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Twenty-second Report of the Library Committee to the Senate Nov 30, 1951

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Array THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA
TWENTY-SECOND      REPORT
of the
LIBRARY       COMMITTEE
to
THE       SENATE
Covering the Period
September, 1950 - August, 1951
November, 1951 November 22, 1951
President N. A. M. MacKenzie,
Chairman of the Senate,
The University Of British Columbia.
Dear Sir:
As Chairman of the Library Committee
I have the honour to submit, for the consideration
of Senate, the Twenty-second Report of the
Librarian of the University, covering the period
from September 1, 1950, to August 31, 1951•
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Ian McTaggart Cowan
Chairman Report of the University Librarian
Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan,
Chairman, Library Committee,
The University of British Columbia.
Dear Dr, Cowan:
I take real pleasure in submitting to you the Twenty-
second Annual Report of the Librarian of the University of
British Columbia, for the period September 1, 1950, through
August 31, 1951. Not having formally undertaken my work at the
University until August 1, 1951, the report will be almost
entirely upon the accomplishments of others, tempered of course
by my own observations and by the import of discussions I have
had with faculty, students, staff, and administrative personnel
during my brief term.  Both deeds and needs will be reviewed.
Among the attractions of the post of Librarian of the
University of British Columbia are the comparative youth of the
University, the pioneer vigor and enthusiasm of its staff, and
the reasonable certainty that both University and Library are
beginning a new period of expansion.  After thirty-five years of
determined growth, rapidly accelerated under late post-war
conditions, the teaching and research functions of the University
continue to expand under pressure of developing Provincial needs,
in spite of current recessions which both statistics and faith
predict are temporary.  Seasoned, fit, and ambitious, the
University is prepared to share fully in the growth of Canada's
Pacific Coast province.
A university without a library is unthinkable; and this
Library, like its parent institution, has developed sinew and
mettle beyond its years.  Under several librarians, it has 3
gathered strength in collections and organization, and has
adapted its services to an enlarging enrollment and faculty and to
new schools and expanding research interests. But a prolonged
stringency of financial support has not produced any reserves of
personnel, material, or facilities to fall back upon in times of
increased demand or of unusual financial slackness.  The only
actual resource available for emergencies is the personal strength,
loyalty, and ingenuity of staff members, a stock which this report
will show is seriously diminishing.
It must be recalled at the end of this year that the
1
proposed cut-back in the year's budget would have had tragic
effects upon the Library if it had not been for the sudden promise
of Dominion funds.  It 'would have been necessary to reduce
existing operations by slowing internal processes and by rigorously
shortening public hours.  The greatest Library economy would have
been effected in this manner, with the least maiming effect upon
its long-range program, but retrenchment from a minimum program
is hazardous.
It seems clear in the Librarian's mind that three things
are essential to the growing maturity of the Library in the
University: (1) the provision of stable and ample financial
support realistically predicated upon existing need, upon the
growing demands of new schools and graduate programs, and the
generally rising cost level; (2) continued economy of expenditures
and effort, in the belief that funds will never be sufficient to
the need; and (3) a closely knit campus-wide Library organization
1.  Eliminating four staff positions, 75$ of the student assistant
payroll, one-eighth of the book funds, and other reductions. 4
to provide the maximum of library service to the whole University
which all funds available for library purposes will permit.
It is the Library's minimum job to build up adequate
collections in all the fields of instruction and research and to
provide facilities for their interpretation and use. In its full
capacity, the Library is the bulwark of liberal education, the
materiel of instruction and learning, the record of precedent and
accomplishment in research, and the one academic division which
pervades the ivhole University.  It has no welfare independent of
the University, but its rank among university libraries will
about determine the standing of the University among educational
institutions.
1950/1951
During the year, former Librarian Dr. Leslie Dunlap
regrettably severed his connection with the University (January,
1950), and Miss Anne M. Smith assumed the interim responsibility,
as she had done a year earlier with great flexibility and marked
success.  She served as Acting Librarian with judgment and
discrimination until the arrival of the present Librarian, making
decisions in the Library's interests when action was required,
and reserving matters of long-term policy for the new administrator,
even when it would have been easier for her to yield to existing
pressures.  The University owes much to Miss Smith for her wholly
unselfish service in this and other responsible capacities.
However competent a succession of administrators may be,
the uncertainties, delays, and vagaries of a shifting command
are not beneficial to an organization which combines so many
interlocking processes and service patterns.  The year has 5
therefore been one of maintaining services with a minimum of staff,
in the face of proposed budget cuts, of changing personnel at both
professional and clerical levels, and of continued uncertainty
over policy matters.
Administration
Campus-wide Library Service
Over a considerable period the Library Committee has
deliberated on the subject of campus-wide library service, in
general favoring centralization for reasons of efficiency and
effectiveness in acquiring and using materials.  During the
Librarian's first month he codified and rounded out policy statements relating to this matter for presentation to the Committee
and Senate for overall approval.  By unifying campus library-
administration and facilities, it is proposed to extend existing
informational, bibliographic, and lending services by means of
overall planning, central recording of material, and the use of
personnel familiar with campus-wide resources and services.
