UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Publications

Indian education newsletter Mar 1, 1972

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 VOLUME 2 # 7
& 8
APRIL/ 1972
The National Conference of Canadian Association for Indian
& Eskimo Education is to be hosted by the B. C. Native Indian Teachers
Association and the Indian Education Resources Center at Totem Park,
University of British Columbia - May 24, 25, 26, 1972.  The theme of
the conference will be, JNVJAN EDUCATION -  Jt'&  TutuAZ.
At lease ten delegates from each province will be at this
Tentative Topics:
- Adult Education.
- Teacher and School Administrators.
- Curriculum.
- Role of parents.
- Family Life Education.
- Indian Education School Committees.
- Referral Services (welfare, teacher aides, public health
nurses etc.)
- Society.
The above topics are to be directed towards:-
1. The Role of the Indian Parent.
2. The School Drop-out.
3. A co-ordination of effort to implement positive
constructive ideas, so that each province will go
back to their respective provinces ready to embark on projects or plans of actions.
** **
* *
Last Newsletter - May/June, 1972 issue - to be mailed out
first week of June, 1972.
***** *****
* *
Change of Addresses - PLEASE,  as early as you can - pre-
ferrably before September 15, 1972 - NOTIFY US'.
Resources Materials Booklet - available on request (see
supplemental list of new book arrivals in this Newsletter).
** **
* * - 2 -
Indian Education Resources Center - SUMMER SCHEVULE.
July - Monday to Friday - 9:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.
August - Monday to Friday - 9:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.,
Up to August 18, 1972.
August 21st to September 1, 1972 - Monday, Wednesday,
Friday - 9:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.
- Tuesday & Thursdays - 9:00 a.m. - 12:00 noon.
Que- to thz  volume Q|{ book* on loan dwving tkl& ptfyiod
- MOTE thz fiolLoW-ng:
1. 2 day loans — 3 books per person.
2. 1 week or more loan — all books taken - VEPOSJT',
is to be left for full value of each book.
3. ALL LATE BOOKS — $1.00 per day!!!
* *
***        ***
* *
The Home-School Co-ordinators course offered last summer
at U.B.C. was on for four weeks beginning on Monday, July 12, 1971
and went on to August 6, 1971.  Some of the discussions covered the
range of topics listed:
1) Discussion of Role of Parents, teacher,
students, etc.
2) Meeting and working closely with professional
Resource people.
3) Different kinds of teachers, good, bad etc.
4) Structure of Provincial School System.
5) Indian Affairs responsibility and policies
for Indian Education.
6) Special Counselling techniques -
Meleva Nastiche.
7) Indian students in integrated schools.
8) Establishing communication with parents
and teachers.
9) Mental Health.
10) Court work, legal aide, etc.
11) Welfare.
Although an interesting range of topics was covered, one of
the most important results of the class was that all Home-School Coordinators had a chance to get together and exchange ideas. - 3 -
The Home-School Co-ordinators course was not a credit course,
nor was it a required course for becoming a Home-School Co-ordinator.
It will be offered again, this summer session.
* *
***        ***
* *
The Indian Education course (3 units credit) will be offered
again this summer.  As in previous years it will include presentations
by a variety of Indian people, and an exchange of ideas between teachers
from all over British Columbia and other parts of Canada.
Auditors are welcome.  For further information on registration,
contact the Indian Education Resources Center or consult the brochure enclosed with the last Newsletter.
************** *************** ***************
THIS ARTICLE IS TAKEN FROM:  INDIAN ECHO - A newsletter published by a
group of Indians from the Canadian Department of Justice
British Columbia Penitentiary Branch, P. 0. Box 150,
New Westminster, B. C.
I N V  I A N      JOE
Jndian Joe. complained to ka, wile that he couldn't unden&tand
the Whiteman' language.    Hit, wile told him thene wad only one. solution
and that wa& to leahn the Whctemani' tongue.    The lim,t wohd he leanned
to &ay wa& ye&.    Pfioud cu> a peacock Joe went to town.    He wa6 standing
by the cohnen. ol the local been paxlouh. when a gneat big Whitman came
Ataggening out ol the pub and a&ked Joe ii he wanted a light.    With a
big &mile Joe &aid yet, and the next thing Joe knew he wou> getting the
beating ol hi& tile.    When Joe got home he told hu> wile what happened.
Hit, wi^e then told him that he would have to leann how to -day no, which
Joe did.    The veny next day Joe wai> standing in the Aame &pot by the
been. panlowi when the &ame whitman &een him again, and came oven to
Joe and &aid, - "Hey Jndian, you had enough?"
EKniz Beattie
April 3/ 4, 1972
semi-annual conference
The following is a brief summary of the proceedings. A
detailed account of the proceedings will be available upon request at
a later date.
(a) Reports were heard from the Director of
the Center; the Chairman of the Center
Council. A summary of finances of the
IERC., prepared by Phil Moir of the Center
for Continuing Education, UBC was viewed
and discussed, and adopted.  It showed the
Year II budget allocations, the amounts
spent in each category, and the projected
expenditures to the fiscal year end, -
June 30, 1972.
(b) Year III Budget - A rough draft prepared
by the Director, the Chairman of the Center
Council and Consultant for the Center was
discussed and amended. A budget allocation
of $2,000.00 was put in by the members for
Audio Visual Aids.  Student Assistance was
upped from a $1,000.00 to $2,000.00, travel
was augmented from $6,000.00 to $8,000.00.
The Director was charged with the duty of formally submitting the approved Year III Budget and Year II Report, along with
Center Council Chairman, to the Regional Superintendent of Education,
Department of Indian Affairs, Mr. Ray Hall for the following week.
(c) Curriculum Writers Projects:
- report by the Director on contents and formats
- report by Chairman on proposed plan of printing,
and pending arrangements with Provincial Dept'.
of Education - Curriculum Division, Victoria.
- Copyright to above projects was discussed.
Membership voted in favour of BCNITA to hold a
blanket copyright on all - not in terms of
ownership, but at any time, any writer could
have their individual copyright.  The blanket
arrangement is for convenience of printing the
projects in a series. (cont.) (c)  Curriculum Writers Project:
- Royalties for above projects were discussed.
