the 1983/84 fiscal year, the Library was required to make a
temporary reduction of $50,000 in the collections budget as part of its assessment
towards the resolution of a University cash-flow problem. That amount was restored
for 1984/85, and there was also the prospect of a 5% increase to the collections budget
in the fall of 1984. During the planning for general retrenchment for 1984/85, the
University administration again recognized the importance of maintaining the
Library's budget for materials by exempting it from consideration for reduction.
Exchange Rates and Inflation
The effect of fluctuating exchange rates has been less detrimental to the Library
in the last few years than it was in the late 1970's. Between 1975 and 1980 the
Canadian dollar dropped against most of the major world currencies; about 90% of our
collections purchases became more expensive for this reason alone, quite apart from
other cost increases due to inflation. In the last three or four years the situation has
been different. Although the Canadian dollar has continued to fall vis a vis the U.S.
dollar, this loss has been balanced to some extent by a steady rise against almost all
other currencies of concern to us. In this respect, a large library like U.B.C.'s, which
buys from a variety of countries, has suffered less seriously than a smaller library
which might spend 75% of its budget on materials from the U.S. It is, however,
difficult to predict how the purchasing power of the Library collections budget will
fare under the more recent rapid change in currency values.
The effects of inflation have also moderated during the past few years, and a
substantial  increase  to  the collections budget in  1981/82 has allowed us  to avoid 10
serious damage in subsequent years, when increases were not available. Despite the
recession, the output of materials in the major countries seems to be increasing,
bringing more pressures to buy new journals and more books.
Donations and Other External Financial Support
It is always a great pleasure to acknowledge support from individuals and
agencies outside the University.
The Library has continued to apply for and receive grants under the Support to
Specialized Research Collections Program of the Social Sciences and Humanities
Research Council of Canada (SSHRC). Successful applications each year since the
program began in 1979/80 have helped immeasurably to strengthen resources for
research in the social sciences and humanities. In 1983, a SSHRC grant of $50,000
allowed the Library to purchase lengthy backfiles of selected European newspapers.
Two new grants were awarded in 1984: $35,000 to purchase materials on Italian
Renaissance art, in support of a new Ph.D. program; and $15,000 to acquire backfiles
of 19th century music periodicals. Since individual institutions are limited to a
maximum of $50,000 annually under this program, we have been extremely fortunate
in receiving such strong suport from the Council.
From another federal agency, the Cultural Properties Fund in the
Communications Ministry, the Library received a grant of $22,688 to bring additional
material back to Canada for our Malcolm Lowry collection. Malcolm Lowry, of
course, spent a significant part of his life in the lower mainland of B.C., and his
writings have received prominent international attention in recent years. U.B.C. has
the premier collection of Lowry material in the world and will be hosting an
international conference on Lowry's work in a few years' time. The Cultural
Properties Fund makes grants to enable the repatriation to Canada of items which are
of value to Canada's cultural heritage.
Local organizations have also been most supportive during the year. The Ernest
Theodore Rogers Fund, administered through the Vancouver Foundation, has provided
extensive support for the purchase of maps and books relating in particular to the 11
history of the Pacific Northwest. Repeated donations from the Fund have allowed us
to acquire for this collection important materials which would otherwise have been
beyond our means. Appreciation must also be directed to the Law Foundation for its
continued valuable support for collections in the Law Library, and to the Boag
Foundation for assistance in the purchase of materials on the history and development
of socialism.