The increased pressure upon library collections and funds and the
ever-tightening relationship between the areas of study and
research make the integration of library services essential.
Centralized Purchasing
A proposal to centralize the purchase of all campus
library materials in the Acquisitions Division was also presented
to the President.  Such a plan will provide a central record of
all library materials acquired, avoid unrecognized duplication,
keep a complete tally of funds spent for Library purposes, and
promote the greatest economy and utility for the whole University. 6
Continuous Acquisitions Program
The problem of adjusting a continuous book buying
program to the requirements of an annually lapsing book budget
was diagnosed for the Committee and President.  It is anticipated
that increased continuity and productivity can be secured in this
basic operation, undistorted by the artificial interruptions of
recurring budget periods.
Book Stack Security
A problem as old as the Library building itself was
also taken to a sympathetic Administration, the lack of security
of the central book stack. Assisted by the Chairman of the campus
Fire Prevention Committee, Professor J. R. W. Young, and Fire
Chief Miller, approval is sought to install emergency exit locks
on exterior doors to the six book stack levels.  The lack of this
control has cost the Library many thousands of volumes over a
term of years.
Bindery
A campus Library problem of some antiquity is binding.
Binding is a normal maintenance operation, essential to the use
and conservation of research materials.  The increasing load of
periodicals and the advance of binding costs everywhere make a
solution of our local problem of primary administrative importance
During August, the President agreed to a survey of needs and
conditions, seeking recommendations which would reestablish the
existing service upon a stable production basis.
Personnel
The Library's most serious problem of internal 7
administration is to secure and hold competent personnel.
However well coordinated and flexible the organization may be,,
if it can only secure green recruits and hold them briefly, no
solid and productive public service program can be built up.
At UBC the average service period during the fiscal year for
1
37 out of 43 persons was 1 year and 11 months.  The average
length of service for the professional staff of 15 in this group
was 1 year and 7 months.  There were in all 21 resignations during
the year for a total staff of 43.
There are several causes contributing to the rapid
turnover of personnel.  One is the long-time practice of making
sessional appointments, covering the period from September to
May, necessitating the hiring of new people at the beginning of
each academic year.  Another is the otherwise admirable program
of recruiting college graduates for professional library work by
means of short-term appointments in the Library (one or two years
at most), prior to their attendance at a graduate school of
librarianship. Marriage as an employment hazard among women
personnel is of course noted. All of these factors, joined with
the attraction of greener grass elsewhere, make the weight of
in-training and developing a seasoned staff almost unsupportable.
The greatest deterrent to building a competent and
dependable library staff is the non-competitive salary scale for
librarians now in force at the University.  Comparable to scales
in most of the Canadian universities, it nevertheless does not
provide sufficient attraction to experienced people, particularly
I.  Omitting 6 long-term devoted members, 5 serving from 20 to 36
years, 1 fo^ 13 years. 8
to those who are willing to accept a third to half again that
amount for similar work close by in the United States.  Library
school graduates, after five or six years of experience here,
would find themselves but little ahead of the beginners in
salary and at about the base established by the American Library
Association for new professional people.  Since many libraries
supported by public funds in the States require citizenship for
permanent employment, Canada is losing valuable members of an
already understaffed profession for lack of equal or approximate
opportunity at home.  An incomplete count shows that fourteen
graduates of UBC alone, after receiving library training, have
gone to the United States, and advanced salary scales there make
it impossible to bring their wide experience back again.
UBC's nearest graduate school of librarianship is in Washington,
and the schools at Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Chicago are closer
than the nearest Canadian school at Toronto.  The shortage of
university-trained librarians since the last war--syphoned off
into federal and army library service, and later into world-wide
information libraries and into specialized libraries in business
and industry--has made librarians conscious of opportunities
for advancement both in salary and service.
The UBC beginning rate for professional librarians,
with three cost-of-living increases included, is ^2,574. The
appended scale of American Library Association minimum salaries
for four professional classes shows that the differential
1
becomes more marked in the higher categories.  In relation to the
1. ALA ^3057-3537 o3$51-41$l 44236-4956 -4909-5749
UBC i.2574-2916 32796-3096 $3016-3316 |3$l6-r>o scale
Van. Pub. Lib.  ^2472-3456 4P3096-3$6$ ip3964-4320 $4320-4836
Dora. Civil Ser. v2436-2904 $2772-3576 13576-4212 $3888-4524 9
Canadian Civil Service- scale quoted, a recent brief of the
Librarians Group of the Professional Institute of the Civil
Service of Canada (Sept., 1951) points out that "Present salary
ranges for librarians in the Civil Service are not sufficient to
attract...and retain...persons of the right type and
necessary qualifications," and that "Present salary ranges for
librarians are not in line with those paid by good outside
employers."