Membership agreed to three quarters of the
royalties going to the writers of, and a
quarter of the royalties should go to BCNITA
to be put into a revolving fund to encourage
future curriculum writers projects.
(d) Short Term & Long Term Plans of Actions were discussed:
- Massive catch-up program for training of more
Indian Teachers.
- Extra Curricular orientation program for Indian
students - (Elementary transition to Junior
High; Senior High transition to Universities)
Co-operative funding between the Dept. of Indian
Affairs, respective reserves, etc., should be
- Encouraging or promoting Career Days for Indian
students should be spearheaded by the Center.
- Developing more curriculum enriched projects (i.e.
Documentation of Indian Reserves as a start).
- BCNITA Members to become more actively involved
in district teacher workshops etc.
- Develop family service type Adult Education
course outlines.
- Audio-visual component of Center to be emphasized
in Year III.
- War on Language Arts from kindergarten to secondary
schools should be spraeheaded by the Center.
- Develop some type of travelling kit regarding general
Indian Education - (culture, etc.).
(e) Policy Development for BCNITA:
- travel, room and board expenses.
- attendance at general conferences and Center
Council meetings.
- entering into supplemental contracts outside of
the basic operation budget.
(f) Election for Fall Conference 1972:
- A nominating committee of three was elected -
(Bob Sterling, Shirley Ned, & Vina Starr).
(g) List of Bursaries & Scholarships available to
Indian students was looked into.  This is to be
included in the next newsletter. - 6 -
(h)  Speakers format or guidelines that all BCNITA
Members could refer to, when called upon to act
as a resource person regarding Center and BCNITA.
Director and Chairman to compile a list of
commonly asked questions by teachers, prepare
main summary of Center and BCNITA functions, and
perhaps ask RAVEN Society to publicize these.
(i)  The Home-School Co-ordinators met for an hour
after the main business meeting, to compare
problems, ideas, and to discuss pending summer
course.  They recommended to Center Council,
that they be given a full day for this sort of
meeting at the next general conference.
** *******
* ******
Many aspects of adult life are enriched and re-directed
through the services of an adult education program.
My purpose in writing down some thoughts on this topic is
generated from the serious problem that Indian students are facing
(specifically those coming from rural oriented communities into urban
centers).  In adjusting to their new, alien way of life many weeks, and
months, are spent by these students feeling bewildered and lost.  Finally,
engulfed by their natural defense mechanisms against the tensions and
demands of such a forced undirected-transition in life, these students
become truants, delinquents, drug and alcohol users, and eventually,
school drop-outs and worst of all, social misfits.
Parents of students in this situation can be a ready source
of encouragement, counselling and guidance.  I am generalizing that since
a majority of Indian parents are faced with an unstable economic way of
life (for a good percentage, a subsistance type of life.'), the higher
aspirations of academic success of students pursued by parents in a
stable economic status, just does not materialize for a major section
of the Indian parents.  The existing catch-up programs in such matters
as economic development, housing, health & welfare, community development,
educational programs is only resulting in a very few Indian families
finding themselves in a more stable economic way of life. Yet, there - 7 -
are thousands of Indian students in the schools — all of them future
citizens whose parents are trapped in such a state of life referred
to earlier.
Does it not stand to reason then, that a real effort should
be made in helping these parents to better prepare their children for
their future school life?
To my mind, the potential offered by a practical positive
natured adult education program, controlled by such demanding needs as
I have outlined, is a ready avenue of alleviating these problem areas.
The present program for adult education offered by the Department of Indian Affairs education services is reaching only a limited
facet of the Indian parents life.  This paper is suggesting that there
is a real need amongst Indian parents on reserves to have offered to
them information that they can understand about their children, and
from this awareness, to begin to make changes, which will eventually
ensure that their children are receiving the best chance in getting
an education.
It is not the intention of this article to enter into
controversy with existing adult education programs, but rather to
encourage an enriched and a specifically directed program, relevant to
the pressing needs of a particular group of parents, who at present are
non-effective in their role as parents fostering strong supportive
encouragement to children in schools.
Such an adult education program as I am suggesting, Should
heavily emphasize the following areas, since the Indian parents are in
a "situation beyond their control" state of affairs in their present
1) Child development - formative years (infancy to age 7);
exploratory years (age 8 to 10 years.); pre-teen years (age 10 to age
12 - children becoming aware of themselves regarding their bid for
independence); teenage years (years spent in trial and error attempts
at independence); adolescent years (adaptations to adult life).
2) Teenage life - emphasis on guidance counselling that
parents can start from with reference to the "trial and error" attempt
of all teenagers to assume adult life.  This area should involve:
- Drug - alcohol - tobacco damage to physical, mental
and social life.
- Dating, health and personal development. 8 -
- Sex education as opposed to street corner,
"birds ant the bees" approach.
- Citizenship - encouragement of strong family
life, community involvement and Canadian
- Pre-martial counselling (incidental, short term,
long term dating and choosing a life time mate).
3) Choosing A Life Career or Vocation - due to the isolation
on reservations, and to the limited scope of livelihood choices presently
available to Indians in general, an elaboration of practical, vocational
and professional requirements needed in addition to a detailed description
of available trades/jobs in the employment field should be a "must" course
for informational discussion on all reserves.
A majority of secondary students know very little about actual
facts in employment opportunities, and are finishing or dropping out of
school, knowing even less.  Parents who have a basic knowledge in this
area can encourage or direct their children into specific areas, rather
than a general non-directed approach, as is now taking place.
4) Secondary School & Post Secondary Programming: Very few
Indian parents are aware of what the high schools involve.  Too many, have
the idea that their children have reached high school is an accomplishment.
If parents were conversant with the secondary and post secondary programs,
their efforts to encourage completion or continuation of studies would be
more effective.
Many Indian students caught up in the jungle of adjusting to
complex urban life, and in fitting into the multi-complex set-up of
most secondary schools, are easily mis-led and encouraged to drop-out,
and parents have no recourse but to condone their negative approach to
life, because they, to, are mystified about a life most of them know
very little about.
A course outline about the secondary and post-secondary programs - for informational discussion should be offered to every Indian
5) Home Study Habits - a common concensus of pupil weaknesses attached to Indian students are:-
- poor daily homework preparation.