Continuing support from individual donors is particularly welcome and heartening
in times of retrenchment. Special mention should be made in this report of two
individuals who have had a long association with U.B.C and who have contributed for a
number of years to the support of particular areas of the library collection. Emeritus
Professor Samuel Lipson has contributed generously to the purchase of materials in
philosophy, history, and Canadiana. Former University Librarian Kaye Lamb has been
very much involved in the purchase of materials for the Howay-Reid Collection in the
Special Collections Division. The Library receives financial contributions, large and
small, from a great many individuals each year. While it is not possible to mention all
of them here, the following examples may illustrate the different kinds of donation we
have received. Mr. and Mrs. J.B. Smith gave to the Woodward Library a collection of
rare books and set up an endowment to provide funds to acquire additional volumes on
Jewish, Medieval or Russian medicine. Mr. Khosrow Afshar gave the Library $2,000 to
purchase books on Iran, and Mr. R.A. North donated $2,000 for purchases at the
Library's discretion. The continued assistance of the many individuals who have
supported the Library's collections provides the means to enrich our holdings of
specialized materials and is greatly appreciated.
Once again the importance of good library collections for students was
recognized by the donation of $1,500 by the 1984 Graduating Class.
The Library's most recent fund-raising event was held in the spring of 1984 to
support further development of Chinese and Japanese collections in the Asian Studies
Library. Jointly sponsored by the Sing Tao Newspaper and the Library, Oriental Night
brought together members of the Chinese and Japanese communities, U.B.C faculty
members, and library staff. Performances by members of both ethnic communities
and others entertained a large audience at the Robson Square Media Centre.   We are 12
particularly indebted to the Chinatown Lions Club, the Mitsui Corporation, and the
Sing Tao Newspaper for their important contributions. This event raised almost
$10,000 for the Asian Studies Library.
During the course of the year, the Library also received many substantial gifts of
materials. Of special importance were the gift of Beethoven and Debussy manuscripts
to the Music Library, and the donation of the S.D. Scott Archive to the Special
Collections Division. The music manuscripts were donated by the son and daughter of
Jan Cherniavsky in honour of their father's contribution to the musical life of
Vancouver and British Columbia. The Scott Archive includes personal papers as well
as a very extensive collection of pamphlets relating to the 19th century history of the
Maritime and Atlantic provinces.
Services:
Reductions in staffing and relocation of staff made it difficult for public service
divisions and branch libraries to keep up with further increases in library use in
1983/84. Staff members should be commended for maintaining a good level of service
throughout the year.
The appendices provide statistical summaries of the volume of circulation,
reference, interlibrary loan and computer assisted searching carried out in 1983/84.
Overall, circulation of materials increased by 6.6% in the Main Library and by 4.8% in
the branches. The total number of loans exceeded 2.3 million for the library system.
This total is particularly remarkable when one considers that it represents almost one
hundred loans to every full-time student and faculty member during the course of the
year. It should be noted as well that these statistics do not include the extensive use
of materials within the Library; according to estimates of researchers elsewhere, at
least two to three items are consulted in the Library for each item borrowed for home
use.
For the year ending in June, 1984, reference and information questions answered
totalled 345,625. Questions answered in the Main Library units declined by 0.5%,
while the number of reference questions in the branches increased by 4.4%. a net 13
increase of 1.9% for the system. It seems likely that the capacity of the reference
staff to absorb further increases is nearly exhausted. This is particularly apparent
during peak hours and at such times as Saturday and Sunday afternoons, when staffing
is minimal and the Library is heavily used by visitors unfamiliar with our resources and
in need of special assistance. The complexity of many enquiries combined with rapidly
changing sources of information imposes an additional requirement for knowledgeable
and experienced reference assistance through the full range of subjects important to a
large university with strong graduate programs.
Organizational Changes
In May, the Humanities Division and the Social Sciences Division were merged as
the Humanities and Social Sciences Division. For most library users the change has
simplified matters, inasmuch as the staff now work from a single reference desk. All
librarians in the expanded division provide general reference service across the full
range of the humanities and social sciences. At the same time, each person continues
to specialize in particular subject and language areas. The merger is part of an effort
to put the Library in a better position to adjust to changes in budget and demands for
services.
The Extension Library took on a new role in January, 1984, providing reference
services to off-campus students registered in credit courses. Previously, Extension
had been mainly a mechanism for circulating books to distant students. Now such
students have toll-free long distance telephone access to the Extension Librarian, who
provides a reference and consultative service and assistance in selecting and obtaining
books, articles, and other library materials for particular courses and assignments.