Professional education and the recent scarcity of
trained personnel have done much to develop and clarify the
librarian's position in the educational system.  A supporting
staff now carries on the clerical and operational procedures, and
the librarian's responsibility in the university as teacher,
interpreter and builder of the research collections, and as
administrator, places him in a position comparable to the regular
faculty.  The competence of the professional staff employed will
largely determine the caliber of the library program secured, and
under prevailing competitive conditions this will depend very
considerably upon the salaries offered.
A revised personnel classification and pay plan for
professional librarians is being developed, to provide a graded
series of professional positions, with responsibility and pay
comparable to that offered for equivalent work in the University
and in competing institutions.  Likewise, a new career
classification in the non-professional field is being worked out,
midway between clerk and librarian, in order to stabilize
employment in this basic operational area.  Increased use of
student assistants in the Library is also anticipated, for numerous 10
routine operations and to handle peak loads, substituting this
type of part-time program for former sessional appointments.
Book Funds
An annual budget for library material must be large
enough to provide, through current purchases, an adequate supply
of the serious, significant, and authoritative books which become
available.  As the size of the budget falls below a minimum amount,
the proportion as well as the amount of these materials decreases,
and books are selected more on a basis of random demand than for
their value to the collection,  In a nation-wide study of college
libraries in the United States it was found that the majority were
1
not providing sufficient books for their students.  And the
Massey Commission reported that if a "list of North American
universities were to be arranged in accordance with the number of
volumes in their academic libraries, the best-equipped Canadian
universities would be distressingly far down in the roster.
Moreover, most of the libraries in American universities
possessing more volumes than the largest Canadian university belong
to institutions which are of more recent foundation and which have
2
fewer students than the foremost Canadian universities.  A recent
survey made by Dr. Leslie Dunlap of expenditures for library
materials in over a score of comparable American and Canadian
3
institutions proves this to be the case.   The stock of books
1. Survey by Dr, Chas. F. Gosnell, of 54 institutions of higher
learning, reported in Library of Congress, Information Bulletin,
v. 10, no, 33, Aug. 13, 1951.
2. Report of the Royal Commission...1951, p. 139.
3. Survey of the Budgetary Needs of the University of British
Columbia Library... (Feb., 1950), p. 9-10. 11
available at UBC has been recognized by Library and Faculty alike
to be insufficient in quantity and coverage, and various experiments
have been made to divide existing materials justly among library
users.  "The want of proper facilities in books and libraries is a
symptom and a cause of the condition of the humanities," the
1
Massey Commission continues; at this University it also adversely
affects the sciences.
Arguments both for a stable and a gradually rising book
budget are equally strong.  It is generally cheaper to buy a new
book when it is available than to search it out later, and the
cost of one or more inter-library loans may be greater than that
of the book itself, particularly if the delays of borrowing are
counted in.  Among periodical subscriptions, dead-end or broken
journal files are often enormously difficult and expensive to
complete, and unbound files invariably result in serious waste.
Experience in many libraries after the depression of the 1930's
and World War II warns against dropping subscriptions to needed
material today.  In an expanding university, when many new
journals are appearing in research areas, a double demand for
increased budgets exists.
It is, of course, not dollars but purchasing power
that counts.  According to the book publishers' trade journal,
Publishers' Weekly, American books have increased at least 30f>
in price during the last ten years (including fiction and other
popular types). W. H. Carlson, Director of Libraries, Oregon
System of Higher Education, studied average costs per volume of
the categories of books purchased at three institutions under
1.  Report of the Royal Commission...1951, p. 163. 12
his direction, to show that from 1939/40 to 1949/50 there was
an 81% increase in the cost of books to those libraries. Recent
1
Publishers' Weekly figures for 1949/51 indicate only modest
increases in the price of fiction and biography during that period,
but a 12$ advance in two years in historical material, a type
with which university acquisitions programs are often heavily
concerned;'no recent figures are given for the category of
scientific and technical publications, wherein there is greatest
likelihood that increases have occurred.
For periodical material, a detailed study of the costs
of between five and six thousand domestic and foreign titles
being currently received at the University of Illinois shows an
overall advance of approximately 40$ in subscription prices
between 1949 and 1950.  The Oregon survey by Mr. Carlson of a
smaller number of titles indicates a 5$$ rise in ten years
(1939/40 - 1949/50).
Binding costs, an essential element of the book and
periodical budget, have jumped even more alarmingly; Illinois
costs were up $0$ between 1946 and 1951, and Oregon shows its
charges per volume for binding to have advanced 105$ in the
decade.
