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Indian education newsletter Apr 1, 1971

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Full Text

Array MM.
SVU&
Indian  Education E.esources  Center
* University of  B.  C,  Vancouver.
********************************************************************************
Volume 1,  No.   4 April,   1971
********************************************************************************
0 0  K S
S   S  0
I  N
D   E  G R A D   I  N G
THE
INDIAN
Textbooks that degrade, insult or forget the Indian have been used for
years.  Indians complain about these books, so a list is compiled and that is
the end of it.  Publishers are reluctant to change a book once published,
authors heci'va defensive and Departments of Education avoid the issue.
There are complaints about Indians being called "savages, with murderous
eyeballs5'; there are complaints about references to the two "founding races" of
Canada (meaning British and French) and almost complete omission of the Indians'
contributions; there are complaints about army and cavalry victories being called
victories, but Indian victories being called "massacres"; there are complaints
about cliches such as "heap big  Indian" and errors such as the notion that all
Indians lived in teepees and wore "head-dresses with stand-up feathers"; there
are complaints that the complete dependence of the early map-makers (they weren't
really explorers) on the Indians is omitted from the Social Studies, even though
the diaries of most of these map-makers give credit to the Indians.
This article is about one of the XTOrst offenders, a story called "Almighty
Voice1, in the Grade 5 reader Under Canadian Skies published by J.M. Dent & Sons.
The story could be one of sharing, strength, bravery and honour.  Instead it is
a story filled with cliches, which piles dishonour on the memory of Almighty Voice
and makes him look more like a fool than a brave man caught up in a series of misunderstandings .
Another version of the story is in Long Lance an autobiography of Chief
Buffalo Long Lance, half-brother to Almighty Voice. 2 -
Here is how Long Lance sets the scene:
;:Almight3T Voice..,had been arrested by the mounted police for killing a
range steer that belonged to the Government of the "Torth-West Territories.  He
had thought it mas  one of a small herd that had been given to his father." (p.273)
Here is how the Reading Text begins the story:
"Almighty Voice was not really a bad Indian.  He just wanted his own way
and didn't want to obey laws....He wanted to show them (his oxm people) what a
'heap big Indian' he was.,..
One day when Almighty Voice was riding across the prairie, he suddenly
came upon a cow that had strayed from its herd.  There xras no one to be seen
anywhere.  He thought he could break the law without being found out.  He shot
the cow...." (p. 135,136)
In the opening paragraphs the Reading Text has already completely missed
the chance to shoxtf a classic misunderstanding which occurred time-and-again
between the Indians and the Europeans.  No mention is made of the fact that the
laws were not the Indiana' lax^s but those of the Europeans.  Instead of the misunderstanding being portrayed, Almighty Voice is made to look cowardly, dishonest
and a show-off.  The only good thing x-ritten about Almighty Voice is a mention in
passing that he shared the meat with the rest of his tribe. No mention is made
of the question that if Almighty Voice was so coxrardly and dishonest, Xv'hy would
he share the meat with his tribe? Here the act of sharing, x/hich is an important
part of so many Indian cultures and is one of the things that many non-Indians
don't think is important, is given only a passing mention.
After he wae arrested for killing the steer, Almighty Voice escaped.  Here
is how Long Lance tells of it:
"One of the mounted police...jokingly told Almighty Voice, through an
interpreter that they were going to'hang him for killing that steer'.  The corporal
did this to scare him he said." (p. 273).  Long Lance tells of the escape in
which Almighty Voice ran 14 miles carrying a ball and chain which had been strapped
to his leg, and sxvam across the Saskatchewan River with the help of a quickly
made raft (p. 274-276),  Brave? Yes. A feat of strength? Yes. A misunderstanding? Yes.
But what does the Reading Text say?
"He was put in jail for a month as punishment for what he had done....
Almighty Voice managed to slip through the door and escape.  He reached the Cree
camp, picked up a horse and galloped across the prairie:: (p. 137).  Brave? Not
especially. : A feat of strength? No. A misunderstanding? No.