Funding for this expanded service comes from an allocation to support distance
education services. It has proven to be a very popular and heavily used service.
Computer Assisted Bibliographic Search Services
In many library units, computer assisted bibliographic searching is a growing and
labour intensive part of the reference services. The number of users of this service
grew by 3.6% last year, while the number of data bases searched increased by 25.5%. 14
That trend will continue because of the interdisciplinary nature of the questions asked
and the increasing number of data bases available.
Most of the activity centers in the biomedical sciences, pure and applied
sciences, business, psychology, and education, where the bibliographic data bases are
well established. At the present time, sixty-three percent of the total searching is
done in the health sciences. Growth in that area may be attributed to the availability
of relatively inexpensive data bases, the need for current information, and the
popularity of the service in the teaching hospital libraries. Online searching of
abstracting and indexing services is rapidly becoming the preferred method of
searching the health science literature. Development and growth can be expected to
occur in other disciplines as more data files become available.
End users of information may now access data bases directly using their own
terminals or microcomputers. Students and faculty in medicine and chemistry have
been particularly interested in gaining direct access to these services and, in many
cases, library staff have been able to provide information on the services available and
assistance in using them. It is interesting to note that end user searching in the health
sciences has not reduced the number of searches requested in the library. Promotion
of direct service to end users may in fact be stimulating interest in online searching
among those who are becoming aware of its advantages but prefer, for one reason or
another, to have assistance in formulating their searches.
Technical Processing:
The total number of items processed did not change substantially in 1983/84, and
the cataloguing backlog remained at about 50,000 items waiting to be processed. With
fewer staff and a hiring freeze in effect, it was necessary to make changes in
priorities, work assignments and procedures. Under the circumstances, many less
critical tasks were set aside. Of greater concern is the cumulative effect of staff
shortages on the Library's ability to review entries in the catalogue for consistency.
Inevitably, the quality of access for library users will be adversely affected. Systems Development:
During 1983/84 a comprehensive review of the Library's systems support
requirements was completed. The review was necessary because existing computer
support was inadequate for current library needs and because the cost of continuing to
purchase catalogue support services from Toronto could no longer be afforded. If
improvements in efficiency were to be found to help to offset the loss of staff in the
Library, it was essential to obtain less costly and more effective computer systems
support.
Several alternatives were examined, including the acquisition and use of
"turnkey" solutions available from a number of vendors, increased use of services
purchased from bibliographic utilities, and greater use of in-house systems. Costs
were the principal disadvantage of some options. In addition, no individual package or
combination of hardware/software offered a complete or fully adequate solution to
U.B.C.'s requirements.
The outcome was a recommendation to purchase a library computer providing
some immediate benefits but not precluding future use of turnkey software. Of
immediate benefit would be the improvement in response time for existing online
operations, which would allow greater productivity for several key technical
processing functions. The major savings would occur, however, with the development
of a new in-house catalogue system based on existing library software. It was
anticipated that the system could be developed within six to eight months after the
installation of the new computer. Because the library software is well tested and
provides extensive support for bibliographic applications, it should be possible to
develop a new system as comprehensive as any presently available through an outside
service. Provision will be made, for example, for special support to maintain the
quality of access entries, thereby reducing the problem of inconsistency in the
catalogue. It was determined that annual savings from the changeover to a local
catalogue system would be sufficient to pay for the additional computer support.
A proposal for the purchase of an IBM 4381 computer for the Library was made
and accepted by the University. The computer would be installed in December, 1984,
and the new catalogue system would be developed for implementation in May, 1985. 16
Acquisition of a separate computer will provide the capacity for all of the
Library's current requirements, and will permit online access to be extended to a
number of new locations within the Library system. The expanded use will be
monitored carefully to avoid any recurrence of problems with response time. Initially,
online access will be available only to Library staff. While future planning should
include the implementation of an online public access catalogue system, that
development will require substantial additional funding.