If there has been an $1$ rise in the cost of books
betx^een 1939/40 and 1949/50, the apparent increase in the
University Library budget, appropriated for general purposes—
from $10,$00 to $22,525 in that period—has been fairly well
negated (leaving a surplus of $2,977 for "growth" at the inflated
rate).  If we compare the ^6,800 actually available for books
1.  Publishers' Weekly, v. 160, no. 16, p. 1624, Oct. 20, 1951. 13
in 1939/40 (and $4,000 for periodicals) with the $16,000 a decade
later ($6,500 for periodicals), we have a $3,692 balance
(inflated 81$) to cover the cost of acquiring materials for an
expanded University which would hardly have been recognized at the
end of the decade by those who knew it only at the start. We must
not omit that the ratio of increase in funds for periodicals
during this time ($4,000 to $6,500) just barely covers the 5$$
rise in subscription rates, but no new material.
The picture is not quite this dim in specific areas,
for since 1945/46 a number of special grants have been made for
new developments or special projects, with University and outside
funds, e.g.:
$46,561    Law
10,000    Ph.D. (Biology, Physics, Chemistry,
Zoology)
6,960    MacMillan-Forestry
5,500    Medicine
5,000    Rockefeller-Slavic
4,675    Koerner (Arts, Anthropology, Biology,
Commerce, English)
3,432    Clinical Psychology
2,000    B. C. Packers
1,917    Pharmacy
1,000    Foreign serials
This leaves, however, a long list of departments and subject
fields in the new year with from as low as $35 a year for books
(6 or 7 volumes!) up to a maximum of $612.50, and a median of
$131.00.  With more groups to share funds, a number of veteran
departments now actually have less dollars to spend than in 1916.
In ten years (1940/41 to 1950/51) the University has
1
added 11 new departments, increased its faculty from 100 to 235,
and enlarged its student body from 2,65$ to 6,300 (having risen
to 9,374 in 1947/4$).  In 1950 it was third in rank among
1.  Assistant Professor and above, omitting Medicine, 14
Canadian universities in the number of master's degrees completed
1
and seventh in the number of doctorates.  At present, work
toward the Ph.D. is offered only in seven departments (Biology
and Botany, Forestry, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Psychology,
Zoology,.some in but limited areas), and the development of
library resources is one of the limiting factors in opening up new
fields for such study.  Dominion funds may provide an invigorating
boost and give the acquisitions program its first real increase
in the University's history. But the University must calculate
the Library's development as a basic and considerable part of the
cost of its operation and expansion.
Building
Brief acquaintance with the Library building shows it
to be functioning well as a library unit.  It is perhaps too soon
to be looking forward to the next addition, which can bring more
of the public services down to the ground level, but there is
immediate call for additional steel shelving for the book stack
areas already provided.  New locks on the stack level doors will
make it possible to open the south stair well as a public exit,
an otherwise serious fault in the physical arrangement of the
building at its present stage of development.  A good deal of
modern lighting is needed in sections of the old building and in
some spots overlooked in the new construction; and acoustical tile
should be installed in selected places in both new and old.
The revolving door at the main entrance should be replaced with a
1.  Master's degrees: Toronto 3$7, McGill 156, UBC 112, Laval 77,
Alberta 64; Doctorates: Toronto 81...UBC 4, with Western and
Manitoba below.  National Conference of Canadian Universities,
27th meeting... 30 May-1st June, 1951, p. 37. 15
safer device and one less expensive to maintain; two sets of double
doors, providing weather insulation and foolproof operation, are
standard equipment for such a location. Maintenance costs of the
present doors (two repair jobs a week for two decades) warrant the
new installation as an economy measure alone.
Telephone service to and within the Library has not been
adeauate.  Too few instruments and lines handicap library services
on the campus, and it is requested that new central panel
facilities be calculated to accommodate clear telephone lines to
each of the Library departments, with second lines for peak loads
in the Reference and Loan divisions and in the Librarian's office.
Departments—Loan Division
It is difficult to measure the services provided by a
university library, for it performs many functions in a variety of
ways.  One means to keep tab upon use is to count physical
transactions, in order to provide some regular basis of comparison
from year to year. Preparing "circulation" statistics, by counting
the number of books loaned to users during the year, is one of
these means.  It is strictly a quantity measure, but it represents
with fair accuracy one of the loads carried by the library and
pictures broadly one of the major contacts that library users make
with books. . The number of books loaned during 1950/51 was 238,884
(plus 20,246 through the Extension Library).  This was a decrease
of 10,434, or about 4.3$ from last year's total (249,31$).  There
was actually a gain of 8.5$ in the number of volumes borrowed from
the central book collection, and a decline in the use of assigned
reading materials available for two-hour and overnight use from the
Reserve Book Room.  Since enrollment figures dropped 12.7$ between 16
the two years, the use of books per reader has in fact advanced
10$.