Within a short time a mountie found him and was killed by Almighty Voice
xtfho thought he xras fighting for his life.  Almighty Voice managed to elude capture
for txro years, despite a massive man-hunt.  Finally, according to Long Lance,
Almighty Voice decided to stop running and make a stand, This he did with two other Indians, according to Long Lance, holding off
12 mounties, ,:„,.further reinforced by a command consisting of every spare man
from the Prince Albert barracks of the Vorth-West Mounted Police." (p. 287).
This was further reinforced by a 25 man contingent from Regina, a 9-pounder field
gun and a Maxim gun plus uncounted civilian volunteers (p. 239).
At the end of the first day of fighting Almighty uoice sent the message:
"'We have had a good fight to-day.  I. have x-rorked hard and I am hungry.
You have plenty of food: send itp, come,, and tomorrox.; x^e'll finish the fight'
When this message was interpreted to the mounted police tb.e.y xjere struck
with surprise.  But it was the Indian's code:
Fair fight, fair game,, no bad feeling in the heart.  It. may be hard to
believe but Almighty Voice admired the dashing courage of the mounted police fully
as much as he did that of his two boy campanions.  The Indian loves the brave,
strong fighting opponent and hates the weak, cowardly adversary" (from Long Lance,
p. 290).  This message, which shows the bravery, honour and respect of Almighty
Voice is not mentioned in the Reading Text.
The final killing of Almighty Voice, according to Long Lance, occurred
after a number of days of siege including about 8 hours of shelling by two cannons.
There isn't room to detail the final assault.  We relate only one other incident
that does not appear in the Reading Text.
Almighty Voice's cousin was found wounded but alive beside the body of
Almighty Voice and the third Indian, his brother-in-law. A mounted policeman
"...xralked up to the hole and put a finishin.fi bullet through the wounded lad's
head".  (p. 296).
The Reading Text condenses the story of the capture to less than two
pages and ends with:
"Poor mistaken Almighty Voice!  By breaking the law and fighting, he
thought he would show his people what a big Brave he was.  He. forgot that the
law he broke xras made to protect Indians as well as white settlers".  (p. 143),
If you would like to borrow the Long Lance version of the story just
write.  We have a limited number of loan copies.
There are many other examples of errors and omissions in texts.  We would
like to highlight one in each issue of this Newsletter.  If you come across one
of these references or storiep T-zrite us about it and wc will do our best to
publish it.  Here are a few places you can begin looking.
Look up a section called ,:The Aborigines'' in Canada:  A Political £ Social
History pp, 115:12.,  "The aborigines made no major contribution to the culture that
developed in the settled communities of Canada....the Indian was-not only useless
but an active menace x^hose speedy extermination would be an unqualified boon";
or a section called Indian "Civilization' in. Our Canada p. 17.  "The northern Indians
were .much poorer artists than the Indians of the south'7 and an unchallenged quote _ 4 -
from a Jesuit priest (p.14).  '...the unsavouray and insipid food of tHe savages,
of which it is enough to say that the daintiest and most delicate of it would be
refused by dogs in France." Finally in Stories Old and Nex? read the poem for
Grade 2 children called "The Archer" x^hich ends:
"And sometimes I am Robin HOod,
That olden archer brave and good; :, .  .
And sometimes I'm an Indian sly;
Who waits to shoot the passers-by."
*******
; * *****
■  * * *
OUT OF ThE PAST
(Our thanks to Harvey Brooks for passing this on to us)
from the Commencement Annual, Coqualeetza Indian
Residential School, Sardis, June, 1934
Foreword and Valedictory
The term ends, the school year ends also, examinations are over, a large
class of graduates have delivered their valedictory. Some students leave for their
holidays with the assurance that they will return in the fall. Others, the graduates,
do not sever connections so easily because of the knowledge that, as they say "good**
bye." It is farewell to much thoughtful care, kindliness of action, pleasant relationships, happy school associates, but it has to be.
I also, after 20 years residence make this foreword a valedictory. After
all, my thought is akin to the of the students, more mature because of accumulated
experience: it is one of gratitude and devotion to the members of the staff, present
and past, who have loyally supported the school in its educational, religious and
character building ideals. During the years Coqualeetza has borne in mind several
fundamental ends in the education of the Native children.