- incomplete or not turned in assignments.
- poor use of school time.
- poor classroom participation. - 9 -
All of these weaknesses result in failure, or poor grades
which encourages dropping out, or which keeps alive prejudices and
derogatory attitudes on the teacher and pupil parts.
Every Indian parent on reserve should have access to such a
course outline, ideally at the grade five or six level, and most certainly
at the grade seven level at the latest.
6)  Use of Time:  (clock, days-weeks-months etc.)  It is amazing
how many students are held back by poor organization and utilization of
time.  This is more pronounced for the Indian secondary student, because
he is not living at home.  Aside from the consistency of meal times, most
students in this situation, find themselves in a time emphasized way of
life without the proper orientation or adjustment, (as compared to a
loosely time oriented way of life on the reserve), and so, betimes, time
for homework, etc., are neglected. A small rural community has a well
defined set of activities - particularly the out of school activities,
whereas, an urban community has a multitude of choices, in addition to
Most Indian students; especially at the grade eight level,
never outlive the novelty of this complex choice situation, and all of
their life is geared to keeping up with the out of school activities,
and all school oriented activities are ignored. Parents who are made
aware of this phenomena, can prepare their rural oriented children to
avoid being caught in this situation.
These suggested course outlines evolved from an analysis of
the weaknesses or inappropriateness in the schools, relating to Indian
students.  These are areas that indirectly enter into the education of
the Indian high school student - but definitely contributes to his success
or failure.  For parents in a stable economic base of life, these areas
are natural phases of parent-child relationship, and hence are taken
for granted as being attended to as the child develops and matures.  However, due to the unstable low-economic way of life, for Indian parents
in general, and also because these Indian high school students are uprooted from their natural home environments, these weakness areas are
very pronounced and are then, d_ef_ini^e_ne_gatiye forces that foster poor
achievement levels and eventually, drop-outs.  As previously stated,
some action should be embarked upon to counter-act this negative
phenomenon for this particular group of parents, and that action should
be in the form of Adult Education for Indian Reserves implementing the
ideas in the foregoing course outlines.
* * *
****  ****
********  ********
**********  *********
***********    **********
*************    ************
*************    ************
**************    ************* - 10 -
The cross-cultural learner center is a "multi-media, computer-
assisted information retrieval and problem - solving system providing
a learner - centered environment".  It has been termed a "learning
cafeteria".  It's a place where a person can choose what he wants to
learn, the way or medium in which he prefers to learn, and the rate at
which he progresses toward the learning goal he has set himself.
In February, 18 - 20, 1972, I attended a cross-cultural
conference in London, Ontario as a representative of the Indian Education
Resources Center.  At this conference were 2 (two) representatives from
each of the four (4) western provinces.  We met to learn how the center
operated and what information was available and how we could put this
information to use at our respective places, e.g. the University of B.C.
or a community center.  It was also a good opportunity to talk and to
get to know the people who operate the "center" and who are responsible
for sending the Mobile Unit across Canada.
The material made available by CUSO includes slides, movies
tape recordings, video-tapes, books and pamphlets of the people of the
near East, Africa and Canadian Indians and other people.
I was very impressed at all the material available on the
Canadian Indian and would recommend to everyone to come and see the
Mobile Unit when it arrives in Vancouver at the Public Library (Burrard
and Robson Street) for the 2-week, period starting on May 25, 1972.
For more information contact me during the day at the Indian Education
Resources Center - at 228-4662.
* *
***        ***
***        ***
* *        * *
In regard to the January issue of the Indian Education Newsletter,  you asked for news  concerning  school programming.
In my girls  Guidance classes,   graded 8 to 11,  the Indian
children have projects  assigned to them.     Each can do one or more of
the  following: - 11
Study the written and spoken Cree Language, Beadwork,
or Leatherwork (mocassins, etc).
Periodically each has to show me what they have accomplished (craftwork),
or are quizzed on various Cree words and their English translation.
Since the craftwork and language are beyond my knowledge,
the adults who are teaching the students, write me and report every
week on how the student is doing.
Since this project has only recently begun, any results at
this time, are unknown.  Also, my grade 9 girls, Indian and non-Indian
are studying various aspects of the Cree culture, with Indian girls as
leaders of the different groups,  (the class is divided into groups of
This project seems to be working out very well. Enclosed
you will find a schedule we hope to undertake in April but must wait
until the School Board has given their consent.
Hopefully, some of the above information will be helpful to
you and other teachers.
** ******
. *
April 17:     1.     Leave Fort  St.   John for Vancouver via CP Air on the night
2. Met  at Vancouver Airport by Roy Brown.
3. Get  settled  at  Roy Brown's home:
Coquitlam & Lome Brown's home:  Delta.
April 18:     Morning:     Tour UBC. Afternoon:     1.     Tour  IBM
2.     See downtown Vancouver.
Night:     Rest  or can see Vancouver Harbour.
April  19:     Morning:     City Hall  (Courthouse) Afternoon:     1.     B.C.  Hydro
2.     Stanley Park
Night:     Chinatown.
April 20:     Morning:     1.     S.F.U. Afternoon:     B.C.I.T.
2.     Vocational  School Night:     Theatre  (Orpheum) - 12 -
April 21:; Morning:  Montgomery Junior High School in Coquitlam.
Afternoon:  Planetarium.   Night: B.C. Telephone.
April 22:  Morning:  On their own.    Afternoon:  Tour Gastown.
Night: Night flight back to Fort St. John.  Roy Brown
to take them to airport.
The following scholarships and bursaries are specifically
available to Indian students.  In addition, Indian students are eligible
for a great many other scholarships, bursaries and loans which are open
to all students.  Many awards are open to students from a particular
high school or town, or to sons and daughters of members of various
unions and professional groups or sons and daughters of employees of
various companies.  For more information on these awards, contact the
college or university concerned, or the Indian Education Resources Center.
Scholarshops and bursaries differ in that scholarshops are
awarded mainly on the basis of marks, while bursaries also take need into
In addition to the awards listed below, Indian (status or nonstatus) students may apply to the First Citizens Fund for support and
decisions are made on each application separately.