The Loan Division's job is to maintain two heavily used
public desks for a 79-hour week, operating them under varying
loads, providing rapid service involving many thousands of books,
controlling access to these materials, and maintaining precise
records of every book not in its proper place.  Quality of service
cannot be sacrificed to quantity, for the loan desks are the first
point of contact with the largest number of people served by the
Library, and the public service responsibility of the staff is
high. Much of the Library's reputation with the student group is
made or lost at this point, and Miss Mabel Lanning and her staff
have maintained a service of great usefulness to the Library and
University.
The perennial problem of controlling access to the
central book stack is one which can be answered only in compromise.
The purpose of limiting entrance is to maintain there conditions
which are conducive to the serious and prolonged use of research
materials by qualified persons, without undue disturbance and the
confusion resulting from overcrowding.  The converse problem of
regulation is to make eligible for access the maximum number of
persons who need and can benefit from direct contact with a large
number of books, without destroying the conditions essential to
such use.  Granting stack privileges to specific categories of
persons (graduate students, final year honours students, etc.,
with special or temporary status to other small groups) is the
variable means of solution adopted.
As the Accounting division plans to take over the
collection of fines for overdue books, applying the funds to 17
general university purposes, it becomes evident that the rate
of $.05 per unit (1 book overdue at the Loan Desk one day) is no
longer adequate to encourage prompt return of material so that it
will be available for other users.  During the year, $1,376 was
collected in fines., a total of over 20,000 fine-units, calling for
stricter disciplinary measures. A $.25 unit should at once reduce
the number of infractions and put the expensive collecting routine
upon a realistic business-like basis.
Reference Division
The main public service program of the Library (except
for the actual lending and return of books) is carried on largely
by the Reference Division. It maintains at the Reference Desk
during all the Librae's open hours a staff competent to deal
with the reference needs of faculty and students. It also staffs
public departments in special subject areas: the Fine Arts and
Sedgewick Memorial Rooms, the Howay-Reid Collection of Canadiana,
and the Bio-Medical Reading Room.  In addition, the Division
carries on a continuous program of instruction in the use of
library materials, addressed both to faculty and students, and
maintains a regular schedule of exhibits.  It provides public
service in relation to the use of government publications,
periodicals, and maps, and to the library's bibliographical
resources in all subject fields.  It prepares and checks
bibliographies related to courses of study and to surveys of the
Library's needs and holdings.  The annual Publications of the
Faculty and Staff, published by the University, is compiled there.
The cooperative inter-library loan service, so important to the 18
research projects of our own faculty, is operated by this
Division.  A strong centralized library service program on the
campus will depend heavily upon its services.
During the report year, the Division Head, Miss Anne M.
Smith, was Acting Librarian from February through July and was
unable to give full attention to the Division; Miss Mary Rendell
assumed a good share of the divisional responsibility and carried
on with great devotion and ability. Resignations, leaves of
absence, and transfers made it difficult to carry out more than
the routine operations of the department, and at the end of the
period only one of the professional staff had remained in service
more than one year.
The work done was not inconsequential. Many thousands
of questions were answered over the desks and by telephone,
ranging from simple inquiries involving only a few minutes of work
to the collection of data relating to complex investigations.
Over 16,000 loans were made from special collections in the
Division, and in excess of 1,700 letters of inquiry were received
and a similar number dispatched.  Inter-librarjr loans jumped to
557 items lent to other libraries and 427 items borrowed (last
year, 392 were lent and 276 borrowed).  Specific instruction in
library use was given to groups in Medicine, Pharmacy, Agriculture,
Nursing, Forestry, Chemistry, and Physics, and to all students in
beginning English classes.  Fifty-one public displajrs were
prepared.
Bio-Medical Reading Room
This room was opened in September, 1950, to provide an
immediate reference service and beginning study facilities for 19
the new Medical Faculty.  Operated on a part-time schedule by a
professional librarian and student assistants for most of the
year, in August, 1951, an experienced Bio-medical Librarian and
a full-time assistant were appointed to develop the program during
the new academic year.  Currently financed with funds transferred
to the Library by the Faculty of Medicine, this Reading Room is
the beginning of an integration of materials and service relating
to the life sciences which will provide a maximum of research
facilities for these and other related fields.  A branch of the
Bio-Medical Reading Room will also serve clinical students at the
teaching hospital.
Fine Arts Room
Library service to another special group is provided in
the Fine Arts Room: Art and Architecture, Music, Theatre, and the
art aspects of such various groups as Home Economics, Anthropology,
Extension, and Teacher Training.  Use of the collection has
almost doubled during the past year, under a very imaginative and
enthusiastic leadership.
Sedgewick Memorial Reading Room
The room was opened for student use on July 8, 1951, as
a memorial to the late Dr, Garnet G. Sedgewick, Head of the
English Department of the University from 191$ to 194$.  It is
intended to provide worthwhile current books from various fields
of knowledge which are of genuine interest to the student group.