Staff:
Layoffs, a hiring freeze, and retrenchment seriously affected levels of staffing
throughout the Library system. At the beginning of September, 1983, when grant
funds for retrospective conversion of the Library's catalogue ran out, the jobs of ten
senior Library Assistants came to an end and the incumbents had to be placed in other
positions, displacing more junior staff members in various divisions and branches. The
process of placement and retraining was not accomplished without some difficulty, and
led to the eventual layoff of some staff members who had worked for the Library for
two or three years.
The hiring freeze, which continued for most of the reporting period, placed
additional stress on divisions and branches already finding it difficult to satisfy user
demands for services as a result of previous retrenchment. Positions were filled only
when absolutely necessary, and only when temporary solutions such as reassignment of
staff were not feasible.
In April, 1984, when the Library's target for retrenchment was established, 10.5
FTE support staff positions, 3.75 FTE professional positions, and student assistant time
equivalent to 2.9 FTE were eliminated from the Library's budget. While most of the
eliminated positions were ones not filled because of the hiring freeze, a number were
the result of retirements. Livia Fricke, Library Assistant 4, Catalogue Products,
retired at the end of October, 1983; Yun Luke Chin, Stack Attendant, Sedgewick
Library, retired at the end of November, 1983; and Paulina Kirman, Library Assistant
4, Catalogue Records, retired at the end of May, 1984. Margaret Fukuyama, the
Library's only cataloguer of Japanese materials, retired at the end of December, 1983,
and her position was reduced to half-time as part of the retrenchment program,
affecting the Library's ability to catalogue and process Japanese materials. 17
The effects of retrenchment decisions will also be severe for the Library's
bibliographers or book selectors. The loss of librarian positions and the resultant need
to stretch positions more thinly over a variety of duties resulted in further reduction
to the time available for collections development. The position of Physical Sciences
Bibliographer was reduced from full to three-quarter time, and the bibliographer
responsible for selecting Canadian and West European materials would be reduced to
two-thirds time upon the retirement of Dorothy Shields in December, 1984.
The amalgamation of the Humanities and the Social Sciences Division in May,
1984, led to changed responsibilities for two long-service librarians. Lois Carrier,
Head of the former Social Sciences Division, decided to return to full-time reference
work, and Chuck Forbes, Head of the former Humanities Division, became Head of the
new Humanities and Social Sciences Division.
Special funding from the President's Office supporting distance education
enabled the Library to appoint Rhonda Nicholls as a part-time librarian in the
Extension Library, providing reference and other library services to U.B.C. students
beyond the Greater Vancouver area.
Senate Library Committee:
The Senate Library Committee met twice during the year, in the fall and in the
spring. A further review of library building proposals was initiated. The Committee
also examined the question of access to journal literature, approved collections
allocations for 1984/85, and considered the impact of budget reductions on services.
At its April meeting, the Committee expressed its gratitude to Peter Larkin on his
retirement from the Chair of the Committee. During seven years as Chairman,
Dr. Larkin provided outstanding leadership and wise counsel on the many issues
addressed by the Committee. Appendix A
SIZE OF COLLECTION- PHYSICAL VOLUMES
Main Library
March 31/83
Additions
Deletions
March 31/84
Asian Studies Library
164,087
9,283
-
173,370
Biomedical Branch Library
(V.G.H.)
26,413
1,497
347
27,563
Catalogue Records Division
5,242
117
33
5,326
Crane Library
7,503
217
-
7,720
Curriculum Laboratory
75,780
5,244
665
80,359
Data Library
276
62
3
335
Fine Arts Division
94,784
4,960
11
99,733
Government Publications
Division
2,100
529
2
2,627
Hamber Library (CGSH)
6,794
1,167
1
7,960
Humanities & Social
Sciences Reference
51,273
2,365
94
53,544
Law Library
126,215
2,945
172
128,988
MacMillan Library
42,057
2,508
50
44,515
Main Stacks
895,225
34,060
623
928,662
Map Division
7,389
316
1
7,704
Marjorie Smith Library
15,721
969
87
16,603
Mathematics Library
24,793
964
13
25,744
Music Library
38,596
2,712
46
41,262
St. Paul's Library (S.P.H.)