Department of Indian Affairs
The Education Branch of the Department of Indian Affairs offers
a variety of scholarships above the regular support.  The number of scholar-
shops varies each year but during the 1971-2 academic year the following
were awarded:
2 for Nursing (RN) $ 300 each
2 for University (General) $ 300 each
1 for Teacher Training $ 300
4 for Vocational Training $ 250 each
1 for Independent (Private School)  $ 250 - 13
Awards are based primarily on past academic achievement.
Application is made through the local Vocational Counsellor.
Bill and Elsie More Indian Bursary
A bursary of approximately $400 will be awarded annually to
an Indian student (status or non-status) continuing beyond high school
on an academic or vocational course.  The award is made possible by a
Fund established by the family and friends of Reverend Bill More and his
wife Elsie, as a tribute to their memory.  Reference will be given to
those intending to use .their training to serve the Indian people of
British Columbia.  Financial administrative matters are being handled by
the Vancouver Foundation.  Selection will be made by the British Columbia
Native Indian Teachers Association.
Margaret Delmage Award
The British Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation offers annually
the sum of $200 to a son or daughter of a Native Indian of British
Columbia who is entering or attending the University of British Columbia
or some other university or college of recognized standing within the
province, and who shows promise and success in doing studies at the university
level.  This award is known as the Margaret Delmage Award, and is presented in honor of Mrs. Margaret Delmage as a tribute to her outstanding
contribution to parent-teacher work in British Columbia.  Applications
must be received by the University not later than May 30th.
The American Women's Club Bursary (Special)
A bursary of $250, gift of the American Women's Club, is available for native Indian women students.  The recipient will be selected
by the Dean of Women.
The Mary G. Fyfe-Smith Memorial Bursary
A bursary of $500 the gift of Florence Fyfe-Smith, is offered
annually to a Native Indian student attending the University of British
Columbia in a full program of studies.  It will be awarded to a student
who is registered in the School of Social Work or in the Faculty of
Education.  The award will be made to a student with satisfactory standing
who needs financial assistance.
The Mungo Martin Award (The British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare
Society Memorial Bursary)
A bursary of $100 will be awarded annually by the British
Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society in memory of those Indian
Canadians who gave their lives in a world war.  Native Indian applicants
must be from the province of British Columbia, and must be planning to
enter one of the established universities or colleges in British Columbia, - 14 -
or recognized technical school or other training center.  The award will
be made by the Executive Committee of the British Columbia Indian Arts
and Welfare Society.  If no application is received from a student entering the first year of university, then the bursary will be awarded to a
student enrolled in any of the senior years.  Letters of application may
be directed:  The Honourary Secretary
B.C. Indian Arts & Welfare Society
c/o The Provincial Museum
Victoria, B. C.
The Senate Committee on Awards at the University of Victoria - Seaspan
International Company Limited Scholarship
The Senate Committee on Awards at the University of Victoria
does administer one scholarship that is exclusively designed for Indian
students.  It is known as the Seaspan International Company Limited
Scholarship and is valued at $150.  It is awarded to a deserving and
qualified member of the Indian Community of Vancouver Island, and of the
Gulf Islands, the West Coast of the Mainland, or the Queen Charlotte Islands who gained academic success in University Entrance Examinations and
enters first year at the University of Victoria.  The winner is selected
by the Committee on Awards after consultation with the District Superintendent
of Indian Schools.
******** * *******
A child should never be discriminated against because of
being dirty in the pre-school-kindergarten years.  That child may have
a hard enough time getting to school on time as it is.
Health in school should be encouraged, but too extreme a
treatment of it may stifle the child's creativity.  Some children would
be too afraid to do anything after being scolded over dirt or untidiness
etc.  If this is a regular occurrence in class, this young child has been
"turned off" towards school for the rest of his or her life.
All children have enough to compete with as they are growing-
up, without having to compete to keep clean.
********* *********
********* *********
********* ********* - 15 -
Dear Sir:
Thank you for the January, 1972 issue of your Newsletter...
Contents of which, have me very excited, and I am looking forward to
the next issue.
RE:  1.  Inservice Programming.
2.  Teacher Background Information regarding Indians.
We feel we can be of help to you in these areas.
We are involved in Sports and Recreation, specializing in
Acquatics. Our programs take place in Native Communities throughout
British Columbia, during summer months.
Our staff is of high calibre...using Team approach.  We
hold Inservice Programming prior to departure...to insure that Positive
Teaching Attitudes, Techniques and Methodology are applied when out in
the field.
If more of our Aquatic Instructors were from Education Faculties,
it would be mose worthwhile for the student teacher.  He or she would be
faced with a Reverse Integration...living in the Community for as long as
the program is in effect.  (Programs run in 8 week, 4 week and 2 week,
cycles, depending upon the population of the area being served.)
The positive teaching techniques, which are the backbone of
our programs, would be applicable to any teaching situation... The results
for the children involved to-date, have been excellent...a sense of
achievement is gained furing summer which carried over to the classroom
in the fall.
If we could involve student teachers who hold the Aquatic
Pre-requisites, required by our Team... These students, when faced with
an Intregrated Classroom in the future...would have some background in
"Indianness" and would definitely have a greater understanding of the
Nature of the Indian Child.
These students could perhaps work with us under Professional
Development...receiving credits...filling our course study from etc.,
and be available to us for this type of training, four-eight-two week
cycles during July and August.
The concept or idea would benefit:   i.  The student teacher.
ii.  The Indian Child or teenager,
iii.  Our Aquatic Budget... - 16 -
as it is difficult to obtain high calibre staff during months of July
and August, without retaining them from month of May...on.
Should you wish to discuss the idea in depth...I am available at your convenience...
Sincerely yours,
Barbra Morgan, Co-ordinator.
***   ***
***   ***
April, 1961   pp. 44 - 45
This reading is concerned with what creativity is and what
factors in the child's background encourage its development.  Creativity
is defined as "The capacity to innovate, to invent, to place elements
together in a way never before been placed". This paper tries to show
that creativity is not inherited, but is product of environment.
Divergent or intuative thinking is more creative than convergent or logical thinking.  Creativity is difficult to measure for
creative persons are often non-conformists and don't co-operate well
with the testing.