It is not for study purposes, no card catalog or other library
machinery intervenes between the books and readers; and the
furnishings of the room are calculated to attract and encourage
the use of books as a life-time habit.  The project was conceived 20
and executed by Dr. Leslie W. Dunlap, with the generous
cooperation of the President and Board of Governors, the Alumni
Development Fund, the Classes of 194$ and 1950, and tho McConnell
Trust Fund. Miss Carlene Rose planned the furnishings.  A special
committee to select the original book collection was composed of
Dr. Cowan, Dr. Hawthorn and Dr. Birney, and many members of the
library staff participated in the preparations. The room is under
the general supervision of the Fine Arts Room.
Howay-Reid Collection
To this outstanding collection of Canadiana regular
additions are being made, and it is available to eligible users
on a daily, part-time basis. This year a Handbook and Guide to
the Howay-Reid and Northwest collections was prepared by Mr. James
Pilton, Library Assistant, as a part of his work in supervising
the room. Sufficient funds have not been made available to buy
with great energy in this important field.
Acquisitions Division
Book selection and acquisitions are perhaps the most
important long-term activities of a university library, and while
the Library staff and members of the faculties at large participate
in this program of development, this essential operation heads up
in the Acquisitions Division.  There rests the responsibility for
acquiring materials by purchase, gift, and exchange, for ordering,
paying, and keeping accounts, for avoiding unnecessary duplication,
for recommending purchases to faculty, and for notifying them
concerning the funds available for their use. With ninety-five
separate funds to administer, a world of publishers, agents, and
dealers to contend with, and a variety of discounts, duties, 21
exchange rates, and shipping and import regulations to take into
account, the mechanics alone are fairly complex.
Publishing itself is neither orderly or predictable.
Thousands of titles appear yearly, without definite schedule,
with no centralized system of notification, not available from any
score of outlets, and in editions which may become exhausted
rapidly or remain in stock indefinitely.  And out-of-print and
used books are even less subject to control.  Good bibliographic
and business sense, knowledge of library practices and ends, and
a liberal acquaintance with the literatures and meaning of the
several University disciplines are essential to the work of this
library division.
Although there was an increase of $3,250 in the
University appropriation for books for 1950/51 over the previous
year, the total amount available was somewhat less because of
decreased funds from outside sources.  The Library and University
are particularly grateful in this connection to the donors of the
Koerner and H. R. MacMillan funds and to the Rockefeller Foundation
for bringing the year's total book budget up to over $42,000.
During the past four years special funds of this kind have made it
possible to fill out collections far ahead of the average rate of
development.
The immediate expansion of the University's doctoral
program in several faculties awaits the enrichment of the research
collections in specific fields.  Studies have been made this year
of holdings in Forestry and Chemistry, and with the assistance of
the Acquisitions and Reference divisions of the Library, similar
surveys and recommendations are under way in Geology and Geography, 22
Bacteriology, English, and in other faculties, looking toward the
availability of special funds to make the materials available.
Meanwhile, want-lists for out-of-print books in a number of
fields have been mimeographed and distributed to a select group of
book dealers.
The Acquisitions Division has been under the very
capable administration of Mr. Samuel Rothstein from its
organization in July, 194$, until the end of August, 1951, when he
departed for a two year leave to study at the University of
Illinois. Miss Eleanor Mercer, as Acting Division Head, faces the
very challenging and difficult prospect of heading up a wholly
centralized and considerably expanded acquisitions program for the
University.
Serials Division
The Serials Division was established on May 15, 1950, to
cope with the acquisition, processing, and lending of all
materials of a periodical nature and the absorption of a very
large collection of unprocessed cumulations.  Under the mature
supervision of Mr. Roland Lanning, and the energetic and purposeful
direction of his First Assistant, Miss Doreen Fraser, an enormous
task was accomplished.  A new checking file (of 3,300 titles) was
set up, backlogs were put in order, new subscriptions were
initiated, public service was carried on (21,$79 loans), a system
of temporary loans to departments was worked out, bindery
operations were continued (4,214 volumes), and working relations
with other divisions of the Library were established. While
bringing itself into existence, the Division was called upon to 23
provide most of the services of a full grown department, and its
whole staff deserves great commendation for the measure of its
success.
Progress has been somewhat limited during the year by
a too rapid turnover of staff (4 out of a total of 6) and by
abnormal sick leave. Operated with a bare minimum of personnel,
the schedule is too tight to function under any kind of
incapacity.  Now, with the major planning job completed and the
scope of the undertaking in view, additional assistance is found
to be necessary to provide full-time public service, to handle the
increasing load of journals (particularly, of government
publications), and to double the size of the present bindery
operation, which is contemplated in the proposed bindery
reorganization.
Library Bindery
With a current output of between three and four
thousand volumes (3,417 this year, of all types) and a load of
over six thousand, the existing bindery facilities are obviously
inadequate, and a backlog of some ten thousand volumes provides
added evidence of need.  Some advantage has been taken of outside
assistance (during 1950/51, 799 volumes), but the available
facilities, comparative costs, the nature of the materials and of
the Library's continuous need for them, and other factors, make a
modification of the existing arrangement most practicable.  Plans
for increasing the output are being made.