Let me also express my thanks to the Department of Indian Affairs, both
in the service at Ottawa and outside service in British Columbia. Their, unfailinj
courtesy and active co-operation could not have been surpassed by any department
in the service of the country. I do not hesitate to say that rightly understood,
the officers of the Department of Indian Affairs are really "the friends of the
Indians." They have solved the problem of Indian education. They have as far
as possible, humanly speaking, gone a long distance towards solving the complex
problem of the health of the Native people. They are striving to solve now what
is essential for their welfare and contentment, the problem of today which is
essentially economic. We are proud of a Department which has tried to take care
of the Native people of Canada, probably in a more sympathetic and practical manner
than any other country which is responsible for the welfare of a dependent or
primitive people. - 5 -
Let me voice my appreciation of the officers of the United Church and the
Woman's Missionary Society whose interest has always been of a helpful character:
their day and residential schools and hospitals have been a great uplifting force
in the lives of thousands of "the real Canadians." Their visits to Coqualeetza
have been inspirational and are red letter days in the school calendar.
Now, as this is my last forward I am wondering what to say to the students.
The constituency from which you come is largely that of the North Pacific Coast,
from the Straits of San Juan to the border of Alaska. I have said that the Indian
problem of today is essentially economic and to my vision there is a possibility of
solving that problem to a large extent with Indian handicraft arts. If you and the
Native people grasp the opportunity there is a road that will lead to work and contentment. If you are indifferent the chance is lost forever.
How can this be accomplished? First, by reviving Indian Handicraft and Art
designs and applying them to modern commodities for which there is always a demand.
Second, by capturing the tourist trade of the country.
The first is possible through the training of the rising generation in the
residential schools in handicraft arts with Indian designs, thus finding a way to
secure a sufficient quantity to supply an increasing demand. The second can be
effected and the market developed through the assistance of the Department of Indian
Affairs and a nation-wide campaign in which the churches, the social service council
of Canada, service clubs, tourist bureaus, transportation lines, the radio, moving
pictures and exhibitions would become interested and create an Indian-minded atmosphere—favourable to solving for the native people their economic problem.
The attention of manufacturers throughout Canada, the United^States,and
the continent of Europe can be caught and held by unique and artistic designs with
the unusual appeal of strong symbolic Indian art not found anywhere in the world,Y;:
except on the Pacific Coast.  In many industries your designs are applicable, :i[
manufacturers want them.
It is not to the credit of the Canadian people that they do not make a
strenuous effort at'the present time to save Indian handicraft art which is purely
Canadian. There is much more to be said on the subject but it will suffice to say
to you and the Native people of British Columbia this is a worthy experiment for
your welfare at the present time and if successfully carried out your more remote..
future is full of promise...."
' (Sighed)
Dr. H. Raley, Administrator.
*********
*******
:.-..- ■ * * "*:-;*- *       ■-■-■   :: '":.".'
* * * SUGGESTIONS FOR A CLASSROOM WTJrl STh'DENTS WHO SPEAK ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
by Joy Wild
Often in a classroom in which there are students who speak English as a
second language., it is advisable to concentrate on the Language Arts program.
Without a working knowledge of English,students find, other subjects very difficult,
if not impossible to do. nevsr mind enjoy.  Never forget that languages are
equally "good."  English is not a better language than any other.  It is taught
in Canadian Schools because it is the most widely used language in this country
and thus is useful to people who have a mastery of it.  There is a danger of
teachers transmitting to students whose native language is not English, that
their own language is inferior.  Such an idea attacks the learners self image
and culture as well as his language.  Here are some ideas:
Set up a Listening Post
This is a tape recorder or record player into which children can plug up
to 8 pairs of earphones.
Make up your own drills of minimal pairs, spelling (can be based on
students ox-m experiences), repetition of phrases, sentences, stories. Also
exercises in stress and intonation patterns.  Spoken English depends on these
as much as on the meaning of words.