Many aspects of environment affect creativity. Maslow and
Erikson believe that the individual needs a certain amount of basic
security before he can risk venturing beyond a social norm.  Studies
show that a great amount of security stiffles creativity.
Freedom from a domineering leader of a family or group
seems to encourage creativity.  Studies show that many creative people
had only one parent during their formative years.  Thus, a class will
tend to be more creative if the teacher does not dominate it.
A marginal man, a person not bound tightly by the customs of
a group or society, can be more creative than those bound to a group.
He can be more objective in his judgement and ideas because he is not
confined by one set of customs, ideas and rules.  Creativity is discouraged in a sacred or folk society but favoured in a group which has
a favourable attitude toward change. - 17 -
It is not one factor but the factors of environment combining
basic security, intelligence, freedom and marginality which help encourage
creativity. Often the teacher can help to start and encourage creativity.
***** *****
***** *****
******* *******
******** ********
Who's that crouching in the dark corner?
Too shy, too afraid to face reality
Too small, too awkward, too dark to blend in.
Why won't you come out little girl?
Are you afraid someone will shout,
"Hey little Squaw, go back to the reservation where you belong!"
You left your precious home and family this morning
filled with doubts and slight chances of hope.
Hope that you could learn something in the new public school
So you could somehow help all your brothers and sisters
Help them experience a better life
A life filled with laughter and happiness like your grandparents once knew.
Doubts because your friends told you what to expect!
Glaring stares from the teacher because you weren't clean
and wore wrinkled clothes.
Sneering gestures and remarks from the others because you had
black hair and wore beaded mocassins.
But how could you wear neatly pressed clothes when your mother's
fourth-hand iron no longer works?
Or how could you wash thoroughly when the water pump is frozen
and there is barely enough for drinking and cooking?
How could you wear nice new shoes when your father earns just enough
money to buy food?
Anyway mocassins feel better than those stiff, cramped shoes.
Happy thoughts spin through your mind as you think of the first three
years at the day-school on the reserve.
Familiar brown faces greeted you each day,
No one was left out of the games.
Everyone was proud of the beautiful beaded necklaces thie mother made.
Who cared if your hands and face were a little dirty?
You could look forward to each school day because you knew someone cared.
Someone thought of you as a person, as a friend. - 18 -
Now the only comforting place is this dark, isolated corner.
Will anyone smile or say hi to you?
Or perhaps they are too busy playing games to notice.
Suddenly the little girl's face lights up as she sees someone walk toward her
Slowly her eager hand reaches and grasps the extended brown hand.
Together they run, clutching each other toward the vast playground.
After a few glorious moments they hear the bell ring 	
What Now?
*«*    «*«
**##    ****
These poems are taken from:   THE COYOTE/ newsletter, "poo-tah-toy'
Davis, California,
Right on...Indian..You're truer
then you know...
No shames and no pretenses....
You're still...right on...
You know where you are going..
No more...heretic lies...
You're right on....Indian....
They're following you...
Tell them when you know..Indian
Tell 'em where its at	
Your whole philosopy of life..
You took and blew their minds..
You're right..on...Indian....
from years past...you're still
They tried to dup you..tried
in vain....to show you something else	
You're where its at....Indian
....they haven't fooled you yet.
i   • fcifctfc- •    •   • C&CC a   •   •   •
for Indians	
eee..eee..Now flap
Little games
Chicka dee..
your arms....
Chicka dee ee..ee...Their
fathers were going to jail...
1907 BIA 	
boardiig school... .Chicka dee..
because they lost their sons....
The penalty for truancy of
Indian children was the detention
of the fathers in jail until the
children were returned to the
boarding school.  They lost
their sons to the educational
system which dehumanized them,
and adulterated their Indian
****** ******
******** ********
******** ******** - 19 -
The following books are selected from the many available, in
the Indian Education Resources Center.  These or any other books (maximum
of 3) may be borrowed free of charge for 2 weeks by teachers, 2 days for
students on UBC Campus - possible 1 week for SFU students.  There is a
fine of 5c per day, for books overdue. Please use the special book loan
form at the end of the Newsletter.
To purchase books, send you order to:  The First Citizen,
Publishing division, Box 760, Station A, Vancouver, B.C.
Immediately after the title there is a series of code numbers,
letters giving the reading, and interest level, number of pages and category of the book. Approximate reading and interest level is indicated by
P - primary grades, I - intermediate grades, JH - Junior High grades, SH -
Senior High and A - Adults.  The number of pages is given by a number following the letter "p".  (e.g. 18p means 18 pages)  Paperback will be
indicated by "pb".  If not specified, it is a hardback.
The category, or categories, of the book is given by a code
number which is explained below.
1. Anthropology, History, Ethnology:
a) North America.
b) Canada
c) British Columbia.
2. Contemporary Indian Information.
3. Indian Education: a)  General
b) Material for Teachers
4. Curriculum: a) Language Arts: 1) speech
2) phonics
3) reading
4) writing
b) Social Studies
c) Mathematics
d) Science
e) Art
f) Music
5. Adult Education:
For example:  4a(3)  indicated Curriculum, Language
Arts, Reading. - 20 -
EXAMPLE:  Doe, John P. - Eenie Meenie Minie Moe, Gray's Publishing, 1982.  JH,
SH, 481 p; la, 4b, 4e, 4f. All about 3 mice who ran up the clock
and it stops.  ($8.95, paperback - pb).