Catalogue Division
One of the essential interpretative services performed
by the Library for its users is the classification of materials 24
into subject groups and the preparation of author, subject, and
other keys to the individual items.  These operations are the
visible aspects of the Catalogue Division's work, supported by
many subsidiary records and routines required to maintain control
over the materials and processes. The Division's library
operations are largely of an "internal" nature, but since most of
the Library resources pass through its hands and it sets the
pattern of arrangement and provides the main avenue of public
approach to the materials, its position in the overall organization
is critical.
During the year 11,62$ volumes were handled by the
Division, averaging about four catalogue cards apiece, plus
6,27$ cards which were sent to the Pacific Northwest Bibliographic
Center catalogue at the University of Washington. This work has
been accomplished, under the constant drive and veteran leadership of Miss Dorothy Jefferd, with a depleted staff.  Because of
an inability to secure eligible persons at the salary offered, the
Division lost its First Assistant more than a year ago, and has
operated this year with a Junior Professional in its one senior
position. A total sick leave of more than three months for
professional members was taken during the year. As a consequence,
serials and government publications have fallen in arrears, the
Library has been unable to provide central cataloguing for such
gross additions as those made to the Law Library, end the imminent
needs of the Bio-Medical section cannot be met.  The Division is
extremely sensitive to increasing work loads in Acquisitions and
Serials, and the number and rank of its staff must be recuperated
and a stable and efficient organization set up. 25
Extension Library
The Extension Library is operated cooperatively by the
Department of University Extension and the Library.  It provides
materials and services to students registered in correspondence,
evening and study group courses, and to other individuals and
groups throughout the Province. Miss Edith Stewart and her
assistant provided loans during the year of 20,246 volumes, of
which 5,610 were from the extensive and well worked collection
of plays. Books on art, particularly painting techniques, on
contemporary affairs, biography, travel, and creative writing are
in best demand.  Two hundred and two theatre groups received plays
during the year.
In Prospect
Several phases of the University Library's program seem
to be most needful of support and extension:
A personnel program which will stabilize employment and
attract able people for longer periods of service to the University.
Centralized library organization to provide a maximum of
library resources and service, with the utmost availability to the
University community as a whole.
Improved orientation in library use, by the provision of
manuals for students, meaningful introductions to the Library,
more effective instruction, and frequent consultation between
Library staff and users.
The development of an exchange program based upon one or
more regular series of University publications.
Reorganization of procedures and provision of staff to 26
facilitate the handling and use of government publications, and
of maps, rare books, and other special types of library material.
Acknowledgment
During his brief term, the Librarian has had very many
opportunities to experience the genuine interest, good will, and
ample assistance rendered to him on behalf of the Library by the
President and the Administrative Office, the Deans and members of
the Faculties, the Chairman and members of the Senate Library
Committee, his own Division Heads, and the many members of the
Library staff whose deeds are recorded for the most part
anonymously in this report. Upon these cooperative efforts and
devotions depend the ultimate stature of the Library and the
University.
Respectfully submitted
Neal Harlow
University Librarian 27
LIBRARY STAFF as of August 31. 1951
ADMINISTRATION
Harlow, Neal
Fugler, Ethel
Locke, Mrs, G.
Librarian
Secretary
Clerk I
Aug. 1, 1951-
June, 1947-
July, 1950-
REFERENCE
Smith, Anne M.
Rendell, Mary
Mackenzie, Margaret
O'Rourke, Joan
Vlag, Ann
Kent, Grace
Sinclair, Mrs. H.
Taylor, Doreen
Owens, Noel
Shockley, Doreen
Wilson, Mrs. Mm
Fraser, Doreen
Head
First Assistant
Senior Librarian
Senior Librarian
Senior Librarian
Junior Librarian
Junior Librarian
Junior Librarian
Junior Librarian
Library Assistant
Clerk II
Sept., 193^-
Mar., 1947-Aug., 1951
July, 194$-
July, 194$-
Sept., 1950-
July, 1950-
July, 1950-
July, 1951-
July, 1951-
June, 1951-
July, 1944-
Bio-Medical Lib'n  July, 1947-
CATALOGUE
Jefferd, Dorothy M.
Barton, Ann
Norbury, M. Elizabeth
Pearce, Catherine
Donis, Lydia
Legge, Margaret
Whitehall, Margaret
Head
Junior Librarian
Junior Librarian
Junior Librarian
Library Assistant
Clerk I
Junior Clerk
Jan., 1915-
Aug., 1950-
July, 1950-
July, 1950-
June, 1950-
Jan., 1951-
July, 1950-
CIRCULATION
Lanning, Mabel M.