4,113
1,326
-
5,439
Science Reference
16,456
727
62
17,121
Sedgewick Library
177,265
6,913
2,288
181,890
Special Collections Division
56,651
1,916
11
58,556
Storage Collections
153,440
-
-
153,440
Woodward Library
270,037
11,613
10
281,640
TOTAL
2,262,210
92,410
4,519
2,350,101 Appendix B
GROWTH OF COLLECTIONS
.March 31,1983
Net Growth
March 31, 1984
Volumes - Catalogued
2,262,210
87,891
2,350,101
Documents - Uncatalogued
631,972
22,316
654,288
Microfilm (reels)
76,023
2,489
78,512
Microcards (cards)
111,680
—
111,680
Microprint (sheets)
995,500
111,000
1,106,500
Microfiche (sheets)
1,506,799*
136,380
1,643,179
Aperture Cards
2,589
___
2,589
Films
1,461
55
1,516
Filmloops
15
(7)
8
Filmstrips
3,701
(1,498)
2,203
Slides
16,811
(526)
16,285
Slide/Tape Shows
2
-
2
Transparencies
1,810
(560)
1,250
Video Tapes
671
229
900
Photographs
23,309
1,955
25,264
Pictures
73,369
(756)
72,613
Maps
153,308
6,234
159,542
Manuscripts"1"
1,609 m
152 m
1,761  m
Sound Recordings
138,169
5,077
143,246
Computer Tapes
445
22
467
Air Photos
72
72
This figure represents a revised count for March 31, 1983, reported last year as 1,504,519.
Thickness of files in meters. Appendix C
LIBRARY OPERATING EXPENDITURES
Fiscal Years, April/March
Year
Salaries &
Wages
Collections
Binding
Other
Totals
1981/82
* 1982/83
*1983/84
8,901,978  (64.42)
9,794,212  (64.23)
10,140,508  (65.76)
3,716,019 (26.89)
3,971,674 (26.05)
3,839,763** (24.90)
174,402 (1.26)
171,609 (1.13)
193,605  (1.26)
1,027,039 (7.43)
1,310,877 (8.60)
1,246,746  (8.08)
13,819,438
15,248,372
15,420,622
*  From 1982/83, figures include operating expenditures from special funding for the health science libraries.
One-time, non-operating expenditures are not included.
**In 1983/84, the collections budget was permanently reduced by a transfer of $106,950 to departments for continued support
of reading room collections. Not shown here are expenditures from grant and non-recurring funds, which
totalled $232,129 in 1983/84. ADDendix D
RECORDED USE OF LIBRARY RESOURCES
Years ending
June 30
% Increase
Decrease vs
GENERAL CIRCULATION
1981/82
1982/83
1983/84
1982/83
Main Library
General Stacks
412,969
457,543
489,525
+
7.0
Reserves
31,398
29,777
35,346
+
18.7
Extension
6,174
7,560
6,720
-
11.1
Fine Arts
102,833
108,701
112,856
+
3.8
Government Publications
103,798
109,806
115,096
+
4.8
Maps
9,719
9,209
9,980
+
8.4
Special Collections
18,317
22,118
24,012
+
8.6
SUBTOTAL
685,208
744,714
793,535
+
6.6
Branch Libraries
Asian Studies
20,998
22,670
20,133
_
11.2
Crane
38,492
45,052
32,394
-
28.1
Curriculum Laboratory
174,292
170,112
160,111
-
5.9
Film Library
—
1,370
1,441
+
5.2
Hamber
—
13,863
21,988
+
58.6
Law
117,722
119,684
113,777
-
4.9
MacMillan
46,608
58,418
65,114
+
11.5
Marjorie Smith
19,553
20,510
23,604
+
15.1
Mathematics
19,657
20,001
23,035
+
15.2
Medical Branch
39,170
31,928
31,929
	
Music
47,437
51,470
52,681
+
2.4
St. Paul's
—
11,752
15,664
+
33.3
Sedgewick
303,385
318,762
345,230
+
8.3
Woodward
197,610
210,243
241,638
+
14.9
SUBTOTAL
1,104,018