The C.B.C. radio School Broadcasts are handy, and you can tape them
yourself. Also there are tapes on each major Indian tribe in B.C., based on the
B.C. Heritage Series available from the Center.
Whenever students have finished their own work, or just feel like talking,
have them go to the Listening Post and talk to themselves or make up stories or
talk about x^hat happened to them that day.  These tapes can then be used by the
teacher to analyze problems in language, or they could be played back to the
student so that he can hear his ox-m difficulties. A students tape can also serve
as a basis for writing,  hote, if students are listening to themselves on tape,
alxvays provide a good model as well, such as your oxsm voice.  If this isn't done
students may only reinforce their own mistakes.
Reading
The S.R.A,  Individualized Reading Program and Reader's Digest Skill Books
are good.
Crossxrord puzzles are good for building vocabulary and for reading skills.
After they learn how, have  the students make up their own, as well as other word
games.
Build a Post Office  If you want a real post office, it's easier if you
have woodworking skills, but that's not necessary!  Use wooden boxes or cardboard
if you have to.  Students can write each other letters, complaints to the teacher,
suggestions for activities.  For practise in reading and comprehension get mail- order catalogues from Eatens or Simpson-Sears,  Mimeograph regular order forms-
hundreds of them-the kind you find in the catalogues.  The students then look
through the catelogue to find items they like.  They pick out the relevant information and fill out the order form." After they properly address the envelope,
they mail it at the post office-  To give added incentive make, this a contest.
Each week the teacher goes through the order forms ana picks out those that are
perfect.  These are then put in a box and five are randomly picked out.  The five
are put in a master box, end when enough accumulate there is a draw.  The winning
student receives a prize which could be in'the form of a gift certificate from
the catelogue.
• - „ ■   Match Box Library.  This is an incentive for extra reading. As students
finish books have them, write a short sentence or question about their reading-
something which they feel is particularly interesting or significant about the
particular book.  This is for the benefit, of other students.  The student then
gets an Eddy match box or the equivalent, covers it. with a colourful pattern,
labels it with the authors name and the title and puts it on a  shelf, where other
students can take it out.
Setting up a General Store gives practise in speaking, taking orders,
handling money, counting, reading.  Rave students bring empty food cartons, c«na
with labels on, etc. from home.  In a corner of the classroom set. up shelves
(they can be made of boxes), and a counter.  The students can then take shifts
as being the store clerk.
Singing is good practise in speaking the language, and can be used for
teaching sounds and structures.  Besides kids like it.'  Make your ox-m songs
using sentence patterns as a basis-steal tunes from other songs (ca.sy to remember).
•:Students Individual Files
Make up files for each student.  These can include drills and exercises
specifically designed, for the areas in which the student is having difficulty,
A good source for drills and exercises is Carson Martin.  The student does an
exercise, then marks it himself from a master sheet.  He then counts the number
of right answers he made, and the number of total possible correct ansxrers.
From this he charts and graphs his own progress,  These files are for the students
and so should be easily accessible to them.
A plug for the teacher'' s files:  It may seem, like a lot of unwarranted
trouble or unnecessary paperwork, but an up-to-date file of a students progress
is very handy when you .ire planning ouc individualized programs.
Remember, whenever possible use the children's ox-m experiences as a basis
for learning language.  It's difficult enough for them to use a new language without being bombarded, with any new and foreign concepts at the same time.
Science and Social Studies:  These subjects often have to take second place
to the language Arts until the students know enough English to cope with the
materials,  However, they can often be incorporated into the teaching of English. > cience:  The discovery method of teaching science is very useful, in
addition to .atrciucing children to concepts of science, it provided them with experiences of ;orking together which they can then talk about.  You can see my bias as
an English Teacher!
:ocial Studies:  The ideas presented here are oriented to the teacher who
is working ir a multi-level classroom or in a more isolated area or with Indian students;
however, the - could apply to any ehnic group.
.ield trips to study the local area i.e. could be studying maps-first study
maps to deter.nine the symbols used, have students use these symbols to make their own
.maps cf the country they know:
-next learn the system of topographical maps, and map nearby terraine.