1. American Indian Historical Society - Textbooks and the American Indian,
Indian Historian Press, Inc. 1970. SH-A; 1A; 2; 4a(3);b
254 p; C$4.25).  Thirty-two Indian scholars, native historians
and Indian students have evaluated more than three hundred books
used through the primary grades to high school, in their treatment
towards the American Indian. ($4.75)
2. Balch, Glenn - Indian Paint, McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1962.  I-JH; 138P;
la;4a(3);4b; The story of Little Falcon, an Indian Pinos. His
training life, and his Fathers expectations of him, so that one
day he will take over as being Chief of the Pinos.  ($2.15)
3. Berger, Thomas - Little Big Man, The Dial Press, 1964. JH-A; 437 p; la;
4a(3) A historical novel about life and warfare on the plains
from 1852 - 1876. A story not only about the west, but truly of
the west, told with wit and lusty humor The Battle of Little
Bighorn has never been better described or interpreted in fiction.(9.95)
4. Bleeker, Sonia - Indians, Goldern Press, New York; I-A, 48 pages; la,b;
4a(3);4b;  A series for young readers....Read the fascinating
text....then test your knowledge with the list of questions at
the end of each book. ($0.60)
5. Bleeker, Sonia - The Eskimo:Arctic hunters and trappers, Eleventh Printing
September, 1971. JH-SH; 155p; lb; 4a(3) 4b; The home of the
Eskimo, a place of ice and snow, with long, bitter winters, but
through the centuries these strong and brave people have developed
ways of making the best of their rigorious surroundings so they
can live comfortably and happily. The drawings capture the vitality
of these courageous, skillful people who live on the top of the
world. ($4.95)
6. Bleeker, Sonia - The Sioux Indians, William Morrow & Company, New York, 1962.
JH-SH; 155p; la; 4a(3) 4b; The Sioux, famous for their, warriors and
their horsemen, are an unusually interesting American Indian tribe.
Their strength being drained by white settlers who began to encroach
upon their lands. Through this narrative, enhanced bv black-white
illustrations, the glory and tragedy of the Sioux comes alive. ($4.95)
7. Bleeker, Sonia - The Chippewa Indians, William Morrow & Company, 1955. JH-SH;
153p; ;a' 4a(3) 4b; The Chippewa, followed a life of unvarying seasonal
travel: Spirits were powerful in the world of the Chippewas. Read
as spirits follow the family of Older Brother, from camp to camp C$4.95) - 21 -
8. Cawston, Vee - Matuk, the Eskimo Bov. The Curtis Publishing Company, 1962
I-JH; 30p; lb; 4a(3) 4b; A narrative with illustrations, of Matuk,
a ten year old Eskimo boy who goes out to prove his ability to be
a hunter. ($4.50)
9. Clark, Ella E. -Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest, University of
California Press, 1953.  JH - A; 207p; la; 4a(3) 4b; This collection
of more than one hundred tribal tales are the Indians own stories,
told for generations of the mountains, lakes, and rivers, and the
creation of the world and the heavens above. It also tells much
about the mind of the native American-his belief in spirits, in
all nature, his fantasy of the animal people; his concept of right
and wrong. ($2.45)
10. Coon. Danny 1970 lc; 2; 4a(3) 4e; A collection and description of paintings
by a young Alert Bay Indian boy.  His beautiful illustrations of his
work add to the originality of his book. ($1.00)
11. Craig, John, No Word fOr"Good-bye,^Peter Martin Associates Limited, 1969.
Jh - A; 194p; lc; 2; 4a(3);  About Ken Warren, a boy of fifteen,
who meets an Ojibway Indian boy of the same age. They become friends
and he finds out how ignorance and prejudice can hurt people needlessly.
No Word for Good-bye is a fastmoving exciting and very real story.
12. Creighton, Luella Bruce - Tecumseh, Printed in Hong Kong.  JH - A; 159 p;
lb, 4a(3) 4b.  In life a hero, in death a legend, Tecumseh, chief
of the Shawnee, was the last of the great Indian leaders of Eastern
North America.  This is the adventure of a noble man trying to
rally his divided people against a threat no Indian had successfully
resisted before. ($3.25)
13. De Agulo, Jaime - Indian Tales, Hill and Wang, Inc. 1953.  246 p; Jh - A;
la; 4a(3) 4b;  This book deals with Indian folklore - with tall tales
and jokes, ceremonial rituals and poetic allegories, gambling games
and hunting adventures.  Children will be fascinated by the stories,
amused by the humor, delighted by the rhythms of the words.  ($2.25)
14. Embry, Margaret - My Name is Lion, Holiday House Inc. 1970.  I - SH; 46p;
la; 2; 4a(3);  Albert, a name the white people game him when they
came to take him away from his grandfather, to live in the new
bare-looking Bureau of Indian Affairs dorm to go to school.  Being
a Navajo Indian, his way of life suddenly being limited and restricted
he finds himself lonely and confused trying to adjust to this new
life. ( $4.95)
15. Freuchen, Pipaluk - Eskimo Boy, Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co., Inc., 1967.
I- SH; 96p; la; 2; 4a(3) 4b;  This is the beginning of a modern hero
tale that ends happily after recounting the exploits of a brave young
Eskimo boy who is forced to grow up in a few hours when he realizes
that he has become the Man of the Family. ($4.75) - 22 -
16. Green, Alma - Forbidden Voice, The Hamlyn Publishing Group. JH - A; 157p;
lb;2;4a(3);  Forbidden Voice, a descendant from a long line of
Mohawk chieftains, and the daughter of a Clan mother.  She wrote
this book for the white man to understand.  "Growing up red is not
the same as growing up white, for my people - the real people, the
red men - think our own thoughts; we have our own magic and our
own mysteries.  This book is about some of them.  ($4.95)
17. Grey Owl - Pilgrims of the Wild, Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 1968.
282p; JH - A, lb; 4a(3) 4b;  In this book Grey Owl describes the
change from the life of a trapper to that of a conservationist.($2.95)
18. Grey Owl - The Men of the Last Frontier, Macmillan Co. of Canada Limited,
JH - A; 253 p; lb; 4a(3) 4b;  This book is written to arouse interest
in conservation, its appeal is even more compelling today with the
growing concern for the preservation of some part of our ecological
heritage. ($2.95)
19. Grey Owl - Tales of an Empty Cabin, Macmillian co. of Canada, 1972. 235 p;
JH - A; lb; 4a(3) 4b;  The Epic story of the vast North Land of the
men- both Indian and white - who have given it its history, of the
animals that live and have their being in it, and of the trees and
rivers which are its sentinels and highways.
20. Gridley, Marion E. - Indians of Today, I.C.F.P. Inc. 1971. JH - A; 494p;
1 a,b; 2; 4a(3);  This fourth edition of Indians of Today salutes
the many outstanding Canadian and American Indian Leaders who have
made, and continue to make, significant contributions to the lives
of their people and to the nation.