1,095,835
1,148,739
+
4.8
Use of Recordings
Wilson
313,648
311,618
296,885
_
4.7
Music
51,706
52,958
53,210
+
0.5
SUBTOTAL
365,354
364,576
350,095
-
4.0
Document Delivery
Health Sciences Network
—
24,052
29,036
+
20.7
INTERLIBRARY LOANS
To Other Libraries
21,097
18,600
16,097
_
13.5
From Other Libraries
6,117
7,855
8,010
+
2.0
TOTAL INTERLIBRARY LOANS
27,214
26,455
24,107
-
8.9
GRAND TOTAL (General Circulation
& Interlibrary Loans)
2,181,794
2,255,632
2,345,512
+
4.0 Appendix E
INTERLIBRARY LOANS
Years ending June 30
1981/82
1982/83
1983/84
% Increase/
Decrease vs
1982/83
To Other Libraries
- Original Materials
General
1,707
1,722
1,739
Federated Information Network
1,298
1,222
1,003
BC Medical Library Service
5,000
3,465
3,690
BC Post-Secondary Library Network
2,260
2,303
2,286
Bamfield Marine Station
15
27
16
SUBTOTAL
10,280
8,739
8,734
0.0
-   Films
—
1,343
1,075
- 20.0
-   Photocopies
General
2,079
1,975
1,878
Federated Information Network
742
1,040
660
BC Medical Library Service
—
92
29
BC Post-Secondary Library Network
7,867
5,344
4,722
Bamfield Marine Station
129
67
74
SUBTOTAL
10,817
8,518
7,363
- 13.6
TOTAL INTERLIBRARY LENDING
21,097
18,600
17,172
-7.7
From Other Libraries
- Original Materials
General
BC Medical Library Service
SUBTOTAL
- Films
- Photocopies
TOTAL INTERLIBRARY BORROWING
1,988
2,273
2,457
556
553
383
2,544
2,826
2,840
+   0.5
_._
762
779
+  2.2
3,573
4,267
5,170
+ 21.2
6,117
7,855
8,789
+ 11.9 Appendix F
HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY NETWORK
July 1983-June 1984
Interbranch Loans
To Other Branches
Woodward
Medical Branch
Hamber
St. Paul's
Other U.B.C. Libraries
SUBTOTAL
(1982/83)
Material
Photocopies
Total
4,416
19,314
23,730
529
2,215
2,744
194
236
430
217
202
419
968
745
1,713
6,324
22,712
29,036
(5,430) (18,622)
(24,052)
From Other Branches
Woodward
Medical Branch
Hamber
St. Paul's
Other U.B.C. Libraries
SUBTOTAL
416
1,134
1,550
2,274
5,713
7,987
2,014
8,598
10,612
1,119
5,578
6,697
501
1,689
2,190
6,324
22,712
29,036
(1982/83)
(5,430) (18,622)
(24,052) Appendix G
REFERENCE & INFORMATION QUESTIONS ANSWERED
July 1983 - June 1984
Main Library
Fine Arts
Government Publications
Humanities <5c Social Sciences
Information Desk
Map Collection
Science Division
Special Collections
SUBTOTAL
(1982/83)
[Directional
Questions
Reference
Questions
Research
Questions
TOTAL
% Increase/
Decrease vs
1982/83
18,215
18,438
2,312
38,965
943
24,472
1,077
26,492
2,002
24,660
1,787
28,449
10,651
47,532
—
58,183
310
4,123
69
4,502
507
7,277
753
8,537
4,287
4,410
1,436
10,133
36,915
130,912
7,434   175,261
- 0.5
(36,347)   (133,029)   (6,693)  (176,069)
Branch Libraries
Asian Studies
2,064
4,236
875
7,175
Crane
1,241
1,560
777
3,578
Curriculum Laboratory
11,717
14,930
234
26,881
Hamber Library
4,816
4,285
950
10,051
Health Sciences Network
—
1,378
114
1,492
Law Library
2,707
4,180
1,410
8,297
MacMillan Library
1,777
7,077
272
9,126
Marjorie Smith
1,638
1,757
106
3,501
Mathematics Library
1,480
1,256
398
3,134
Medical Branch (V.G.H.)