3and models may give them a better idea of how this is done.
- teaching the use of a compass and how to correlate this with a map is
also interesting.
An anthropological study could be done of the area i.e. what kind of work
the people do and how this is suitable to the country; what kind of houses they live
in; what kinis of things they do for recreation; the source of food e.g. in the
Chilcotin many people hunt deer and moose and fish for meat supplies. After the area
has been thoroughly explored look at another "different" area and explore that.  If
you have students who have never been to a city or vice versa have never been to the
country, try to arrange a trip.  School boards are frequently more receptive than
teachers give theji. credit for, and although you may have to raise most of the money
to finance it you can get the time off school for the trip.
another possibility is to study a foreign country by having the students
draw a map on the floor of the classroom, decide on an imaginery trip they would
like to take, research it through pictures, slides, films, books, then present to
the class. They could do this by walking over their trip and at each important
stopping anc- celling others what they see.
Bring resource people in from the community i.e. Indian people to tell
about the Ire ian stories and legends, or teach the children the songs and dances of
their culture,
Things Other Than Academics
wood working programs or sewing programs for girls.  (And I don't mean
just embroidery! Often one of the mothers will help out on this.)
Skating rink or ski hill; mats on the floor of the basement for boys who
feel like fighting.
Lunch program particularly if you have students who 70U suspect are lacking in nutrition.  If pays off in enthusiasm and attentiveness in school!
*********
*******
*****
  * * * - Q
INDIAN SCHOOLS-BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON REGION
1970 - 1971
'School              No.
No.
 ....,,.. ..Classrooms
Grades
Pupils
Shopping Center
Distance
: '.",."'.,-.::.  .. . • : .'/m ■;,-.::,
LOWER MAINLAND  .
Chehalis               4 .
K-6
69
Agassiz
20 m.b.r. *
•^Jomalco : i   ""! -- • '■■ • -'- ■''_•' 2
1-6
45
Campbell River
15 m.b.a. *
_MoUnt Currie--"     : ";   5
K-5
160
Pemberton
5 .m.b.r. *
St. Paul's   --j !        1
K..
35
North Vancouver
, fcSeton Lake' ■'>  • '• •*»•"•''-'   1
' K .
20
Shalalth
One-half
'  H    • ' :'■'■''■"         '•'■•"■•■■'     '■'■■   .
mile.. .,
. .,-   : - '; . ! .-•■'i   '-'         [
VANCOUVER ISLAND
Ahousaht               4
K-7
81
Tofino
20 m.b.a.o.w.*
qhristie Student "Re's .:'r v 4 '
1-8
134.
Tofino
3 m.b.a.o.w.*
Kingcome■.-.■Inlet "^'--   ■ '■■"•> ;-r J -2 '' .'.
, K-7
:  28
(Simoon Sound
(Alert Bay
20 m.b.a.o.w.*
48. m.b.a.   *
Kuper Island: Student Resiy 4':
1_5'
102
Chemainus
3 m.b.f. *
Kyuquot                1
1-7
16
(Kyuquot
3 m.b.w. *
(Tahsis
30 m.b.a.o.w. *
Opitsaht   '  oq :;■ :"^T   • i ; . ;-
■ ;:6",y .
11
Tofino
2 m.b.w,    *
St.- Catherine's ":'■ r' '•"'---' %- '
K-2
88
Duncan
2 m.b.r.    *
Tsartlip               4
1-6
90
Brentwood
1 m.b.r.    *
...SOUTHERN; INTERIOR
Adams Lake         --'-1  1
3,4
9
Chase
1 m.b.r. *
Alkali Lake             2
K-4.
46
Williams Lake
35 m.b.r. *
Anahim Lake   -''J " ■'•' '-'" '   2
1-7
48
Williams Lake
220 miles by
road
Canoe Creek             1
1-4
12
Clinton
52 m.b.r. *
Cariboo Student Res.r"  f'- 1
' 1.