21. Hill, Kay - Badger, the Mischief Maker, McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1965;
I - JH; 95p; lb; 4a(3) b; An Indian legend of a youth who is confident
that he can outwit any Indian or animal.  Badgers gay, undomitable
spirit and the glimmer of goodness beneath his defiant attitude,
make him a character, the reader will not forget. ($5.50)
22. Hill, Kay - Glooscap and His Magic, McClelland and Stewart, 1963.  I -JH;
190p; lb; 4a(3);  One of the Wabanki Indians legends is of Glooscap,
who no man knows when he was born, but born of appalling size and
magic powers.  Even to this day, the stories the children love best
are the stories of Glooscap.  ($5.50)
23. Hill, Kay - More Glooscap Stories, McClelland and Stewart Limited. 1970.
178 p; I - JH; lb; 4a(3); More stories of Glooscap who, with his
huge size and magic powers, does roaring: battle with giants and
wizards and instructs his wayward Indians and animals how to live
wisely and well. 23 -
24. Hilen, William - Blackwater River (Toa-Thal-Kas) McClelland and Stewart Ltd.
JH - A; 170p; lc; 2; 4a(3) 4b;  Set in British Columbia's great
wilderness area, through which the Blackwater River flows.  The book
captures its atomosphere so vividly that you can almost smell the
frosty brillance of autumn mornings.  A book filled with action to
be cherished by nature-lovers and sportsmen, by anyone who is concerned
with the preservation of our beautiful country. ($6.95)
25. Hofsinde, Robert - Indian Games and Crafts, William Morrow and Company, 1957/
I - SH; 126p; la; 4a(3);  In this book, a well known interpreter of
Indian life presents detailed instructs-on how to make simple game
equipment for twelve different games and how to play them just
as the Indians did. Also illustrated with 83 pictures and diagrams.
26. Inverarity, Robert Bruce - Art of the Northwest Coast Indians, University
of California Press. 1971.  237p; JH - A; lb,c; 2; 4a(3); 4e;  Here
is the most complete text and general collection of illustrations
of Northwest Coast Indian art written in the last twenty years.
27. Jackson, Helen Hunt - A Century of Dishonor, the Early Crusade for Indian
Reform, Harper and Row Publishers, Inc. 1965.  335p; JH - A; la;
2; 4a(3) 4b;  The book describes Indian maltreatment from the period
of the American Revolution, to the treatment of Indians today.  It
unearths a succession of broken treaties and examples of inhuman
treatment of the nations 300,000 Indians.
28. Kroeber, Theodora - The Inland Whale, University of California, 1971.  JH - A;
200p; la; 4a(3);  This is a selection of stories from the native
Indian literature of California.
29. Lane, R. B. - Cultural Relations of the Chilcotin Indians of West Central B.C.
University Microfilms Limited, 1970.  SH - A; 342p; lc; 2; 4a(3);
30  Leeuue, Adele de - Maria Tallchief, American Ballerina, Garrard Publishing
Company, 1971.  JH - A, 141p; (4a3).  This is the story of the daughter
of an Osage Indian who danced her way into the hearts of millions
to become America's own prima ballerina.  ($4.95)
31. Mahood, Ian, - The Land of Maquinna, Agency Press Limited, 1971.  JH - A;
159 p; lb; 4a(3); 4b; A story of tragedy in yesterdays history and
a camera record of the splendor available under todays environment
for living.  ($5.95)
32. Manpower and Immigration - University Career Outlook, 71-72, Information
Canada, Ottawa, 1971.  JH - A; lOOp; lb; 2; 4a(3);  This booklet is
designed to help you in your choice of studies from the many areas
that are open to you. 24 -
33. Matthews, Major J.S. - Conversations with KHAHTSAHLANO - 1932-1954.  SH -A;
443p; lc; 4a(3); 4b;  Indian villages and landmarks - Burrard Inlet
and Howe Sound - before the white man came.
34. Melzack, Ronald - The day Tuk became a Hunter, McClelland and Stewart, 1971;
I - JH; 92p; lb; 4a(3);  Here, life and excitement pervade the
mysterious Arctic as young Tuk experiences the thrill of killing his
first bear.  The stories are wonderfully told, embracing all the joys
and sorrows of everyday life.  Beautifully illustrated.  ($4.95)
35. MacEwan, J.W. Grant - Portraits from the Plains, McGraw Hill Company of Canada
Jh - A; 287p; lb; 2; 4a(3); For an age infatuated with men of
achievement and ability we have been curiously slow in discovering
the more extraordinary figures among Canadian Indians. Yet any study
of these native people turns up, time and again, men so colorful and
exciting as to capture our imagination and command our attention. In
his 33 character sketches of fascinating Indian personalities from
our past and present.
36. McGaw, Jessie Brewer - Little Elk Hunts Buffalo, Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1961.
P-I; 88p; la, 4a(3); Little Elk tells his story in pictographs,
man's first written language. The english "translations" is given
below each picture, to make an exciting, and easy to-read story.
37. McGaw, Jessie Brewer - Painted Pony Runs Away, Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1958.
P-I; 88p; la; 4a(3);  Little Elk also tells his story in Indian
picture writing of his pony running away, and he being captured by
Sioux.  ($2.50)
38. McLuhan, T.C. - Touch the Earth, New Press, Toronto, Canada.  SH -A; 175p;
la; 2; 4a(3); A selection of statements and writings by North
American Indians, chosen to illuminate the course of Indian history
and the abiding values of Indian Life.
39. MacMillan, Cyrus - Glooskap's Country, Oxford University Press, 1967.  I - SH:
273p; lb; 4a(3);  These are tales of the supernatural hero of the
Micmacs of Eastern Canada, tales that reflect the atmosphere of
the land and the dignity and imagination of the people that gave
them birth.  ($5.75)
40. Patterson, E. Palmer II - The Canadian Indian: A History since 1500, Collier-
Macmillan Canada, 1972.  SH - A; 197p; lb; 2; 4a(3); 4b;
41  Rasmussen, Knud - Beyond the Hills, World Publishing Company, 1961, I-A, 32p;
4a(s) A collection of Eskimo poems-which are really songs chanted
spontaneously to celebrate the hunt or other feats, great sorrow or
great happiness, or merely the joy of being alive - deserve a wide
audience and an honoured place in the world literature. - 25 -
42. Reynolds, E. E. - A Book of Grey Owl, Macmillan Company of Canada, Limited.
JH - A; 275p; lb; 4a(3); 4b;  Pages from the writings of Grey Owl
whose fascinating tales of the Canadian wilds have captured the
admiration of readers throughout the world.