2,162
9,939
557
12,658
Music Library
2,871
9,757
112
12,740
St. Paul's
2,117
5,817
1,148
9,082
Sedgewick Library
9,099
15,504
94
24,697
Woodward Library
8,296
25,800
3,856
37,952
SUBTOTAL
51,985
107,476
10,903
170,364
(1982/83)
(48,576)
(101,205)
(13,467)
(163,248)
GRAND TOTAL
88,900
238,388
18,337
345,625
(1982/83)
(84,923)
(234,234)
(20,160)
(339,317)
+  4.4
+   1.9 Appendix H
COMPUTER-ASSISTED BIBLIOGRAPHIC SEARCHES
July 1983 - J
une
1984
Division
1
No. of
Searches
2
Student
Searches
3
UBC
Searches
4
Non-UBC
Searches
5
Reference <5c
Verification
6
Data Bases
Searched
7
SDI
Reports
Biomedical Branch
371
—
245
1
125
906
117
Hamber
802
1
388
—
413
1,489
446
Humanities
& Social Sciences
411
90
142
12
167
618
	
Law
58
3
32
10
13
620
—
MacMillan
213
16
9
1
187
277
—
St. Paul's
477
1
245 '
1
230
993
108
Science
2,222
45
124
45
2,008
2,994
2
Woodward Library
2.321
106
639
28
1,548
4,299
930
TOTALS
6,875
262
1,824
98
4,691
12,196
1,603
(1982/83)
(6,633)
(192)
(1,444)
(97)
(4,900)
(9,720)
(1,053)
1. Number of searches: a total of the figures in columns 2 to 5.
2. Student specials: limited searches provided to UBC students at a flat fee. MEDLINE searches,
normally inexpensive, are excluded from the special rate.
3. UBC searches: for UBC members, excluding student specials.
4. Non-UBC searches: full costs, including staff time, are charged for searches on behalf of persons not
associated with the University. These searches tend to be complex and often involve the use of
several data files.
5. Library staff searches are usually for the purpose of verifying the existence and location of
documents and ordering them on-line as interlibrary loans.
6. A single reference search may involve the use of more than one data base. Staff time for a
reference search may vary depending on the number and combination of data bases used.
7. SDI reports: the number of monthly updates distributed to clients. Current awareness (SDI)
profiles are included in columns 1 to 5 only when they are initially established or
subsequently revised. Appendix I
LIBRARY ORGANIZATION
1983/8*
ADMINISTRATION
Mclnnes, Douglas N.
de Bruijn, Erik
Jeffreys, Anthony
Keate, Heather
MacDonald, Robin
Watson, William J.
University Librarian
Assistant Univ. Librarian for Administrative
Services
Assistant Univ. Librarian for Collections
Assistant Univ. Librarian for Public Services
- Branch Libraries
Assistant Univ. Librarian for Technical Processes
and Systems
Assistant Univ. Librarian for Public Services
- Central Libraries
ACQUISITIONS DIVISION
Davidson, Joyce
Head
ASIAN STUDIES LIBRARY
Ng, Tung King
Head
BIOMEDICAL BRANCH LIBRARY (V.G.H.)