18
Williams Lake
17 m.b.r. *
Chilcotin    -.">""/.,* ai  <■'■•'%'■■ '■'■ '
K-7
89
Williams Lake
70 m.b.r. *
Shulus                 1
K
2.2
Merritt
3 m.b.r. *
Stone                  1
1,2
14
Williams Lake
65 m.b.r. *
*m.b.r.-mile by road
*m.b.f.-mile by ferry.
*m.b.a.-mile by air  *m.b.a.o.w.-mile by air x>r water - 10 -
School	
Blueberry River
Fort Babine
Fort Ware
Halfway
Lejac Student Res.
1
Prophet River
Stone Creek
Tache
Takla Landing
No.
No.
* ■
Classr
ooms   Grades
Pupils
Shopping Center
Distance
NORTHERN INTERIOR
1
1-5
19
Ft. St. John
64 mi. by
road \
1
1-4
17
(Smithers Ldg.
(Burns Lake
125 mi. by
road or
water
150 mi. by
air
1
1-7
28
(Finlay Forks
(Local store
160 mi. by
air ■
Food
2
1-5
24
Ft. St. John
68 mi. by
road'
7
1-8
211
(Vanderhoof
(Endako
30 mi. by
road;
1
1-6
14
Ft. St. John
182 mi. by
road
1
K
30
Vanderhoof
9 mi. by
road^
3
1-6
68
Ft. St. James
35 mi. by
air or
water
40 mi. by
winter
road'
1
1-6
32
Ft. St. James
125 mi. $>y
air ;br
Aiyansh
Bella Bella
Canyon City
Hartley Bay
Kincaiith
Kispiox
Kitimaat
Kitkatla
Kitsegukla
Kitwancool
Kitwanga
Klemtu
Lakal*ap
Masset
Port Simpson
Klappan
Lower Post Student Res.
NORTH COAST
'
7
K-7
171
Terrace
63 mi. by
road"
12
K-7
312
Ocean Falls
23
m.b.flj.
1
K-3
7
Terrace
65
m.b.r•
3
1-7
55
Prince Rupert
80
m.b.a.
6
K-7
134
Prince Rupert
62
m.b.a.
6
K-7
125
Hazelton
10
m.b.r.
3
K-l
65
Kitimat
8
m.b.r.
7
K-7
156
Prince Rupert
32
m.b.a.
5
K-6
110
Hazelton
22
m.b .r.
2
1-7
35
Hazelton
42
m.b.r.
2
1-7
48
Hazelton
32
m.b.r.
3
1-7
59
Ocean Falls
37
m.b.a.
5
K-7
109
Terrace
92
m.b.r.
2
K
42
Masset
3
m.b.r.
12
K-7
272
Prince Rupert
20
m.b.a.
4
K-7
65
Eddontenajon
2
m.b.r.
4
1-4
66
Lower Post
1
m.b iTi - 11 -
EDUCATION 479 - INDIAN EDUCATION
Education 479 is a new course, designed to aid teachers in adapting
education to the needs of Indian students. A basic assumption in the course is that,
x-rhile there are many similarities and differences between all individual children, our
present educational programs generally do not take into account differences, mostly
cultural, which many Indian children share.
The course is presented by many people including Indian teachers and students;
representatives of Indian organizations; specialists in anthropology, sociology,
psychology, language arts, Indian culture, arts and crafts; and by the course
participants. A large part of the course is based on an exchange of ideas between
people in the course. The course is co-ordinated by Dr. Art More.
The content is divided into two parts. Part One emphasizes background
knowledge and includes historical and contemporary background; attitudes towards
education by Indian parents, teachers, students and organizations; and policies of
the Provincial Department of Education, Department of Indian Affairs and B. C. Teachers
Federation. Part Two emphasizes adapting teaching and includes language arts, using
Indian contributions in teaching, using community resources and dealing with potential
problem areas. Part Two represents about one-half of the course.
The course is offered during Summer Session, July 5 to August 20 at U.B.C.
Classes will meet Monday through Friday, 1:30 to 3:30.  Students registering for
credit (3 units) should do so through the Registrar's Office. Non Credit—the course
is open to a number of auditors. Please contact Dr. More at the Center for further
information.
******
* * * *
* *
*

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