Mercer, Eleanor
Sumpton, Mrs. Anna
Harris, Beverly
Neale, Robert
Rolfe, Dorothy
Blackburn, Barbe
Head
First Assistant
Library Assistant
Library Assistant
Stackroom Attend't
Clerk I
Junior Clerk
April, 1930-
Oct., 193$-
Sept., 1949-
July, 1951-
Sept., 1945-
Sept., 1944-
July, 1950-
ACQUISITIONS
Rothstein, Samuel
Phelan, Georgia
Hearsey, Evelyn
Butcher, Mrs. P.
Broomhall, Norman
Forsythe, Mrs. Y.
Head
Junior Librarian
Clerk III
Stenographer I
Clerk I
Junior Clerk
Sept., 1947-(on leave
Sept., 1951-
July, 1951-
Jan., 1923-
March, 1951-
June, 1951-
July, 194$- SERIALS
2$
Lanning, Roland J.
Alldritt, Marjorie
Brandt, Beatrice
Bell, Inglis
Cock, Eleanor
Murphy, Mrs. C.
Petch, Mrs. R.
Nishimura, Kazuko
Head
First Assistant
Library Assistant
Library Assistant
Library Assistant
Library Assistant
Clerk I
Junior Stenographer
April, 1929-
August, 1951-
May, 1950-Aug., 1951
Sept., 1950-Aug., 1951
Sept., 1950-
Jan., 1950-
Nov., 1950-
May, 1951-
Bindery
Dunsmuir, Wm.
Damer, Mrs. L.
Pulfer, Mrs. H,
Bookbinder
Sewer
Sewer
April, 1950-
June, 1950-
Oct., 194$-
EXTENSION LIBRARY
Stewart, Edith
Sayce, Elizabeth
Senior Librarian
Clerk I
July, 194$-
July, 1949- 29
STAFF CHANGES DURING PERIOD 1 Sept., 1950-31 Aug., 1951
ADMINISTRATION
Dunlap, Leslie W.
Corfield, Rachel
ACQUISITIONS
Fraser, Mrs. H.
Grigg, Naomi
Matthews, Joyce
Michas, Virginia
De Brunner, Fred
REFERENCE
Bonney, Irving
Kierans, Mrs. R.
Pilton, James
Reid, Robert
CATALOGUE
Little, Mrs. M.
Lane, Maureen
Zacharias, Mrs. F.
CIRCULATION
Rashleigh, Edward
Ower, Mrs. I.
Dahlie, Mrs. E.
Fogarty, Mrs. H.
Griffin, Mrs. P.
Patrick, Mrs. M.
SERIALS
Librarian
Clerk I
Junior Lib'n
Library Ass't
Stenog. I
Library Ass't
Clerk I
Library Ass't
Library Ass't
Library Ass't
Library Ass't
Senior Lib'n
Clerk I
Clerk I
Library Ass't
Clerk I
Junior Clerk
Junior Clerk
Junior Clerk
Junior Clerk
Appointed
July, 1949
Sept., 1949
June, 1947
June, 194$
Sept., 1949
Sept., 1950
July, 1950
Jan., 1951
Dec, 1949
July, 1950
May, 1950
Resigned
Jan., 1951
Dec, 1950
Sept., 1950
Apr., 1951
Mar., 1951
May, 1951
March, 1951
Mar., 1951
Apr., 1951
May, 1951
Dec, 1950
Oct., 1945   Nov., 1950
Jan., 1951   June, 1951.
Part-time, Sept.-Oct., 1950
Sept., 1950
Sept., 1950
Jan., 1951
Jan., 1951
Sept., 1950
Sept., 1950
May, 1951
April, 1951
May, 1951
May, 1951
May, 1951
May, 1951
Lloyd, Mrs. M.
Moses, Mrs. N.
Clerk I
Clerk I
July, 1950
Oct., 1949
Dec, 1950
Apr., 1951 CIRCULATION STATISTICS. September 1950 - August 1951
Sept»
1950
Oct.
1950
Nov,
3-950
Dec,
1950
Jan.
1951
Feb.
1951
jfar,
1951
Apr.
1951
May
1951
June
1951
July
1951
Aug.
1951
Totals
Lco.i Desk
2,689
12,087
13.022
6,065
15,501
13,929
13,449
6.735
2.159
1.952
4,529
2.858
94.975
Reserve
Br y."   goOJB
1,745
24.977
17,392
9,539
12.379
11,740
14,935
15,769
588
194
3.733
2,197
105.188
Peo'iedlcals
Roosa
177
2.373
2.959
1.386
3.046
4.378
3.912
1.475
434
456
1.208
75
21.879
Reference
Hooa
385
832
1.148
316
1.119
957
1.177
778
80
87
168
147
7.194
Fine Arts
ROOIU
16S
439
1.125
533
975
_J^25
2.206
1,S35_
172
122
146
102
9.648
TOTALS
5,164
30,708
35,646 17,839
33,020
32,829
35,679
26,592
3,433
2,811
9,784
5,379
238,884
Extension Library
20,246

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