43. Ruttan, Robert A. - The Adventures of Oolakuk, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1969.
JH-A; 96p; lb; 2; 4a(3);  Oolakuk, a twelve-year old Eskimo Boy,
who wants to be treated as a grown-up.  He is curious and seeks
adventure.  This book gives a fascinating picture of the modern
Eskimo and of some of his problems in adjusting to the modern
world.  ($5.25)
44. Schwartz, Herbert, T. - Windigo, and other tales of the Ojibways, McClelland
and Stewart Limited, 1969.  JH - A; 40p; lb; 4a(3);  Here are
eight legends of the Ojibway, illustrated in the traditional style
of the tribe with two colour drawings.
45. Seymour, Reit - Child of the Navajos, Dodd, Mead and Company, 1971.  I-JH;
64p; la; 2; 3; 4a(3);  There are many books written of the Indian
during the years when white men first settled in the west.  But
what is it like to be an Indian today?  In particular a young
Indian boy? This is the story of Jerry Begay, a nine year old
Navajo living on the tribes vast reservation in Arizona.
46. Shannon, Terry - Tyee's Totem Pole, Albert Whitman and Company, 1970.  I-JH;
48p; lc, 4a(3); 4b,e; A young Kwakiutl Indian boy who is a carver
and who proves to be one of the best of his race.  ($4.25)
47. Sheffe, Norman - Canada's Indians, McGraw-Hill Company of Canada, Limited;
JH-A; 86p; lb; 2; 3a; 4a(3);  ($2.60)
48. Shorris, Earl - The Death of the Great Spirit, The New American Library of
Canada, Limited, 1972.  JH - A; 205p; la; 4a(3); 4b;  This is the
story of a proud, profoundly wise culture, which now seems doomed
to extinction.  It is the story of the American Indian, who first
had his lands wrested away, and now is undergoing the final destruction of his identity.
49. Shumaker, Morris C. - Welfare: Hidden Backlash, McClelland and Stewart Ltd.
1971. SH - A; 207p; lb; 2; 3a; 4a(3); A hard look at the welfare
issue in Canada. What it has done to the Indian. What it could do
to the rest of Canada.  ($10.00)
50. Spencer, Katherine - An Analysis of Navaho Chantway Myths - American Folklore
Society, 1971.  Sh - A; 240p; la; 2; 4a(3);  The. present study
proposes to explore a portion of Navaho mythology to see what light
it throws on the life view and values of the people whose literature
it represents.
51. Stember, Sol - Heroes of the American Indian, Fleet Press Corporation, 1971.
JH - A; 124p; la; 4a(3); 4b; A look at America's great Indian Warriors
and Leaders, their fight to maintain their rights as Indians and their
fight to live on their own land. - 26
52. Sullivan, George - Jim Thorpe, all-round Athlete, Garrard Publishing Co., 1971
I - JH; 93p la; 4a(3); A bibliography of an Indian from the Sauk
and Fox tribe of Oklahoma.  He was later to become America's greatest
athlete.  ($3.95)
53. Tomkins, William - Universal American Indian Sign Language, 112p; la;
54. Underhill, Ruth M. - Red Man's Religion, The University of California Press,
JH - A; 270p; ;a; 2; 4a(3);  Here is the first comprehensive account
of the religion of American Indians north of the Rio Grande.  This
fascinating study concludes with a consideration of Christianity and
of religions evolved by the Indians themselves after contact with
the white man, including the Ghost Dance and the Peyote Religion. ($9.50)
55. Underhill, Ruth M. - Red Man's America, The Universtiy of Chicago Press, Ltd.
1953.  SH - A; 335p; la; 4a(3);  This book meets the great need for
a comprehensive study of Indian societies from the first Stone Age
hunters to the American citizens of today.
56. Washburn, Wilcomb E. - Red Man's Land - White Man's Law, Charles Scribners
Sons: New York; JH - A; 245 p; la, 4a(3); 4b;  This is the history
of the legal status of the American Indians and their land, from the
first contact with Europeans.
57. Wherry, Joseph H. - Indian Masks & Myths of the West; Funk & Wagnalls, 1969.
JH - A; 252p; la; 2; 4a(3) 4e;  Justifiably proud of their heritage,
many of them are striving mightily to conserve the best of their
culture while guiding their people into the mainstream of American
life where their birthright entitles them to the same advantages as
other citizens.
58. Whiteford, Andrew Hunter - North American Indian Arts, Western Publishing Co.,
1970.  JH-A; 154p; la,b; 4a(3); 4e; Arts & Crafts from American &
Canadian Indians. Beautifully illustrated.
59. Wissler, Clark - Red Man's Reservations, Collier - Macmillan Ltd, London, 1968.
JH - A; 300p; la; 2; 4a(3); 4b; One of the greatest authorites on
Indians tells the story of the early reservations and the crisis that
came upon the red man when forced to abandon his own customs and adopt
those of the white man.
60. Wood, Kerry - The Great Chief, Toronto-Canada;; Jh-A; 160p lb; 4a(3); 4b;
In this deeply moving story from Canada's history - a story full of
dust and blood and hoof-beats of Indian raids and skirmishes -
Maskepetoon, Great Chief of Canada's plains lives again.
61. Wuttunee, William - Ruffled Feathers, Bell Books Ltd. 1971.  Jh-A; 170p;
lb; 2; 4a(3); Ruffled Feathers is an outspoken criticism of the
Indians reliance on the reservation system and the outmoded treaties
and the feather fakery of the Red Power advocates.
xxxxxxxxxx - 27
*****  *****
******  ******
*******  *******
Indian Education Resources Center
Hut 0-12, University of British Columbia
Vancouver 8, B. C.


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