Freeman, George Head
CATALOGUE RECORDS DIVISION
Turner, Ann
Bailey, Freda
Head
Deputy Head & Bibliographic Control Librarian
CATALOGUE PRODUCTS DIVISION
Omelusik, Nick
Head
CIRCULATION DIVISION
Butterfield, Rita
Head Appendix I
(continued)
COLLECTIONS DIVISION
Elliston, Graham
Forbes, Jennifer
Hallonquist, P. Lynne
Kreider, Janice
Mcintosh, Jack
Shields, Dorothy
Bibliographer - Serials
Bibliographer - English Language
Bibliographer - Life Sciences
Bibliographer - Science
Bibliographer - Slavonic Studies
Bibliographer - European Languages
CRANE LIBRARY
Thiele, Paul
Head
CURRICULUM LABORATORY
Hurt, Howard
Head
DATA LIBRARY
Ruus, Laine
Head
FINE ARTS DIVISION
Dwyer, Melva
Head
GIFTS & EXCHANGE DIVISION
Elliston, Graham
Head
GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS & MICROFORMS DIVISION
Dodson, Suzanne
Head
HAMBER LIBRARY (Children's/Grace/Shaughnessy Hospitals)
Nelson, Ann Head
HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY NETWORK SERVICES
Price, Jane
Co-ordinator Appendix I
(continued)
HUMANITIES DIVISION (amalgamated with the Social Sciences Division on May 1, 1984)
Forbes, Charles Head (to April 30, 1984)
HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCES DIVISION
Forbes, Charles
Head (from May 1, 1984)
INFORMATION & ORIENTATION DIVISION    *
Sandilands, Joan
Head
INTERLIBRARY LOAN DIVISION
Friesen, Margaret
Head
LAW LIBRARY
Shorthouse, Tom
Head
MACMILLAN LIBRARY
Macaree, Mary
Head
MAP DIVISION
Wilson, Maureen
Head
MARJORIE SMITH LIBRARY
Frye, Judith
Head
MUSIC LIBRARY
Burndorfer, Hans
Head
ST. PAUL'S HOSPITAL LIBRARY
Saint, Barbara
Head Appendix I
(continued)
SCIENCE DIVISION & MATHEMATICS LIBRARY
Brongers, Rein Head
SEDGEWICK LIBRARY
Erickson, Ture Head
SERIALS DIVISION
Baldwin, Nadine Head    .
SOCIAL SCIENCES DIVISION (amalgamated with the Humanities Division on May 1, 1984)
Carrier, Lois Head (to April 30, 1984)
SPECIAL COLLECTIONS DIVISION
Yandle, Anne Head
Selby, Joan Curator, Colbeck Collection
SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT DIVISION
Dennis, Donald Systems Analyst and Head
Dobbin, Geraldine Systems & Information Science Librarian
WILSON RECORDINGS COLLECTION
Kaye, Douglas Head
WOODWARD LIBRARY
Leith, Anna Head
de Bruijn, Elsie Associate Head Appendix J
SENATE LIBRARY COMMITTEE
1983/84
Mrs. H.M. Belkin
Mrs. M.F. Bishop
Dr. K.O.L. Burridge
Dr. D.J. Campbell
Mrs. P. Jones
Dean P.A. Larkin (Chairman)
Mrs. A. Piternick
Dr. G.G.E. Scudder
Dr. J.G. Silver
Dr. CE. Slonecker
Dr. J. Wisenthal
EX-OFFICIO
Chancellor J.V. Clyne
Dr. K. George Pedersen
Mr. K.G. Young
Mr. D. Mclnnes
Terms of Reference
(a) To advise and assist the Librarian in:
(i) formulating a policy for the development of resources for
instruction and research;
(ii) advising on the allocation of book funds to the fields of
instruction and research;
(iii) developing a general program of library service for all the
interests of the University; and
(iv) keeping himself informed about the library needs of instructional
and research staffs, and keeping the academic community informed
about the Library.
(b) To report to Senate on matters of policy under discussion by the Committee.

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